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The production of this manual was funded by the Japan Fund for Global Environment (JFGE).

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especially in developing countries. though in varying degrees. which is exacerbated by the lack of capacity and resources. The youth. climate change has been gaining attention and concern all over the world. National and local governments have also started to act and implement initiatives. Indeed. Yet. an alarming change that could translate into catastrophic results for many ecosystems. The effects of climate change have been evident in the past decades and are expected to worsen in the future. plays a vital role in combating climate change. climate change is not something that only government has the responsibility to solve. Climate change education is crucial in order to strengthen their capacity and increase their resilience to its impacts. Everybody needs to know and understand climate change because each of us is rendered vulnerable to it. The youth. The Philippines is considered one of the highly vulnerable countries to climate change due to its exposure to potential impacts. have a strong ability to mobilize. are not subjected to established routines and stereotypes. There is a need to communicate it to the public as the concept remains less understoond in local communities. It is also important to instill the concept of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’ – that. all of us need to contribute in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Scientists suggest the world’s average temperature could increase by 4°C or more by the end of the 21st century. have high concern for cleanliness and green initiatives. It has reached global and national discussion and policy-making. and comprise more than half of the human population which means that they have a stake in decision-making even at the international level. in particular. should have a vision towards low-carbon development. INTRODUCTION Climate change is real. The evidence is clear and the science is firm. This raises the need to increase public awareness about the issue and consolidate efforts in order to have a significant impact in tackling climate change. can serve as key agents of change brought about by their youthful energy and enthusiasm. who will be the future leaders of the country. 1 . The lack of public awareness and understanding about climate change especially among the youth is a great concern. Their education is crucial because they: will be the ones who will face the worse impacts of climate change as future inheritors of the Earth. although the Philippines is not a major CO2 emitter compared to many other countries.

It recognizes the importance of engaging the local government in educating the youth. and what can be done. It explains the observed and projected climatic changes as well as the vulnerabilities of the Philippines. catalyze youth action for climate protection by providing actual youth initiatives in the Philippines and all over the world. what are the projected impacts. its causes. Lastly. It provides options for mitigation and adaptation actions that can be adopted by the youth. as well as youth-led initiatives in the Philippines and around the world. this manual could aid in catalyzing youth action towards a low-carbon and climate-resilient future. at least in their locality. Their participation and support in terms of providing information related to climate change in the city or municipality is important in order to better understand the direct impacts of climate change to their communities. The manual will introduce the basics of climate change – what is it. Also. This is crucial because the real challenge goes beyond raising awareness. projected impacts and other related issues. but inducing behavioral changes in order to truly address climate change. 2 . develop participants’ practical skills on carbon auditing and community mapping. this manual aims to bring climate change closer to the youth by providing a local context. why is it happening. especially catered for teachers and trainers. Course goals & objectives This manual aims to: increase awareness of teachers and trainers on the science of climate change. and present specific strategies which can induce behavioral change and instill a deep sense of responsibility in the youth for them to assume roles as climate leaders. enhance participants’ knowledge on the various methods and initiatives targeted at addressing climate change.This manual is aimed at providing a knowledge base on climate change. It has a strong focus on the science of climate change which is essential in providing a better understanding of the broader picture – why climate change is happening and how to better address the challenge.

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the climate in the Metro Manila is tropical wet (May-October) and dry (November-April). the eastern portion of the country experiences more rainfall (Note: the eastern coast of Visayas and Mindanao (Type 2) has no dry season!). The Philippines is a tropical country. For example. Climate Classification in the Philippines 4 . The types differ in terms of pronounced seasonal changes and amount of rainfall. What is climate? How is it different from weather? What are the different types of climate? What is the climate in your city/municipality? Weather is the current atmospheric conditions. and humidity at any given place.” Or. certain key concepts need first be understood. It is what is happening right now or likely to happen tomorrow or in the very near future. CLIMATE VS WEATHER Before climate change can be explained. rainfall. is the general weather conditions for a relatively long period of time. In addition. Meteorologists often point out that “climate is what you expect and weather is what you get. The description of each type of climate is presented at Figure 1. the wet and dry seasons become more evident as one goes from east to west. What really is climate change? What is causing it? This module attempts to answer these questions by providing the base knowledge and background on climate change. the weather today in Manila is sunny. Ask the students about the type of climate in their province. including temperature. “Climate helps you decide what clothes to buy. weather helps you decide what clothes to wear” (EPA 2013). but it has four ! IMPORTANT POINT types of climate. The term ‘climate change’ has entered the popular discourse but has yet to be fully understood by many. For example. wind. In the map. It is often referred to as long-term ‘average weather’ for a given area. Climate. on the other hand. as one middle school student put it. SOURCE: DOST PAGASA Figure 1. That is. it can be observed that the types vary when you go from eastern to western Philippines.

and such changes can cause the planet to warm up or cool down. Experts are still trying to study the exact causes of these warming and cooling by using evidence from rocks. using images from Saltzman (2002) & Encyclopedia Britannica (1996). It can be observed that during most of its history. Global Temperature Changes over the Earth’s History The temperature of the Earth (consequently. At present. fossils. Changes in the Earth’s atmosphere have also occurred naturally in the past. but over a long period of time. So. the different climates around the world) has varied significantly over the planet’s existence. resulted in an environment suitable for mankind and other species to evolve and thrive.600 million years ago (mya) when the Earth formed. These temperature changes can occur naturally. it is evident that the planet has experienced changes from warm to cool temperatures (Figure 2). an asteroid collision.000 years ago. what are the causes of changes in global temperature? Figure 2: Earth’s history and its temperature Source: ICLEI SEAS. and continental drift. Natural cycles. massive volcanic eruptions. and other sources. together with evolutionary processes. the Earth has experienced a much warmer temperature compared to the present time – with exceptions of ice ages during the Precambrian and Palaeozoic eras. 5 . Some theories include changes in orbital cycles. Looking back 4. and changes in solar radiation contributed to these shifts. which. catastrophic events. we are living in a warm phase of an ice age that had its peak 20.

Factors that can affect changes in the Earth’s GLOBAL CLIMATE There are several factors that affect the Earth’s temperature and climate. Earth’s orbital cycles and orientation as it moves around the sun The Earth’s orientation and the shape of its orbit can also affect the amount and distribution of solar radiation being received (Figure 3).wcp. Source: marineecology. The more sunspots (black dots) there are on the sun’s surface.muohio. 1) Amount of solar radiation being received by the Earth a. (Figure 4). b.000 years!). This means that more ice sheets or glaciers would decrease the solar radiation received by the planet. Albedo refers to the reflectivity of the Earth’s surface. the more energy is being released by the sun.000 to 100. The amount of radiation being emitted by the sun: Solar radiation varies over time depending on the sun’s activities. Amount of radiation being reflected by the Earth The amount of radiation being Figure 4: Albedo values reflected by the planet is determined by its temperature and its color. Ice surfaces would reflect more solar radiation compared to dark blue oceans.edu 6 . Figure 3: Natural Earth’s cycles that affect its orbit around the sun Note: These changes happen over very. very long periods of time (in the scale of 10. the shape of its orbit ITS TILT ITS ROTATIONAL AXIS Source of photos: Woodward (2008) c.

