2009 Edition

 

 
                                       

2007 Edition

..................................       Find out which multivitamin products really work........................................ Only    49 were judged as having adequate ratios of nutrients........................ 6  .............. as many as 78 million Americans use  multivitamins on a regular basis..................... 15  Appendix D: Do medical authorities recommend vitamin supplements? ..... 6  .......................... Appendix B: Definition of the 14 comparison criteria ................................................................ Appendix A: Full list of multivitamin products and their scores  ..    But are you getting what you’re paying for?    A study conducted at Yale New Haven Hospital tested 257 vitamin products.  According to a recent national health survey..................... 4  Price and availability of top nutritional supplements .............         Contents:    What is the source of this information? .......................................................................... 2  What are the optimal doses for each vitamin and mineral? .............. 5  How do the commonly‐available vitamin brands compare?  ..........The Multivitamin Guide                       Vitamin supplements are becoming increasingly popular.................................... 3  What is the score of the multivitamins you are taking? ............. 2  How is the comparison made? .............. 13  Appendix C: Why take vitamin supplements? ................ 3  What are the findings of the comparison? ............................................... 16    -1- ............

Antioxidant Triad  2. Bioavailability   10. This  guide is the culmination of over six years of research and  analysis in this area. Bioactivity of Vitamin E   5.amazon. Completeness   8. BSc. Mr. high quality nutritional products. Phenolic Compound Profile  6. is a respected  biochemist and a former member of Canadian Parliament. BSc. This is the most comprehensive. MacWilliam identified over 1000 multivitamin formulas. a Product Score. FP    In this comparative study.  on the market in North America  Lyle MacWilliam. Cardiac Health Triad   12. MSc. From these 14 criteria. The  development of each criterion was based on scientific evidence available in the latest  published medical literature.  science‐based comparison of multivitamin products  published to date. Bone Health Complex   14. The 14 comparison criteria are as follows:    1. MSc. For more in‐depth  information. based on a percentage ranking.    How is the comparison made?  Fourteen criteria were used to compare the short‐listed 510 multivitamin products. is  calculated. Potential Toxicities    For an in‐depth explanation of each of the 14 comparison criteria please refer to  Appendix B. He then short‐ listed 510 of these products for further analysis and comparison.    Please note that this document provides only a high level  summary of the findings of the guide. it is recommended you purchase a copy of the  guide from www. Metabolic Support  11. FP. He  was commissioned by the Canadian Minister of Health to  develop a new regulatory framework to ensure people have  access to safe. Potency   9. Lipotropic Factors   7.com. Homocysteine Reduction Triad   13.  which were available on the market in the United States and Canada.   Lyle MacWilliam.The Multivitamin Guide What is the source of this information?  The information in this document comes from the third‐ edition of the Comparative Guide to Nutritional  Supplements (ISBN: 0973253800) written by Lyle  MacWilliam. A score approaching 100% represents a product that possesses those  -2- . Glutathione Support  3. effective.    This guide provides the most  The author of the Comparative  comprehensive comparison of vitamin  supplements available   Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Bioflavonoid Profile  4.

 This Standard includes the 39 essential ingredients. MacWilliam assessed all 510 products he assigned each of them a score from  1% to 100%. The author believed that a score of 80% and above  was commendable. if any.     What are the optimal doses for each vitamin and mineral?  The “Blended Standard” represents the optimal quantities of vitamins and minerals  individuals should be taking every day according to the latest research in the area of  nutritional supplementation. Douglas  Laboratories.8% 5 90. a low percent score represents a  product possessing few. potency and bioavailability. listed  in the table below alongside with their recommended daily dose:    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Vitamin A Vitamin D3 Vitamin K* Biotin Folic Acid Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 complex Vitamin B5 VitaminB6 Vitamin B12 beta-Carotene Coenzyme Q10 Lipoic Acid Para-Aminobenzoic Acid Vitamin C Vitamin E Bioflavonoids (mixed) Phenolic compounds Procyanidolic Oligomers 7500 IU 350 IU 180 ug 200 ug 400 ug 50 mg 43 mg 75 mg 75 mg 63 mg 300 ug 12. Vitamin Research Products. 100% being the highest.4% 8     The top four manufacturers listed above ‐ USANA Health Sciences. The products which scored above 80% are listed in the table below:    Company USANA Health Sciences Douglas Laboratories Vitamin Research Products Source Naturals Source Naturals USANA Health Sciences FreeLife Life Extension Foundation Product Essentials (U.1% 1 95.4% 2 93. Conversely. of the characteristics for optimal nutrition.2% 6 82.1% 3 92.8% 4 91. and Source Naturals – are considered to set  the standard for nutritional supplement quality.  Surprisingly only 8 out of the 510 products were able to surpass  this benchmark.) Ultra Preventive X Extended Plus Life Force Multiple Elan VitaI Essentials (Canadian) Basic Mindell Plus Life Extension Mix Score Rank 96.3% 7 81.S.500 IU 45 mg 35 mg 35 mg 2.    -3- .The Multivitamin Guide characteristics for optimal nutrition.000 mg 500 IU 555 mg 25 mg 75 mg 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 n-Acetyl-l-Cysteine l-Carnitine Choline Inositol Lecithin Boron* Calcium Chromium Copper Iodine Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Potassium Selenium Silicon Vanadium Zinc 56 mg 750 mg 59 mg 125 mg 350 mg 3 mg 800 mg 275 ug 2 mg 100 ug 23 mg 450 mg 7 mg 63 ug 300 mg 150 ug 8 mg 75 ug 23 mg * Not availab le in Canadian products     What are the findings of the comparison?  After Mr.

