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A heat exchanger is a device that is used for the transfer of thermal

energy (enthalpy) between two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a
fluid, or between solid particulates and a fluid, at differing temperatures and
in thermal contact, usually without external heat and work interactions. The
fluids may be single compounds or mixtures. Typical applications involve the
heating or cooling of a fluid stream of concern, evaporation or condensation
of a single or multi-component fluid stream, and heat recovery or heat
rejection from a system. In some heat exchangers, the fluids exchanging heat
are in direct contact. In other heat exchangers, heat transfer between fluids
takes place through a separating wall, or into and out of a wall in a transient
manner. In most heat exchangers, the fluids are separated by a heat transfer
surface, and ideally they do not mix. Such exchangers are referred to as the
direct transfer type, or simply recuperators. In contrast, exchangers in which
there is an intermittent heat exchange between the hot and cold fluids via
thermal energy storage and rejection through the exchanger surface or matrix
are referred to as the indirect transfer type or storage type, or simply
regenerators. Such exchangers usually have leakage and fluid carryover from
one stream to the other.

A heat exchanger consists of heat exchanging elements, such as a

core or a matrix containing the heat transfer surface, and fluid distribution
elements such as headers, manifolds, tanks, inlet and outlet nozzles or pipes,
or seals. The heat transfer surface is a surface of the exchanger core, that is in
direct contact with fluids, and through which the heat is transferred by
conduction. The portion of the surface that also separates the fluids is referred
to as the primary or direct surface. Usually there are no moving parts in a heat
exchanger; however, there are exceptions, such as a rotary regenerator (in
which the matrix is mechanically driven to rotate at some design speed), a
scraped surface heat exchanger, agitated vessels, and stirred tank reactors.

One of the important aspects of any heat exchanger is to increase

the rate of heat exchange between the two streams of fluids for the given
surface area. There are various methods attempted to achieve the same in the
conventional heat exchangers. A brief summary of all the methods normally
employed in these aspects are summarized in the following section.


It has been identified that there are about 16 heat transfer

enhancement techniques used in the heat exchangers. These enhancement
techniques can be classified into active, passive and compound techniques.
Passive techniques do not require any type of external power for the heat
transfer augmentation, whereas, the active techniques need some power
externally, such as electric or acoustic fields and surface vibration. The
different heat transfer enhancement techniques are explained below.

1.2.1 Active Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques

In the active techniques, external power is used to facilitate the

desired flow modification, and the simultaneous improvement in the rate of
heat transfer. Augmentation of heat transfer by this method can be achieved
by the followings aids such as mechanical aids, surface vibration, fluid
vibration, Electrostatic fields, injection, suction and jet impingement.

1.2.2 Passive Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques

These methods generally use surface or geometrical modifications

to the flow channel, by incorporating inserts or additional devices. They
promote higher heat transfer coefficients by disturbing or altering the existing
flow behavior except for extended surfaces. Heat transfer augmentation by
these techniques can be achieved by using the following aids such as extended
surfaces, rough surfaces, displaced inserts, swirl flow devices, coating of the
surfaces, surface tension devices, additives for liquids and additives for gases.

1.2.3 Compound Techniques

When any two or more of these techniques are employed

simultaneously, to obtain enhancement in heat transfer that is greater than that
produced by either of them when used individually, it is termed as compound
enhancement. This technique involves a complex design, and hence, has
limited applications.



Heat exchangers, on the basis of their constructional details, can be

classified into tubular, plate-type, extended surface, and regenerative type
heat exchangers. The tubular and plate-type exchangers are the primarily used
surface heat exchangers, with an effectiveness below 60% in most of the

cases. The surface area density of these heat exchangers is usually, less than
700 m2/m3. In this regard, an important fact is that the thermal conductance on
both sides of the heat exchanger should approximately be the same. When one
stream of the flowing fluid is gas, and the other is liquid, the heat transfer
surface on the gas side needs to have a much larger surface area, as it is well
known that the heat transfer coefficient for gases is much lower than that for

One of the most common methods to increase the surface area and
compactness, is to have an extended surface (fin) with an appropriate fin
density as per the requirement. This addition of fins can increase the surface
area by 5 to 12 times the primary surface area. These types of exchangers are
termed as extended surface heat exchangers. The heat transfer coefficient of
the extended surfaces may be higher or lower than that of the un-finned
surfaces. The louvered fins increase both the surface area and the heat transfer
coefficient, while the internal fins in a tube increase the tube surface area, but
may result in a slight reduction in the heat transfer coefficient depending on
the fin spacing. However, the overall thermal conductance increases due to
the presence of the extended surfaces.

