You are on page 1of 40

INSTRUCTION

MANUAL
FOR

B & K.PRECISION
MODEL 1535A
35 MHz,TRIGGERED SWEEP
DUAL.TRACE OSCILLOSCOPE
WITH BUILT.INSIGNALDELAYLINE

NH( 6470 West Cortbnd Stneet


Chicago. lllinois60635
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
INTRODUCTION . . 4

FEATURES 4

SPECIFICATIONS 6

OPERATOR'SCONTROI-S.INDICATORSAND FACILITIES ... 8

OPERATINGINSTRUCTIONS
Initial StartingProcedure 12
Single-TraceWaveformObservation ......12
CalibratedVoltageMeasurement 14
DifferentialVoltageMeasurement l5
CalibratedTime Measurement 16
ExternalHorizontalInput (X-Y Operation).. . . 17
Z-AxisInput 17
Dual-TraceWaveformObservation 17

DUAL.TRACE APPLICATIONS
Introduction l9
FrequencyDividerWaveforms . . . l9
Divide-by-8Circuit Waveforms . . . l9
PropagationTime Measurement 20
Digital Circuit Time Measurements 20
Distortion Measurement 22
GatedRingingCircuit 23
Delay Line Tests 23
StereoAmplifier Servicing 24
ImprovingRatio of Desired-to-Undesired
Signals 24
Amplifier PhaseShift Measurements 25
SINGLE.TRACEAPPLICATIONS
Introduction.. ..25
S i g n a l - T r a c i n g a n d P e a k - t o - P e a k V o l t a g e R e.a. .d i n g s ..25

CB RADIOAPPLICATIONS
Introduction
TransmitterModulation 26
Other CB Measurements 26
27
PHASEMEASUREMENT 27

FREQUENCY
MEASUREMENT 29
SQUAREWAVETESTINGOF AMPUFIERS
Introduction . . 29
TestingProcedure 30
Analyzing the Waveforms 30
PAGE
CIRCUIT
DESCzuPTION
General ...34
VerticalPreamplifiers ...34
Delay Line ...34
Mode Logrc ...34
VerticalAmplifier ...34
TriggerCircuit ...34
HorizontalSweep ...36
Blankingand IntensityControl ...36
PowerSupplies ...36
High-VoltageSupply ...36
CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE
Line VoltageSelection
HousingRemoval
GraticuleRemoval
CRT Rotation Adjustment
BalanceAdjustments
Vertical Gain Adjustment
HorizontalTiming Adjustment . . .

WARRANTYSERVICEINSTRUCTIONS
LIMITEDONE.YEARWARRANTY
INTRODUCTION
The B & K-PrecisionModel 1474 TriggeredSweep as a singletrace.The built-in signaldelay line insuresthat
Dual-Traceoscilloscopeis a laboratoryqualitfrprofessional the leadingedgesof fast rise-time.short-durationpulsesare
instrument for obseiving and measuiing waveforms in alwaysvisible.
electronic circuits. Duallertical inputs ire provided for
simultaneousviewing of-two waveforms.Low-frequency, The dual-tracefeature, together with the 30 MHz
low repetition-ratewaveformsare chopped at a :do tHz bandwidth,wide l?ng9of sweepspeeds.
t^1tr^,roprovide for simultaneousviewiir!. Alternate sweep and high sensitivity
provided,make this the idealoscilloscope
for ibroad tunge
ol tlr.
i1o inpurs permitssimulraneousviewing of high- of applications,including troubleshodtingand repairiig
sp"g9-high repetition-ratewaveforms.ln additioi. the sum electronic equipment, researchand deielopmeni, and
or clrtterenceof the two input waveformscan be displayed l aboratoryi nstructi on.

FEATURES

DUAL TRACE Two input waveforms can be CALIBRATED Accuratemeasurement (t3%) of


viewed either singly or simul- VOLTAGESCALES i nstantaneous
vo lt ages
on l0 dif -
taneously,as desired.Individual ferentattenuatorrangesfor both
vertical sensitivity and position- ChannelA and ChannelB.
ing controls are provided for
completely independentadjust- TRIGGERED Fully adjustable rrigger thres-
ment of the two signal SWEEP hold allows the desiredportion
amplitudes. of the waveformsto be usedfor
triggering.A singlewaveform,or
30 MHz BANDWIDTH DC to 30 MHz bandwidth and
both waveforms in dual-trace
I 1.7 nSEC rise time assuredis- operation.can be synchronized
tortion-free, h igh-resolution to the signal displayed on
presentationat high frequencies.
ChannelA or ChannelB or to an
USABLETO externalsynctrigger.
Triggers on signals up to 50
50 MHz MHz. Smooth responsewell be- 20 CALIBRATED Accurate time measurements
on
yond 30 MHz. SWEEP SPEEDS 20 differentranges.
I 1 . 7n S E C Short-durationpulsesnot view- Sweepspeedrangeof 0.2 gSEC/
RISETIME able on other lab scopes are cm to 0.5 SEC/cm provides
clearly viewable on rhe 1474 every speednecessaryfor view-
when expandedon 5X magnifi- ing waveformsfrom DC to 30
cation. MHz.
BUILT.IN Permits viewing of leading edge EXPANDED A^ fiI. time magnification(5X)
DELAY LINE ot high-trequency,fast risetime SCALE of the horizontal sweep aliowi
pulses. close-up examinationof a
portion of the waveform. In
DIGITAL LOGIC Design, analysis and trouble- addition, the 5X magni{lcation
APPLICATIONS shooting of mini-computers, provides a maximum sweep
microprocessors,computer speedof 40 nS E C/ cm .
terminals,electronicorgans,cal-
culators, and most digital logic DIFFERENTIAL Capability to algebraicallyadd
circuitry using TTL. DTL, RTL INPUT or subtractC hannelA and Chan-
and most ECL logic. CAPABILITY nel B and di splay as a single
trace. Useful tor differentlal
RADIO D e v e l o p me n t, m a nufacturi ng. voltageand distortion measure-
APPLICATIONS and servicingof CB radios an-d ments.
communications radios to 50
MHz. Direct RF and IF measure- LF AND HF S ync coupl i ng(to at t enuat elow-
ments, i\M and SSB modulation REJECTSYNC or high-frequency componentof
patterns, digital data trans- COTJPLING signal)may be selected-
m$slon.
r05-t30vAc Maintains calibration accuracy
HIGH Permits the low-capacitance, over enti re 105 t o 130 vAc
SENSITIVITY high-impedance, l-0:l at- input range.
tenuation probes to bd used for
virtually all measurements,thus FULLY Only the cathoderay tube usesa
assuringminimum circuit loading. SOLIDSTATE Iilament.
C AL IB RA T I O N A built-in calibrated 0.5 volt BRIGHT Bright blue P3l phosPhor,
SOURCE peak-to-peaksquare wave Per- PHOSPHOR usually found only in more ex'
mits checkingand recalibration pensiveoscilloscopes.
of the verticalamPlifierswithout
a d d i ti o n ael q u i p m e n t. LARGESCREEN The 130 mm (approx. 5. 1
inches) diameter cathode ray
tube giveseasy-to-readpresenta'
X-Y OPERATION ChannelB input can be aPPlied tion on an 8 x l0 cm rectangular
as horizontaldeflection(X axis) viewingarea.
while ChannelA input provides
verticaldeflection(Y axis). ILLUMINATED Fully variable illumination for
SCALE the scale.Vertical and horizontal
Z-AXIS lntensity nrodulationcapability markerson the scalemake volt'
INPUT included for time cr frequency' ageand time measurements easy
markers.compatiblewith 5V P-P to read.
solidstatelogic circuits.

NOT[.S
SPECIFICATIONS

VERTICALAMPLIFIERS
(CHA andCH B) X-Y Operation W i th S W E E PTIM E/ CM swit ch
DeflectionFactor i n C H B posi ti on. t he CH A
5 m V/c m to 5 V/c m ,! 37o,i n l 0 i nput becomesthe Y input ( ver -
ranges,each providing for fine
ti cal ) and the C H B input be-
a d j u s tm e n t.
comesthe X i nput ( hor izont al) .
Frequency The C H B posi t ioncont r ol be-
Response DC:DCto 30 MHz(- 3 dB).
comes the horizontal position
A C : l 0 H z t o 3 0 M H zC 3 d B ) . control .
Risetime I I .7 nanoseconds
or less. SWEEPCIRCUITS(Commonto CH A and CH B)
Overshoot 3% or less. SweepSystem Tri ggered and a ut om at ic. I n
Input Resistance automatic mode, sweep is ob-
I megohm, !27o. tai nedw i thout i np ut signal.
Input Capacity 22 pF (t3 pF). SweepTime 0.2 sS E C /cm to 0. 5 SEC/ cm
(t37o), in 20 ranges,in l-2-s
Tilt Lessthan 5%. sequence. Each overlapping
range provides for fine adjust-
Max. Input Voltage 100 V (DC + AC peak)or 600 V ment.
p-p.
SweepMagnification Obtained by enlargingthe above
OperatingModes ChannelA only. sweep 5 times (!57o) from
C h a n n eBl o n l y . center. Maximum sweep speed
becomes 40 nS E C/ cnr .
Dual trace;automaticallychop-
-l
ped at all sweep times of Linearity 3% or better.
mSicm and slower: alternate
trace automaticallyselectedfor TRIGGERINC
all fastersweeptimes.
Add (single-trace
algebraicsum Source C H A . C H B , E X T and ANt DET.
of ChannelsA and B). During single trace operation.
CH A and CH B are triggered
ChopFrequency 200kHz(t2Wo). automati cal l yby t he oper at ing
modes.
Channel
Separation Betterthan70 dB @ I kHz.
The A M D E T pro videsan int er .
Signal Delay F i x e d ,l 2 n SE Cm i n i mumvi si bl e nalsynchroni zation of t he am pli-
delay. tude ntodul ated w aveswit h t heir
carrier frequency range fronr 3
CH B Polarity Normal or inverted. When in- M H zt o 3 0 M H z .
verted,providesCH A minusCH
B presentation,when in the Method N OR M. A U TO: w h ent he AUTO
ADD mode.
LE V E L button i s in t he AUTO
Non-Distorted mode, the sweep triggersauto-
More than 4 cm at 30 MHz;
Maximum mati cal l yat the aver age levelof
more than 8 cm at | 0 MHz.
Amplitude the di spl ayed w avef or nr .

Slope P osi ti ve or nega t ive.cont inu-


HORIZONTAL AMPLIFIER (Horizontalinput thru CH B ousl y vari abl el eve lcont r ol:pull
input ) for adjustablelevelAUTO.

Deflection Factor 5 mV/cm to 5V/cm , +3%.

FrequencyResponse C oupl i ng A C , D C , L F R E J .a n d H F R E J .
DC: DC to 2MHz(-3 dB).
AC : l 0 H z to 2 M H z ( _3 dB ). A C : 20 H z-30MH z.

Input Resistance I megohm(nominal). DC: DC to 30 MHz..

Input Capacity 22 pF (t3 pF). L F R E J : A t t e n u a t eb e l o w l 0


kHz.
Input Protection. 3OOV (DC+ AC peak)or 600V
p-P. HF REJ: Attenuateabove 300
kHz.
Trigger
Sensitivity

NOTES
Minimum Sync Voltage

Coupling Bandwidth IN T EXT EX T/10

20Hz - l 5 M H z 0.3 Div 0 . l V p p IVPP


AC
l O H z- 3 0 M H z I Div 0.5Vpp 5vpp
2 0 k H z- l 5 M H z 0.3Div 0 . l V p p lvpp
L F Rej
l 0 k H z- 3 0 M H z I Div 0.5Vpp 5Vpp
HF Rej
20Hz 50kHz 0.3 Div 0 . l V p p lvpp
l0Hz - 3 0 0 k H z I Div 0.5Vpp 5vpp
DC - l5MHz 0.3 Div 0.lVpp lvpp
NORM
DC - 30MHz I Div 0.5Vpp 5vpp
DC
20Hz- l5MHz 0.3Div 0 . l V p p lvpp
AUTO
l0Hz - 2 0 M H z I Div 0 .5 Vp p 5vpp

CAL IB RA T I O N
VOLTAGE
Amp l i tu d e :.5 V p -p ,l l V o .
F r e q u e n c yl:k H z , t 3 % .

INTEN S I T Y
MODULATION
In p u t V olt age Mi n i mu m: 5 V p -p (T T L com-
patible).
Ma x i mu m:5 0 V .

In p u t lm pedanc e l O k o h ms .

Bandwidth DC-5MHz.

POWER
R EQ UI RE M E NT S
fnput ll7l234 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 25
w a tts . (3 -w i re l i n e c o rd , C S A -
approved for oscilloscopes.)

R e g ulat ion 1 0 5 to 1 3 0VA C .

MISCELLANEOUS

Scale Variableillumination.

Dimensions(WXHXD) 260 x 190 x 375 mm.


1 4 . 5x 9 . 8 x 1 7 . 8i n c h e s .

Weight 8.5 Kg; 19lbs.

CRT 1 3 0 m m d i a m e t e(ra p p r o x .5 " ) .


PD A ty p e .a p p ro x .4 k V .

PROBES

Mo delNo. P R -3 6(tw o re q u i re d ).

Attenuation C o n r b i n a t i o ln0 : I a n d d i r e c t .

l r r p u tl n r p e d a n c e s l 0 : | = l 0 m e g o h m sl .8 p F .
D i re c t= I n re g o h m.1 2 0 p F.