 arthrosclerosis.6% 22. Quixtar) Nutrition Dynamics One A Day Puritan's Pride Purity Products Safeway Select Sundown Rite Aid Shaklee Solgar SupraLife Thompson TwinLab USANA Health Sciences Vitamin Power Vitamin W orld W algreens YourLife Product Basic #3 Performance Edge for W omen Forte Spectra W oman Forward Multi-Nutrient Complete Mega Men's Formula 2 Mega-Vim Level 4 Potency Daily Multivitamin Lifecycles for W omen Glycentials Vitality Pak (Mel-VIta.7% 66.5% 56. stroke.9% 45. -4- .1% 14.0% 17.2% 51. Julian W hitaker's Equate GNC Herbalife Jamieson Kirkland Signature (Costco) Lifestyles Mannatech Melaleuca Metagenics Nature Made Nikken Nutrilite (Amway.1% 26.     Using a multivitamin product with a score of 80% or above is strongly advised.2% 8.5% 33.2% 96.1% 37. Mela-Cal) Multigenics Intensive Care Formula Essential Mega Bio-Directed Multi-Vltamin/Mineral Double X Day Start/Day End Essentials Active Green Source Iron Free Perfect Multi Focus Formula Super W omen's Multivitamin Complete Ultra W hole Source Basics with Iron Omnium Maxum Essentials Human Nature Green Multi Mega 6 Caps Essentials Power Source 100 Daily 3 W ith Antioxidant Factors Ultra Choice Premium W omen Super Multi with Herbs Score Rank 46.1% 6.5% 104 120 442 17 13 430 255 319 376 416 323 181 402 82 292 353 201 32 419 156 16 209 382 403 200 62 91 203 63 1 215 108 247 391     Given that the benchmark for product excellence is 80%.    Company Atkins Bronson Laboratories Centrum DaVinci Laboratories Dr. diabetes.8% 4.2% 14.0% 63.1% 68.8% 9.1% 43.The Multivitamin Guide What is the score of the multivitamins you are taking?  In order to find the Product Score of the multivitamin product you are taking please  refer to Appendix A where all 510 evaluated products are listed in alphabetic order  alongside with their Product Score.9% 21.9% 11.0% 5. and arthritis.1% 30.5% 48.1% 6.7% 4.2% 30.9% 28.1% 7.8% 74.    The table below provides a summary of the Product Scores of some of the more popular  vitamin brands available on the market.3% 56. it is obvious that the great  majority of multivitamin products on the market do not provide adequate protection  against diseases. such as cancer.9% 29.0% 5.

 the superior quality of the raw materials used in the  preparation of the product. such as  supermarkets and vitamin stores.    -5- .The Multivitamin Guide Price and availability of top nutritional supplements  Nutritional supplements with a product score of 80% and above are typically several  times more expensive than low‐end multivitamins that can be found in grocery stores.05 $1.95 $73.50 $2.90 $2. the recommended daily dose.52 $2.00   In terms of product availability.50 Contents 224 tablets 240 tablets 360 capsules 180 capsules 180 tablets 60 packets 315 tablets Daily Dose 8 8 12 8 6 2 9 Cost/Day $1.  The table below provides a detailed cost comparison of the top‐ranked nutritional  supplements.75 $69. all of the above companies have chosen to  employ a direct selling method whereby they bypass the traditional distribution channel  and instead deliver the product directly to consumers.) Ultra Preventive X Extended Plus Life Force Multiple Elan VitaI Basic Mindell Plus Life Extension Mix Price $42. as well as. as well as. one thing all high‐end multivitamin products have in  common is that they are not available through regular retail outlets.50 $52. As a result. In that way they are able to  eliminate the high markups distributors charge and offer their premium products at a  lower price than would otherwise be possible.50 $61. These numbers are then used to  calculate the products’ Cost‐Per‐Day.10 Availability Online Online Online Online Online Online Online   The diagram below provides a visual comparison of the cost‐per‐day for the top  multivitamin brands:    Cost‐Per‐Day Comparison       USANA Health Sciences   Douglas Laboratories     Vitamin Research Products   Source Naturals (Life Force)     Source Naturals (Elan Vital)     FreeLife   Life Extension Foundation   $1.95 $42. the number of tablets in a single  package.50 $69.31 $2.    Product Cost of Top Multivitamin Brands  Company USANA Health Sciences Douglas Laboratories Vitamin Research Products Source Naturals Source Naturals FreeLife Life Extension Foundation Product Essentials (U.S. This is due to their higher production cost. which  comes as a result of the extensive Research and Development programs these  companies finance.33 $2. The table lists the price of each product.77 $1.