The heat exchanger design involves the consideration of the

mechanical pumping power expended to overcome fluid friction, in addition
to the consideration of the heat transfer rate. The friction power expended
with high density fluids is usually less compared to the gain in the heat
transfer rate; however, for low density fluids, such as gases, the pumping
power is of considerable magnitude relative to the gain in the heat transfer
rate. An increase in the velocity of the fluid flow increases the heat transfer
rate to something less than the first power of velocity, whereas, the frictional
power expenditure increases as the cube of velocity, but never less than the
square of velocity. The frictional power limitations force the designers to keep
the velocities moderately low. The flow velocities can be reduced by
increasing the number of flow passages in the heat exchanger. It will reduce

the frictional power much more, compared to the decrease in the heat transfer
rate per unit of surface area. This loss of the heat transfer rate can be made up
by an increase in the surface area which, in turn, also increase the frictional
power, but only in the same proportion as the heat transfer surface area. This
consideration also calls for extended surface heat exchangers.

In spacecraft, aircraft, and missiles, space and weight are used

sparingly. It is essential that in these vehicles, on-board heat exchange duties
are accomplished in equipment, that is as light and compact as possible.

The rate equation for the cold plate heat exchanger, which is a
mathematical statement says, that the quantity of heat, Q, (Watts) transferred
in a heat transfer process is equal to the product of the heat transfer
coefficient, h, (W/m2K), the surface area in the cold plate, S, (m2), and some
temperature difference or driving force, T, ( K or C).

Q = hST

Thus, for a fixed heat flow and temperature driving potential, the
heat flow per unit temperature difference is maximized when the h S product
is maximized.

Q/ T = hS

The design of a cold plate involves a consideration of the heat

transfer between the walls of the cold plate and the circulating fluid, as well
as the pumping power expended to overcome fluid friction and to move the
coolant fluid through the passages within the cold plate. For a cold plate
carrying a high density fluid, the friction loss is relatively small, and it is
usually not the controlling factor. But when air and other gases are employed,
it is not uncommon for the cold plate to quickly dissipate its allotted power.
Perhaps a more attractive method of enhancing the heat transfer is to increase
the surface.

The foregoing considerations have led to the development of many

ways, to construct heat transfer surfaces for cold plates carrying air, as the
convective medium, where the surface area density is large. These surfaces
are usually referred to as compact heat transfer surfaces. These surfaces make
use of some form of an extended surface or fin, to augment the primary
surface and form the backbone of what is to follow.


The two most common types of extended surface heat exchangers

are the tube-fin and the plate-fin heat exchangers.

1.4.1 Tube-Fin Heat Exchangers

These heat exchangers may further be classified as (a) conventional

and (b) specialized tube-fin exchangers. Tube-fin exchangers are employed,
when one fluid stream is at a high pressure, and/or has a significantly higher
heat transfer coefficient than that of the other fluid stream. In a conventional
tube-fin heat exchanger, the transfer of heat takes place by conduction
through the tube surface. In a specialized tube-fin exchanger, i.e., the heat
pipe exchanger, tubes with both ends closed, act as a separating wall, and the
heat is transferred through this separating wall by conduction, and
evaporation and condensation of the heat pipe fluid. This type of heat
exchanger is similar to a fin-tube exchanger; however the tube is a heat pipe.

In a conventional tube-fin exchanger, round, rectangular and

elliptical tubes are most commonly used. Fins are generally used outside the
tube; however, they may be used on the inside of the tubes as well, if required
(Figure 1.4).



Figure 1.4 Internally finned tubes (a) Helical fins and (b) Axial fins

Depending on the fin type, tube-fin heat exchangers are further

classified as (a) individually finned tube, and (b) continuously finned tube
heat exchangers. Figure 1.5 shows the two basic types of conventional tube-
fin heat exchangers. Longitudinal fins are generally used in condensing
applications. The fins of the tubes may be plain, wavy or interrupted. Tube-fin
exchangers are usually less compact than plate-fin units. The heat pipe heat
exchanger consists of heat pipes, which are basically the evacuated closed
tubes, partially filled with a heat transfer fluid. The inner surface of the heat
pipes is usually lined with a capillary wick. Hot and cold gases flow
continuously in separate parts of the chamber. Heat is transferred from the hot
gas to the evaporator section of the heat pipe by convection; the thermal

energy is then carried away by the vapors of the heat pipe fluid to the
condensation section of the heat pipe, where it transfers the heat to the cold
gas by convection. The heat pipe performance is influenced by the angle of
orientation of the heat pipes. This tilting of the exchanger may control the
pumping power and ultimately the heat transfer. These exchangers are
primarily used in waste heat recovery systems.