Co n nec t or BNCmale

Tip hook-ontip.
Spring-loaded
CONTROLS.INDICATORSAND FACILITIES
OPERATOR'S

l . Cat hodeRay Tu b e (C R T ). T h i s i s th e s c re c no rrw hi ch 1 2 . C O U P L I N Gs w i t c h .F o u r ' p o s i t i ohnv e r s w i t c hw i t h t h e


the wavefonllsare viewed. fol l ow i ngposi ti ons:

2 . S c ale.T he 8 x l 0 c rn g ra ti c u l ep ro v i d e sc al i brati on AC Tri gger i s A C -coupl ed.l 0 H r t o 30 M Hz-


nr ar k s f or v o l ta g e (v e rti c a l ) a n d ti n re (h ori zontal ) response.
m eas ur enlen ts l l l.u mi n a ti o no f th e s c a l ei s fu l l y adj ust-
able. bel ow l 0 kH z i s attenuat ed.
LF R E J Tri ggeri ng

3 . P O W E R/ I LLU Mc o n tro l .F u l l y c o u n te rc l o ckw i se


rota- above30 kH z i s attenuat ed.
H F R E J Tri ggeri ng
t ion of t his c o n tro l (O F F p o s i ti o n )tu rn s .o f f osci l l o-
scope. Clockwise rotation turns on oscilloscope. DC Triggeris DC-coupled.
Further clockwiserotation of the control increases the
illurninationlevelof the scale. 1 3 .E X T TR IG j ack. l nput for externaltri ggersignal.
4 . P ilot lanr p.Lig h tsw h e no s c i l l o s c o pi e
s tu rn e don. 1 4 . S OU R C E sw i tch. Four-posi ti onl cver swit ch select s
triggering source lbr the sweep. Both sweeps are
5 . SWEEP TIME/CM switch. Horiz-ontalcoarse sweep sourcein dual traceoperation.
triggeredby the san're
t inr e s elec t or.Se l e c tsc l l i b ra te ds w e e p ti n r esof 0.2
pS E C/ c r n( r nic ro s e c o npde r c e n ti n re te r)
to 0 .5 S E C /crn INT (internal)
in 20 s t epswh e n VA R IA BL E c o n tro l(6 ) i s set to the ModeS w i tch(l l ) i n D ualor A dd posit ion,
CA L pos it ion(fu l l y c l o c k w i s e ).In th e C H B posi ti on. CH A Sweepis triggeredby ChannelA signal.
t his s wit c h di s a b l e sth e i n te rn a ls w e e pg e n e ratorand CH B Sweepis triggeredby ChannelB signal.
per nr it st he CH B i n p u t to p ro v i d eh o ri z o n ta sl w eep. Mode S w i tch (l l ) i n C H A or C H B posit ion.
Sweepis triggeredautomatically.
6 . S weep s peed VA R IA BL E c o n tro l . F i n e s w eepti rne
adjus t r nentI.n th e e x tre n rec l o c k w i s e(C AL ) posi ti on EXT (external)
t he s weept ir r rei s c a l i b ra te d . Sweepis triggeredby an externalsignalappliedto
E X T T R I G j a c k ( l 3 ) . T h e a n r p l i t u doef a n e x t e r n a l
7 . CA L I k Hz - n- 0 .5 V p -pj a c k .Pro v i d ecsa l i b ratedI kH z.. si gnalshoul dnot exceedl V pp.
0. 5 v olt peak-to -p e askq u a rew a v ei n p u t s i g nal Thi . s is
us ed f or c alib ra ti o no f th e v e rti c a la rn p l i l ' i c attenua-
r AM DET
t or s and t o c h e c kth e fre q u e n c yc o n l p n s a ti onadj ust- The A M D E T i s provi ded w i th an int er nal AM
nlent of the probesusedwith the oscilloscope. detecti ng ci rcui t to synchroni zeth e am plit ude
rnodul atedw avesw i th thei r carri erfre quency( f r om
8 . < > P O S T T I O Nc o n tro l . R o ta ti o n a d j u s tsh ori zontal 3 MH z to 30 MH z). C H A provi desthe synchr oniz'
pos it ion of t ra c e (b o th tra c e sw h e n o p e ra tedi n the ati onsourcefor a dual channelnl easttr em ent .
dual t r ac em o d e ).P u s h -p u lsl w i tc hs e l e c ts5 X rnagni fi -
c at ionwhen p u l l e do u t (P U L L 5 X MA G ): n o nnalw hen 1 5 . C h a s s igsr o u n d( l ) t e r r r r i n a l / b i n d ipnogs t .
pus hedin.
1 6 . C H B P O L A R I T Y p u s h b u t t o ns w i t c h .I n t h e N O R M
9 . T RI G G E RI NGL E VE L c o n tro l .Sy n c l e v e la d j ustruent p o s i t i o n( b u t t o n o u t ) . t h c C l r a n n e B
l s i g n a li s n o n '
determines pclint on wavefornr slope when sweep i n v e r t e dI.n t h e I N V p o s i t i o n( b u t t o n i n ) . t h e C h a n n e l
s t ar t s ;( - ) equ a l srn o s tn e g a ti v ep o i n t o f tri g g eri ng
and B si gnali s i nverted.W l rcnMOD E sw i tch( 12) is in t he
(+) equalsmost positivepoint of triggering.Puslr-pull A D D posi ti onand thi s sw i tcl t i s i n the I NV posit ion.
switch selectsautomatic triggeringwhen llullcd out the C l rannelB si gnali s subtractedl ' rort t he Clr annelA
( P ULL A UT O ). Wh e na u to m a ti ctri g g e ri n ga. sw ecpi s si gnaland the di l ' t' erence i s di spl ayedas a singlet r ace.
generatedevenwithout an input signal.
17. C hannelB P OS ITIONcotttrtl l .V erti calp osit ionadjt r st '
nl ent for C hal tnelB trace.B eeol ttes l torizont alp<lsit it ln
1 0 .S LO P E s wit c h . T w o -p o s i ti o nl e v e r s w i tc h w i th the adjustrrrcn PI M E / C Ms w i t c h( 5 ) i s i n t h c
wth e nS W E b ,T
followingpositions: CH B position.
(+) Sweep is triggered on positive-goingslope of
waveform. l I N P U TJ a c k .V c r t i e a il n p u tj a c k o l ' C l t a n n c l
1 8 . C h a n n eB
B . Jack becorrrcscxtcnl al hori z.ontalir t put when
(-) Sweep is triggered on negative-goingslope of S W E E PT I M E / C Ms w i t c h( 5 ) i s i n t h e C H B p o s i t i o n .
waveform
19. C hanrrel sw i tch.
B D C -GN D -A C
l l . AUTO LEVEL pushbutton switch. ln tlre NORM
position (button out), the triggeringlevelis selectedby DC D i rect i nput ol ' A C urrd D C c onllxr nentol'
TRIGGERING LEVEL control (9). ln the AUTO i nput si gnal .
position (button in), the triggeringlevelis automatical-
ly set at the averagelevel of the waveform used for GND O p c n s s i g n u l p a t l r r n d g r o u t t d si n p u t t o
triggering verticalarnplil-ier.This provitlcsa z.cro-signul
baselinc. the positionof wltich can be usedas
a referencewhen perlbrrning DC nteasure-
ments.
AC BlocksDC componento[ input signal.
I
ro
il
12
t3
14
r5

120 19 I

Fig. l. Front panelcontrolsand indicators.


20. channel B voLTs/cM switch.vertical atrenuatorfor 28. A S TIG adj ustment.A sti gmati smadj ust m entpr ovides
channel B which providesstep adjustmentof vertical optimum_spot roundnesswhen used in conjunction
s ens it iv it y .v e rti c a l s e n s i ti v i tyi s c a l i b rated i n | 0 w i th the FOC U Sconrrol(29) and tN TENSt Ty cont r ol
s t epsf r om 5 m V to 5 v o l ts p d r c m w h e n V A R IA B LE (30). V ery l i ttl e readj ustmentof th is conr r ol is
c o n t r o l ( 2 1 ) i s s e t t o C A L p o s i t i o n .T h i s c o n t r o l requi redafteri ni ti aladj ustment.
adjustshorizontal sensitivitywhen the SWEEPTIME/
CM s wit c h( 5 ) i s i n th e C H B p o s i ti o n . 29. FOC U Scontrol .
21. c hannel B VA R IA BL E c o n tro l . Ve rti c al artenuaror 30. INTENSTTYconrrol.Adjustsbrightness
of rrace.
Sdjustmentprovidesfine control of verticalsensitivity.
In the extreme clockwise(cAL) posirion.the verticil 31. combi nati oncarryi nghandl eand ti l t stand.when t he
attenuatoris calibrated.This control becomesthe fine handle is fo!{_edupward. the oscilloscoperesrs on
horizontal gain control when the SWEEPTIME/CM rubber feet. When the handle is folded downward.it
switch(5) is in the CH B position. elevatesthe front of the oscilloscope to a convenient
viewingangle.
22. MODE switch. Four-positionlever switch; selectsthe
basicoperatingmodesof the oscilloscope. 32. AC lin-e^changer.
Sets up instrumentto operatefrom
100. I 20. 220 or 240 VAC.
CH A Only the input signal to Channel A is dis-
playedas a singletrace. 33. A C l i ne receptacl e.
With SourceSwirch(la) in INT. the CH B is
displayedautomaticallyas a triggersignal.
34. AC line cord. CSA approvedfor oscilloscopes.
CH B Only the input signal to Channel B is dis- 35. Fusehol der.
playedas a singletrace.
With SourceSwitch (la) in INT, the CH A is 36. IN T MOD j ack. l ntensi ryrnodul ati on
(Z a xis)input .
displayedasa triggersignal.
37. C R T rotati onadj ustrnent.
DUA L Du a l -tra c e
o p e ra ti o nb; o th th e C hannelA and
ChannelB input signalsare displayedon two 38. Feet (4). support osci l l oscope
w hen unit is in ver t ical
separatetraces. position (face up): and serveas storagewrap anchors
for l i ne cord.
ADD The waveformsfrom ChannelA and Channel
B inputsareaddedand the sunris displayedas 39. V R l 06. C H B D C B A L control(underru bberbut t on) .
a singletrace. VerticalDC balanceadjustnrentfor ChannelB trace.

40. V R l 08. C H B A TTE N B A L control (under r ubber


23. channel A voLTS/cM switch.Vertical attenuatorfor button). S tep attenuator bal ance ad just m ent f or
channelA which providescoarseadjustmentof vertical C hannelB trace.
sensitivity.vertical sensitivityis calibratedin l0 steps
f r om 5 m V to 5 v o l ts p e r c m w h e n V A R IA B LE 4 1 . V R l 0 3 . C H A A T T E N B A L c o n t r o l( u n d e rr u b b e r
c onr r ol( 2a) i s s e t to th e C A L p o s i ti o n . b u t t o n ) . S t e p a t t e n u a t o r b a l a n c e a d j u s t m e n tf o r
C hannelA trace.
24. channel A VARIABLE control. Vertical atrenuaror
4 2 . V R l 0 l . C H A D C B A L c o n t r o l( u n d e rr u b b e rb u t t o n ) .
ldjustment providesfine conrrol oi verticalsensitivity. V erti calD C bal anceadj ustmentfor C han nelA t r ace.
In the extr.eme..clockwise
(cAL) position.the veqtical
attenuatoris calibrated.
43. Probe (two required,see Fig. 3). The B & K-precision
25. ChannelA DC-GND-ACswitch. Model PR-36 probeshave beerrdesignedfor usewith
thi s osci l l oscope.
Theseare combi ni ti o n I 0: l/ dir ect
DC Direct . input of AC and DC component of probesdesignedfor oscilloscopes with input impedance
input signal. of l megohm.shuntedby 2i pF (r3) i n d capableof
ope.rati onup to and beyond 30 MHz. Equivalent
G ND O pe n ss i g n gpl a ttra n dg ro u n di n p u t to verti cal oscilloscope probesmay be used.
ampnrler. ttus providesa zero_signal baseline.
thg position of which can b; used as a
referencewhen performingDC measurements. NOTES
AC BlocksDC componentof input signal.

26. channel A INPUT jack. vertical input jack of channel


A.
' 27. channel A POSITION
control.Verticalpositionadjust.
ment for ChannelA trace.

l0
31 39 40 32 33 34 3s 36 37 38

Fig. 2. Rearand side panel facilities.

-le -'.

-
ru
t,ut

1 0 :1 PROBE COMPENSATION
ADJUSTMENT
A T T E N UA T I O N
cLP-r8rtP
7
tr ,f

F 2.RorArErB."
-t

CLP.I8TIP

3 . P u s HB A c KT o G E T H E R f> -
--

Fig. 3. Probe details.

ll
OPERATINGINSTRUCTIONS

INITIAL STARTING PROCEDURE


CAUTION
l. Set POWERILLUM control(3) to OFF position(fully Never allow a small spot of high brilliance to
counterclockwise). remain stationary on the screenfor more than a
few seconds.The screenmay becomepermanently
2. Plug the AC line changer(32) into the position that burned. Reduce intensity or keep the spot in
corresponds to the AC line voltage from which the motion by causingit to sweep.
oscilloscopewill be operatedas follows: (This informa-
tion alsoappearson a label on the back of the unit.)
SINGLETRACE WAVEFORM OBSERVATION

AC UNE CHANGER Either Channel A or Channel B can be used for


FOSITION AC UNE VOLTAGE single-traceoperation.The advantageof usingChannelB is
1 0 0v 100 V, +I0Vo that the polarity of the observedwaveformcan be inverted
12 0v 1 0 5V t o 1 3 0V if desired, with cH B P0LARITY switch (16). For
220V 220V,!tO% convenience, Channel B is used in the following in-
240V 240 v, +lovo structions:

l. Perform the steps of the "lnitial Starting Procedure"


3. Connect AC power cord (34) to the AC line receptacle with the MODE switch (22) in the CH B position. Then
(33), then to a 50/60 Hz AC power outlet. connect the probe cable to the CH B INPUT jack (18).
The following instructionsassumethe useof the B& K-
4. Set CH A POSITION control (27), CH B POSITION hecision Model PR-36combinationprobes.
control (17) and <> POSITION (8) to the centersof
their ranges. 2. For all except low-amplitude waveforms,the probes
are set for l0: I attentuation. For low-amplitude
5. Pressthe AUTO LEVEL pushbutton (l l),leaving it in waveforms(below 50 mV peak-to-peak),set the probe
the AUTO position. for DIRect. See Fig. 3 for changingthe probesfrom
l0:l to DIRect, or vice versa.The probe has a l0
6. Set CH A DC-GND-AC switch (25) and CH B megohm input impedance with only l8 pF shunt
DC-GNDAC switch (19) to the GND positions. capacitancein the l0:l position and I megohmwith
120 pF shunt capacitancein the DlRect position. The
7. Set the MODE switch (22) to the CH B position for higher input impedance(low-capacityposition) should
single-traceoperation or the DUAL position for dual- be usedwhen possible,to decreasecircuit loading.
trace operation.
3. Set CH B DC-GND-ACswitch (19) to AC for measur-
8. Turn on oscilloscopeby rotating the POWER/ILLUM ing only the AC component(this is the normal position
control (3) clockwise.It will "click" on and pilot lamp for most measurements and must be usedif the point
(4) wil light. Turn control clockwise to the desired being measuredincludes a large DC component).Use
scale(2) illumination. the DC position for measuringboth the AC component
and the DC reference, and any time a very low
9. Wait a few secondsfor the cathode ray tube (CRT) to frequency waveform (below l0 Hz) is to be observed.
warm up. A trace (two tracesif operatingin the DUAL The GND position is required only when a zero-signal
mode) should appearon the face of the CRT. ground referenceis required, such as for DC voltage
readings.
10. If no trace appears, increase (clockwise) the IN-
TENSITY control (30) setting until the trace is easily
observed. 4. Connect ground clip of probe to chassisground of the
equipmentunder test. Connectthe tip of the probe.to
I l. Adjust FOCUS control (29) and INTENSITY control the point in the circuit where the waveform is to be
(30) for the thinnest, sharpesttrace. measured.