usana. The main reasons behind the popularity of these brands are their low cost and  their widespread availability through a variety of retail outlets. Unfortunately none of  the above products are very effective from a medical point of view. One‐A‐Day  and Equate multivitamins have Product Scores of 4.7%.     The diagram below provides a visual depiction of the Price versus Effectiveness  relationship of the most popular multivitamin brands. One‐A‐Day. and  Equate. 5. and 4. Effectiveness Comparison  High USANA Vitamin Research Product Effectiveness Douglas Labs Amway Equate GNC One-A-Day Centrum Low Low Product Price High For more information on the top three products visit:    USANA Health Sciences  http://www. relative to the top‐ranked  nutritional supplements.cfm?litm=45410‐244X#    Vitamin Research  http://www.com/webhosting/catalog    Douglas Labs  http://www. For simplicity reasons only the top three nutritional  supplements were included in this comparison.The Multivitamin Guide How do the commonly‐available vitamin brands compare?  The most commonly‐available multivitamin brands are Centrum.1%.    Price vs.com/product.vrp.  while GNC multivitamins (which retail at a slightly higher price) have a score of 21%. GNC.com/index.9% respectively. Centrum.aspx    -6- .douglaslabs.

6% 4.5% 4.2% 18.4% 35.2% 16.9% 20.6% 10.1% 57.7% 0.4% 14.3% 14.6% 5.1% 21.1% 54.9% 60.9% 5.9% 49.9% 26.3% 0.9% 18.5% 43.9% 10.8% 45.2% 57.8% 38.7% 34.8% 31.1% 19.5% 10.2% 4.6% 63.7% 69.8% 44.1% 49.0% 9.6% 21.3% 10.2% 7.7% 21.3% 0.7% 5.7% 3. Bluebonne t Body W ise Inte rnationa l Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Bronson La boratories Ca rlson Ce ll Te ch Ce ll Te ch Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Ce ntrum Club Vitamin Colgan Institute Comprehe nsive Formula Comprehe nsive Formula Coope r Coope r Country Life Country Life Country Life Country Life Country Life Country Life Creative Nutrition Cana da Creative Nutrition Cana da Cypress (Star 2000) Da Vinci La bora torie s Product Advanced 21 w ith Lutein One Daily Maximum One Daily Men's Therapeutic-M W ith Lute in BioVita Mins Type II BioVita mins Type III BioVlta Mins Type I MultiPlex Stress Formula Dieters' Multi's Action-Tabs Ma de for Me n Action-Tabs Ma de for W ome n Essential Nutrie nts Multi-Vltamines et Mineraux Complete MultiVltamin/Mine ral w ith Iron Complete MultiVltamin/Mine ral w ithout Iron Ma ximum MultiVita min/Mine ral w ithout Iron Ma ximum Pote ncy MultiVita min/Mine ral w ith Iron Gold Rocky Mountain Multiple Super One a Da y Super One Plus Multiple Vitamins a nd Minerals EDP Basic Multi-Vi-Min Multi-Vi-Min w ithout Copper and Iron Alpha ENF Ultima te Da ily Added Protection III Ba sic Preventive 1 Ba sic Preventive 2 Ba sic Preventive 3 Ba sic Preventive 4 Ba sic Preventive 5 Ba sic Preventive w ith Ex tra D Essential Basics Ma ximum Complete for Men Ma ximum Complete for W omen Profile 5 Ba sic #1 Ba sic #3 Immune VitAdvance Me n's Complete Multivita min VitAdvance W omen's Complete I Bala nce d Multi VitAdvance W omen's Complete II Balance d Multi Multiple Vitamins & Minerals Phytobec #1 Super Earth Formula Right Choice AM/PM Advanced Mature Gold Fortifie d Vitamin & Mine ral Insurance Formula Ma ture Formula Me n's Complete Formula w ith 7-Keto Pe rformance Edge for Men Pe rformance Edge for W ome n Multi-Gel Alpha Sun Omega Sun Ce ntrum Forte Pe rformance Protegra Se lect Se lect Che w ables Se lect Che w ables for Adults ove r 50 Se lect for Adults over 50 Silver Be st Formula MCS Me n's W ome n's Complete Complete w ith Iron Adult's Multi Da ily Vege taria n Support Hi Pote ncy Action 75 Ma x for Me n Ma xine Ve giCa ps PLUS Formula PRIME Formula MultiVltamin w ith Minerals Da ily Best Country US US US US US US US US US US US US CA US US US US US CA CA CA US US US US CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA US CA/US US US US US US US US US US US CA/US US CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA/US CA US US Score ¹ 4.0% 4.5% 30.0% 33.9% 60.8% 45.1% 14.0% 4.4% 9.2% 4.0% 51.8% 38.0% 32.3% 7.2% 46.The Multivitamin Guide Appendix A: Full list of multivitamin products and their scores  (sorted by company name)  Company 21st Ce ntury 21st Ce ntury 21st Ce ntury 21st Ce ntury 4Life 4Life 4Life 4Life Absolute Nutrition Action Labs Action Labs Action Labs Adrien Gagnon (Sa nte Naturelle ) Advanced Physicia n's Products Advanced Physicia n's Products Advanced Physicia n's Products Advanced Physicia n's Products Advocare Albi Imports Albi Imports Alive Vitamins All One Pow de r Allergy Re search Group Allergy Re search Group Allergy Re search Group Alpha Nutrition American Longevity amni amni amni amni amni amni amni amni Andre w Le ssman's Andre w Le ssman's Apex Fitne ss Group Atkins Atkins Atkins Avon Avon Avon Ba sic Nutrition Bio Actif Inc.0% 21.3% 3.2% 59.2% 54.7% 5.3% 4.0% 11.6% 43.9% 49.2% 44.0% 4.6% 60.8% 43.2% 59.6% 18.6% 33.8% 52.4% 1.5% 24.0% 52.1% 60.6% 59.3% 16.4% 15.9% Rank ² 429 413 394 453 178 119 251 406 216 495 502 460 367 89 90 53 52 168 174 355 260 87 286 297 278 248 39 15 41 46 42 47 45 43 76 195 193 296 146 104 322 356 361 362 461 315 71 74 290 179 378 252 121 120 107 497 498 482 442 415 395 454 474 443 423 444 477 30 328 348 106 149 370 115 234 184 124 273 66 73 326 249   -7- .2% 8.