Although the total amount of energy received and lost is the same. The gases which are responsible for this are collectively known as greenhouse gases (GHGs). 3) Composition of the Earth’s atmosphere The Earth releases the energy it has absorbed from the sun back into outer space. (Figure 5). Since the sun is much hotter than the Earth. some gases in the atmosphere prevent a portion of this radiation from escaping the earth’s atmosphere. For example. Together with very small ash particles. The phenomenon of trapping heat at the surface of earth is called the greenhouse effect. The gases turned into tiny liquid droplets that remained suspended for many months. when Mt. More details about the ‘greenhouse effect’ are discussed in the following section. 2) Catastrophic event A catastrophic event such as a volcanic eruption or asteroid collision can also affect the climate. a portion of it is reflected by clouds and white surfaces back to space. the wavelength of the energy is different. The Earth receives energy from the sun. it threw up massive amounts of ash and gases (sulfur dioxide) high into the atmosphere. This was enough to cause a measurable drop in global temperatures for about two years. This energy is lost to space. and the quantity of greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere. Much of this solar radiation passes through the atmosphere and gets absorbed by the earth’s surface. It refers to the fact that certain gases in a planet’s atmosphere can cause the temperature at the surface of the planet to be warmer than would be expected. known as infrared radiation. this created a natural haze high in the atmosphere which reduced the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface. energy from the sun is shorter in wavelength than the energy that Earth itself emits. When solar radiation reaches the planet. 7 . land and water. but it also gives off the same amount of energy it receives. The amount of energy being emitted by the planet is determined by the temperature of the planet. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT The ‘greenhouse effect’ is a term used to describe a natural feature of the Earth and many other planets. However. After absorbing solar energy. the earth radiates some of this energy back to space in a longer wavelength. Pinatubo erupted in 1991.

However. Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Natural greenhouse effect is very important because it is one of the features of the Earth that enabled life on the planet. we need greenhouse gases (CO2) at the right amount so that the earth’s temperature would be just right for us (humans) and for a wide range of complex species to live. Without GHGs. National Park Service (from livescience. the average temperature of the Earth will be -18°C which is way below freezing point! Therefore. ! IMPORTANT POINT Natural Greenhouse Effect vs. the balance of natural greenhouse effect is being altered by human activities. To better understand this. As the greenhouse effect gets stronger. Figure 5: Solar energy flow Source: EPA (2013). we should investigate the observed causes of climate change and identify human activities that contribute significantly to enhanced greenhouse effect (see next module). We are causing enhanced greenhouse effect (consequently enhanced global warming) as we send more CO2 and other GHGs into the air. Figure 6: Natural Greenhouse Effect vs Human-enhanced Greenhouse Effect Source: Will Elder. global temperatures rise and this can upset the natural systems in the planet (Figure 6). com) 8 .

and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’ (UNFCCC 2014). methane. and it is also the most abundant. CO2 accounts for 70 to 80% of the GHGs which stay in the atmosphere for a long period of time. However. and halo-carbons. it is considered as the principal GHG that affects human-induced global warming on earth. compared to dominant GHGs in the Earth’s atmosphere. This definition stresses the role and responsibility of humans in bringing about changes in the current global climate. it gets easily converted into other states like clouds or precipitation so it stays in the atmosphere for only 3-7 days. ozone. water vapor. Table 1: Greenhouse gases on the Earth’s atmosphere DEFINING ‘climate change‘ Climate change is defined as ‘change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere. In fact. It can be seen that each gas has a different amount of contribution to the greenhouse effect. a CO2 molecule can stay in the atmosphere for 200 to 300 years! Thus. The chemical formula and common sources of these gases are summarized in Table 1. Water vapor has the highest contribution because it has a higher global warming potential can absorb/trap energy more strongly. GREENHOUSE GASES (GHGs) Common GHGs include carbon dioxide. On the other hand. on average. 9 . nitrous oxide.

It is caused mostly by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Climate change refers to any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time. Details will be discussed in Module 2. 2014). precipitation. or wind patterns. We. Global warming is causing climate patterns to change. that occur over several decades or longer (EPA. In other words. shifts to ice ages and warm phases. If climate change occurs naturally. have caused climatic changes in different parts of the planet. humans. what is the problem? What causes serious concern today is that it seems that the climatic changes we have been experiencing are happening at a much faster rate compared to previous climatic changes. These temperature changes. 10 . which lead to the imbalance of natural systems. However. ! IMPORTANT POINT CLIMate change: a Natural phenomenon? We have seen the temperature of the Earth fluctuating throughout its existence. have a huge responsibility for this because our activities are inducing enhanced greenhouse effect. among other effects. climate change includes major changes in temperature. global warming itself represents only one aspect of climate change. ! IMPORTANT POINT CLIMate change and global warming Global warming refers to the recent and ongoing rise in global average temperature near the Earth’s surface.

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which show that the concentration of CO2 is steadily increasing. Oceans c. CO2 concentration during the year varies with the season – decreasing during spring when plants are growing. Soil respiration and decomposition d. and methane. carbon dioxide. NATURAL GHG SOURCES Natural greenhouse gases include water vapor. while increasing during the autumn and winter. Ocean-atmosphere exchange b. Up and down vertical movement of the curve shows the intake and release of CO2 caused by surges in plant growth that occur every northern hemisphere spring. Leaks from gas deposits e. Soil under natural vegetation b. Scientists make continuous measurements of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere at many different places around the world. The seasonal variation in CO2 concentration is reversed in the southern hemisphere. 12 . Atmospheric chemical reactions 3) Methane a. One such measure is the Keeling curve (Figure 7). The major sources of other natural GHGs are: 1) Carbon Dioxide a. Plant and animal respiration c. although the seasonal signal is less strong there because of greater ocean area in the southern hemisphere. The curve here shows concentrations measured at Mauna Loa in Hawaii. Permafrost melting Investigating CO2 concentration through time Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered Figure 7: CO2 Concentration as the primary GHG causing global warming. That is. Wetlands (marshes & swamps) b. Oceans d. Termites c. Water vapor is part of the water cycle and this serves as one of the factors that regulate the earth’s temperature. where regular measurement first started in 1958. Volcanic eruptions 2) Nitrous Oxide a. nitrous oxide.

g. Results from various scientific studies serve Figure 8 as pieces of the puzzle that would answer some uncertainties on climate change. Important information was revealed from ice cores (Cherry & Braasch 2008): Antarctic cores show temperature and CO2 rising and falling together almost perfectly over many long ice-age cycles up to the current time. mud cores reveal temperature conditions in the ocean thousands or millions of years ago based on the chemistry of the shells or bodies of organisms buried under the ocean floor. scientists study layers of mud from the ocean floor. but how do we know the concentration of CO2 in the air long ago.000 years of the ice core record Another method of knowing ancient climatic conditions is through mud cores (left). before modern measurements began. Among other things. This suggests that one factor (e. The measurement of CO2 in air is relatively straightforward. CO2 concentration) may be affecting another factor (e. Scientists drill ice cores (vertical columns of ice. or before humans had even evolved? How can we make a comparison and say that the CO2 levels at present are significantly higher than in the past? One method is by analyzing ancient ice that has been buried thousands of years ago. There is more CO2 in the air now than there has been for the whole 800. Resolving the issue requires important evidence related to the ability of CO2 to absorb radiation at a 13 . temperature). Similar to the concept of the ice core. These ice cores contain bubbles of ancient air that was trapped by layers of snowfall over time. left) from ice sheets or glaciers in Greenland or Antarctica. The combined results of the Keeling curve and ice core analysis support the statement that average global temperature has increased in parallel with the increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (Figure 8).g.