WARNING
12. Readjust position controls (8), (27) and (17) if
necessary,to center the traces. a. If the equipment under test is a trans-
' formerlessAC powereditem, use an isolation
13. Check for proper adjustmentof ASTIG control (28), transformer to prevent dangerouselectrical
CH A and CH B ATTEN BAL controls (41) and (40), shock.
and CH A and CH B DC BAL controls(a2) and (39) as
described in the MAINTENANCE AND CALIBRA- b. The peak-to-peak voltage at the point of
TION portion of this manual. These adjustments measurementshouldnot exceed600 volts.
require checkingonly periodically.
5. Set CH B VOLTS/CM switch (20) and the VARIABLE
The oscilloscope is now ready for making waveform control (21) to a position that gives2 to 6 cm (two to
measurements. six large squareson the scale)vertical deflection.The

t2
display on the screenwill probablybe unsynchronized. NOTE
ThA remaining steps are concerned with adjusting When usingvery fast sweePspeedat low repetition
synchronizationand sweep speed,which presentsa rates, the operator may wish to oPeratewith the
siable display showing the desirednumber of wave- ihtensity control toward maximum. Under these
"pip" may appear at the
forms. Any signal thot producesat least I cm verticol conditions, a retrace
deflection develops sufficient trigger signal to syn' extreme left of the trace.This doesnot in any way
chronizethe sweep. affect the oscilloscopeoperation and may be
disregarded.
6 . S e t S O L T R CsEw i t c h( 1 4 ) t o t h e C [ ] A o r C H B p o s i -
ti o r t . Dur ings ingl etra c eo p e ra ti o n th . e T ri g g e rS i gnal
se lec t ing wlt et lt erC H A s i g n a o l r C [' l B i s d e p e n ded on 12. After obtainingthe desirednumberof waveforms,asin
Mo deS wit c lr .T he n i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r!' to a d j u s tSource step (l l), it is sometimesdesirableto make a final
S w i t c h( 1 4 ) r o C H A ( o r C H B ) s i g n aal t t h eC H A ( o r adjlstment of the TRIGGERING LEVEL control (9).
('l t B ) pos it ion. M o s t u ' a v e fo rn tss h o u l d b e v i ew ed Ttie (- ) direction selectsthe most negativepoint on the
u sir r gint er nals y nc . Wl te l ra n e x te rn a ls y n c s o u rcei s *uueiotm at which sweeptriggeringwill occur and the
re q uir ed.t he S O LIR C Es u i tc h s h o u l db e p l a c e di n the' (+) direction selectsthe most positive point on the
EX T pgs it igt t :a c a b l e s h tl trl db e c o ttn e c te dfro nr tfte wiveform at which sweep triggeringwill occur' The
E X T 1 - R l ( ij a c k ( l 3 ) t o t h e e x l e r n asl ) ' n cs o u r c e-. control may be adjustedto start the sweep'onany
Wl ren an ir it er r r a sl v n c h ro n i z a ti tl ins re q u i re dfor an desiredportion of the waveform.
a r n p l i t u d em o d u l a t e dw a v e .s e t S O U R C Es w i t c h( 1 4 )
t o t h e A M D E T p o s i t i o n .T h e a n l p l i t u d en r o d u l a t e d 13. For a close-upview of a portionof the waveform,puU
w av esol' f r equer r c3y 'l r{ H zto 3 0 M H z w i l l b e i n te rnal l l ' outward on the
sy' nc hr oniz ed aut o n ta ti c a l l y .C H A i s p ro v i d e drvi th expands the sweepby a factor of five (5X magnifica'
f s y nc lrr oniz _at i osno u rc eti tr d u a l c Sa n n e l' l e a sure- ti";i and displays only the center-portion of the
nlen t . tt"..p. To view a portion to the left of center,turn the
<> POSITION control clockwise,and to view portions
7 . Se t S LO P Es wit c h(1 0 ) to th e (+ 1p o s i ti o ni f th e sw eep to the right of center, turn the control counter-
i s to be t r igger edb y a p o s i ti v e ' g o i nwga v e .o r th e (-) clockwise.-Pushinward on the control to return the
position if ihe sweepis to be triS,Eered by.a negative- sweepto the normal,non'magnifledcondition.
going wave. If the type of waveformis unknown, the
(+) positionmay be used.
on
8 . If the wav ef or mis s y m rn e tri c aaln d s w e e ptri g g e r i ng NOTES
the averagepoint of the waveformis accepllable, leave
AU T O LE V E L pu s h b u tto n(l l ) i n th e AU T O p o si ti on
and skip step(9). However.to-triggerthe sweepon a
specific' potiion ol the waveform, push the AUTO
LEVEL pushbutton ( I I ) again to releaseit to the
N O RM pos it ion.

9 . Ad jus r T RI G G E R IN GL EV EL c o n tro l (9 ) to o b t ai n a
sync hr oniz ed dis p l a yw i th o u tj i tte r' A s a s ta rti n gpoi nt,
tire control may-bepushedin and rotatedto any point
tSat will produte a iweep, which is usuallysomewhere
in the .intet portion bf its range. The trace will
disappearif there is inadequatesignalto trigger the
t*e.p, such as when measuringDC or extremelylow
a m plit udewav efo rm sIf . n o s w e e p -c .a n ^ boeb t ai ned'
p u li t he c ont r ol o u t (PU L L AU T O ) fo r a u tomati c
trigger ing.

1 0 . Set CO LP LI NG sw i tc h (l l ) to th e A C p o s i ti onfor
tri gger ings ignalso f -1 0H z . to 3 0 MH z , o r to th e D C
puiitiutl for triggeringsignalsof DC to 30 MHz' lf the
i rigger ings ignll- c o n ta i n n s o i s eo r i s a c o n tp l e xw ave-
fo r nr nude up of h i g h a n dl o w fre q u e n c yc o mp onents'
th e LF RE J ec t a n d H F R E J e c t p o s i ti o n sm ay be
h clpf ul in elinr in a ti n g j i tte r l ' ro m th e d i s p .l a yT' he LF
RE J ec r pos it ion a tte n u a l e sr!g g e 1 s i g n a l sb e l ow l 0
kt lz lus if ul t o e l i n i l n a te6 0 H z h u m ). a n d th e IIF
RE J eeltpos r t iona tte n u a tet'sg g e r s i g n a l s ,a b o 30 ve kH z
h i g h i re q u e n c ln' o i s e ).
(us ef ult t - cr linr in a re

I l . S e t S W E , E PT I M E / C M s w i t c h ( 5 ) a n d V A R I A B L E
cc lnt r ol ( 6) f or th e d e s i re dn u n rb e r o f w a v e ftl rms.
Theseconlrolsntal' be sel for viewingonly a ptlrtion of
a wavcl'orm. bui thc trace bectlmes progressivelY'
tlintmer as a smaller portion is displayed'This is
becausethe sweep speed increasesbut the sweep
re pet it ionr at edo e sn o t c h a n g e '
l3
CALIBRATED VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT (See Fig. a)

. Peak voltages,peak-to-peak-voltages,DC voltagesand For an accurated,rpilro:? high-frequencywave-


voltagesof a specific portion of a co-mplexwavef6rm are forms above l 0 MH z, i t i s i mportanfth at ( l) t he
easily and accuratelymeasuredon the Model 1474 oscillo- probe be used i n the l 0:l posi ti on to r educe
scoPe. circuit loading;(2) the oscillosiopecontrolsbe ser
so that the height of the pattern doesnot exceed
l. Adjusl controlsas previo-usly
instructedto displaythe 4 cm; and (3) the tracebe centeredverti c allv.
waveformto be measured.

?. k s ur e t he C H B v e rri c a VA
l R T A BL Ec o ntrol (21) i s 5. C al cul atethe vol tagereadi ngas fol l ow s :M ult iply t he
set fully clockwiseto the CAL position. vertical dellection(in cm) by the VOLTS/CM iontrol
(20) setting(see.example in Fig. 4). Don't forger rhat
3. Set CH B VOLTS/CM switch (20) for the maximum thq vgltaee re.adingdisplayedbn the oscilloriop. is
vertical deflection. possible without exceeding the
gnl y l /l Oth the actual vol tagebei ng me asur edwhen
limits of the verricalsiale. the probe i s set for l 0:l attenuai i o n.The act ual
voltageis displayedwhen the probe is set for DIRect
4. Read the amount of verticaldeflection (in cm) from
measurernent.
the scale.The CH B POSITION control'(17) may be
readjustedto shift the referencepoint foi eaiier scale 6. Calibration accuracy of this oscilloscopemay be
reading_if_desired.
when measuringa DC voltage,adjust occasionally checkedby observingthe 0.5 volt peik-to_
t he CH B P O S IT IO Nc o n tro l (tZ ) to a cJnveni ent peak squarewave signalavailableat the CnL ttUz
referencewith the CH B DC-GND-ACswitch (19) in
_rL 0.5 V p-pjack(7).Thiscalibraredsourceshouldread
the_GND position, then note the amount the irace is exactly 0.5 volt peak-to-peak.
deflected*hT the switchis-placedin the DC position. If a need for recalibra-
ti on i s i ndi cated. see the MA IN TE NANCE AND
The trace deflectsupward for a positivevoltageinput C A LIB R A TION secti onof the manualt or com plet e
and downwardfor a negativevoltige input. procedures.

D P O S | T t O NC O N T R O LA 0 J U S T E DS O
T H A T T O PO F W A V E F O R MC R O S S E S
C E N T E RV E R T I C A LS C A L E
M A R K E RF O R A C C U R A C YA N D
E A S EO F R E A O I N G .

4.2 cm

P O S I T I O NC O N T R O LA D J U S T E DS O
THAT BOTTOMOF WAVEFORM
A L I G N SE X A C T L YW I T H A
HORZ I O N T A LR E F E RE N C EL I N E .

VOLTS/CM
set to 20 mV

101
P R O E EA T T E N U A T I O N

EXAMPLE:
=
V E R T I C A LD E F L E C T I O N 4.2cm
VOLTAGE/cm= 2OmV
84 mV
P R O B EA T T E N U A T I O N= 1 0
P E A K T O P E A KW A V E F O R M= 84OmV or 0.84V

Fig. 4. Typical voltagemeasurement.

l4
DIFFERENTIAL VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT(SeeFig. 5) tio-ning controls and calculate the peak-to-peak
voltate as described in the CALIBMTED VOL-
This oscilloscopemay be used to observewaveforms TAGE MEASUREMENT procedure.
and measurevoltagesbetween two points in a circuit,
n e i th erof whic h is ci rc u i t g ro u n d .S u c hm e a s u re ments as 6. If a-DC voltage,or the DC componentof the waveform
th e i npur sr o a dif f er e n ri aal ry p l i fi e r.th e o u rp u to f a phase is of interest,usethe following procedure:
sp l i tter or pus h- pu l l a rn p l i fi e r, th e a m o u n t o f i i gnal
developedacrossa single section of voltage divider-or a. Set CH A DC-GND-AC switch (25) to the DC
a tte n u at orand
. m any o th e rs ,re q u i reth i s te c h n i q u e . position.

l . {t ju1! c ont r ols a s p re v i o u s- l yd e s c ri b e du n d INITIA L b. Position the CH A VOLTS/CM switch (23) to keep
ST A RT I NGP RO C ED U R E. the trace within the limits of the vertical scale.Uie
the CH A POSITION control (27) to align the
l . Connec ta pr obe c a b l e to b o th th e C H A a n d C H B trace with one of the lines on the scale for
I N P U Tj a c k s( 1 6 ) a n d( I 8 y . reference.

3 . connec t gr oundc l i p so f th e tw o p ro b e sto th e chassi s


o f equipm ent un d e r te s t, a n d i o n n e c t ti p s o f the
probes to the points in the curcuit where measure-
merrtsare to be made.lt is usuallydesirableto connect
the .CHA probe to. the higher potential or higher
amplitude poinr in the circuit and-the CH B probEto o
the lower potential or lower amplitude point in the
ci r c uit . oC.o
4. Set the MODE switch (22) to the CH A position and
the SOURCE switch (la) to the CH A position and
oiro
adjust the controls as previously instructed in the
SINGLE-TRACEWAVEFORM OBSERVATION pro-
oIr
cedure to obtain a synchronizedsinglewaveformof 2

f O iI Cmoor ol
to 6 cm vertical heighr with the CH A VARIABLE
co nt r ol( 24) s et r o C A L .

5. lf only the AC component of the waveform is of


interest,usethe following procedure:

a. Set CH A and CH B DC-GNDAC switches(25)


and ( | 9) both to the AC position.

b. S et CH B V AR IAB L E c o n tro l (2 1 ) to C A L and


the CH B VOLTS/CM switch (20) ro rhe same
sensitivityas the CH A VOLTS/CM swirch(23).

c. If the Channel A and Channel B inputs are in


phase, ser the MODE switch (22\ 6 the ADD PIJSHfULL
position and the CH B POLARITy pushbuttonto AMPLIFIER
the INV position. The displayedwiveform is the
peak-to-peakdifferencebetweenthe two points of
measurement. If the waveformis small,thi vertical
sensitivitymay be increasedbut the CH A and
CH B VOLTS/CM switchesmust both be set to the
sarnesensitivity.

d. lf t he Chann e lA a n d C h a n n e B
l i n p u tsa re l 80o
out .of phase, such as the output of a push-pull EXAIIPLE:
VERTICALOEFLECTTON. 6cm
amplifier, ser rhe MODE switch (22) to itre IOO VOLTAGE/cm - 2O mV
positionand the CH B POLARITY pushbuttonto l20 mV
PROSE ATTENUATTON - 20
the INV position to measure the- full peak-to- ( 2 P R O E E Se 1 ( } t l
peak waveform.Set the CH B POLARITy switch PEAK TO PEAK WAVEFORM - 2t@ mv ot 2.1Y
to the NORM positionto measureany imbalance
between[r.lyo poins of measurement. Readjust
the VOLTS/CU switches(20) and (23) as required
to obtain as large a waveformas possiblewiihout Fig 5. Typical differential voltagemeasurement.
exceedingthe limits of the vertical scale, but
alwayskeep the CH A and CH B switchesset to
the samesensitivity

e. Position the waveform as desiredwith the posi-

r5
c. Set CH B VOLTS/CM switch (20) to the same CALIBRATED TIME MEASUREMENT(SeeFig. 6)
sensitivityas the CH A VOLTS/CM switch.
P ul sew i dth, w aveformperi ods,ci rcuit delaysand all
d. S et t h e MOD E s w i tc h (2 2 ) to th e AD D posi ti on. other rvaveformtime durations are easily and accurltely
CH B D C -G N D -A Cs w i tc h (l e ) to th e GN D posi . measuredon this oscilloscope.Calibratedtime measure-
tion and adjust out any error that may be nrents l'ronr .5 second per centimeterdown to 40 n:rno-
introducedby the ChannelB positioningcontrol secondsper centi rneterare possi bl e.A t l ow sweepspeeds,
as follows: Alternatelyset the CH B POLARITY the entirewaveformis not visibleat one time However.the
switch to the NORM and INV positions,adjusting bright spot can be seenmovingfrom left to right acrossthe
the CH B POSITION control until the trace screen,which makesthe beginningand endingpoints of the
position does not shift as the switch position measurement easyto spot.
changes.Rememberthat this step is not necessary
if the DC componentof the signalis not measured l. Adjust controls as previouslydescribedfor a stable
(switchesl9 and 25 in the AC position). displayof the desiredwaveform.
e. Return CH B DC-GND-ACswitch (19) to the DC 2. k sure the sweeptime VARIABLE control (6) is fully
position. clockwiseto the CAL position.
f. Momentarily return the MODE switch (22) to the 3. Set the SWEEPTIME/CM control (5) for the largest
CH A position and note the trace position for possible display of the waveform segment to be
reference.You may readjustit with the ChannelA measured, usuallyone cycle.
vertical positioningcontrol, but not the ChannelB
control. Place the MODE switch in the ADD 4. If necessary,readjustthe TRIGGEzuNG LEVEL con-
position and the CH B POLARITY switch in the trol (9) for the most stabledisplay.
ItW. position. The amount of displacementof the
trace from the ChannelA referencerepresentsthe 5. Read the amount of the horizontal deflection (in cm)
voltage differential between the two points of between the points of measurement. The
measurement. POSITION control (8) may be readjustedto align one

HORIZONTAL
O EF L E C T I O N
6.35
cm VARIABLE
set ro CAL.
o S W E E PT I M E / C M
set to 10rrSEC.
o
P O S I T I O NC O N T R O L A O J U S T E DS O T H A T
L E A O I N G E D G EO F W A V E F O R MA L I G N S
W I T H A V E R T I C A L R E F E R E N C EL I N E .
e D
E D G E M A Y N O T B E V I S I B L EO N V E R Y
F A S T P U L S E S ;l N T H I S C A S EA L I G N
W H E R E V E RW A V E F O R MB E G I N S . o c SLOPE set ro o
(to start sweepon

C H B P O S I T I O NC O N T R O L A D J U S T E DS O
THAT TRAI LING EDGEOF WAVEFORM
co = r o negativ{oan9edge}

o
C R O S S E SH O R I Z O N T A L S C A L E M A R K E R

or o'
F O R A C C U R A C YA N O E A S E O F R E A O I N G . CHB

XAIIPLE:
H O R I Z O N T A L D E F L E C T I O N= 6.3s
S W E E PT I M E / C M = t O p S E C
T I M E O U R A T I O N= 63.5F SEC
l o r P E R I O D )O F W A V E F O R M
_ 1
=#
FREouENc"
0000635 sEc D I S P L A YS H O W ST Y P ] C A LT E L E V I S I O N
R E C E I V E RW A V E F O R MA T G R I D O F
1 5 , 7 5 0H z H O R IZ O N T A L O U T P U TT U 8 E .