3% 57.6% 95.5% 4.0% 19.4% 82.6% 14.9% 15.9% 4.3% 3.9% 10.5% 31.5% 8.8% 55.2% 66.0% 3.Total Nutrition Tablet Greens+ Multi+ Formula 2 Formula 2 Sterling Summit Gold Multi-Spectrum Immuvit Total NRG Lift Adult's 50+ Vita -Vim Me ga-Vim Leve l 4 Potency Pow er Vita mins for Men Super Vita -Vim Multi 1-to-3 Multi E-Z Pow de r W ome n's Multi Stop Aging Now ! Stop Aging Now ! Plus Country US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA US US US CA CA US US US CA CA US US CA US US US CA CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA US US US US US US US US US CA US US US US US CA CA US US US CA US CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US Score ¹ 63.0% 4.3% 54.5% 45.5% 58.7% 4.7% 1.6% 64.2% 34.8% 20.8% 42.9% 62.6% 10.8% 21.7% 37.1% 35.5% 58.8% 43.5% 28.2% 44.1% 9.8% 51.6% 10.1% 20.9% 4.6% 42.7% 2.5% 4.9% 75.3% 37.4% 15.7% 48.7% 40.7% 47. Julian W hitaker's EAS EcoNugenics EcoNugenics EHN Inc.5% 62.0% 7.7% 58.8% 20.4% 9.1% 46.9% 24. Julian W hitaker's Dr.6% 21.0% 3.0% 66.0% 5.8% 23.5% 66.7% 29.3% 17.3% 40.8% 0. Enerex Enzymatic The rapy Enzymatic The rapy Epic4Health Equate Equate Equate Equate Equate Essentials by Mega food Essentials by Mega food Essentials by Mega food Flora Flora FoodScience of Ve rmont FoodScience of Ve rmont FoodScience of Ve rmont FoodScience of Ve rmont FoodScience of Ve rmont For Mor Interna tional For Mor Interna tional Freeda Vitamins Freeda Vitamins Freeda Vitamins FreeLife Future biotics Future biotics Future biotics Garry Null's Garry Null's Genestra (Seroyal) Gerbe x Geritol GNC GNC GNC GNC GNC GNC GNC GNC Golde n Ne o-Life Diamite Interna tiona l Good Neighbor Pha rma cy Good Neighbor Pha rma cy Great Earth Great Earth Greens+ Greens+ He rba life He rba life Hillestad Pharmace utica ls Hillestad Pharmace utica ls Holista Hea lth Immuvit Inno-Vite Ja mie son Ja mie son Ja mie son Ja mie son Ja rrow Ja rrow Ja rrow Je an Carper's Je an Carper's Product Omni Spectra Spectra Ma n Spectra Ve geta rian Spectra w ithout Copper and Iron Spectra W oman Me ga Veggie Vites Me ga Vites Senior Me ga Vites w ithout Copper & Iron Me ga Vites W oman UItraNutrie nt Ultra Preve ntive Be ta Ultra Preve ntive III Ultra Preve ntive IX Ultra Preve ntive X Ultra Vita 75 II Forw a rd Multi-Nutrient Forw a rd Multi-Nutrient Multi-Blend Me n's Longevity Essentials Plus W ome n's Longe vity Rhythms Gold protect+ Sona Doctor's Choice for Men Doctor's Choice for W omen Physician's Multi Vitamin Formula Ce ntury Comple te Ce ntury Plus Complete Complete Mature Multi-Vitamin & Minerals Essentials for Life Essentials for W ome n One Daily for Men MultiCaps MultiTabs Da ily Best Me n's Supe rior Superior Care Total Care W ome n's Supe rior AnOx Oral Chela te Quinta bs-M Ultra Freeda Iron-Free Ultra Freeda w ith Iron Ba sic Mindell Plus Hi Ene rgy Multi for Men Multi-Vitamin Energy Plus for W omen Ve geta rian Super Multi Super AM Formula Supreme Health Formula Super Orti-Vite Ge rivol Complete Me ga Men's Preventron SoloCa ps Solotron w ithout Iron Ultra Mega Gold w ithout Iron Ultra Mega Gre en Ultra Mega Tw o w ithout Iron W ome n's Ultra Mega Formula IV Ba lanced Care Complete Multi Ce ntury Se nior Super Hy-Vites-Ultra Stre ngth/Timed Rele ase TNT .3% 63.1% 13.1% 70.The Multivitamin Guide Company Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Da Vinci La bora torie s Doctor's Nutrition Doctor's Nutrition Doctor's Nutrition Doctor's Nutrition Doctor's Nutrition Dougla s La bora tories Dougla s La bora tories Dougla s La bora tories Dougla s La bora tories Dougla s La bora tories Dr.2% 0.7% 64.7% 31.5% 64.2% 14.5% Rank ² 29 23 33 93 26 17 122 67 27 18 64 11 14 20 2 306 13 48 38 265 54 383 262 126 109 192 478 445 430 446 486 79 172 263 358 359 250 34 24 333 28 129 331 494 225 240 7 137 279 138 294 98 114 503 480 255 368 360 385 155 100 231 207 504 424 447 202 94 318 151 314 319 259 274 165 462 309 463 376 479 380 153 92 191 49 50   -8- .5% 25.2% 74.4% 21.7% 62.4% 16.4% 48.6% 64.5% 48.7% 13.3% 18.6% 7.8% 37.