Tube-fin heat exchangers are usually less compact than plate-fin

heat exchangers. A tube-fin exchanger having flat fins with 400 fins/m
(10 fins / inch) has a surface area density of about 720 m2/m3.

Flow Flow
(a) (b)

Figure 1.5 Externally finned tubes (a) Individually finned and

(b) Continuously finned

1.4.2 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers

This type of extended surface heat exchanger has corrugated fins,

mostly with triangular or rectangular cross-sections, sandwiched between
parallel plates, as shown in Figure 1.6. The fins may also be incorporated in a

flat tube with rounded corners. The parting sheet is usually replaced by a flat
tube, incase a liquid or phase change fluid flows on the other side. Fins are die
or roll formed, and are attached to the plates by brazing, soldering, adhesive
bonding, welding, mechanical fit, or extrusion.

Plate-fins are categorized as: (1) plain, i.e., uncut and straight fins,
such as plain triangular and rectangular fins, (2) plain but wavy fins, and
(3) interrupted fins, such as the offset strip fins, louvered fins, perforated fins,
etc. The plates and the fins are made of a variety of materials-metals, ceramics
and papers-with surface area densities of up to 5900 m2/m3. Plate-fin
exchangers have been produced since the 1910s in the auto industry (copper
fin-brass tubes), since the 1940s in the aerospace industry, and in gas
liquefaction applications since the 1950s, using aluminum. They are widely
used in electric power plants, propulsive power plants, systems with
thermodynamic cycles, i.e., heat pumps, refrigerators, etc, and in electronic,
cryogenic, gas-liquefaction, air-conditioning, waste heat recovery systems, etc.

Figure 1.6 Basic components of a plate-fin heat exchanger


A plate fin heat exchanger is a form of compact heat exchanger,

consisting of a block of alternating layers of corrugated fins and flat
separators known as parting sheets. The corrugations serve both as secondary
heat transfer surfaces, and as mechanical supports against the internal
pressure between the layers. The air stream exchanges heat by flowing along
the passage corrugations between the parting sheets. The edges of the
corrugated layers are sealed by side-bars. Corrugations and side-bars are
brazed to the parting sheets on both sides, to form rigid pressure-containing
voids. The first and the last sheets, called cap sheets, are usually of a thicker
material than the parting sheets, to support the excess pressure over the
ambient, and to give protection against physical damage. Each stream enters
the block from its own header via ports in the side-bars of the appropriate
layers and leaves in a similar fashion. The header tanks are welded to the
side-bars and parting sheets across the full stack of layers.

Plate fin heat exchangers are characterized by high effectiveness,

compactness (high surface area density), low weight and moderate cost.
Although these exchangers have been extensively used around the world for
several decades, the technologies related to their design and manufacture
remain confined to a few companies in developed countries. Recently, efforts
are being made in India towards the development of small plate fin heat
exchangers, for cryogenic and aerospace applications.


A large number of extended surface geometries have been proposed

for use in compact heat exchangers, and more are still being developed. A
high-performance surface will enhance the heat transfer that takes place
within the heat exchanger, without incurring penalties on friction and pressure
drop, that are severe enough to negate the benefits of heat transfer
augmentation. In this section, the following types of plate-fin geometries are

explained: plain fins, wavy fins, offset strip fins, louvered fins, perforated
fins, and pin fins.

1.5.1 Plain Fins

These are straight fins that are continuous in the fluid flow
direction. Although passages with triangular and rectangular cross sections
are more common, any desired shape can be given to the fins, considering
only the manufacturing constraints. Straight fins in a triangular arrangement
can be manufactured at high speeds, and hence, are less expensive than
rectangular fins. But generally they are structurally weaker than rectangular
fins for the same passage size and fin thickness. They also have lower heat
transfer performance compared to rectangular fins, particularly in a laminar
flow. Plain fins are used in those applications, where the core pressure drop is
critical. An exchanger with plain fins requires a smaller flow frontal area, than
that with interrupted fins, for a specified pressure drop, heat transfer and mass
flow rate. Of course, the required passage length is higher, leading to a larger
overall volume.