Fig. 6. Typical time measurement.

l6
o f t hc t neas ure n ' repnoti n tsw i th a v e rti c a sl c a lemarker
f or eas ierr eadin g . NOTE
Do NOT use the PULL 5X MAG control during
(r. ( ' alc uht c t lr c t i rn e d u ra ti o na s fo l l o w s : M u l ti pl y the X-Y operation. Use the CH B VARIABLE and
h or iz . ont al def le c ti o n(i n c n r)b y th e S WE EPT IME /C M VOLTS/CM controlsto adjusthorizontalgain.
s w i t c h( 5 ) s e t t i n g( s e ee x a m p l ei n F i g . 5 ) . R e m e m b e r ,
w hen t lr e 5X nt a g n i fi c a ti oins u s e d .th e re s u l tmusl be 5. All sync controlsare disconnected
and haveno effect.
d iv idedby 5 t o o b ta i nth e a c tu a lti rn ed u ra ti o n.

7 . T inr e m eas ur e n ' re n


o ts
fte n re q u i ree x te rn a sl y n c.Thi s i s Z.A)OS INPUT
especiallytrue when measuringdelays.The sweepis
s t ar led by a s y n c s i g n a l fro m o n e c i rc u i t a nd the The trace displayed on the screen may be intensity
waveformmeasured in a subsequent circuit. This allows modulated (Z-axis input) where frequency or time-scale
m eas ur em ent o f th e d i s p l a y b e tw e e nth e s ync pul se marks are required. A S-volt peak-to-peakor greatersignal
a nd t he s ubs e q u e n tw a v e fo rm . T o p e rfo r m such applied at the INT MOD (intensitymodulation)jack (36)
m eas ur em ents u s i n g e x te rn a ls y n c . u s e th e fol l ow i ng on the rear of the oscilloscopewill provide alternate
s t eps : brightnessand blankingof the trace.SeeFig. 7.
s w i t c h( 1 4 ) t o E X T .
a . S e tt l r eS O L ' R C E

b. Connec ta c a b l efro m th e EX T T R IG j a c k (13) to


the sourceof sync signal.

c. S et t he S L O P E s w i tc h (1 0 ) to th e (+ ) or (-)
positionfor the properpolarity for the syncsignal.

d. Readjustthe TRIGGERING LEVEL control (9) if


necessaryfor a stablewaveform.

e. lf measuringa delay. measurethe time from the


start of the sweepto the start of the waveform.

8. Another excellentmethod for measuringtime delaysis


with dual-traceoperation.The proceduresare givenin
the DUAL-TRACE APPLICATIONS section of the
m anual.

EXTERNAL HORTZONTALINPUT (X-y OPERATTON)

For some measurements. an externalhorizontaldeflec- Fig. 7. Oscilloscopetracewith Z-axisinput.


tion signalis required.This is also referredto as an X-Y
measurement, where the Y input providesvertical deflec-
ti o n and t he X inp u t p ro v i d e sh o ri z o n ta ld e fl e c ti on.The
Irorizontal input may be a sinusoidalwave, such as for
phase measurement,or an external sweep voltage.This DUALTRACE WAVEFORM OBSERVATION
i n p ut m us t be 5 m V to 5 V p e r c m o f d e fl e c ti o n ;thus any (Refer to Fig. 8)
voltage of 50 mV or greateris sufficient for satisfactory
o p e r at ion.W it h a l0 :l p ro b e ,v o l ta g eu p to 5 0 0 V p-p may ln observingsimultaneouswaveformson ChannelsA
be used. To use an external horizontal input, use the and B, it is necessarythat the waveforms be related in
followingprocedure: frequency or that one of the waveformsby synchronizedto
the crtheralthough the basic frequenciesmay be different.
An example of this is in checking a frequency divider or
l. Set the SWEEPTIME/CnAswitch(5) fully clockwiseto multiplier. The reference,or "clock" frequencycan be used
t he CH B pos iti o n . on Channel A, for example, and the multiple or sub-
multiple of this referencefrequency will be displayedon
2 . Use the ChannelA probe for the verticalinput and the Channel B. In this way, when the waveform display of
ChannelB probefor the horizontalinput. Channel A is synchronized,the display on ChannelB will
also be in sync with the Channel A display. If two
3 . Adjust the amounl of horizontal deflectionwith the waveforms having no phase or frequency relationshipto
CH B V O LT S / C M a n d VA R IA BL E c o n tro l s( 20) and each other are displayedsimultaneously,it will be difficult
(2t). if not impossibleto lock both waveformsin sync for any
usefulobservation.
4 . T hc CH B ( v erti c a l P ) O S IT IO Nc o n tro l( l 7 ) n ow serves
as t he hor iz on ta lp o s i ti o nc o n tro l , a n d th e < > P OS I- To display two waveformssimultaneouslyfor observa-
T I O N c ont r olis d i s a b l e d . tion, usethe following procedure:

l. Perform the steps of INITIAL STARTING PRO-


CEDURE.

t7
')
Connec t o s c i l l o s c o p pe ro b e c a b l e sto b o th tl re C H A W A R N IN G
a n d C H B l \ ? L r T j a c k s( 1 6 ) a n d( l 8 ) . a. l l ' t h c c q u i p n r e nut r t d e rt c s t i s a t r a n s f o r m c r -
l essA C uni t. use al t i sol ati ontra nslbnnert o
3 . I t t he r e c o mn re n d c dB & K-h e c i s i o n Morl el P R -i tr preventdurgcrouscl ectri cl l shtl ck.
o s c i l l o s c o pper o b e sr r e u s c d .l 0 : l a t t e n u a t i o n
should b. The peak-to-peakvol tage i l t the point ol'
be us ede \c e p t i o r w a v e l ' o n nosf 5 0 n rV peak-to-peak nreasurenl ent shoul dnot exceed60 0 volt s.
or les s .F o r th e l o w e ra m p l i tu d ew a v e fo r rns the D l R ect
pos it ion s h o u l d b e u s e d .S e e F i g . 3 t-o rchangi ngthe tt. S c-tthe V OLTS IC Mcontrol s(23) and ( 20) or Channel
pr obe f r o m l 0 :l to D IR o r v i c e v e r sa.W henever A and B to a posi ti onthat gi vc' sI to 3 cm ver t ical
pos s ible.u s e th e h i g h rmp e d a n c el .o w c apaci tyl 0:l deflection.The displayson the screenwill probablybe
positionto minirnizecircuit loading. unsynchroni zed. Tl te remai ni ngsteps.alt houghsim ilar
to those outlined for single-trace operation,describe
4 . Set MODE switch (21) to the DUAL position. Two the procedurefor obtainingstable,synchronizeddis-
tracesshouldappearon the screen. pl ays.

9. S et the S OU R C Esw i tch (14) to the CH A posit ion.


5 . A djut t CH A a n d C H B POS IT IO Nc o n trol s(27) and This provides internal sync so that the Channel A
( l7) t o pl a c eth e C h a n n eAl tra c ea b o v ethe C hannelB waveform being observedis also used to trigger the
reference
t r ac e,and a d j u s tb o th tra c e sto a c o n v eni ent sweep. If desired,the Channel B wavefr.rrmmay be
mark on the scale. used to trigger the sweep by setting the SOURCE
switch to the CH B position. Often in dual-trace
6 . Set both the CH A and CH B DC-GND-ACswitches operation,a sync sourceother than the measurement
( 25) and (1 9 ) to th e AC p o s i ti o n .T h i s i s the posi ti on point for ChannelA or B is required.In this caseset
used for most measurements and must be usedif the the S OU R C Esw i tchto the E X T posi t ionand connect
points being measuredincludea largeDC component. a c a b l ef r o m t h e E X T T R I G j l c k ( 1 3 ) t o t h e s . v n c
source.

7 . Connect thg ground clips of the probesto the chassis 10. Set the SLOPE switch (10) to the (+; position if the
ground of the equipmentunder test. Connectthe tips sweepis to be triggeredby a positive'goingwave.or to
of the probes to points in the circuit where the the (-) position if the sweepis to be triggeredby a
waveformsare to be measured.lt is preferredthat the negative-goingwave.
signal to which the waveformwill be synchronizedbe
appliedto the ChannelA input.

CHANNEL A c
WAVEFORM

o ; ell
ff
CHANNEL 8

oo
WAVEFORM

o
a"o
or o'
A. REFERENCE FROUENCY P U L S ET R A I N
( I O O OP U L S E SP E RS E C O N O }
WAVEFOBM WAVEFORM
A B
HEIGHT HEIGHT
WAVEFORM
DUAL B
a"t
B . O I V I D E . B Y - T W O O U , T P U TS Y N C H R O N I Z E D T O
LEAOING EOGE OF REFERENCEPULSE
WAVEFORM
l*ro A
.
."t l
C . D I V I D E . B Y - T W O O U T P U TS Y N C H R O N I Z ETOO
T R A I L I N GE D G EO F R E F E R E N C P EU L S E

Fig. 8. Waveformsin divide-by-twocircuit.

l8
I I . lf sweeptriggeringon the averagelevel of the wave' 18. The ChannelA and ChannelB waveformdisplayscan
in
by placingtle M-OD-P.switch
be addedalgebraically
fornr is acceptable,leaveAUTO LEVEL pushbutton
( l l ) i n t h e A U T O p o s i t i o na n ds k i ps t e pl 2 ' H o w e v e r , rhe ADD p6sition,
anO ftrd CH B POLARITYswitch is
to trigger the sweep on a specific portion of the in the NO^RMposition,or algebraically with
_subtracted
wav ef or m pus , l tth e AU T O L EV EL p u s h b u tton,rel eas- the CH B POLARITYswitchin the IIW position.
i ng it t o t he NO R M p o s i ti o n .

DU AL-TRACE APPLICATION S
l ). A djus t T RI G G Ez u N GL EV EL c o n tro l (9 ) to obtai n a
s t able.s y nc hr o n i z e ds w e e p .A s a s ta rti n gp oi nt, the INTRODUCTION
' p u s h e di n a n d ro ta te dto a n y p oi nt that
c ont r olnr aybe
will pr oduc ea s w e e p ,w h i c h i s u s u a l l ys o m e w here in
The n-rostobvious and yet the most useful feature of
t he c ent erpor ti o no f i ts ra n g eT. h e tra c ew i l l d i sappear the dual-traceoscilloscopeii that it has the capability for
if t her eis inad e q u a te s i g n a lto tri g g e rth e s w e ep,such viewingsimultaneouslytwo waveformsthat are frequency'
as when nt easu ri negx tre me l yl o w a mp l i tu d es i gnal s- If or that have a common synchronizing^
or-phaie-related,
no s weepc an b e o b ta i n e d p . u l l o u t th e c o n trol(P U LL u"fiu#, suchasin digitalcircuitry.Simultaneous viewingof
A UT O ) f or auto m a ti ctri g g e ri n g . ...uui. and effect" iaveforms is an invaluableaid to the
circuit designeror the repairman.Several. applic3'
p-ossible.
1 3 . S et CO UP LI N Gs w i tc h( l 2 ) to th e A C p o s i ti onfor A C tions of ttie dual-tracebscilloscope will be reviewed in
s m 3 0 H z to 3 0 MH z.and to
c ouplingof s y n c s i g n a l fro detail to familiarizethe user further in the basic operation
the DC position for DC couplingof sync signalsfrom of this oscilloscoPe.
DC to 30 MHz. If the syncsignalcontainsnoiseor is a
cornplex waveform ntade up of high and low fre- FREQUENCY DIVIDER WAVEFORMS
quenc iest,he L F R E J e c ta n d H F R E J e c tp o s i t i onsmay
be helpful in e[minating jitter from the display.The Fig. 8 illustrates the waveforms involved in a basic
LF REJ position attenuatessync signalcomponents divide-5y-two circuit. Fig. A indicates the reference or
below l0 k Hz . a n d th e H F R E J p o s i ti o na t tenuates ;clock"'pulse train. Fig. F and Fig. C indicate.the.possible
syncsignalcomponentsabove30 kHz. outputs of tnr divide-by-twocircultry. Fig. 8 alsoindicates
the'settings of specific oscilloscopecontrols tor ueung
1 4 . S et S W E E P T IME /C M s w i tc h (5 ) a n d VA R IA B LE these*.uJformr.in addition to thesebasiccontrol settinp,
control (6) for the desired nutnber of waveforms. ihe TzuGGERING LEVEL control, as well as the Channel
Thesecontrolsmay be set for viewingonly a portion of A and channel B vertical position controlsshouldbe set as
a wavefotm, but the trace beconles progressively ieouireOto producesuitabiedisplays.In the drawingof Fig.
dimnterasa smallerportion is displayed. 8,'the *aueform levelsof 2 cm are indicated.If the exact
noltug. anplitudes of the channel A and channel B
15. After obtainingthe desirednumberof waveformsasin *uurior*s arc desired, the Channel A and Channel B
step 14, it is sometimesdesirableto make a final VARIABLE controls must be placedin the cAL position.
adjustmentof the TRIGGERING LEVEL control (9). The Channel B waveform may be either that indicated in
The (- ) directionof rotation selectsthe most negative Fie. 8B or 8C. ln Fig. 8C the divide-by-two output
point on the sync waveformat which sweeptriggering wiveform is shown for the casewhere the output circuitry
will occur and the (+) direction selectsthe most reiponds to a negative-going_ waveform. In this case,the
positive point on the sync wavefornt at which sqeep to the.leadingedge
't6. waveformL shifted with re-spect
ouiput
triggeringwill occur. The control may be adjustedto oi reference frequency puls-e by a time interval
staii the sweep on any desired portion of the sync correspondingto the Pulsewidth.
waveform.
DIVI DE.BY.8 CIRCIJIT WAVEFORMS
16. The observedwaveformsof ChannelsA and B can be
expandedby a factor of 5 by pulling outward on the Fig. g indicates waveform relationshipsfor a basic
<> POSITION control (8). This control can then be are_
divide-Ey+ight circuit. The basic oscilloscoPe^settings
rotatedclockwiseor counterclockwise to view the left
identicaltoihose usedin Fig. 8. The referencefrequencyof
and right extremesof the waveformdisplaysasdesired. fig. 9A is supplied to the- Channel A -input,. and the
Pushinward on the control to return the sweepto the oiloe-uyeight'output is applicedto the channel B input.
normal,non-magnille d condition.
Fie. B indiiates tie ideal-iime relationshipbetween the
iniut pulsesand the outPut Pulse.
17. Calibratedvoltagemeasurements, calibratedtime meas'
urementsand operationwith Z-axisinput are identical In an application where the logic circuitry is operating
to thosepreviouslydescribedfor single'traceoperation. at or near iiJ maximum designfrequency,the accumulated
Either the ChannelA or ChannelB verticaladjustment rise time effectsof the conseiutivestagesproducea built'in
controls can be used as requiredin conjunctionwith time propagation delay which .q p. significant in.a critical
the horizontalsweepcontrols to obtain the required circuii .tid-rutt be compensatedfor. Fig. 9C-indicatesthe
amplitudeor time intervalmeasurements. This can be
possible tim: delay wliiclr may be. introduced into a
done either by usingthe dual displayfacilitiessuch as it.qurn.y divider circuit. By u^e of the dual-traceoscillo-
the DUAL position of the MODE switch or by t.op. the input and output waveformscan be supe-rimposed
operation,usingthe CH A or
revertingto single-trace to determinl the exact amount of propagationdelay that
CH B positionsof the MODE switch. occurs.