7% 20.7% 9.0% 12. Iron-Free Multi-Four Multiple Energy Ve geta rian Multiple Vitality for W omen HIM Ma xxum 2 Ma xxum 4 Da ily Multivitamin Kirkma n's Everyday Kirkma n's Supe r Nu-The ra Ta blets Ve gica ps Advanced Formula Complete Multi Max US-100 Multi-vitamines Sw ica l Ene rgy Optimum Optimum 50+ Spectrum Forte Life Ex tension Mix Body Balance Da ily Bio-Basics TVM-Plus Da ily Essentials.2% 3.2% 28.7% 66.7% 27.0% 41.9% 21.6% 18.2% 3. Perricone .5% 56.3% 36. MD Na tional Vitamin Compa ny Na trol Na trol Na trol Na tura l Fa ctors Na tura l Fa ctors Na tura l Fa ctors Na ture Ma de Na ture Ma de Na ture 's Answ e r Na ture 's Blend Na ture 's Blend Na ture 's Bounty Na ture 's Bounty Na ture 's Bounty Na ture 's Bounty Na ture 's Life Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Plus Na ture 's Sunshine Na ture 's Sunshine Na ture 's Sunshine Na ture 's W ay Na ture 's W ay Na ture 's W ay Product Enhanced Energy w ith Lutein.9% 36.2% 37.3% 9.2% 31.2% 40.4% 2. plus Ca lcium Complete Lifecycles for Mature Me n Lifecycles for Mature W ome n Lifecycles for Men Lifecycles for W ome n Nutrilife Multivitamin Multi Premium Multi-Vitamin Select Premie r Fe mmEsse ntials (multiple only) Glycentials GlycoLEAN Catalyst Isotonix Multite ch Multivitamin Ma tolife Advanced Gree n Multi Vitality Pak (Me l-VIta.3% 0. Mela-Cal) Multigenics Inte nsive Ca re Formula Multigenics Inte nsive Ca re Formula w ithout Iron Active Senior Tabs for Me n for W omen Just One Preventamins Multi-mune Allervimin Bio-Na tura lvite De rma -Vite s More Than A Multiple Me n's Supe rior Superior Care W ome n's Supe rior Physician's Super Antiox ida nt Vitamin.1% 33.7% 35.4% 12.7% 11.6% 23.2% 19.5% 7.8% 14.2% 44.0% 5.1% 12.1% 19.6% 8.7% 56.6% 4. Minera l & Phyto-Nutrient Fo Life-line Mega Multi w ith Minera ls My Favorite Multiple Comple te Care My Favorite Multiple Origina l My Favorite Multiple Take One MultiStart MultiStart Men's MultiStart W omen's Essential Balance Essential Mega Multi-Daily Ma ximum Daily Gre en Vitaminix Ultimate Green Source Vege taria n Formula Me ga Vita Min for W ome n Time Rele ase Ultra Man Time Release Ultra Vita-Time Iron Free Green Multi Re generation Source of Life No Iron Uitra One Ultra II Ultra-One Iron-Free Sustaine d Re lease Super Supplementa l Vitamins and Minera ls Super Supplementa l w ithout Iron SynerPro Age Right Formula Alivel W hole Food Energize r (lron-Fre e) Completia Ultra Ene rgy Multi (lron-Fre e) Country US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US CA/US CAlUS CA/US CA/US CA CA CA CA CA CA US US CA/US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA CA CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US Score ¹ 49.2% 65.7% 29.6% 58.The Multivitamin Guide Company KAL KAL KAL KAL KAL KAL Ka runa Ka runa Ka runa Kirkland Signa ture (Costco) Kirkma n Laboratories Kirkma n Laboratories Klama th Blue Gree n Algae Klama th Blue Gree n Algae Kroge r La bora toire La lco Enr.9% 15.2% 51.7% 79.1% 26. Le Naturiste (Je an Marc Brunet) Le s Produits Na ture ls Suisse Inc.9% 4.5% 0. V.0% 5.3% 81.0% 4.4% 18.7% 36.0% 4.9% 23.4% 17.7% 26.3% 4.0% 5.3% 0.3% 22. Iron-Free High Potency Soft Multiple.6% 14.5% 4.0% 30.5% 33.1% 8.0% 60.9% 7.9% 27.7% 40.2% 32.0% 50.8% 6.5% 54.8% 56.0% 17.7% 42.8% 41.6% Rank ² 88 275 183 80 190 171 133 22 9 416 484 344 499 500 431 386 372 505 425 426 465 8 374 188 245 162 320 321 407 323 392 485 317 340 277 61 181 219 483 141 439 402 82 84 60 158 159 239 51 379 381 371 266 116 35 25 19 132 347 212 161 213 334 97 57 464 292 254 154 68 139 270 337 448 130 196 204 281 280 238 220 206 432 150 44 295   -9- .5% 64.4% 9.4% 62.2% 13.2% 18.0% 51.6% 36.7% 14.9% 38.3% 47.7% 5. Life Brand Life Brand Life Brand Life Ex tension Foundation Life Force International Life Plus Life Plus LifeScript Lifestyles Lifestyles Lifestyles Lifestyles LifeTime LiFizz London Drugs London Na tura ls London's Best Lorna Vanderhaeghe Manna tech Manna tech Marke t America Matol MD He althline Melale uca Metagenics Metagenics Micha el's Naturopa thic Programs Micha el's Naturopa thic Programs Micha el's Naturopa thic Programs Micha el's Naturopa thic Programs MMS Pro Moducare Molecular Biologics Molecular Biologics Molecular Biologics More Than A Multiple Mountain Naturals of Ve rmont Mountain Naturals of Ve rmont Mountain Naturals of Ve rmont N.