1.5.2 Wavy Fins

Wavy fins are uninterrupted fin surfaces with cross-sectional

shapes similar to those of plain fins, but with cyclic lateral shifts
perpendicular to the flow direction (Figure1.7.c). The resulting wave form
provides effective interruptions and induces a complex flow field. Heat
transfer is enhanced due to the creation of Gortler vortices. These counter-
rotating vortices form while the fluid passes over the concave wave surfaces,
and produce a corkscrew-like flow pattern.

(a) (b) (c)


(d) (e) (f)

Figure 1.7 Types of Fin (a) Triangular plain fins, (b) Rectangular plain
fins, (c) wavy fins, (d) offset strip fins, (e) louvered fins, and
(f) perforated fins

The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a wavy fin

surface lie between those of plain and offset strip fins. The friction factor
continues to fall with an increasing Reynolds number. Wavy fins are common
in the hydrocarbon industry, where the exchangers are designed with high mass
velocities and moderate thermal duties. Unlike offset strip fins, the thickness
of the wavy fins is not limited at high fin densities. Therefore, wavy fins are
often used for streams at high pressure, particularly those which can tolerate a
somewhat poor heat transfer coefficient.

Both wavy and corrugated channels enhance the heat transfer by

promoting mixing due to complex re-circulatory flows and boundary layer
separation. However, less friction is expected in wavy channels, because the
sharp corners of the corrugated channel are not present.

1.5.3 Offset Strip Fins

This is the most widely used fin geometry in high performance plate
fin heat exchangers. It consists of a type of interrupted surface, which may be
visualized as a set of plain fins cut normal to the flow direction at regular

intervals, each segment being offset laterally by half the fin spacing, and the
typical strip lengths ranging from 3 to 6 mm, (Figure 1.7.d). Surface
interruption enhances the heat transfer by two independent mechanisms. First,
it prevents the continuous growth of the thermal boundary layer, by
periodically interrupting it. The thinner boundary layer offers lower thermal
resistance compared to the continuous fin types. Above a critical Reynolds
number, interrupted surfaces offer an additional mechanism of heat transfer
enhancement. Oscillations in the flow field in the form of vortices, shed from
the trailing edges of the interrupted fins, enhance the local heat transfer by
continuously bringing in fresh fluid towards the heat transfer surfaces. This
enhancement is accompanied by an increase in the pressure drop.

The heat transfer performance of the offset strip fin is often as much
as 5 times that of a plain fin surface of comparable geometry, but at the
expense of a higher pressure drop. For specified heat transfer and pressure
drop requirements, the offset strip fin surface demands a somewhat higher
frontal area compared to that with a plain fin, but results in a shorter flow
length and lower overall volume. An undesirable characteristic of this type of
fin is that, at high Reynolds numbers the friction factor remains nearly
constant (because of the higher contribution of the form drag), while the heat
transfer performance goes down. Therefore, offset strip fins are used less
frequently in very high Reynolds number applications. On the other hand,
they are extensively used in air separation and other cryogenic applications,
where the mass velocities are low and high thermal effectiveness is essential.
The enhancement provided by the offset strip fins results from an increase in
both the effective surface area and the heat transfer coefficient.

1.5.4 Louvered Fins

The louvered fin geometry shown in Figure 1.7.e consists of an

interrupted surface, similar to that of the offset-strip fin. Most of the radiators

use a louver strip width of 1.0 to 1.25 mm. For equal strip width, the louvered
fin geometry provides an enhancement, comparable to that of the offset strip
fins. Moreover, louvered fins are less expensive than offset strip fins for large
quantity production, because of their ease of manufacture, using high-speed
mass production technology. The base surface of the louvered fin geometry
can be of triangular or rectangular shape, and louvers can be cut in many
different forms.