000 years ago. can warm up the world. The Earth receives radiation (shortwave: ultraviolet) from the sun and emits radiation (longwave: infrared). So where did all the CO2 come from? This would be answered by looking at the change in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere over time. Specifically. specific range of wavelength upon exposure (see box below). ! IMPORTANT POINT snapshot from the past The key premise underlying the idea of a greenhouse effect goes back to 1896. Natural processes and cycles are thought to have caused these changes. 14 . He pointed out that intense industrial activities. Figure 9 shows the changes in CO2 concentrations starting from 400. which release GHGs in the atmosphere. ! IMPORTANT POINT Key piece of the puzzle Let’s review. It can be seen that CO2 concentrations fluctuated at the scale of 100. Human impacts (anthropogenic sources) There is scientific evidence that the rise in global temperature at present is highly related to the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. might have caused the past ice ages. Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) – a Swedish scientist – argued that fewer volcanic eruptions. which produce more GHGs through burning of fossil fuels.000 years ago. he was the first scientist who attempted to quantify the effect of changes in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere on the Earth’s surface temperature. This causes the warming of the Earth’s surface through the greenhouse effect. Each GHG strongly absorbs radiation at certain wavelengths. there is a sharp increase in CO2 concentrations that is way beyond the ‘normal’ fluctuating trend observed from 400. causing enhanced greenhouse effect. GHGs absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and prevent it from escaping back to outer space.000 to 100. As evident in the figure. This is strong evidence that points to the main reason why increasing CO2 is the likeliest cause for the observed warming.000 years during the ice age cycles. as shown in the previous section. scientific studies point to the same message: ‘geological and paleo- climatic evidence makes clear that the present atmospheric CO2 concentrations are higher than at any time in the last 15 million years’ (World Bank 2012). it absorbs at the same wave- lengths in which the Earth radiates the most energy/heat. Through his greenhouse law. This would explain how CO2 is identified as the principal GHG. CO2 strongly absorbs radiation at wavelengths within the infrared radiation spectrum. The calculations of CO2’s warming potential were first done then. Nevertheless.

Scientific evidence points that CO2 is the principal GHG responsible for enhanced greenhouse effect/ global warming. it has a close match with both human and natural influences. the period when the Industrial Revolution began and when humans started using fossil fuels that boosted technological innovation. the observed trend in the rise of global temperature in the 1900s does not Figure 10: Observed ave. So it is human activities that release GHGs into the atmosphere and cause global warming! 15 . The amount of CO2 in the air is increasing. These results suggest that global warming is mainly caused by human-related activities which release of GHGs in the atmosphere. such as steam engines and iron-making. Instead. which have altered the planet significantly in a relatively short span of time. evident at around 1900s up to present. Image created by Robert A. This can be attributed to human civilization. Demands of modern society have continued the steep increase in CO2 concentrations. temperature rise follow the same trend or direction of natural factors such as volcanic eruptions (Figure 10). Fossil fuels burning produces CO2. The sharp increase in CO2 Figure 9: CO2 concentrations over time concentrations started at around the 1700s. and so more heat energy is absorbed in the air instead of leaving the Earth. Rohde/ Global Warming Art In another study. CO2 concentration has increased because humans have been burning large quantities of fossil fuels since the start of the Industrial Revolution about 200 years ago. Average global temperature is rising The rise in global temperature matches with the increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Source: EPA (2013) ! IMPORTANT POINTS CO2 absorbs some of the heat energy that the Earth emits.

When we burn them for energy we release that accumulated carbon back into the air as CO2. methane is produced. Rice production also contributes 10-15% of total methane production in the world. Activities which contribute significantly to these GHG emissions are: 1. At present. The manufacturing process requires the burning of limestone which directly releases CO2 into the atmosphere. If not properly disposed. What are the sources of these GHGs? What kinds of activities are the main contributors of these emissions? There have been many studies that try to identify main causes of anthropogenic GHG emissions. the amount of CO2 that could have been absorbed by the trees is reduced. caused by microbes in paddy fields. Worse. which is more than 20 times more potent a greenhouse gas than CO2. Waste When biodegradable waste decomposes. Burning of fossil fuel Fossil fuels (like petrol and coal) are products of dead plants and animals that were buried under the earth’s surface millions of years ago. this methane goes directly to the atmosphere. Industrial Processes An example is cement production. Loss of forest and vegetation When forests are cut down. ANTHROPOGENIC GHG EMISSIONS Humans have been responsible for emitting GHGs into the atmosphere. 16 .2% of emissions come from cutting down forests. 5. the practice of burning waste releases CO2 and other GHGs. Indirectly. if those trees are burned for whatever reason they add to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. Raising livestock is now also said to contribute to global warming. 3. the energy source that would fire the process could also be a significant source of GHG emissions. is produced by decomposing manure and cows’ digestion systems. fossil fuels are mankind’s primary sources of energy 2. 4. Agriculture Nitrogen oxide is released when farmers use nitrogen-based fertilizers. This is important because it is estimated that 12. Also. Methane. These fossil fuels contain the carbon those plants and animals absorbed out of the atmosphere.

the list goes on. land-use and biomass burning. accounts for more than half of total GHGs emitted. fossil fuel manufacturing. agricultural by-products. The call now is to be able to develop while emitting less GHGs – low-carbon development. modern life has been created because of the activities that produced GHGs. burning of fossil fuels. As evident. and residential and commercial sources. and waste treatment. The point is. no vehicles (motorcycles or motor boats). The contribution of each of these activities in the total GHG emissions is summarized in Figure 11. transportation fuels. This is followed by industrial processes. We would not have developed . no internet. no man on the moon. We would not have known about climate change without the technologies that we now have. Figure 11: Sources of Human-caused GHG Emissions Source: Woodward (2008) ! IMPORTANT POINT Low-Carbon Development Modern life with all the technologies that we have is a product of Industrial Revolution. no electricity. 17 . including power stations.no mobile phones.

closing the energy-waste ‘loop’. 18 . there is a need to diversify energy sources by incorporating more renewable energy (discussed in Module 6). The other two main sources are waste and industry. electric appliances. or ensure that the waste is treated so that it does not release methane. and assisted. modes of transportation. In order to reduce GHGs. agricultural activities. which involves the use of fossil fuels for electricity and transport (Figure 12). There is a challenge to treat waste in such a way wherein methane is captured and used as an energy source. GHG SOURCES IN THE PHILIPPINES Figure 12: Major GHG sources in the Philippines Source: 2000 Philippine GHG Inventory (Image: Klima-MO) activity Identify sources of GHG emissions in each barangay. The second major GHG source is agriculture. It can be observed that more than half of the country’s GHGs come from the energy sector. Farmers should be able. industries (if applicable). such as the capturing of methane from agricultural animals. waste management. to adopt sustainable farming practices or technologies. Consider the following: sources of energy at home.

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warming of oceans. there may even be cooler temperatures for part of the year. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Figure 13: Web of climate change impacts What are the effects of climate change? Are we experiencing them already? It is important to note that a number of phenomena is connected to the Earth’s climate.. It is important to take notice of these signs as they might indicate other bigger impacts. Other countries might be experiencing shorter winters or hotter summers. this has led to multiple impacts: more evaporation. Understanding them is important Source: EPA 2013 as we are all affected by these impacts in one way or another. rainfall. 20 . As shown in Figure 14. although in a few places. we are starting to experience stretches of hot. 1) Increase in atmospheric temperature This refers to the observable increase in average atmospheric temperatures. caused by changed ocean currents. It is also important to remember that Earth’s systems are interrelated – an upset in one system can significantly affect others. For example. The extent of the changes is not the same everywhere. Direct impacts are those in the inner circle (light orange) while indirect impacts are those in the outer circle (orange). and winds. but the general movement is clear – the climate is changing. This module will look at the signs and evidence that climate change is happening. Figure 13 shows the web of these interrelated climate impacts.e. In many different places all over the world.8°C compared to the pre-industrial level (WB 2014). sunny days during the rainy season. The general direction is towards a warmer world. day and night temperatures. scientists have recorded changes in the features which make up the climate: i. melting of ice sheets/glaciers. etc. It is estimated that the global average temperature has increased by 0. humidity. extreme weather events (stronger typhoons and drought).