5% 23.3% 10.) Pe rsonnelle (Pharmetlcs Inc.9% 4.5% 45.6% 11.2% 27.8% 50.7% 26.4% 12.6% 16.1% 4.0% 40. Quixta r) Nutrillte (Amw a y.0% 63.5% 37.0% 19.2% 13.5% 51.) Pharmacist's Ultima te Health Pharmacist's Ultima te Health Pharmane x (Nu Skin) Pharmane x (Nu Skin) Pharmane x (Nu Skin) Pharmasave Pharmasave PharmAssure PharmAssure Pharmetics Pharmetics PhytoPharmica PhytoPharmica PhytoPharmica PhytoPharmica Pilgrim's Pilgrim's Prairie Naturals ProActive ProActive Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Purita n's Pride Product Da ily Tw o Multi Iron-Fre e Multivitamin Iron-Free Multi Multi-Max Phytomax Orache l JuicePow e r Ve geta ble Caps Bio-Directe d Multi-Vltamin/Mineral Iron-Free Vit-Min 75+ Specia l Tw o Vit-Min 100 (Timed Rele ase High Pote ncy) Vit-Min Caps High Potency Multiple Gourmet Multiple The Le gend for W omen Ultima te One for Me n Ultima te One for W omen AlI-ln-One Ultima te Matrix Men Ultima te Matrix W omen Multi-Vi-Min Multi-Vi-Min w ithout Copper & Iron Nutriex Double X Double X Da ily Athlete Formula Champion Formula Fitness Formula Ba sic Formula Da y Start/Day End Essentials Iodine Free "Ve gi" Formula Multi-vitasorb Optimum Health Essentials Essentials Grand Master Formula Multi Complex Multibalance for Me n Multibalance for W omen W hole System Health Mainte nance Vita-Vitamin Omni4 Active Advance Men's Formula Advance W ome n's Formula Multivitamins a nd Minerals for Adults Androvite for Men Gynovite Plus Optivite PMT for W omen Multi-Guard w ith CoQ10 Adults Complete 2101 Formula Complete Extra Multivitamin Specia lly Formulate d for Me n Multivitamin Specia lly Formulate d for W omen Vltalert Multivitamines et Minera ux Forte Multivitamines et Minera ux Preventa -Tab Multivitamines et Minera ux Natura Se nior Ma n's Ultimate Formula W oma n's Ultimate Formula Life Essentials LifePa k Prime LifePa k w ith Ca techins MultiForte 29 MultiSelect 29 Me n's Biomultiple W ome n's Biomultiple Formula Forte Multivitamins a nd Minerals w ith beta -Carotene Clinica l Nutrients for 45-Plus W omen Clinica l Nutrients for 50-Plus Men Clinica l Nutrients for Me n Clinica l Nutrients for W omen Se nse of Energy Silver Stars Multi Multi-Force for Active Men for Adult Men Green Source Iron Free High Potency Puritron Me ga Vita Min for W ome n Solovites Super All Day Nutricom Time Relea se Mega Vita -Min UItra-VIta-Min UItra-VIta-Min Iron-Free Country US US US CA CA US CA/US CA/US US US US US CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US CA US US US US US US US US US US CA/US CA/US US US US US US US US CA CA CA US US US US CA US US US US US CA CA CA US US US US CA CA CA US US CA CA US US US US US US CA CA CA US US US US US US US US Score ¹ 34.4% 35.1% 4.6% 43.9% 5.3% 2.6% 19.3% 5.1% 2.1% 54.8% 22.6% 1.7% 35.8% 21.1% 32.8% 0.2% 23.0% 4.0% 3.3% 4.9% 37.0% 16.8% 41.4% 18.4% 22.2% 4.7% 28.2% 35.5% 12.8% 26.8% 60.3% 6.5% 10.0% 5.6% 19.1% 13.3% 45.7% 66.9% 37.5% 24.7% 15.8% 52.6% 15.5% 42.The Multivitamin Guide Company Na ture 's W ay Na ture 's W ay Ne w Image Inte rna tiona l Ne w Roots Herbal Ne w Roots Herbal Ne w ays Ne w Vision Nikken NOW Foods NOW Foods NOW Foods NOW Foods Nu-life Nu-life Nu-life Nu-life Nutra Therapeutics NutriBiotics NutriBiotics Nutricology Nutricology Nutrie x Nutrilite (Amw a y.3% 45.8% 35.5% 16.2% 5.3% Rank ² 173 180 211 103 487 233 488 353 186 125 185 221 236 175 166 253 246 169 170 335 336 136 242 201 481 288 229 267 157 32 300 496 21 316 69 363 298 299 268 244 506 419 455 492 408 85 198 127 65 458 365 404 256 208 388 466 397 433 152 40 330 72 210 467 456 350 345 468 287 112 111 128 110 75 217 167 134 199 156 507 271 346 410 311 420 469   . Qulxta r) Nutrina Nutrina Nutrina Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition Dynamics Nutrition for Life Nutrition for Life Nutri-W est Nutri-W est Nutri-W est Nutri-W est Olympian Labs Omnitrition One A Day One A Day One A Day OneSource Optimox Optimox Optimox Oregon He alth Pa ramette s Pa taki USA Pe rfect Choice Pe rfect Choice Pe rfect Choice Pe rformance Labs Pe rsonnelle (Pharmetics Inc.10 - .2% 7.1% 28.1% 30.4% 42.4% 46.5% 0.0% 4.6% 4.1% 24. Quixta r) Nutrilite IAmw a y.4% 11.0% 30.7% 13.2% 30.8% 33.1% 32.5% 55.1% 0.0% 21.8% 33.) Pe rsonnelle (Pharmetics Inc.1% 6.3% 18.