l9
orecisemeasurementcan be obtained if the Tp portion of
irr.-*r"rroim is expandedhorizontally.This riray be done
;; pr[i;t ihe PULL 5x MAG control' lt also mav be
porribt. io nirr" the desiredportion of the waveformat a
iastersweePsPeed.
ri()rtt (r t\r!!a rr.- | r@ i'r!'l t{r r'<5'O i
rttattr<f
DIGITAL CIRCTJITTIME RELATIONSHIPS

A dual-traceoscilloscopeis a necessityin designing,


manufacturing and servicing-digita.lequipm.ent. A. dual'trace
oscilloscopepermits easy cbmparison of time relationships
between two waveforms.
ri lt t|(tr Crl<vrt
ln digital equipment it iscqmmon for a large.number
C troraalto.. O{trr Ovroa

of circuiti to U. synchronized, or to have-a specific time


circuit' ,et"tiot st ip to eich other. Many 9f .th.. circuits are
in divide'byeight
Fig.9. Waveforms i;;q";;;t'ditidt6 as-previously deicribed, but waveforms
aie'often time-related'in may bther combinations.In the
PROPAGATIONTIME MEASI''REMENT dynamic state, sorne of the waveforms change,depending
u'pon the input or mode of operation' Fig^' I I shows a
An examPleof propagation delayin a divide-bylight
-previous iioi..f dieitai circuit and identifies severalof the points at
circuit wils gven in tlir para.gaph.S.ignificant ;ft;t *.;.form measurementsare appropriate.The accom'
with several oanvinq Fie. 12 shows the normal waveforms to be
iiJpil"tion f,.t.V ma-yociu.r.in any circuit. f1a.tur91 which Ii#.tJa at"each of these points and their timing relation-
ionbdutivr rt.g*. T6is oscilloscope-h3s
,i-ptit ;asurEment of propagationdelay. Fig. l0 sttows ;ht;;. it r inOi"idual wave'forms have limited value unless
tt J'tititttant waveforms whenthe dual'tracePresentation is lii.Ii tit"ini relationship to one or more of the other
presentalion b1 selecting_the *.".f-r*- is known to be correct. The dual-traceoscillo'
combinedinto a single-trace
ADD position of 6e MODE switch' With the CH B r.oo. rllo*t this comparison to be made' In typi.ca^l
pOt lrufY switch in the NORM position the_twoinputs Ltfiio", *.rlfor* No. j would be displayed91 ChannelA
ii Ag.Uraicallyaddedin a singletracedisplaV.. Similarly,F *O*.u.formNo.4thruNo.8,andNo'-lO,.wouldbe
th; lftV posiiion the two in-putsare algebraigally *.i6ri".ly displayed on Channel B,_althoughother timing
'u.b- desired. WaveformsNo. I I through
tti..iiO. ditt.r positionprovidesa precisedisplayof the comparisoirs
^ miy'be
-probably
b displayed on-Channel B in
orooacationti-i (To). i,Jsingthe proceduresgiven for No. t f would
No. 8 or No. 4 on ChannelA.
canbe calculated. A more reiationstrip to wiveform
idit ti'tea time measuiement,.Tp

/ - - - \
/
*l Fto /
I \

CHB
_Il I
I
I
I
1 I
I
'.tr' /
/
I \ \- ---
I
't
ADD CH 8
POLARITY NORMAL I
. t t ' - - 1

- - -
- t /
,/ \
I /
EXPANO THIS PORTION /
FO MORE PRECISE -(
.I{iASUREMENT - \
T|ME \- - _.
to t. I
f f
I
V/- I
A DDCHB I /
IN V
P O LA R IT Y I
/

---/ \ - -

time measurement.
Fig. 10. UsingADD andCH B POLARITYcontrolsfor propagation

20
ln the family of time-related waveforms shown in Fig. source becausethey do not contain a triggering pulse at the
12, waveformNo.8 or No. l0 is an excellentsync source start of the frame. It would not be necessaryto view the
for viewing all of the waveforms;there is but one triggering entire waveforms as shown in Fig. 12 in all cases.In fact,
pulse per frame. For convenience,external sync using there are many times when a closer examination of a
waveform No.8 or No. l0 as the sync source may be portion of the waveforms would be appropriate. In such
desirable.With externalsync, any of the waveformsmay be cases,it is recommended that the sync remain unchanged
displayed without readjustment of the sync controls. while the sweep speed or 5X magnification be used to
WaveformsNo. 4 thru No. 7 should not be usedas the sync expandthe waveformdisplay.

-'l
cooEo
Fuiclror{ r .-- l L r i c o r l v c l
0/rrA [ ou?trrr
rt i P u lI I I xo.r
(l-rrrsr "lttr,- | t o+l
I PLrrfn
:_:_)
| | I

r3
tul

ortr firllt

0rla StLtCt LrrC-O rt

5 lrl I t!,
llPt,t
I
l0
f.t[ ,rsYt afSlt

FA. I l. Typical digital circuit usingseveraltime-relatedwaveforms.

2l
DTSTORTIONMEAStJR"EMENT 3. Set CHA and CH B DC-CND-ACswitchesto AC.

An amplifier stage,or an entire amplifier unit, may be 4 . S et MOD Esw i tchto D U A L.


t,estedfor distortion with this oscilloscope.This type o[
nrasurement is especiallyvaluablewhen the slope of a 5 . S et sync S OU R C Esw i tch to C H A and adjustcont r ols
waveform must be faithfully reproducedby an amplifier. as described in waveform viewing procedure for
Fi g. l3 s howst he t e s ti n go f s u c ha c i rc u i tu s i n ga t ri angul ar synchrclnizc'd
waveforms.
wave, such as is typically encournteredin the recovered
audio output of a limiting circuit which precedesthe 6 . A dj ust the C H A and C tl B P OS ITIONcont r olst o
modulator of a transmitter.The measurement ma)' be made the w avefr.l rnts
superi nrpose di rcctl yoverc' achot lt er .
uing any type of signal,merely use the type ol-signalfor
testing that is normally applied to the amplifier during
normal operation. The procedure for distortion testing 7 . A d j u s tt h e C H A a n d C H B v c r l i c a sl e n s i t i v i tcyo n t r o l s
follows: (V OLTS /C M and V A R IA B LE ) so that the r vavelbr m s
are as l argeas possi bl cw i thout exceedi ngt he lir nit sot '
l . A pply t he t y p e o f s i g n a ln o rma l l ye n c o u n te redi n the the scal e,and so thut both w aveformsare exact lyt he
amplifierundertest. sal rrehei ght.

2. ConnectChannelA probeto the input of the amplilier 8 . N ow sc' tthe MOD E sw i tch to the A D D posit ionand
and ChannelB p ro b e to th e o u tp u t o f th e a mpl i ti er.l t the CH B POLARITY switch to the INV position(if
is preferableif the two signalsare not inverted in one wavelbrmis alreadyinvertedin relationshipto tlre
relationshipto each other. but invertedsignalscan be other, usethe NORM position).Adjust the fine vertical
used. sensi ti vi ty(C H B V A R IA B LE ) sl i ghtl y for t he nr ini-

3latt

a OOlJtllCl
(
ttetle

3 crcx

{ oere sELEcr'^'

!oeres*:c,. l--l f--l [-l l--- r-ff1


--L

7 oala 3rLccr !' L


8 oara EiarLt ---.l
L-

$ nul

lo
tio rrarc itsfl
l1 ru(trrrCxEn
orrtn l
t_
t2
tllt
I
r
tnIYfI OUTruT

l3 I
t_
aoonEss -----J FurrcltoN i I

oalat5 lrTst | | OArAta Etrst I I


l l l l
l r
F- sfcuntlY -----i p- scuFltv stcuFtly -----a p--
I oala ltl I oAraEtt 2 oarA 8tl 3 I
>-ISSAGCfRAilt + - ICNG SLANI( PULST
I
oNt coMPrtrt
IRANSMISSION FRAMT

ANY INOIVIOUAL AOORESS OR FUNCTION


OATA BIT MAY BE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE
OEPENOING UPON THE COO6O INPUT

Fig. 12. Family of time-relatedwaveformsfrom typical digital circuit in Fig. I l.

22
mum remainingwaveform.Any waveformthat remains
equalsdistortion;if the two waveformsare exactlythe
sanrcamplitude and tlrere is no distortion, the wave-
fornrs will cancel and there will be only a straight
horizontalline rernainingon the screen.

GATED RINGING CI RCI.JIT

The circuit and waveformsof Fig. 14 are shown to


demonstratethe type of circuit in which the dual-trace
Grrt0ltrcrrc cllcull
oscilloscope is effectiveboth in designand troubleshooting
applications.The basic oscilloscopecontrol settingsare
identical to those of Fig. 8. WaveformA is the reference
waveform and is applied to Channel A input. All other
t. Grllrc ilrttotr
waveformsare sampledat ChannelB and comparedto the
reference waveform of Channel A. The frequency burst
signal can be examinedmore closely either by increasing ; -lfillill1--lllllllfi- ttnnfn
the sweeptime per centimeterto .5 mSEC per centimeter
or by pulling out on the <> POSITIONcontrol to obtain 5
uxuui uuuriu lJllluf-
t_ Grrt0nt00trcr
oul?ur
times magnification. This control can then be rotated as
"10
desiredto center the desiredwaveform information on the
oscilloscopescreen. 0
-10
rt00tro $r6t ?0trllll ltrtlrll]
DELAY LINE TESTS
+?
The dual-tracefeature of the oscilloscopecan also be 0
used to determine the delay times of transmissiontype
cu'?to trto0trfi |0$r l0tlflll rt$lt!
delay lines as well as ultrasonictype delay lines.The input t

pulse can be used to trigger or synchronizethe ChannelA


display and the delay line output can be observedon
Channel B. A repetitive type pulse will make it possibleto
synchronize the displays.The interval between repetitive ('.(v''1 t sn2{0 futS{ Ot,ltgl
pulsesshould be large comparedto the delay time to be
Fig. 14. Gated ringingcircuit and waveforms.

DISTORTION o
/^'
e \\rut
--,'

o o {-
oo f-

1 . S E T U P O S C IL L O S C O P EA S S H O W N .
2. A D J U S T A A N D B P O S I T I O N C O N T R O L S
T O S U P E R I M P O S EW A V E F O R M S D I R E C T L
OVER EACH OTHER.
AC I DUAL
3. S E T M O D E S W I T C H T O A D D . P U S H
C H B P O L A R I T Y S W I T C HT O I N V ( U S E
NORM IF WAVEFORMB IS INVERTED ADJUSTSO THAT BOTH
W I T H R E S P E C TT O W A V E F O R M A I WAVEFORMA SRETHESAME
ANY WAVEFORM THAT REMAINS AMPLITUDE.
EOUALS DISTORTION.

Fig. 13. Distortion measurement.

23
inv-estiFted. In addition to determining delay time, the
-Une STEREOAMPUFIER SERVICING
pulse- {i"tortion inherent in the delay cin be deter-
ryned by examinationof the delayedpulse
't observedon rhe Another convenientuse for dualchannel oscilloscopes
ctrannel B waveform display. nig. 5 demonstatesthe is in troubleshootingstereoamplifiers.If identicalchannel
typicd oscilloscopesettingpas well-asthe basictest circuit. amplifiersare usedand the output of one is weak,distorted
Typical input and output waveforms are shown on the or otherwise abnormd, the dual trace oscilloscopecan be
oscilloscopedisplay. Any pulsestretchingand ripple can be efficiently used to localize the defective state.'with an
observedand evduated. The resultsof mbdifving the input identicalsignalapplied ro the inputs of both amplifiers,a
and output terminations can be observeddireittyl side-by-sidecomparisonof both units carr be made by
proge^ssivelysampling i<ientical signal points in both
amplifiers.when the defectiveor malfunctioningstagehas
been located, the effects of whatevertroubleshootin-g and
repair methodsare employedcan be observedand analyzed
o
immediately.
o IMPROVING THE RATIO OF
o o o DESIRE T}TG I.JNDESIR.E
D SIGNA I,s
oo In some applications,the desiredsignalmay be riding
on a large undesiredsignalcomponent such as 60 Hz. It ii
pos-sibleto minimize or for praclical purposeseliminate the
undesired component.
Iig. 16 indiiatei the oscilloscope
c-ontrol settings for such an application. The waveform
display of channel A indicates the desired signal and the
dotted line indicatesthe averageamplitude vaiation corre-
spondingto an undersired6O Hz component.The Channel
B $ispfaVindicates a 60 Hz waveform of equal amplitude
and identical phase to the average of the Channel I
ULTRASO'{ IC
OLAY LIN waveflorm.With the MODE switch set to ADD, and the CH
l5r SECI
B POLARITY switch set to INV, and by adjustingthe CH B
sqtP?s
lr SCPULSrllDTX
vertical attenuator controls, the 60 Hz component of the
Charurel
| $grt.l can be cancelledby the Chinnel B input
and the desiredwaveformcan be observedwithout the'60
Hz component.
Fig. 15. Delayline measurements.

I m S/cm

ADJUSTFOR ONE
COMPLETE CYCLE
AT 60 Hz.
CHA AUTO

S L O P E+

SIGNAL S T A R TW I T H D U A L , START WITH NORM,


AND C H A N G ET O A D D . CHANGE TO INV.
50 Hz

60 Hz

Fig. 16. Improving desired-to-undesired


signalratio.