the water from melting glaciers leads to localized flooding. Increased ocean warming also changes both ocean currents and surface winds. Warmer oceans also absorb less CO2. areas covered by snow and ice start to melt and shrink. because the dark blue of the sea underneath absorbs the incoming solar radiation far more than does the bright ice. As an example. In some places. This is proof that the planet is warming. more water vapor escapes to the atmosphere. warm waters cause coral bleaching – whitening of corals as a response to stress – which eventually kill the corals. Also. One concrete example is the observed decrease in the area of the Arctic ice compared to the average minimum area (area inside the yellow line. This leads to increased rainfall for one area and severe droughts for another. as the water surges through rivers and lakes on its way to the sea. the warming of oceans leads to sea level rise and impacts marine ecosystems. WATCH Average Global Temperature Anomalies from 1880-2014 (NASA video) The main objective of the video is to show that the Earth has been experiencing higher temperatures compared to decades ago. This is especially true when ocean ice melts. This extra absorbed heat contributes further to warming the planet 3) Warming Oceans Oceans have absorbed about 90% of additional heat energy from increased GHGs concentrations since 1955. causing some parts of the world to lose moisture because of changes to their particular prevailing winds. as is happening now in the Arctic. resulting in less phytoplankton for consumption of aquatic plants and animals. Photo: NASA Goddard’s Scientific more water enters the oceans causing Visualization Studio/Cindy Starr (2013) sea levels to rise. typhoons).com/watch?v=WtPkFBbJLMg) 2) Shrinking ice caps and melting glaciers As global temperatures rise. It shows temperature changes for 130 years. SOURCE: NASA (https://www. 21 . reducing the area of ice cover on Earth means less white areas that reflect sunlight. When oceans warm up. leading to more rainfall in the form of more intense heavy rainfall events (e.youtube. left).g. When ice sheets or glaciers melt. Moreover.

water that has been locked as ice flows into the oceans.g. some of it reacts chemically with the water molecules to create carbonic acid and bicarbonate. Also. It is estimated that the oceans have absorbed around 30% of anthropogenic (produced by human activities) CO2. 50 species of frogs in Central America (harlequin toad) have not been seen. cherry blossoms are blossoming 6-7 days earlier than they did in 1970’s. Moreover. insects or weeds. Climate change can disrupt the balanced ecological relationships resulting in the dominance of certain species and loss of biodiversity. grasses. 5) Changing ecosystems Plants and animals are more sensitive than humans to climatic changes. while most plants were flowering 4-5 days earlier) due to rising temperature butterflies (checkerspot) changing its range by shifting to the north tropical animals (birds. frogs. and trees – have been changing their behavior and patterns as a result of climate change. for example. Increases in ocean acidity are more pronounced at higher latitudes than in the tropics or subtropics (WB 2012). mammals. mollusks. Evidence of a changing environment include: flowers blooming earlier (e.1. 22 . It is estimated that the average global sea level rise has been in the range of 15 to 20 centimeters over the 20th century (World Bank 2012). Other causes of sea level rise are identified in Figure 14. 4) Ocean acidification When CO2 enters water. which has decreased the pH level at the ocean’s surface by 0. especially for shell creatures and coral reefs. as the ice caps and glaciers melt. A study reveals that 80% of species – birds. a 30% decrease. This presents a serious threat for cities or communities situated along the coast or in low-lying areas. Some are thought to have become extinct because of a fungus that thrives in warmer temperature polar bears not surviving well with decreased natural habitat and babies being born smaller penguins traveling longer distances to find food forests in the north are changing because cold-climate trees are unable to cope with warm temperatures 6) Rising sea level As oceans warm. warm weather can encourage the growth of certain species. This has direct implications for marine ecosystems. and tree possums) moving higher up to the mountains for more desirable temperature and moisture conditions. the water expands and causes an increase in sea level.

000 deaths and economic losses up to USD15 billion in Russia. But the extremes appear to be growing stronger. It is also estimated that the 2012 drought experienced by the US was its worst drought since the 1950s and affected 80% of agricultural land. extreme weather events have serious implications on economic growth as they can affect agricultural and industrial productivity. 23 . a strong heat wave caused 55. Observations showed that across the globe. areas affected by drought have significantly increased over the last 50 years. and the number of such extreme events around the world seems to be increasing. some areas are experiencing severe flooding caused by heavy rainfall and strong typhoons. Either way. violent typhoons – have always happened. For example. areas which experience severe heat have increased by ten times since the 1950s (World Bank 2012). Similarly. On the other hand. Figure 14: Factors causing sea level rise Source: Briggs (2001) 7) Extreme weather events Extreme weather events – such as drought.

24 . Table 2: Specific impacts that can be caused by climate change. both directly and indirectly (Table 2). EFFECTS ON DIFFERENT SECTORS The major climate change impacts described in the previous section could further lead to other impacts that could alter life on the planet. Climate change impacts pose serious threats to different aspects of human life.

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If we act now to decrease our emissions significantly (B1-low emissions scenario). Figure 15a: Estimated increase in GHG emissions Figure 15b: Estimated increase in temperature Source: EPA (2013) For a clearer picture. As may be seen. we can expect temperatures to increase rapidly (orange lines). One example is shown below (Figure 15 a & b). 26 . an estimation of the world’s average temperature in 2090 is shown in Figure 16. we can expect temperature rise at a slower pace (green lines). The future of climate change is faced with a lot of uncertainties. Experts have tried to predict future effects of climate change depending on possible human actions. If we do nothing to reduce our emissions (A2-high emissions scenario). because human choices will affect how climate change will progress or regress.. including the Philippines. many areas are in the high temperature range (red and orange) – especially areas near the equator.

They also fear that current actions to address climate change at the global level – nations’ UNFCCC commitments – would most likely lead to a 3-4°C warming (World Bank 2012). Figure 16: Estimated increase in global average temperature At present. and ecosystems. most scientists are predicting a 2°C increase in average global temperature by the end of the century. water. Incremental changes in the global temperature can impact supply of food. Even a one-degree increase in temperature can affect certain species. Figure 17: Projected Impact of Climate Change Global Temperature Change 27 . which can eventually lead to major changes in the ecosystem. Figure 17 shows how things are expected to change in terms of small increases in global temperature.

Many scientists are convinced that at the current rate sea levels will rise by more than 1 meter by 2100. in the long run. Scientists are anticipating. Extreme high temperatures could also lead to collapse of some natural systems Acidic oceans – The oceans’ acidity can increase by around 150%. tourism and shoreline protection’ (World Bank 2012) Water scarcity and decrease of agricultural productivity – due to higher incidence of drought and extreme high temperature Health impacts – Increased mortality due to extreme temperature and weather events and higher risks of disease Further global warming – Forest fires and melting of permafrost (frozen vegetation) could release significant amount of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere that shall intensify the greenhouse effect. if the combined ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica melt. 28 . income. However. Tropical islands in the Pacific. This ‘would have profound consequences for their dependent species and for people who depend on them for food. including the Philippines) would regularly experience longer and more intense heat waves. The effects of this will not be evenly distributed across the globe. a 4°C rise in global mean temperature. sea level could rise by up to 25 meters High temperature extremes – There would be more instances of high temperature extremes. A 4°C increase would mean extinction of coral reef systems. Here are the projected impacts: Massive sea level rise – Sea level rise is projected to be around 20% higher in the tropics (near the Equator) compared to those at higher latitudes. which will have adverse consequences on marine species and ecosystems.

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There is no indication of increase in frequency but. while the number of cool nights have been decreasing. the number of hot days have been increasing.35 °C) and minimum (+0. How annual mean teperatures have changed from normal values.64°C for the whole period. SIGNS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE IN THE PHILIPPINES 1) Rising average temperature Temperature observations from 1951 to 2010 reveal an annual increase in temperature at a rate of 0. Now. On average. it is also important to know climate change impacts in the Philippines. 30 . during El Nino years. there is an observed slight increase in typhoon intensity.94 °C) temperatures. We have discussed what is happening and what is expected to happen at the global scale. more typhoons with sustained winds greater than 150kph. Figure 18: Average Temperature Anomalies 2) Frequency and Intensity of Tropical Cyclones Figure 19 indicates the tracks and intensity of tropical cyclones globally.01°C per year with a total increase of 0. there is an observed increase in both maximum (+0. taken at the period 1971-2000. is shown in Figure 18. Consistent with these. 20 tropical cyclones enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) every year. Also. What have we been experiencing in the recent years or decades? What are the impacts that are evident and how are these expected (projected) to change in the future? The observed trends below are climate projections for 2020 and 2050 in a mid-range scenario.