The multi-louvered fin has the highest heat transfer enhancement,

relative to the pressure drop in comparison with most other fin types. The
increase in the heat transfer is by interrupting the boundary layer formation,
and by providing more surface area. The flow over louvered fin surfaces is
similar in nature to that through the offset strip fin geometry, with boundary
layer interruption and vortex shedding, playing major roles. An important
aspect of the louvered fin performance is the degree to which the flow follows
the louver. At a low Reynolds number the flow is nearly parallel to the axial
direction (duct flow), whereas at a high Reynolds number the flow is in the
direction of the louvers (boundary layer flow). Louvered fins are extensively
used in automotive heat exchangers.

Louvered fins, typically found in many compact heat exchanger

designs, increase the average heat transfer by interrupting the boundary layer
formation and by providing more surface area. Louvered fin surfaces are
commonly used in automobile radiators. The louvered fin geometry consists
of an interrupted surface similar to that of the offset-strip fin. However, the
slit strips of louvered fins are not completely offset. Instead, the slit fin is
rotated between 20 and 60 relative to the direction of the airflow.

1.5.5 Perforated Fins

Perforated fins shown in Figure 1.7.f are made by punching a

pattern of spaced holes in the fin material, before it is folded to form the flow
channels. The channels may be triangular or rectangular in shape, with either
round or rectangular perforations. While this geometry, with boundary layer
interruptions, is a definite improvement over plain fins, its performance is
generally poorer than that of a good offset strip fin. Furthermore, the
perforated fin represents a wasteful way of making an enhanced surface, since
the material removed in creating the perforations is thrown out as scrap.
Perforated fins are now used only in a limited number of applications, such as
turbulators in oil coolers.

1.5.6 Pin Fins

In a pin fin exchanger, a large number of small pins are sandwiched

between plates, in either an inline or staggered arrangement. Pins may have a
round, an elliptical, or a rectangular cross section. These types of finned
surfaces are not widely used, due to their low compactness and high cost per
unit surface area, compared to multi-louvered or offset strip fins. Due to
vortex shedding behind the pins, noise and flow-induced vibrations are
produced, which are generally not acceptable in most heat exchanger
applications. The potential application of pin fin surfaces is at low flow
velocities (Re < 500), where the pressure drop is negligible. Pin fins are used
as electronic cooling devices, with free-convection flow on the pin fin side.


Plate fin heat exchangers can be made with a variety of materials.

Aluminium is preferred in cryogenic and aerospace applications, because of

its low density, high thermal conductivity and high strength at low
temperatures. The maximum design pressure for brazed aluminium plate fin
heat exchangers is around 90 bar. At temperatures above ambient, most of the
aluminium alloys lose their mechanical strength. Stainless steels, nickel and
copper alloys have been used at temperatures of 0C to 500C. The brazing
material in the case of aluminium exchangers is an aluminium alloy of lower
melting point, while the one used in stainless steel exchangers is a nickel
based alloy.

The basic principles in manufacturing the plate fin heat exchanger

are the same for all sizes and all materials. The corrugations, side-bars,
parting sheets and cap sheets are held together in a jig under a predefined
load, placed in a furnace and brazed to form the plate fin heat exchanger
block. The header tanks and nozzles are then welded to the block, taking care
that the brazed joints remain intact during the welding process. Differences
arise in the manner in which the brazing process is carried out. The methods
in common use are salt bath brazing and vacuum brazing.

1.6.1 Salt Bath Brazing

In the salt bath process, the stacked assembly is preheated in a

furnace to about 550C, and then dipped into a bath of fused salt composed
mainly of fluorides or chlorides of alkali metals. The molten salt works as both a
flux and a heating agent, maintaining the furnace at a uniform temperature. In
the case of heat exchangers made of aluminium, the molten salt removes the
grease and the tenacious layer of aluminium oxide, which would otherwise
weaken the joints. Brazing takes place in the bath when the temperature is
raised above the melting point of the brazing alloy. The brazed block is
cleansed of the residual solidified salt by dissolving in water, and then
thoroughly dried.

1.6.2 Vacuum Brazing

In the vacuum brazing process, no flux or separate pre-heating

furnace is required. The assembled block is heated to brazing temperature by
radiation from electric heaters, and by conduction from the exposed surfaces
into the interior of the block. The absence of oxygen in the brazing
environment is ensured by the application of high vacuum (Pressure 10
mbar). The composition of the residual gas is further improved (lower oxygen
content) by alternate evacuation and filling with an inert gas, as many times as
experience dictates. No washing or drying of the brazed block is required.
Many metals, such as aluminium, stainless steel, copper and nickel alloys can
be brazed satisfactorily in a vacuum furnace.