6% 4.9% 30.0% 5.2% 11.1% 5.4% 43.4% 48.3% 5.0% 51.5% 24.1% 57.5% 50.0% 56.4% 63.2% 36.1% 4.2% 23.9% 62.2% 9.2% 5.0% 68.9% 10.7% 9.5% 74.3% 23.7% 38.8% 6.0% 6.5% 56.0% 5.8% 30.0% 15.The Multivitamin Guide Company Purita n's Pride Purity Products Purity Products QCI Nutritionals QCI Nutritionals QCI Nutritionals QCL Nutritiona ls QCL Nutritiona ls Quest Quest Quest Quest Quest R Garden Internationale Ra inbow Light Ra inbow Light Ra inbow Light Ra inbow Light Ra inbow Light Re liv Re liv Re liv Re liv Re -VIta Ripple Cre ek Ripple Cre ek Ripple Cre ek Rite Aid Rite AId Rite Aid Rite Aid Rite Aid Royal Bodycare Royal Bodycare Rx Vitamins Rx Vitamins Sa few ay Select Sa few ay Select Sa few ay Select Sa few ay Select Sa few ay Select Sa nte Naturelle Sa v-On Osco by Albertson's Sa v-On Osco by Albertson's Schiff Schiff Schiff Shakle e Shakle e Shakle e Sisu Sisu Sisu Sisu SoIara y Solara y Solara y Solara y Solara y Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar Solgar SomaLife Source Na turals Source Na turals Source Na turals Source Na turals SportPharma Sports Nutrition 2000 Spring Valley Spring Valley Sundow n Sundow n Sundow n Sundow n Sunkist Sunkist Sunrider Supra Life Product Vita-Min Pe rfect Multi Focus Formula Purity's Pe rfect Multi Ultra Vitality #1 Ultra Vitality #2 Ultra Vitality #3 Da ily Preve ntive #1 Da ily Preve ntive #3 Ex tra Once A Day Ma ximum Once A Day Once A Da y Premium Multi-One w ith Nia cina mide Super Once a Day Multiple Vitamin Minera l Formula Advanced Nutritiona l System Complete Nutritiona l System Iron-Free Advanced Nutritional Syste m Just Once Iron Free Pe rformance Energy Multivitamin for Men Classic Classic Now Now Liqua Health Me ga-100 (Slow Release ) Me ga-Caps 2 (Quick Release ) Me ga-One 75 (Slow Rele ase ) Ce ntra l-Vite Ce ntra l-Vite Se lect W hole Source W hole Source Complete Formula for Men W hole Source Complete Formula for W omen Omega Boost Ultima te Re vita lize Re vita lize No Iron Ce ntra l-Vite Forte 29 One Ta blet Daily One Ta blet Daily Advanced Formula for W omen Super Men's Multivitamin Super W omen's Multivitamin Fe minex Multi One Daily Active Therapeulic-M Double Day Prime Years Single Day Ba sics w ith Iron Ba sics w ith Iron Vita-Le a Advanced Formula Ma n Only One.3% Rank ² 508 16 36 81 77 83 95 96 282 135 501 241 352 341 31 164 37 369 131 364 387 377 405 409 189 243 301 434 440 403 411 441 163 305 143 144 449 476 509 291 209 375 435 470 436 396 307 200 230 332 302 366 303 99 56 58 147 59 55 78 86 187 113 310 324 62 412 222 284 373 5 4 197 390 12 205 427 428 421 414 422 382 342 308 264 123   .0% 5.7% 0.11 - .0% 18.9% 5.5% 45.4% 16.4% 4.5% 5.0% 16.9% 18.7% 3.9% 41.8% 20.4% 50.4% 10.4% 47.9% 28.2% 4.4% 12.1% 12.9% 4.2% 51.9% 7.8% 36.2% 56.2% 9.6% 25.9% 4.3% 39.7% 57.4% 7.6% 0.0% 62.5% 14.1% 15.1% 18.5% 9.6% 7.0% 28.9% 48.1% 32.6% 13.5% 91.1% 16.8% 32.8% 92.1% 8.4% 15.3% 4.1% 39. Iron Free Nutricology Multi-Vi-Min Only One Ve gi-Mins Ve geta rian Spe ctro Multi-Vita-Min Iron-Free Spectro Multi-VIta-Min Iron-Free Spectro Multi-Vita-Min Spectro 3 Iron Free Spectro Multi-Vita-Min Ea rth Source Multi-Nutrient Fe male Multiple Formula VM-2000 Iron-Free Omnium Multi II Vegicaps Na turvite Omnium Solovite Iron-Free Ve gica ps Vege taria n Multiple VM-75 Iron-Free SomaVit Elan VitaI Life Force Multiple Me ga-one Multiple Ultra Multiple Multiguard Athlete 's Multi Ma ximum One Dally Multiplus Complete Energy Complete Multi 50+ Complete Multi Daily Complete Ultra Multi-Active Multi-Men's Me tabalance 44 Formula Plus Country US US US US US US US US CA CA CA CA CA US US US US US US US CA US CA US US US US US US US US US US CA/US US US CA CA CA US US CA US US US US US US CA CA CA/US CA CA/US CA/US US US CA US US US US US US US US US US US US CA/US US US US US US US US CA US US US US CA CA US US Score ¹ 0.3% 16.2% 51.6% 40.