Projected rainfall change (in % increase or decrease) is mapped out in Figure 20b. This means. Figure 19: Tracks and Intensity of tropical cyclones Source: Robert A.8-2.9- 1. Rohde. 31 . Global Warming Art (nasa. This would have serious implications as we are expecting a 2°C increase by the middle of the 21st century.gov) FUTURE CLIMATE PROJECTIONS 1) Change in average temperature It is projected that the average temperature across the country will rise by 0. The projected seasonal temperature change (in °C) is mapped out in Figure 20a.2°C in 2050.1°C in 2020 and by 1. especially during summer months. the Philippines can expect dry months to be drier and wet months to be wetter. It is evident that we are expecting a hotter future. 2) Change in seasonal rainfall Amount of rainfall is expected to decrease during the summer season (March- May) and to increase during the rest of the year for most parts of the country.

Figure 20a: Projected seasonal temperature increase Figure 20b: Projected seasonal rainfall change Source: PAGASA. 2015 (pagasa.ph) 32 .dost.gov.

Bicol Region. Eastern Visayas 3) Typhoons (including tropical depressions. Bicol Region. Eastern Visayas 4) El Niño: Central and West Mindanao 5) Combined Risks (aggregation of above-mentioned risks): Bicol Region and Eastern Visayas 33 .and weather-related hazards. using 2080 climatology (Figure 23). tropical storms. typhoons and super typhoons): Northern Luzon. In summary. the following areas are identified: 1) Temperature increase: Central Visayas and Mindanao 2) Rainfall change: Central and South Luzon. ! IMPORTANT POINT RISKS TO CLIMATE DISASTERS A study conducted by the Manila Observatory and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) indicates provinces that are most at risk to projected climate.

34 .

Climate Change IMPACTS 1) Drought and Water Scarcity The projected increase in temperature. 2) Stronger Typhoons The country has been experiencing stronger and more destructive typhoons for the past decade. Climate change renders this trend as the “new normal”. There has been an observed decrease in rice yield associated with increase of temperature and this can worsen in the future. number of hot days. To better prepare for these. which includes a “super typhoon” category. DOST-PAGASA released a new public storm warning signal. and decrease in rainfall during dry season will mean higher risks to water scarcity and severe drought in some areas in the country. Photo (left): Supertyphoon Haiyan as it approaches the Philippines Photo (below): PAGASA’s modified public storm warning signal 35 .

4) Sea Level Rise The Philippines is the among the highly vulnerable countries to sea level rise. Several major cities are located along the coast and many communities in small islands. there was an observed massive coral bleaching throughout the country. During the 1997-1998 El Niño event. several provinces in the eastern side of the country. 3) Ocean Warming and Acidification The Philippines has a rich marine biodiversity. This could destroy coral reefs and other endangered marine species. and leptospirosis. 36 . and mean significant wave height. Coastal vulnerability is determined by sea level rise. 5) Health Impacts The projected increase in average temperature and number of hot days could increase risks related to vector-borne diseases such as malaria. dengue. This could worsen in the future. storm surges and extreme floods (World Bank 2012). Increased incidence of flooding could spread water-borne diseases such as diarrhea. which will be severely impacted by warming and acidification of ocean waters. According to a study (Clavano 2012). particularly those located at coastal areas below sea level. tidal range. coastal slope. are more prone to sea level rise compared to the west (left).

37 .

– the main GHG sources and level of GHG emissions in a specific area. it is important to analyze the context of a specific country/community/individual. Each method will be discussed in detail. One main strategy to address climate change is to lessen its scale and/or rate of change. However. 38 . Thus. At present. there are two broad methods to mitigate climate change: 1) reduce the GHG emissions and 2) capture CO2 from the atmosphere in a process called carbon sequestration. This strategy is known as climate change mitigation. Figure 21: Global CO2 Emissions Source: Rogers & Evans (2011) In order to come up with specific strategies to cut emissions. CUTTING EMISSIONS The most common strategy for climate change mitigation is reducing the amount of GHGs that is being released into the atmosphere. activities and priorities. Figure 21 clearly illustrates the level of emissions of each country in the world. Since climate change is caused by the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere from human activities. community. This gives us a general idea on what and how to approach the challenge. each would have different sources and levels of GHG emissions. China is the top CO2 emitter in the world due to its rapid economic development in recent years and its heavy reliance on coal-burning. and individual differs in terms of characteristics. it is important to acknowledge that each country. depending on the focus. The previous section already identified the main causes of human-induced GHGs from various sectors.

community. quantifying and organizing information about GHG emissions based on common standards and protocols is called GHG accounting or carbon auditing. most commonly 100 years. The carbon footprint is more commonly known at the individual level. taking into account all relevant sources. and storage. Each of us leaves a carbon footprint in everything that we do.com/watch?v=8q7_aV8eLUE 39 . sinks. The list of GHG emissions and the level of emissions of this accounting is a GHG inventory. https://www. in order to consider both impact and length of time the gas remains in the atmosphere.youtube. The main goal is to determine GHG sources and emissions of an entity. GHG ACCOUNTING Table 3: Global Warming Potential Values The process of identifying sources. It is calculated based on a specific time frame. Experts have also developed the Global Warming Potential (GWP). GWP serves as a conversion factor for non-CO2 GHGs to carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). or activity. system. This serves as an important step for designing emission reduction strategies. city. a value used to compare the contributions to global warming of different GHGs. Each GHG has an assigned GWP value. Another term – carbon footprint – is defined as a measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions of a defined population. activity Show Simpleshow’s “The Carbon Footprint” This explains Carbon Footprint in simple terms. as indicated in the IPCC report (Table 3). or country.

As an introduction. GHG ACCOUNTING IN THE CITY/MUNICIPALITY Some LGUs have conducted the GHG inventory in the city or municipality. students will have an idea on the kind of development that they are promoting If no data is available yet. If data is already available. livestock) o Common fishery livelihood Solid waste management o Segregation o Collection o Disposal Industries o Types of industries/factories Power plants o Type of power plant o Size of power plant 40 . By doing so. include the characteristics and profile of the locality. a checklist may be provided to help the city planning or environmental officer toidentify potential GHG sources in their locality. it would be very useful to invite somebody from the LGU to talk about the major sources of GHG as well as identified carbon sinks in the locality. The checklist can include: Transportation o Modes of transportation within/into/from the locality o Fuels being used/available o Sources of fuels Electricity o Source o Means of distribution o Consumption of the locality o Big consumers of electricity Residential Sector o Energy source at home o Electric appliances normally used at home Agriculture o Common agricultural livelihood (for example. crops produced.

turning off appliances when not in use . and save money.use of fluorescent over incandescent light bulbs: a compact fluorescent lightbulb (CFL) is 75% more energy-efficient than a regular lightbulb.use of public transportation . While we are not yet prepared to completely stop the use of fossil fuels as energy sources. contribute to mitigating climate change.walking or using bicycles . there have been efforts to promote sustainable energy in order for people to be less reliant on fossil fuels. By practicing energy efficiency. CFL has a longer lifespan and cheaper to use in the long run use of fuel-efficient cars . Energy efficient practices include: use of energy efficient devices/appliances/infrastructure . SUSTAINABLE ENERGY The energy sector accounts for more than 60% of global GHG emissions.no idling of vehicles 41 .carpooling – sharing a ride with other people . Two strategies are: 1) Energy efficiency This refers to being smart in using energy (minimum use).improving building design – for example making use of natural light through bigger windows or maximizing ventilation through open spaces preventing unnecessary use of electricity and fuel .improving the insulation of buildings – use of curtains or better construction materials .pulling plugs to avoid ‘ghost power’ – electicity used by appliances that are plugged in when not in use . you can save the environment.