Plate-fin and tube-fin heat exchangers have found application in a

wide variety of industries. A few among them are air separation (production
of oxygen, nitrogen and argon by low temperature distillation of air), petro-
chemical and syn-gas production, helium and hydrogen liquefiers, oil and gas
processing, automobile radiators and air conditioners, and environment
control and secondary power systems of aircrafts. These applications cover a
wide variety of heat exchange scenarios, such as:

(i) exchange of heat between gases, liquids or both,

(ii) condensation, including partial and reflux condensation,

(iii) boiling,

(iv) sublimation, and

(v) heat or cold storage



The heat transfer and flow friction characteristics of a heat

exchanger surface are commonly expressed in non-dimensional form, and are
simply referred to as the basic characteristics or basic data of the surface.
These characteristics are presented in terms of the Colburn factor (j) and
Fanning friction factor (f) vs. Reynolds number Re, the relationships being
different for different surfaces. The Colburn and Fanning friction factors are
defined by the relations:

Dh (Ti  Tw ) 2/3
4 L (To  Tw )
j ln Pr

Dh 'P
2 L 2

where Dh is the hydraulic diameter (mm), L is length of the flow passage (m),
Ti is the inlet temperature of the air(C), To is the outlet temperature of the
air(C), Tw is the outer surface temperature of the tube(C), Pr is the Prandtl
Number, P is the air-side pressure drop (Pa), is the mean density of fluid
(kg/m3) and v is the frontal air velocity (C).

This approach is somewhat arbitrary since geometric variables, other

than the hydraulic diameter, may have a significant effect on the surface
performance. It also becomes necessary to present j and f data separately for
each surface type. The j and f data so presented are applicable to surfaces of
any hydraulic diameter, provided a complete geometric similarity is

One of the earliest and the most authoritative sources of

experimental j and f data on plate fin surfaces is the monograph Compact
Heat Exchangers by Kays and London. Although nearly two decades have

passed after the latest edition, there has not been any significant addition to
this database in open literature. Attempts have been made for the numerical
prediction of the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor; but they have
generally been unable to match the experimental data. Several empirical
correlations, however, have been generated from the data of Kays and
London, which have found extensive application in industry, particularly in
less-critical designs. For critical applications, the direct experimental
determination of j and f factors for each fin geometry remains the only choice.
In a plate fin heat exchanger, the hydraulic diameter of the flow passage is
generally small due to closely spaced fins. Operation with low density gases
leads to an excessive pressure drop, unless the gas velocity in the flow
passage is kept low. These factors imply an operational Reynolds number less
than 10,000, the common range being between 500 and 3000 for most ground
based applications.


The primary objective of the present study is to introduce the recent

advancements in the field of computational fluid dynamics, in the design and
analysis of compact heat exchangers, so as to improve their performance by
analyzing the various possible ways and means. Among the different types of
compact heat exchangers, a corrugated louvered fin and flat tube compact
heat exchanger is considered in the present investigation, due to the
availability of this heat exchanger with M/s Halgona Radiator Private Limited
company, which has been manufacturing radiators for several years and
showing keen interest in improving their performance.


Chapter 1 deals with the concepts of heat transfer enhancement

techniques adopted in conventional heat exchangers, the necessity for an
extended surface heat exchanger, types of extended surface heat exchangers,
extended surface geometries, the material and construction of compact heat
exchangers, and the heat transfer and friction characteristics. The objectives
of the present research and the organization of the thesis are also presented.

Chapter 2 presents an extensive review of the literature in the field

of the louvered fin and flat tube compact heat exchangers. At the end of the
chapter, the conclusions arrived at from the literature review and specific
objectives of the present research are also summarized.

Chapter 3 gives information regarding the details of the radiator

test unit, the components of the test rig and its layout, the instrumentation
used in the setup, and the experimental procedure adopted.

Chapter 4 explains the complete details regarding the physical

model, mathematical model, boundary conditions, grid independence test and
the computational procedure adopted in solving the model.

Chapter 5 presents the results of the experimental investigation,

the comparison of the present experimental results with the existing f and j
correlations in the open literature, validation of the CFD model using the
experimental results, and the parametric analysis using the CFD simulation.

Chapter 6 reports the conclusions that have been drawn from the
present research work. The scope for future work is also included at the end
of this chapter.