24
AMPLIFIER PHASE SHIFT MEASI,JREMEMTS SIN GLE.TRACE APPLICATIONS

In the single-traceapplication section of this manual INTRODUCTION


phaseshift measurements using a singletraceare described.
In addition,in the squarewavetestingsection,squarewave In addition to the dual-trace applications previouly
distortion is explainedin terms of phaseshift of the signal outlined, there are, of course,many serviceand laboratory
componentswhich comprisethe squarewave. Thesephase applications where only single-trace operation of the
shifts can be verified directly by providinga sinewaveinput oscilloscopeis required. After gaining experiencewith the
signal to the amplitier and observing the phase of the oscilloscope,the user will be able to make the judgment as
output signalwith respectto the input signal. to whether a job can be performed more efficiently by
r.rsingthe single-traceor the dual-tracemethod of operation.
In all amplifiers, a phaseshift is alwaysassociatedwith The following are applicationsin which single-traceopera-
a changein amplituderesponse.For example,at the -3 dB tion'is adequate. [n severalcases,it will be found that an
response points, a phase shift of 45" occurs. Fig. 17 dtemate method using the dual-traceapplication has been
illustrates a method of determing amplifier phase shift described for the same application. For all the following
directly. In this particularcase,the measurements are being applications the most flexible operation will b achievedif
made at approximately 5000 Hz. The input signal to the the Channel B vertical amplifier is used with the MODE
audio amplifier is used as a referenceand is applied to the switch in the CH B position. This arrangement provides
CH A INPUT jack. complete triggered sweepas we[ as free-runningoperation
of the oscilloscop,od, in addition, by using the CH B
The sweep time VARIABLE control is adjusted as POLARITY switch, whatever waveform is obtained can be
required to provide a complete cycle of the input waveform inverted in polarity if desiredby the operator.
displayed on 8 cm horizontally. A waveform tieight of 2 cm
is used. The 8 cm display represents360" at the displayed SIGNALTRACING AND PEAK.TOPEAK
frequency and each centimeter represents 45" <Jf 1ne VOLTAGE READINGS
waveform. The signal developed across the output of the
audio amplifier is applied to the Channel B II.IPUT jack. For generaltroubleshootingand isolation of troubles in
The vertical attenuator controls of Channel B are adjusted dmost any electronic equipment, the oscilloscope is an
as required to produce a peak-to-peakwaveform of 2 cm as indispensable instrument. It provides a visual display of
shown in Fig. l78. absence or presence of normd signals. This method
(signal-tracing) may be used to trace a signal by measuring
The CH B POSITION control is then adjusted so that several points in the signal path. As measurementsproceed
the Channel B waveform is displayed on the same hori- along the signal path, a point may be found where the
zontal axis as the Channel A waveform as shown in Fig. sigral disappears.When this happens, the source of trouble
l7B. The distance between corresponding points on the has.beenlocated.
horizontal axis for the two waveforms then represents the
phase shifl between the two waveforms. In this case,the However, the oscilloscope shows much more than the
zero crossoverpoints of the two waveforms are compared. nrere presence or absence of signal. It provides a peak-to-
It is shown that a difference of I centimeter exists.This is peak voltagg measurement of the signd. The causeof poor
then interpreted as a phaseshift of 45". performance can often be located by making such peak-to-

A D J U S TA S R E O U I R E D
FOR COMPLETECYCLE
o lN 8 cm.

o
o
. . , ! i I - - - - J

oo

CHANNEL A

CHANNEL B

AUDIO
AMPLIFIER
OUTPUT

Fig. 17. Measuringamplifierphaseshift.

25
peak voltage measurements.The schematic diagram or TRANSMITTER MODULATION
accompanyingservicedata on the equipmentbeingserviced
usually includes waveform pictures. These waveform T h e l n o s t r e l i a b l en r c t h o d o l ' c h e c k i n g t r a n s r r r i t t e r
p i ctur gsinc lude t he re q u i re ds w e e pti m e a n d th c normal rnodul ati oni s w i th :.rn osci l l oseope. Fi g. l 8 shows t he
peak-to-peakvoltage. Compare the peak-to-peakvoltagc typi cal mcthod ol ' measurenl ent and i nterpretat ionof t lr e
readingpon the oscilloscopewith those shown on the rnodul ati onenvcl opel i rr A M C B transl tti tters. M ost t r ans-
waveform pictures. Any abnormal readings should be cel vcrs i ncl udc sonre type ol - protecttotl against over -
foUowed by additional readingsin the suspectedcircuits nrodul ati t-rn. w hi cl rhasno el ' l ' cctunti l ntodul a t ionexcecds
u n til t he t r oubleis i s o l a te dto a s s ma l la n a re aa s possi bl e. at l cast75' i . thcn progressrvr'conl l v' prcsses any incr case in
The proceduresfor making peak-to-peakvoltagemeasure- audi oanrphtudc.The el ' fecti veness of thi s corup r essr on- t ype
ments are given earlier in the CALIBRATED VOLTAGE c i r c u i t a n d t l t e ' d e g r e eo l - r r ' s u l t a n td i s t t l r t i t l nc a n b e
MEASUREMENT paragraph. rrreasured on the osci l l oscopc.

F i g . l 9 s h o w sh o w t o c h e c kS S B r n o d u l a t i o nA. p p l y
CB RA D IO AP PL IC AT ION S tw o si mul taneous. equal -ampl i tude audi o si gna lslbr m odu-
l ati on.sucl ras 500 H z.and 1400 H z. The audi os ignalsm ust
INTRODUCTION be freeI' ronrdi storti on.noi seand transi ents. The t wo audio
si gnal sshoul dnot havea di rect harmoni crel ationship such
1474 oscilloscopeis particularly well suited for 27 as 500 H z and 1500 H t. The modul ati on envelope
MHz CitizensBand transceiverdevelopmentlaboratories. resenrbl es the 100?ZA M modul ati onenvel ope, exceptt he
manufacturing,testing and analyzing facilities.and well. ampl i tudeof the enti re w aveformvari esw i th the st r engt h
equippedserviceshops.Its 30 MHz bandwidth is required o[ the audio signal. When peak SSB power output is
for thorough waveform analysisof either AM or AM/SSB " fl at tops," t hat is, t he
reached,the modul ati onenvel ope
CB transceiver. Direct signalmeasurement in practicallyall instantaneous RF peaksreachthe saturation,evenwith less
RF, lF, and audio circuitsof both transmitterand receiver than peak audio signalapplied.This over-rnodulated condi-
is possible, as well as accurate timing measurementsin ti on resul tsi n di storti on.
switching circuits. The l0:l ,attenuation setting of the
probe should be used for all RF and IF circuit measure- OTHER CB II{EASI,JREMENTS
rnents.The high impedance(10 megohms)of the probe
should not affect normal circuit operation,exceptin highly Some of the additional applicationsfor this oscillo-
sensitivecircuits. scopein transceivers
follow:

O* MOOULATION
--T

I
50% MOOULATTON t t

I AIVI DET

Tq,% MOOULATION

_i
ru
ovERMoDULArroN
W PROBE TO TRANSMITTER
OUTPUT

MICROPHONE ANTENNA
A JACK JACK
. B =7
MOoULATION

Fig. 18. Typical test set-upfor AM modulation check.

?s
o Transmittercarriersignalanalysis.
qpbe. Most of the checksand measurements describedfor
. RF and.lF gain measurements cB transceivers
are applicableto ;th.; ;t;;;f
(dual-tracedisplay d;unica-
preferred). tionsequipment.
o Audio distortion measurements
(duar-trace
dispray PHASEMEASUREMENT
preferred).
o Audio frequencyresponse Phase measurementsmay be made with an oscilro-
check.
scope. Typical applications are in circuits oesimeo
produce a specifiCphaseshift, .nd ,,,,e.rurr;.r,t to
. filter, notch filter,.low-pass ;f pf,*,
P3ndpa-ss or high_pass shift distortion in iudio .riridl^ or other audio net-
filter frequency responsecheck, lnciuding 'due
SSB works. Dstortion to non-linearamplificationis also
suppressed carrier firter (sweepgeneratornrethod displayedin the oscilloscopewaveform.
preferred).
r synthesizer anarysisand troubreshooting. A sine waveinput is appliedto the audiocircuit
;r_rc,uit being
Dual-trace dlr_plqy preierred for digt.l phase_ tested.The same.sinewaveinput is appriedto ihe verticar
lockedloop (pLLi tyie synthesizer. input of the osciiloscope,anb the output of the
tested
circuit is applied to the horizontarinput .irtnr or.iiiorropr.
o Noiseblankercircuit anarysis and troubreshooting. difference
betweenthe two signats
o S ignalatte n u a ti o n n te a s u re me n $ . lT':ry,1:.1
can :_f,ph.se
be calculatedfrom the resultingwaveform.
r lsolatingsourcesof noise,ripple,or transients. To
o n*r^ phase measurements,use the following
procedure
Signaltracing. (Referto Fig. 20):

l. Using an audio signargeneratorwith a pure sinusoidal


COMMUNICATIONSRADIO APPLICATIONS s^ignal,
apply a sine wave test signalat the O.iir.A trrt
trequencyto the audi onetw orkbei ngteste d.
This oscilloscopeis alsoexcelrentfor servicing
two-way 2. Set tl. signal generator output for the
communicationstransceivers,receivers.no normal
r.?rmitters.
For radios that on carrier frequenciesup ro operatinglever of the circuit being tested.If
_o_p_erate desired,
-oscillo-
approximately 50.MHz, the oscilroscope
is cipaute-ofdirr.t the circuit's output may be obser"veo on tt L
measurement,although vortage readingrrr.' s-9oqe.If the tesi circuii is overdriven,the-iine wave
uncalitrateo.
IF signalscan be melsured;ithout using a display on the
demodurator .oscilloscopeis clipped'"na iii. signal
levelmust be reduced.

N O R M A LM O D U L A T T O N
{ A M P L I T U D ED E P E N D E N T
U P O NA U D I O L E V E L }
e
o
:o
o o o h
co -t- oT
OVERMODULATTON

@@+o+@ o r+ AM DET

PROBETO TRANSMITTER
OUTPUT

MICROPHONE ANTENNA
JACK JACK

\
tl
l -
I
E O U A LA MP L I T U O E F R O M
E O T HA U DI O G E N E R A T O R
{ M E A S U RW
E ITH SCOPE}

F i g . 1 9 . T y p i c a lresrser-upftrr S S Bmodul ari oncheck.

27
AUOIO
SIGNAL
GENERATOR

(t
CHA

VERTICAL HORIZONTAL
stzE slzE

AUDIO
NETWORK
B E I N GT E S T E D

Fig. 20. Typical phasemeasurementset-up.

3. Connect the Channel B probe to the output of the test


circuit. AMPLITUOE OISTORTION A M P L I T U O EO I S T O R T I O N
NO PHASE SHIFT NO PHASE SHIFT

4. Set the SWEEPTIME/CM control to CH B'

5. Connect the channel A INPUT probe to the input of


the test circuit. (The input and output test connections
to the vertical and horizontal oscilloscopeinputs may
be reversed.)

6. Adjust the ChannelA and B gaincolltrols for a suitable


viewing size.

7. Some typical results are shown in Fig' 2l ' If the two


signalsit. in phase,the oscillosco-p9 trace is.a straight
diagonal line.'If the vertical and horizontal gain are
prdperly adjusted,this line is at a 45o angle'
A 90o phase shift produces a circular oscilloscope
pattern.

Phase shift of less (or more) than 90" -producesan


ettipticat oscilloscopeptitttn. Th; amount of phase shift
."il Ur calculated ftori't the oscilloscopetrace as shown in
Fig.22. scopedisplays'
Fig. 21. Typical phasemeasurement

28
SQUARE WAVE TESTING OF AMPLIFIERS

INTRODUCTION

A square wave generator and a low-distortion oscillo-


scope, such as this instrument, can be used to display
various types of distortion present in electronic circuits. A
square wave of a given frequency contains a large number
of odd harmonics of that frequency. If a 500 Hz square
wave in injected into a circuit, frequency components of
1.5 kHz, 2.5 kHz,3.5 kHz, alsoare provided.Sincevacuum
tubes and transistors are non-linear, it is difficult to
amplify and reproduce a square wave which is identical to
B
f, - E the input signal.Interelectrodecapacitances, junction capa-
citances, stray capacitancesas well as limited device and
g = P H A S EA N G L E transformer responseare a few of the factors which prevent
faithful reproduction of a square wave signal. A well-
designed amplifier can minimize the dislortion caused by
these limitations. Poorly designed or defective amplifien
Fig.22. Phaseshift calculation. can introduce distortion to the point where their per-
formance is unsatisfactory.

FREQUENCYMEASUREMENT As stated before, a square wave contains a large


Procedure: number of odd harmonics. By injecting a 500 Hz sine wave
into an amplifier, we can evaluateamplifier responseat 500
l. Connectthe sinewaveof knownfrequencyto the CH Ilz only, but by injecting a square wave of the same
B IMUT jack of the oscilloscdpe
and set the SWEEP frequency we can determine how the amplifier would
TIME/CM control to CH B. This providesexternal respond to input signals from 500 Hz up to the l5th or
horizontalinput. 2lst harmonic.

2. Connectthe verticalinput probe(CH A INPUT)to the The need for squarewaveevaluation becomesapparent
unknownfrequency. if we realize that some audio amplifiers will be required
during normal use to pas simultaneously a large number of
3. Adjust the Channel A and B size controls for a different frequencies. With a square wave, we have a
sizeof display.
easy-to-read
cortvenient, controlled signal with which we can evaluate the input and
output quality of a signal of many frequencies (the
4. The resultingpattern,calleda Lissajous
pattern,shows harmonics of the square wave) which is what the amplifier
the ratio betweenthe two frequencies.
SeeFig. 23. sees when amplifying complex waveforms of musical
instruments or voices. ,

The square wave output of the signd generator must be


UNK Nof . JFNR E Q U EN C Y R ATIO OF extremely flat so that it does not contribute to any
TO VERT ICAL INPUT, UNKNOWN distortion that may be observed when evaluating amplifier
S T A NDA RFRD E Q U EN C Y TO response.The oscilloscopevertical input should be set to
T O HO RI Z O N T ALIN P U T STANDARO DC as it will introduce the least distortion, especially at low
frequencies. When checking amplifier response, the fre-
quency of the square wave input should be varied from the
S ENEO T E ( ( E Dr: I low end of the amplifier bandpassup toward the upper end
)) of the bandpass;however,becauseof the harmonic content
of the square wave, distortion will occur before the upper

-rrr/0o$,
srE l : l
end of the amplifier bandpassis reached.

It should be noted that the actual responsecheck of an


amplifier should be made rsing a sine wave signal. This is
especiallyimportant in limited bandwidth amplifien (voice
1'1 : I amplifien). The square wave signal provides a quick check
of amplifier performance and will gve an estimate of
overall amplifier quality. The square waye also will reveal
some.deficienciesnot readily aPparentwhen using a sine
6 : l wave signd. Whether a sine waye or squarewave is used for
testingthe amplifier, it is important that the manufacturer's
specificationson the amplifier be known in order to make a
N O T t : A N Y O N0I F T H T S EF I G U R T D
SiPtN0lNG better;uCgrnentof its performance.
U P O NP H A S E
R E L AITO N S H I P

Fig. 23. Ussajous waveforms used for frequency


measurement.

29
A D J U S TS W E E PS P E E O
F O R 1 C Y C L ED I S P L A Y .

S O U A R EW A V E
GENERATOR

o o cHB
I
I
I
V E R TGA IN
A D JU S T
FOR CONVENIENT
VIEWING HEIGHT.

L_I INPUT
A M P L I FEI R
CIRCUIT
B E I N GT E S T E D
OUTPUT

Fig.24. Equipmentset-upfor squarewavetestingof amplifiers.

TESTING PROCEDLJRE(Refer to Fig. 24) ANALYZING THE WAVEFORMS

l. Connect the output of the square wave generator to The short rise time which occurs at the beginning of
the input of the amplifier being tested. the half+ycle is created by the in-phase sum of all the
nredium ind high frequenCy sine wave components. The
2. Connect the cH B test probe of the oscilloscopeto the sarne holds truE for itre rlpid drop at the end of the
output of the amplifier being tested. half-cycle from maximum amplitude to- zero amplitude at
the fgO. or halfcycle point.-alone Therefore, a theoretical
reduction in ampliiude of the high frequency
3. If the DC component of the circuit b.!Lg tested is components shouid produce a rounding of F9-tqEtt
sufficiently lovi to allow both the AC and DC .ornirr at all four points of one squarewavecycle (SeeFig.
component to be viewed, use the P9 po,iUon of the 2s).
AC-GNDDC switch. However,the AC position may be
used without affecting the results except at very low
frequencies(below l0 Hz).
Distortion can be classifiedinto three distinct categories:
4. Adjust the vertical gain controls for a convenient
viewing height. -- The first is frequency distortion and refers to the
l.
in.ng. from nothal implitude 9f q cgmponent of a
io*ft.* waveform. In other words, the introduction in
5. Adjust the sweeptilrB controls for one cycle of square
wave displaY on the screen- .n .roprner circuit of resonant networks or selective
filters ireated by combination of reactive_ components
will create pea1oor dips in an otherwise flat frequency
6. For a close'up view of a portion of the squarewave'
use the 5X magnification. resPons8curve.