limit/shorten the use of TV/computer c. avoid watching TV and doing other things while ironing h. iron heavy clothes first and dampen clothes moderately g. put off lights that are not needed e. buy a unit with higher energy efficiency ratio (EER) or yellow tag f. put of unit when not needed d. buy a refrigerator with an energy efficiency label f. 42 . do not reheat food using the electric stove 3) On washing and ironing a. thaw frozen food before cooking c. match the pan/cookware size with the heating plate b. use the right size of unit for your need b. 4) Use appliances/equipment with higher efficiency rating. use the right size of washing machine for your need b. do not overload the unit e. ensure that there is no leakage at the door seal c. use iron with thermostat/select the appropriate heat level for the clothes 4) on using the refrigerator a. replace incandescent bulb with a compact fluorescent lamp b. soak clothes in detergents before loading up in the washing machine c. use appropriate wattage for the lighting purpose c. 2) Use low rating smaller unit appliance/equipment. use the right size of unit for your need b. turn off the fan when not needed i. avoid using the oscillator 6) on using gadgets and other appliances a. plan before you cook e. clean the condenser tube regularly 5) on cooling and ventilation a. use natural lighting when feasible 2) on cooking a. place the unit in a ventilated area and regularly clean the condenser and evaporator g. turn off battery or cellphone charger when charging is complete BASIC PARAMETERS in ELECTRICITY CONSERVATION 1) Reduce the number of units that are being used. do all the ironing at one time f. 3) Reduce the operating hours/frequency of use of appliance/equipment. use electric airpot sparingly b. ! IMPORTANT POINT Household energy saving tips (Source: DOE-AREC 2013) 1) on lighting a. plan the location of lighting fixtures d. do not put VCR/TV/stereo/computer on stand-by mode d. set to medium or low heat when the water/food is already boiling d. avoid frequent opening of the door d. defrost the refrigerator once a week e. 5) Find other alternative ways of doing things. determine your comfort level j. determine your comfort level e. do not over-wash the clothes d. clean the tubes of the lamp regularly f. use air-conditioner with timer/ecozone c. use the right size of fan for your need h.

plant. 2) Renewable energy (RE) Renewable energy refers to energy sources that are not reliant on carbon fuel use but on sources that can be used over and over. These sources are part of nature and can be used as long as the earth exists. The good thing about biogas is it captures would be harmful GHGs waste and converts it into an energy source. This option should be considered in very dense cities in order to ease the burden of using fossil fuels as an energy source. This cyclical approach to the use of natural resources is starting to gain popularity in an effort to promote sustainable development in cities. Table 4: Renewable Energy Sources Another renewable energy source which is not included in the table above is biogas. It uses methane and carbon dioxide from waste – animal. food or agricultural waste in an anaerobic process. closed space without oxygen). 43 . Famous renewable energy sources are summarized in Table 4.

MY CARBON FOOTPRINT
As mentioned earlier, everybody contributes in emitting CO2 in the atmosphere through
every activity that we do. There are ways to know a person’s or a household’s carbon
footprint by looking at the energy use at home, modes of transportation, shopping choices,
and waste management practices.

activity
Ask students to assess the level of GHG emissions in their households by providing a score
sheet which asks simple things about their households. Below is a sample score sheet
used in Kumamoto, Japan. The total score would reflect the potential for the student to
reduce more CO2. Please note that this score sheet is based on the Japanese context.
There is a need to contextualize this depending on the target youth participants.

Table 5: Sample score sheet to calculate carbon footbprint at home
Source: Nagata, 2013

44

Another option is to compute for energy consumption in the household. Record
the consumption for last year and this year and the difference would be the energy
consumption saved in one year. Multiplying this to the emission factor (provided by the
government) would enable the students to identify their reduction in CO2 emissions. A
sample template from Kumamoto, Japan is shown below.

Table 6: Sample template for computing energy consumption at home
Source: Nagata, 2013

There are carbon footprint calculators which are available online (Table 7). Although
the context might be different (questions were designed for people from the country
it was developed), these would provide a rough estimate of GHG emissions of a
household or an individual. Cool the World has cool visuals, but Ecological Footprint
is country-specific.

Table 7: Available online carbon footprint calculators

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CAPTURING/Storing c from the atmosphere
(sequestration)

Another strategy that could mitigate climate change is by capturing and/or storing
CO2 from the atmosphere, known as carbon sequestration. This can be done by
making use of natural processes or through technological innovations (Figure 23).

One common and easily adopted natural means of capturing carbon is by planting
trees. Trees use CO2 to grow. Tree planting can be effective at absorbing CO2 for as
long as the trees are growing; when a tree is mature and stops growing, it is no
longer a net carbon absorber. If the planted trees die, they will naturally rot and all
the carbon will reach the atmosphere again. If the planted trees are deliberately
harvested/chopped down the CO2 can also return to the atmosphere. It all depends
on the fate of the wood. If the wood is burnt, the CO2 goes straight back into the air. If
the wood is used for paper, it may be a few years before this happens; and if the wood
is used for durable goods such as furniture it may be decades or centuries before the
carbon returns to the air. Trees also contribute to providing cooler temperatures in
their surroundings because of its leaves and shade.

Figure 22: Carbon Sequestration Methods

Amazingly, there are carbon
capture and storage (CCS)
technologies that can capture
CO2 being emitted from coal-
fired power plants and bury it
deep into impermeable soil.
This can be injected directly
into old oil wells or coal mines
to help replenish supply
(cyclical approach). There is a
concern, however, that some
of the CO2 may leak out after
some period of time. Also, there
Source: Earth Ethics, 2011
is a technology that converts
coal into natural gas (methane)
underground and the process
separates CO2 emissions and
pumps the CO2 back into the
coal seams (Figure 22).

46

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It is a function of the character. Before identifying actions needed to adapt to climate change. Sensitivity . VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE Vulnerability refers to the degree to which a system (for example. we have to prepare. global temperature will continue to rise for the next 30 years because the CO2 we have emitted in the atmosphere will stay there for decades and the heat absorbed by the ocean will also be released. Even if we stop our emissions now (which is impossible). but it will take time for these actions to take effect. Adaptive capacity . and to have the capacity to adapt to the projected impacts of climate change. How does this vary and what are the factors that contribute to this deviation can be explained by the concept of vulnerability. property b. Adaptation is defined as ‘any adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or effects which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’ (IPCC).the ability of a system to adjust to climate change. 2007). a group of people. Thus. Also. experts predict a warming greater than a 2-degree increase in temperature (World Bank 2012). Change in climate itself: sea level rise. It is basically the biophysical effect of climate change. 1.the nature and degree to which a system is exposed to significant climatic changes. to reduce potential damage. which can be altered by socio-economic changes.the degree to which a system is affected (positively or negatively) by climate-related changes. its sensitivity. The effect may be: a. a country) is prone to. The two main elements to consider in exposure are: a. Therefore. This refers to another main strategy of climate change which is climate change adaptation. the effects of climate change vary across countries and even across provinces within a country. at the rate of current policies and programs both planned and existing. Indirect: damages caused by an increase in the frequency of coastal flooding due to sea-level rise 3. or unable to cope with harmful impacts of climate change. and adaptive capacity (IPCC. to take advantage of opportunities or to cope with consequences 48 . range. it is important to know how we will be affected and what are the things that we have to prepare for. Direct: a change in crop yield in response to a change in the mean. magnitude and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed. to reduce the risks of disasters. Things that can be affected by climate change: populations. a community. However. resources. Exposure . precipitation and temperature changes 2. climate change will proceed and its impacts will continue to be experienced. or variability of temperature b. Climate change is already happening! Mitigation actions are important to slow it down and reduce projected impacts.

earthquakes. and 3) the countries’ ability to respond to these disasters through preparedness measures and early warning systems. floods. That is. Results of these studies can inform and guide the development of policies and programs that would reduce potential damage caused by climate change.32% disaster risk). Therefore. the Philippines is third in the list of most vulnerable countries to natural disasters (24. VULNERABLE COUNTRIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE Figure 23 Source: UNU-DSR. 49 . or increasing adaptive capacity through activities that are closely aligned with development priorities. and those who lack capacity to cope and adapt to the consequences of disasters (Figure 23). those who have a high likelihood of suffering damages when hit by a disaster (in terms of living conditions and societal framework). reducing vulnerability would involve reducing exposure through specific measures like building a dyke in case of sea level rise. Why is it important to know vulnerabilities to climate change? It is important to know the vulnerability of a particular population because these would determine the appropriate adaptation actions. This rank was measured according to: 1) exposure to natural disaster like storms. Vulnerability is high when exposure and/or sensitivity is high and when adaptive capacity is low. 2) susceptibility to damage based on the state of their economy and infrastructure. the lesser is the vulnerability. This is done by predicting climate impacts and conducting a vulnerability assessment in that area. droughts and sea level rise. 2011 Vulnerable countries are those with high exposure to natural hazards. According to the World Risk Index (2011) conducted by United Nations University’s Institute for Environment and Human Security and the German Alliance Development Works (2011). the greater the adaptive capacity.

Table 8: Most vulnerable countries per climate change impact 50 . In fact. landslides. and storm surges. This is not surprising. the country has faced a series of catastrophic typhoons in the past five years including the strongest typhoon to hit land in human recorded history (Table 9). An investigation of the damage reports of these strong typhoons showed the importance of giving special attention to vulnerable areas to flooding. It can be seen that these destructive typhoons have caused serious property and infrastructure damages affecting the economy. In another study. and more importantly those disasters led to loss of hundreds and thousands of lives. It can be seen that the Philippines ranked as the most vulnerable country in terms of facing more intense typhoons. the World Bank ranked vulnerable countries for each specific climate change risk (Table 8).

Table 9: Destructive typhoons that hit the Philippines in the past 5 years 51 .

Table 10 provides a simplified list of vulnerable areas for each predicted impact. Table 10: Vulnerable areas to climate change Figure 24: Climate change vulnerabilities in the Philippines Source: DENR. while Figure 24 shows climate change vulnerability(ies) of different regions in the Philippines. VULNERABLE AREAS TO CLIMATE CHANGE Areas that are vulnerable to climate change are those with high risks of being impacted by its effects. 2012 52 .

and sea level rise by projecting the map of the city/municipality. drought. local climate action plan. They would see an actual place with high risks of being affected by the impacts of climate change. For the students to feel that impacts or risks are being felt in their city/municipality or even in their barangays. rain-induced landslide It would be very useful for the youth to be aware of vulnerabilities of their city/ municipality to climatic hazards. This would also give them a chance to communicate to the local residents and ask questions about perceived changes in weather events. It is suggested to show areas that were actually affected and also those areas prone to flooding. or any of those areas identified in Table 10. a drought-prone area. Ask the participants to look carefully at their specific barangays. ask a representative from the LGU who would talk about the city/municipality’s initiatives for climate change adaptation. coastline movement. flooding. policies or action plans in place (DRRM action plan. climate proofing of comprehensive land use plan) local climate projections. The selection of area(s) to be visited would depend on results of the vulnerability assessment from the local government (if available). drought. Bohol (ICLEI SEAS). The site can be a coastal area. and other climatic events hazard maps – flood. perceived climate vulnerabilities past experiences of typhoons. Photo: A field visit in a coastal barangay in Tubigon. activity Field Visit to vulnerable areas A visit to identified or potential vulnerable areas is highly recommended. and amount of precipitation at present compared to past conditions. The youth participants also learned about social problems like informal settlers who are forced to live in vulnerable areas along the coast (high risks of sea level rise. 53 . ESTIMATED CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE CITY/MUNICIPALiTY The projected impacts of climate change and the vulnerabilities of the Philippines have been discussed in Module 5 (Climate change in the Philippines). storm surges. If possible. heat waves. flooding and storm surges). it is important to seek participation of the local government. erosion. a low-lying area. A field visit would serve as a good exposure and experience for the youth. For example.

parks. Each vulnerable sector requires a specific adaptation strategy that would enable the population to better deal with climate impacts and prevent loss and damage. environmental hazards (e. It would be very beneficial if representatives from the local government and other guest speakers/experts could provide comments or suggestions.g. The next step is to identify solutions that could lessen these vulnerabilities and thus reduce risks of disasters. Each group will be asked to present and explain their work. This way. open areas. government offices. It must be matched to the local needs of the community because different communities in the same region would have different priorities. wells). recognition should be given to indigenous knowledge by involving the community – what they think have been happening and what they think could be probable solutions. Photo: ICLEI SEAS ADAPTATION STRATEGIES It is not enough to know projected climate impacts and vulnerabilities. garbage. This activity can enable participants to be even more familiar with their own community and apply what they have learned about climate vulnerability. How do we reduce vulnerabilities? Any specific action aimed at managing future climate risk and vulnerabilities is an adaptation strategy. among others. quicksand. they will be able to share what they have learned to their barangay. schools. Then. Moreover. Any adaptation strategy must be flexible and continuously updated to deal with new impacts (climate uncertainties). best routes for safe evacuation. It can be: anticipatory – actions done before the impacts are observed reactive – actions done when the initial impacts have been evident planned – deliberate policy decision autonomous – triggered independent actions hard measure – something tangible such as building dykes to prevent flooding soft measure – awareness raising and capacity building such as educating farmers about climate change 54 . activity community mapping Ask the students to draw a map of their barangay. mountains. let them identify what they perceive as dangerous & safe locations in terms of climate impacts as well as other disasters. including residential areas. rivers. major and minor roads. Adaptation strategies can address one sector or several sectors (cross-cutting). agricultural lots.

Table 11: Sample adaptation strategies 55 . Example adaptation strategies for each sector are listed in Table 11. Please note that context is very important. The aim of putting this list is simply to give an idea of measures which can aid communities and local governments in adapting to climate change. Not everything in the list is applicable to every barangay or city/municipality.

56 .

57 .

b. were not required to reduce their emissions because they were still classified as developing countries when the treaty was signed. Japan in 1997. China and India. This agreement was formulated during the Earth Summit held at Rio De Janeiro. which have been experiencing rapid economic growth (high emitters). It is worth-noting that the US. It is an international 4 treaty that legally binds developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions for a set period of time. developed countries can earn “certified emission reduction (CER) credit”. By doing so. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) – developed countries can invest in an emission-reduction project in developing countries. Also. Its main activity is preparing the Assessment Report which describes the progress of climate change in the world. Currently. giving compensation for restricted economic activity. Joint Implementation – developed countries can invest in an emission- reduction project in other developed countries (also a member of the protocol). developed countries can earn “emission reduction unit (ERU)”. 58 . Brazil in 1992. The Kyoto Protocol has three flexibility mechanisms that can be used to aid developed countries which signed the agreement to meet their targets. 195 parties (countries) signed this treaty. This credit can be sold to those countries which cannot meet their targets. c. By doing so. have annual meetings to assess the implementation of the Convention and the progress of their climate change actions. 2 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – an international treaty which is mainly aimed at keeping the concentration of greenhouse gases at levels that will not have dangerous effect to the climate system of the earth. Kyoto Protocol – a product of COP 3 held in Kyoto. It has an authority in terms of climate change studies because those studies have been agreed to by expert climate scientists and member governments. did not ratify this agreement. REDD offers financial incentives to people (especially in developing countries) to protect and keep the forest. GLOBAL INITIATIVES 1 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – scientific body formed by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization. International Emissions Trading (“carbon market”) – developed countries which were able to reduce their emissions lower than their target can gain “carbon credit”. The parties which signed UNFCCC since 1995. It is composed of members from different countries which assesses studies that would enable better understanding of climate change. biggest CO2 emitter during that time. 3 Conference of Parties (COP) – refer to the supreme decision-making body of the UNFCCC. (1 credit = 1 tonne of CO2) which they can use to meet their targets. Deforestation causes high emissions because it releases much of the stored carbon. These mechanisms are: a. A growing forest (as opposed to a mature forest) has the ability to absorb CO2. 5 Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is a mechanism that aims to put value on forests because they contain a lot of stored carbon. (1 unit = 1 tonne of CO2) which they can use to meet their targets.