30
Fig. 25. Squarewave responsewith high-frequency
loss.
Fig. 26. Responsecurve of amplifier with poor low
2. The second is nonlinear distortion and refers to a and high ends.
change in waveshapeproduced by application of the
waveshape to nonJinearcomponentsor elementssuch
as vacuum tubes,an iron core transformer,and in an _ No*, the region between 100 Hz and 4000 Hz in Fig.
extreme case,a deliberatenon-linearcircuit such as a 26 shows a rise from poor low-frequency responseto a
clippernetwork. flattening out from beyond 1000 and 4000 Hz. Therefore,
we can expect that the higherfrequencycomponentsin the
3. The third is delay or phase distortion. which is 100 Hz squarewave will be relativelynormal in amplitude
distortion producedby a shift in phasebetweenone or and phasebut that the lower frequencycomponentsin this
more componentsof a complexwaveform. -same-square wave will be strongly modified by the poor
low-frequencyresponseof this amplifier.SeeFig. 27A.-
In actual practice,a reductionin amplitudeof a square
wave component (sinusoidalharmonic)is usuallycausedby
a frequency-selectivenetwork which includes capacity,
inductanceor both. The presenceof the C or L introducesa
differen-cein phase angle between components, creating
phase distortion or delay distortion. Therefore, in square
wave testing of practical circuitry, we will usually findthat
the distorted square wave includes a combination of
amplitudeand phasedistortion clues.

ln a typical wide band amplifier, a squarewavecheck


accurately reveals many distortion characteristicsof the
circuit. The response_of an amplifieris indicatedin Fig.26,
revealing poor low-frequency responsealong with over-
r o oH z
compensatedhigh-frequencyboost. A 100 Hz squarewave
applied.to the input of this amplifier will appeai as in Fig. SOUARE
27A. This. figure indicates satisfactorymedium frequency 3YE
response(approximarelyI kHz to 2 kHz) but showspoor
low-frequencyresponse.Next, a 1000 Hz square wave
lpplied to the input of this sameamplifierwill appearas in
Fig. 378. This ligure displaysgood frequencyriiponse in
the region of 1000 to 4000 Hz but clearly revealsthe
overcompensation at the higherl0 kHz regon by the sharp Fig. 27. Resultant 100 Hz and I kHz squarewaves
riseat the top of the leadingedgeof the squarewave. from amplifierin Fig. 26.

If the combination of elementsin this amplifier were


A s a r ule of t h u mb , i t c a n b e s a fe l ys a i d th a t a square such as to only depressthe low frequencycomponents
-would in
wavecan be usedto revealresponse and phaserelationihips the square wave, a curve similar to Fig. 28 be
u p t o t he l5t h or 2 0 th o d d h a rm o n i co r u p ro approxi - obtained. However, reduction in ampliiude to a com,
ma t ely40 t im est h e fu n d a me n taol f th e s q u a rew a vs.' U si ng ponent, as alreadynoted, is usuallycausedby a reactive
this rule of thumb, it is seenthat wide-bandcircuitry wil'i element,causing,in turn, a phaseshift of the component,
requireat leasta two-frequencycheck to properly analyze producing the strong tilt of Fig. 21A. Fig. 29 riveals a
graphicaldevelopmentof a similarly tilted squarewave.The
t[.^.gf plet e s pec tru m In. rh e c a s ei l l u s rri te d -b yFi g.26,a
1.00 H1 ^lqull. wave will encompasscomponentspp ro tilt is seen to be caused by the strong influence of the
about 4000 H.. T9_analyzeabove4000 liz and beyond phase-shifted3rd harmonic. It also becomesevident that
l0,OO0 Hz,a l0O0 Hz squarewaveshould be satisfactory. very slight shifts in phase are quickly shown up by tilt in
the squarewave.

3l
Fi g.30 i ndi cates thc ti l t i n squarew avesha pepr oduced
by a 10" phaseshi ft of a l ow -frequency el ementin a leading
di recti on. Fi g. 3l i ndi catesa l 0o phaseshi it in a low-
frequencycomponenti n a l aggi ngdi recti on.The t ilt s ar e
opposite in the two casesbecauseof the differencein
polarity of the phaseangle in the two casesas can be
checkedthroughalgebraicadditionof components.

F ig. 28. Redu c ti o n of square wave fundalnental


f r equ e n c yc o m p o n e ni tn a t u n e dc i r c u i t .

Ftt OUT-OF.PHASE

Fig. 31. Tilt resultingfrom a phaseshift of funda-


mentalfrequencyn a loggingdirection.

Fig. 32 indicateslow-frequencycomponentswhich
havebeen reducedin amplitudeand shiftedin phase.It will
be noted that these examplesof low-frequencydistortion
are characterizedby changein shapegf the flat top portion
Ft3 d)T trPHA{ of the squarewave.

Fig. 278, previouslydiscussed,revealedhigh-frequency


overshoot produced by rising amplifier responseat the
higher frequencies.It should again be noted that this
overshoot makes itself evident at the top of the leading
F ig. 29. S qua rew a v eti l t re s u l ti n gfro rn 3 rd h arntoni c
edge of the squarewave.This characteristicrelationshipis
phaseshift.
explainedby rememberingthat in a normal well-shaped
squarewave, the sharpriseof the leadingedgeis createdby
the summationof a practicallyinfinite numberof harmonic
components. If an abnormal rise in amplifier response
occursat high frequencies,the high frequencycomponents
in the square wave will be amplified disporportionately
greater than other componentscreating a higher algebraic
sum alongthe leadingedge.

(LEAD)
Ffl O.JTtr PHASE

Fig. 30. Tilt resulting from phase shift of funda'


Fig. 32. Low-frequency component loss and phase
rnental frequencyn a leoding direction.
3hifr.

32
Fig. 33 indicateshigh frequencyboost in an amplifier level value of low frequency voltage, suppliesthe energy for
accompaniedby a lightly damped "shock" transient.The oscillation in the resonant network. If this network in the
sinusoidaltype of diminishingoscillationalong the top of amplifier is reasonablyheavily damped, then a single cycle
the square wave indicates a transient oscillation in a transient oscillation may be produced as indicated in Fig.
relatively high "Q" network in the amplifier circuit. ln this 34.
case, the sudden transition in the squarewave potential Fig. 35 summarizes the preceding explanations and
from a sharply rising,relativelyhigh frequencyvoltage,to a servesas a handy reference.

Fig. 33. Effect of high-frequencyboost and poor Fig. 34. Effect of high-frequency boost and good
damping. damping.

A. Frequency distortion. (amplitude B. low frequency boost (occentu- High frequency lors-No phcrc
reduction ol low frequencT com- oted lundomentsl). shilt.
ponent). No phcse shilt.

D. low lrequency phose shilt. E. Low lrequency loss ond pbose High lrequenca loss ond lor ltt
shilt. guency phcse shilt.

G. High lrequency loss cnd pbcse H. Domped oscillotlon- low trequenca phcrc rhilt (troct
shilt. thiclend by hurn.voltogc).

Fig. 35. Summaryof waveformanalysisfor squarewavetestingof ampliliers.

33
1474CIRCUITDESCRIPTION
Refer to the block diagramof the oscilloscope,
Fig. 36, 160 nanoseconds belore it reachesthe input stageof the
for a circuit breakdown.Referto the schematicdiagramfor main vertical amplifier. The purposeof this delay is to
circuit details. enablethe sweepto be triggeredbefore verticaldeflection
begins,which allowsone to seethe leadingPortionof very
fastrise-timesisnals.
GENERAL
Bisically, the oscilloscopeconsists of two identical MODE LOCIC
verticalpreamplifiers,eachhavingits own input attenuator.
The outputs of the vertical preamplillersare switchedvia The mode of operati on(C H A , C H B . DUAL, ADD) ,
the vertical switch matrix into the delay line driver. The S106, is controlled by lCl03, lCl04, and diodes
ty pe of s wit c hi n g ,i .e ., C H A, C H B , D U A L , o r A D D , i s , e l C l 0 4 Q o u t p u ti s
D l 0 l - D 1 0 8 . U h e n C H A i s s e l e c t e dt h
deterrninedby the mode of operationlogic section. hi gh and the Q l ow , w hi ch reverse bi asesD l 0l and Dl04,
al l ow i ngthe C H A si gnali nto the del ay l i ne dr iver .Dl07
The delay line driver feeds into the delay line, which and Dl08 are forward-biased, preventingthe CH B signal
delaysthe vertical preamplifiersignalsapproximately160 from reachingthe delay line driver. For CH B mode, the
nanoseconds before they reachthe main verticalamplifier. reverseis true.
The main vertical amplifier drives the vertical deflection
platesof the cRT. For DUAL mode, both channelsare displayed as
follows: Below a sweepspeedof 0.5 mSEC/cm,the ICl04
The horizontal deflectionplatesof the CRT are in turn output switchesat a 200 KHZ rate, thus choppingthe A
driven by the horizontal amplifier. The input to the and B vertical signalsfor simultaneousdisplay.The chop-
horizontal amplifier comes from calibrated sweep speed ping signalthat switchesICl04 comes from an oscillator
circuits or from Channel B, via the Channel B trigger formed by two gatesfrom ICl. For sweepspeedsgreater
amplifier, when X-Y operationis selected. than or equal to 0.5 mSEC/cm,the ICl04 output switches
state after every sweep,thereforealternatingthe A and B
The power supply voltagesare fully regulated,and a verticalsignalsfor display.
DC-to-DC converterprovidesa regulated4 KV accelerating
potential to the CRT. When ADD mode is selected,the signalsfrom both
channelsare added algebraicallyand then applied to the
delay line driver. ln this mode both the Q and Q outputsof
VERTICAL PREAMPUFIERS l C l 04 must be hi gh, w hi ch i s done by setti n gbot h t heset
ChannelA and ChannelB preamplifierscontainidenti- and resetlinesof lC 104 low.
cal circuitry and circuit operation is the same for both.
ChannelA is describedbelow.

The vertical input attenuator,S103, has two sections. VERTICAL AMPUFIER


T h e f i r s t p r o v i d e sr a t i o so f 1: 1 , l 0 : l , 1 0 0 : 1 ,a n d 1 0 0 0 : 1 . The output of the delay line feeds into the vertical
T h e s e c o n ds e c t i o np r o v i d e sr a t i o so f l : 1 , 2 : 1 , a n d 5 : 1 . output amplifier. Q40l and Q402 form a differential
Together,the two sectionsgive an attenuationsequenceof amplifier which goesto anotherdifferentialstageQ403 and
l-2-5, with the appropriateexponent.
Q404. Theseconnect to emitter followersQ405 and Q406,
which drive cascodeamplifiers Q408, Q410, and Q4@,
After the first attenuationsection, FET's Ql02a and
Q4l l. Negativefeedbackfrom the cascodeamplifiersgoes
Ql02b form a high-impedanceinput stage of the vertical via invertersQ4l4 and Q4l5 to the basesof Q405 and
preamp. This balanced configuration provides compensa-
Q406. Q412, Q418, and Q413, Q4l 9 com pr isecur r ent
tion for thermal drift and power supply voltage fluctua- sourcesfor the cascodeamplifiers.Emitter followersQ4l6
tions. QlOl and Dl22 are used for negativeover-voltage and Q4l7 help drive the current-source transistors,Q4l8
protection. Positiveover-voltageis clampedby Ql02a. and Q419, whenextra currentis requiredfor fastsignals.

The differential amplifier ICl0l feeds the second TRTGGERCIRCI.JIT


a t t enuat ions ec ti o n . Q l 0 3 th ru Q 1 0 6 , Q l 0 9 and Ql l 0
further amplify the vertical signal before it reachesthe The amplified trigger waveformsfrom CH A and CH B
delay line driver, transistors Ql23 to Q126. Trigger are connected to low-input impedancebuffer amplifier
amplifier Ql07 and Ql08 amplify the signal from the Q127. The TRIGGERING SOURCE switch, 53, setslogic
emittersof Ql05 and Ql06 to providea signalto the sweep D l 1 6 , D l 1 7 ,D I 2 0 , D l 2 l a n d I C l 0 3 ( a a n d b ) , d e t e r m i n -
triggercircuits. ing which channelis usedasa triggersource.The output of
Ql27 reachesthe trigger coupling section via amplifiers
The only difference between the CH A and CH B Q20 and Ql 6, w hereuponi t i s fed to buf f er FET Q l2,
preamplifiers is that the CHB polarity switch, S105, either through a capacitor for AC coupling, or straight
reversesthe polarity of the CH B signal when in the INV through for DC coupling.The TRIGGER couplingswitch is
position. This is accomplished by switching on either s4.
tr ans is t orpair Q l l 9 l Q 1 2 2 , o r Q l 2 0 /Q l 2 l .
If the A U TO LE V E L control , 5201, i s in t he NO RM
posi ti on, the output of Ql 2 i s D C coupl ed t o em it t er
DELAY LINE follower Ql3, which drivesone input (pin 2) of op amp
The delay line is a length of cable which delays the tcs. TRIGGERINGLEVEL control R50 setsa DC levelfor
vertical signal from the delay line.driver for approximately the other input (pin l) of lC5 via Ql4. lC5 acts as a

34
JE
<uJ
zotr
?F:
-5 c3r a?

q)

3 : O.
o
()
3: t,
o
()
att
o
q)
()
GI
So.
t= a

6q ct
12v NUJ
;tr E
xlE
u o 6a. $
I
f-
3:e ? 8s
tr03
lt

96". G)

E;i :iF
f,(J
CCF
CE
o
.E
o
qax n'l <
atr
9eE =0 c'
F=F :H L.
g;$ 6
I z ao
cl
C)
loc
!, ll, J.
i 3= (J
OF o
a o
\o
H-[ (t)

e*i o
rL

d 3 fu? frr
1 "3
6H<
1o.
:i Fcr
z<
zi
TE
(J
=Es
o 6
=uJ

;(' iE" z tt)


sE
(J
FUJ
= !?
otc
o>

arE o-,5
sp3 !p3 i;
i ![ isH
<c
) )
a g
l? l?
u r . ur.
=< t<
:(J
I F
(JG
UJ 5E

35
high-gain differential amp, and when the ratio of the and the optimum value for each sweep speed is auto-
triggeringsignalat pin 2 to DC levelat pin I becomesgreat maticallyset by the SWEEPTIME/CM control.
enough, the ICs output turns on emitter follower Qt S
yhose ou-tputgoes to two gatesfrom lC I that act as logic During XY operation, set by the SWEEPTIME/CM
level buffers.The output from one of thesegatesinitiatei a switch, the CH B trigger amplifier output is fed to the
sweepcyclevia sweepcontrol flip-flop IC I . hori zontalampl i f' i ervi a Ql 9 and Ql 8. l n this m ode, t he
CH B signal controls the horizontal position of the CRT
If the AUTO LEVEL control is in the AUTO posirion, trace.
the out put of Q l 2 i s A C -c o u p l e dto p e a k d e t ectordi odes
Dl3 and Dl4. The filteredpeakgoesto Ql4 which setsthe
D C lev elf or t he l o w e r i n p u t o f IC 5 . T h e o u tp ut of Ql 2 i s
a ls onow A C- c o u p l e dto Q l 3 , w h i c h d ri v e sth e upperi nput BLANKING AND INTENSITY CONTROL
of IC5. This meansthat op amp IC5 will initiatl a rrigger
signal to Ql5 wheneverthe instantaneous voltageof-the The DC voltage on the intensity grid (pin 4 of the
triggering^waveform is a fixed percenrageof the peak CRT) setsthe intensityof the oscilloscope trace.A square
voltageof this samewaveform.Becauseof the AC-coupling wave signalis pulled off the secondaryof the high-voltage
in this triggering mode, any steady-stateDC levels the oscillator transformerT30l and amplified by Q302. The
triggeringwaveformmight be riding on are ignored. peak-to-peaklimits of this squarewaveare determinedby
D306, D307, D309, and the intensityand blankingcontrol
When turned cn by Sl, the PULL AUTO TzuGGER- ci rcui tryQ303, Q304,Q305,and Q313.The squar ewaveis
ING circuit (this is not the AUTO LEVEL circuit above), AC-coupledinto peakdetectordiodesD304 and D305. The
using transistorsQ4, Q5 and Q6, will givea triggerpulseto negativepeak of the squarewavesetsthe DC voltageon the
the reset line of IC2, after a fixed time delay-if no vertical intensity grid. The more negativethis voltagegoes,the less
trigger signalshave arrived from Ql5 during that time. lf the i ntensi ty.l ntensi ty A dj ., V R 302, setst he m axim um
vertical trigger signals remain absent, the sweep will intensity of the trace. The front panel INTENSITY
automaticallybe fired after.eachsweepby IC3, at the end control VR20l adjusts the trace intensity during normal
of the sweepholdoff period. operationby controlling Q303.

HORIZONTAL SWEEP The blanking pulse, which turns the trace intensity
down during its return to the left-hand side of the CRT
When a trigger pulse is receivedat the clock inpur or after each sweep,and which keepsthe trace off prior to the
the reset input of IC2, the Q output (pin 8) goeslow. This beginningof a sweep,is generatedby IC4. Blanking pulses
allows the horizontal ramp integrator to begin the sweep. during the chopping mode of dual-trace operation also
The integator consistsof Ql0, Ql I and the precision come from lC4. The chopping oscillator is madeup of two
sweep timing resistorsand capacitors.The sweepspeedis gatesfrom lC4.
determinedby the RC time constantof the timing resistors
and capacitorsset by the SWEEPTIME/CM control, 52. Intensity modulation,or the Z-axissignal,is provided
by Q306, which DCcouples the Z-axis input jack to the
The output of the integrator,a decreasinglinear ramp, intensitycontrol circuit.
is fed through transistorsQ8 and Q9, and then to the
horizontal amplifier section, Ql7-Q24, which drives the FOWERSIJPPUES
horizontal deflection plates. Another output of the sweep
integrator, giving an increasinglinear ramp, is fed to the +5 Votr Supply.
thresholdinput of sweepholdoff timer IC3 (pin 6). When One output of the l4V secondary of the power
the decreasingramp voltage has swept the scope trace to transformeris rectifiedby diodebridgeD3l9 and regulated
the right-hand limit of the sweep cycle on the CRT, the by Q307,Q308,Q314 thru Q316.
correspondingincreasingramp voltagereachesthe threshold
setting of IC3. This causesthe output of IC3 (pin 3) to go -8 Volt Supply.
low, which sets the Q output of the sweepcontrol flip- . The other output of the l4V secondaryis alsorectified
flop, IC2, high. A high at the Q output turns on transistor by diode bridge D3l9 and regulatedto -8V by lC30la and
Q7, which dischargesthe integrating capacitor and resets Q:og.
the sweep back to the left-hand sweep limit. Simul-
taneously with the Q output going high, the Q output of +120Vott Suppty.
ICZ goes low, which sends a high out of the blanking The l20V secondary of the power transformer is
control gate (lCl pin ll). This turns the trace intensity rectified by diode bridge D320 and is regulatedby zener
down, so you cannot seeit being resetto the left sideof the d i o d eD 3 1 8 .
CRT.
+ 107V ottS uppty.
The sweepholdoff time delay capacitor connected to T h e l l O V s u p p l v i s r e g u l a t e dd o w n r o + 1 0 7 V b v
IC3 pin 2 is dischargingthrough R24 into IC3 pin 7, which l C 3 0 lb a n d Q 3I 0 .
went low when thresholdwas reachedat IC3 pin 6. When
the holdoff time delay cap has dischargedro lessthan 1.6 IIIG H.VOLTAGE SI.JPPLY
volts, the timer output, IC3 pin 3, is triggeredhigh. This
arms lC2 for the next triggerpulse,comingeither from the Q30l and the pri maryof T30l form the oscillat orof a
clock line input or from the reset input when Q6 of the DC-to-DCconverterfor the high-voltagesupply.Regulation
AUTO TRIGGERING circuit is turned on. Along with pin i s achi evedby feedbacktransi stors
Q3l 2 a nd Q 3 | I . The
3, pin 7 of lC3 also goeshigh and allows the holdoff time secondaryvoltagesof T30l are rectified and llltered to
delay capacitorto chargeup again.The length of the sweep provide the voltages for the CRT focus grid, anode.
boldoff is determined by the capacitor tied to IC3 pin 2, cathode.and heater.

36
1474 CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE

The calibration adjustmentsoutlined here are those


BALANCE ADJUSTMENTS
which can be performedwith a minimum of specializedtest
equipment. Additional internal adjustments-offrequency
l. Adjust controls to obtain a horizontd trace (CH A or
compensationand horizontal sweeplinearity shouldhot b-e
cH B).
attempted without complete service iniormation and
specified tes-t equipment. Requestsfor complete service
2. Adjust POSITION control to centerthe tracevertically
information for this oscilloscopeshould be addiessedto:
on the CRT.
B & K-Precision, Factory Service Department 3. Rotate VARIABLE control from ma,ximum ccw to
Maxtec International Corp. maximum cw while observingthe trace.
6470 Wesr Cortland Street
Chicago, Illinois 60635 4. If the trace movesvertically while performing Step 3,
T e l : (3 1 2 )8 8 9 -1 4 4 8 adjust CH A or CH B DC BAL control (VRl0i or
VRl06) so that vertical movement of trace is mini-
. Internal adjustmentsoutlined in the calibration pro- mized while performing Step 3.
cedure can be located by referenceto Fig. 37 through'40.
5. Re-positiontrace verticallyat centerscreen.
UNE VOLTAGE SELECTION
6. Rotate VOLTS/CM switch from .lV/cm to .2Vlcm to
l. PJug the AC Line Voltage Selector into the position
.SV/cm while observingthe trace.
that correspondsto the AC line voltageavailabli:
7. If the trace movesvertically while performing Step 6,
Line Voltage
adjust the CH A or CH B ATTEN BAL controt(VR103
Selector Line Voltage Fuse or VRl08) so that the vertical movement of the rrace
l00v 1 0 0 v . !t0 % .7A is minimized.
l20v l05v to l30v .7A
220V 220V,!tO% 3A VERTICAL GAIN ADJUSTMENT
240V 240V,ttO% .3A
l. Connect CH A V input to the CAL signdjack.
2. Installfuseof properratingasindicatedabove.
2. Set CH A VOLTS/CM switch to .lV/cm and VARI-
ABLE control to CAL. A squarewave, 5 cm t 2 mm
HOUSINGREMOVAL
high, should be seen.
l. Remove
6 screws
andfift off top cover. 3. If greater or less, rotate VR40l on Main Vertical
2. Remove Amplifier Board(Fig.38) for 5 cm.
4 screws
andlift off bottomcover.
4. Connect CAL Signalto CH B.

5. Set CH B VOLTS/CM switch to .lV/cm and VARI.


GRATICULE REMOVAL ABLE control to CAL. A squarewave, 5 cm t 2 mm
high, should be seen.
l. Grasp bezel with both handsat top and bottom. hrll
bezel uniformly forward to unlock mounting legsfrom 6. If greater or less, rotate VRI l0 on Vertical pre-
front panel. &ution should be used to tceel bezel amplifier Board (Fig. 37) for 5 cm.
parallgl to front panel when removing to avoid break-
oge of mounting legs.
HORIZONTA L TI I\{ING ADJ USTMENT
2. Lift off graticulefrom bezel.
The following adjusrmentshould be attempted only if
a pg[g generaror of better than l% timng accuracy is
3. Re-insertgraticuleon bezel and snap bezelinto front
panelmountingholes. available.

l. Connect a pulse generatorto the CH A input. Rotate


SWEEP TIME/CM tO I MSEC/CMANd VNNTNBTE
CRT ROTATION ADJUSTMENT cbntrol to CAL.

L Loosentwo screwson rearpanelCRT cover. 2. Adjust generatorfor l0 pulses,I mSEC apart.

2. Grasp cover and rotate to align horizontaltrace with 3. {djus1^VRl5 on Horizontal Ampiifier Sweep Board
(Fig. 39) for I pulseeverycm.
horizontalgraticuleline.

3. Tightentwo screws. 4. Adust VR6 as requiredfor a sweeplength greaterthan


l0 cm.

37
f-'l F-a
L-J I.-J
VRl06 VR108

V R I O l - C HA V A R I .A T T D C B A L
V R l O 3 . C HA S T E PA T T D C B A L
Q vRrrz VR1O6.CB H V A R I .A T T D C 8 A L
VR1O8.CH B S T E PA T T D C B A L
TCrOT VR113.CH A D C T R I G .L E V E LA D J .
V R l O s . C HA D I S P L A YC E N T E RA O J .
O O rcro6 V R I I O . C HB G A I N A O J .
TCl12 V R l l I . C H8 H O R I Z O N T A L G A I NA D J .
O Orctto VR112.CH B D I S P L A YC E N T E RA D J .
VR113.CH A D CT R I G G E R I N G L E V E LA D J .
O Orcroe vRttl T C I O l . C HA 1 / I OR A N G ES O U A R EW A V EA D J .
TCt09 T C l O 2 . C HA I / I O R A N G EI N P U TC A P A C I T YA D J .
O Qvnrro T C l O 3 . C HA 1 / I O OR A N G ES O U A R EW A V E A O J .
VRI l3 T C I O 4 . C HA I / 1 O OR A N G EI N P U TC A P A C I T YA D J .
o T C I O s . C HA T / I M O R A N G ES O U A R EW A V E A O J .
T C l O 6 . C HB I / 1 0 R A N G ES O U A R EW A V E A D J .
TCl02 TCIOT.CH B 1 / I O R A N G EI N P U TC A P A C I T YA D J .
o O rctot T C l O 8 . C HB 1 / 1 O O R A N G ES O U A R EW A V E A D J .
T C I O g . C H8 I / I O O R A N G EI N P U TC A P A C I T YA D J .
TCl11 T C l I O . C HB 1 / I O O O R A N G ES O U A R EW A V E A D J .
Q rcr os T C l 1 1 . C HA 1 / 1 O OR OA N G EI N P U TC A P A C I T YA D J .
T C I l 2 . C H B 1 / l O O OR A N G EI N P U TC A P A C I T YA D J .
o
TCr04
O rcros TC113
o T C I I 3 . C H A H I G H F R E O U E N C YR E S P O N SA ED J .

O vRlos F O I LS I O EV I E W

VRl03
r -'t
L-J
VR101

Fig. 37. Calibrationlocations,vertical pre-amplifierboard.

o TC4O3
QvnaOS
o vR403
Q vnrcr
Q rcaor
O vR402
O ttlot o rc4o4
VR4O4 \,'

F O I LS I D EV I E W

V R 4 O 1_ V E R T I C A LG A I N A D J .
V R 4 O 2_ C R T C E N T E RA D J .
T C 4 O I- H I G H F R E O U E N C YR E S P O N SAED J , ( 1 I
T C 4 O 2- H I G H F R E O U E N C YR E S P O N SAED J . ( 2 }
T C 4 O 3- M I D F R E O U E N C Y R E S P O N SAED J .
T C 4 O 4_ H I G H F R E O U E N C Y
R E S P O N SAED J .
vR4o3- Arcx FREouENcy RESpoNSE ADJ
V R 4 O 4_ M I O F R E O U E N C YR E S P O N SAED J .
_
V R 4 O 5 H I G HF R E O U E N C Y R E S P O N SAED J .
Fig. 3E. Calibration locations, main vertical amplifier board.

38
V R l _ C A L . ( 0 . 5 V P . P IV O L T A G EA D J .
V R 2 - C A L . O V L E V E LF R E O U E N C Y ADJ.
V R 3 - C A L . O . s VL E V E L F R E O U E N C YA D J .
- y
V R s H I G H S P E E DS W E E Pl O . 2 S E C )T I M I N G A D J .
V R 6 - S W E E PL E N G T HA D J .
VR7 _ TRIGGERING S L O P EB A L A N C EA D J .( 1 }
O vnts V R g _ A U T O L E V E LA D J .
V R I O _ M A G C E N T E RA D J .
V R 1 1- D C T R I G G E R I N G L E V E LA D J .
v R 7o V R I 2 - C H B ( H O R I Z O N T A LPI O S I T I O N ADJ.
Qvnta V R 1 3 - H O R I Z O N T A LP O S I T I O N C E N T E RA D J .
VRl 1 V R l 4 _ M A GG A I N A D J .
vReo o o O Ovnrg V R 1 5_ T I M I N GA D J .
VRlO V R 12 T C I - H I G HS P E E OS W E E P( 1 p S E C' 5 0 p S E C )T I M I N GA D J .
T C 2 - H I G HS P E E DS W E E P( 0 . 5s S E c l T I M I N GA D J .
V R 1 6_ T R I G G E R I N G S L O P EB A L A N C EA D J . ( 2 }

F O I LS I D EV I E W

Fig. 39. Calibrationlocations,horizontal amplilier/sweepboard.

C)vR3o4
o vR303
VERTICAL
PRE.AMPLIFIER
BOARD O vR3o2

O rcgot
O vngot

F O I LS I D EV I E W
V R 3 O I _ P A T T E R ND I S T O R T I O NC O M P E N S A T I O N
V R 3 O 2- I N T E N S I T YA D J .
v R 3 0 3 - - 1 . 9k v A D J .
V R 3 O 4- + 1 0 7 V A D J .
T C 3 O I- g L A N K I N G P U L S EC O M P E N S A T I O N

Fig 40. Calibration locations, power supply board.

39
WARRANTY SERYICE INSTRUCTIONS
(For U.S.A. and its OverseasTerritories)

l. Referto the MAINTENANCE sectionof your B & K-Precisioninstructionmanual


for adjustmentsthat may be applicable.

2. If the above-mentioned doesnot correctthe problemyou are experiencingwith


your unit, pack it securely(preferablyin the original carton or double-packed).
Enclosea letterdescribingthe problemand includeyour nameand address.Deliver
to, or ship PREPAID (UPS preferredin U.S.A.) to the nearestB & K-Precision
authorizedserviceagency(seelist enclosedwith unit).

lf your list of authorizedB & K-Precision


serviceagencies
hasbeenmisplaced, con-
tact your distributorfor the nameof your nearestserviceagency,or write to:

B & K-Precision,FactoryServiceDepartment
MaxtecInternationalCorp.
6470WestCortland Street
Chicago,Illinois 60635
Tel:(312)889-1448

Also use the aboveaddressfor technicalinquiriesand replacementparts orders.

40