As a signatory of the Convention. Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) is a commitment by a country. Signatories of the UNFCCC were asked to submit and publicly declare their INDCs before COP 21 in Paris. Villanueva (Misamis Oriental) • Superior Hog Farms Methane Recovery (Tarlac City) 4) Other policies related to CC: • Executive Order 318 of 2004 – Promoting sustainable forest management in the Philippines • Republic Act 9867 – Biofuels Act of 2006 • Republic Act 9513 – Renewable Energy Act of 2008 59 . 2) The Philippines signed UNFCCC in 1992. NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE InITIATIVES 1) Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC) was established in 1991 .a year before the establishment of UNFCCC.youtube.com/watch?v=ReOj12UAus4 http://www. outlining climate actions it plans to implement under a new international climate agreement. 2015.youtube.460) are: • Northwind Bangui Bay Project (Ilocos Norte) • QC Controlled Disposal Facility Biogas Emissions Reduction Project (Quezon City) • Waste Heat Recovery Generation Project.com/watch?v=B11kASPfYxY This video This animated video presents the demonstrates the emission difficulty in forming a trading scheme consensus for reducing in an easy to emissions because several understand countries refuse to reduce animation. These will shape the new climate agreement that will be concluded. specifying the country’s efforts to address climate change. it is required to submit its National Communication to the UNFCCC. The Initial National Communication was submitted in 2000. ACTIVITY ACTIVITY Show “How does the emission trading Show “The history of climate change scheme work?” negotiation in 83 seconds” http://www. The country participates in the Clean Development Mechanism. their emissions. 3) The Philippines ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2003. Some projects that were issued with CERs (total of 164. while the Second National Communication in 2014.

It also created the Climate Change Commission (CCC). Local governments and civil organizations accredited by the CCC. a fund allocated from the national budget to finance climate change adaptation programs and projects.youtube.. including tehcnology development and transfer. strategies and programs and to establish the framework strategy and program on climate change. 9) The Philippines’ Intended Nationally Determined Contribution states the following: Mitigation: ‘The PH intends to undertake GHG reduction of about 70% by 2030 relative to its business as usual scenario of 2000-2030.com/watch?v=GBrLOlTbJQc This video presents the history of the earth in a very youth-oriented way. and capacity building. It summarizes the role of humans in changing the earth and how they are responding to the challenges of climate change 60 .established the People’s Survival Fund. 5) Republic Act 9729: Climate Change Act of 2009 which main objective is to mainstream climate change into government policies.. can access the fund. 8) Republic Act 10174 .The mtigation contribution is conditioned to the extent of financial resources. 6) National Framework Strategy on Climate Change Long-term objective: facilitate the transition towards low GHGs for sustainable development • energy efficiency and conservation • renewable energy • environmentally sustainable transport • sustainable infrastructure • national REDD+ strategy • waste management 7) The Commission has developed the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) for 2011 to 2028 which identifies the country’s seven priorities (left). that will be made available to the PH’ Adaptation: The Philippines ‘prioritizes adaptation and adopts it as the anchor strategy’ as indicated in the NFSCC and NCCAP ACTIVITY Show “Earthbook” video clip https://www.

61 61 .

Table 12: Some youth-led climate change initiatives from around the world 62 . Young people are actively engaged promoting cleaner energy alternatives. There has been increasing recognition of the youth’s role in addressing climate change. A look at existing youth-driven climate change initiatives from around the world and in the Philippines would give an idea on how the youth can take part the climate change challenge. international agencies. increasing disaster-preparedness. and various organizations are involving the youth in climate change mitigation and adaption initiatives and they are also given a voice in international negotiations. and encouraging sustainable use of natural resources. Governments. youth initiatives from around the world Youth-led climate change initiatives – both mitigation and adaptation – have been increasing. adopting energy saving practices. They may also draw inspiration in order to develop innovative measures. It is worth noting that many of these initiatives have been supported by different organizations and agencies (Table 12).

Greeneration is an awareness- raising campaign that has been organized in Luzon. It tries to mobilize and unify the Filipino youth for a low-carbon and climate-resilient Philippines. Source: UNJFICYCC (2013) youth initiatives IN THE PHILIPPINES The Climate Change Commission (CCC) has been leading an initiative called ‘Greeneration’ that aims to empower the youth and encourage them to take part in the climate change challenge. It is in this age range wherein ideologies and energies are high. It educates the youth on climate change and its impacts and other issues. 63 . Why the Filipino youth? It is because the Philippines has a young population – around 60% of Filipinos is within 15 to 30 years old. thus it is recognized that the youth can be key agents of change. Visayas and Mindanao since 2012.

Some of the existing initiatives are: • essay writing and poster making contests • educational programmes and awareness campaigns • proper waste management • signature campaigns • coastal and barangay clean up • tree planting projects Sources: CCC & ICLEI SEAS 64 . Source: CCC There are many youth-led climate change initiatives in the Philippines.

It would be very useful to identify vulnerabilities in the community beforehand. there is first a need to identify major sources of GHG emissions in the community. Advocacy. it is suggested to target identified vulnerabilities. They are equally important as other initiatives and plays a very important role because the issue of climate change is still not well known or understood by others. For mitigation. After all. Information or estimates on this can also be obtained from the local government. which means that these activities both fall under mitigation and adaptation strategies. After deciding which sector to focus on. the youth can look back at Table 11 and choose activities they think would be appropriate for their project (main objective). A list of possible mitigation actions were pro- vided in that section. and education programmes (IEC activities) are cross-cutting initiatives. which can be obtained from the local government. Once identified. What climate impacts are expected to affect the community? Note that vulnerabilities refer to places or a group of people. they can now formulate activities that are aimed at reducing emissions from those sec- tors or at offsetting those GHG emissions by doing something that would capture GHGs being released in the atmosphere. it is suggested to target major GHG emitters. there is a wide range of strategies available depending on the vulnerabilities being faced. 65 . For adaptation. The target sector and the main objective should be identified first. participative involvement. or at least an estimate. It is important for the youth to identify the differences between the types of activities undertaken for CCA and CCM. For climate change adaptation. they represent the future and they are the ones at risk of facing and experiencing the worse impacts of climate change. In order to yield significant CO2 emission reduction. The Philippine NCCAP 2011-2028 prioritizes climate change adaptation in its seven thematic areas. Table 13 shows a possible template for preparing climate change action plans. they can have a stronger and unified voice (they can do more!). Climate change mitigation actions are performed as a function of ad- aptation. the two main strategies are to cut emissions and to capture carbon from the atmosphere. By spreading the information to their classmates and friends. The challenge is for the youth to let their voices be heard. For climate change mitigation.

Ask advice from a local government staff. and the proper way to plant seedlings. 66 . one cannot simply plant mangroves anywhere along the coast. Table 13: Sample format of a climate change action plan ! IMPORTANT POINT Be aware of existing initiatives in the community for complementation. Seek support from the barangay and school officials. Experts would know the type of trees that would grow in specific areas. For example. the planting season. Be realistic with goals and objectives.

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we impact over 20% of the global population. . ICLEI Japan Office in partnership with ICLEI Southeast Asia Secretariat implemented the three-year project “Community Actions and City-to-City Exchange Cooperation on CLimate Change” project in Tubigon.000 cities. Its main objective is to catalyze climate action and resilience among two important sectors . By helping our Members to become sustainable cities. Bohol with funding from the Japan Fund for Global Environment (JFGE). towns. ABOUT US ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability is the world’s leading network of over 1. PROJECT OVERVIEW Recognizing the crucial role of the youth and women as key players for community development. and metropolises committed to building a sustainable future.youth and women.

The production of this manual was funded by the Japan Fund for Global Environment (JFGE). .