9% 15.0% 46.2% 18.9% 4.1% 45.3% 2.4% 36.9% 24.8% 93.4% 44.) Advanced Formula Complete Pre mium Iron-Free Multivitamin Mineral Suppleme nt Da ily Essentials Formula ZM3 Spectrum SpectroVeg High Energy Vita-Min 75 Complete Multi-Vita mins w ith Minera ls Tw o-A-Day Pow er Source 100 Super-Vite Ultra Multi 90 Plus Vita-Max 1 Ex tended Plus Da ily 3 W ith Antioxidant Factors Green Source Iron Free Me ga Vita Min for W ome n Me ga Vita Min for W ome n.7% 5.8% 19.3% 45.7% 12.S.1% 22.3% 3.9% 6.3% 46.1% 75.4% 33.0% 7. The Green Turtle Bay Vitamin Co.5% 7.1% 5.9% 38.3% 11.7% 13.0% 90.3% 4.5% 4.5% 19.7% 7.1% 20.9% 33.6% 4.6% 14.9% 12. Formula Super Complete Ca rdio-Basics Essentials (Canadia n) Essentials (U.2% 96.9% 21.8% 17.4% 11.6% 15.3% 23.9% 4.9% 23.1% 7.8% 31.4% 29.9% 4.6% 2.6% 39.9% 6.1% Rank ² 91 148 261 237 269 227 384 357 354 393 203 437 401 459 276 101 145 117 400 289 325 493 329 182 223 398 457 218 176 140 63 177 70 283 327 10 194 6 1 417 510 389 489 490 105 232 224 257 215 312 351 399 3 108 142 272 304 118 226 313 338 450 418 451 339 285 160 293 471 258 247 472 235 214 491 102 438 343 349 473 475 452 391 228     1 Overall product score based on 14 scientific criteria     2 Ranking of this product out of all the 510 products compared  .3% 1.7% 44.8% 19.3% 21.8% 10.9% 11.5% 18.9% 38.3% 12.2% 25.2% 4.1% 14.6% 54.4% 16.12 - .4% 25.9% 27. Iron Free More Than A Multiple Nutri 100 Time Relea se Mega Vita -Min Iron-Fre e Ultra Vita MAN Ultra VIta-Min Iron Free Ce ntury Advantage Ce ntury Se nior Iron Free Multi #2 ORO #1 Da ilyGuard VIVA for Life AA (Anti-Aging) Ultra Choice Premium Men Ultra Choice Premium W omen Complete Multi-Adult Super Multi Superfood Multiple Multivitamins Extra B Phyto-Vite Complete Adva nced Formula w ith Lutein Multra Forte Multra Plex Therapeulic-M Na tura l lron-fre e One Dally 50+ Super Multi w ith He rbs Multi Vitamin & Mineral Country US US CA CA CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA/US CA CA US US US US US US US US US US CA US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US CA CA US US CA US US CA CA US US US US CA CA US US US US US Score ¹ 48.8% 40.6% 26.6% 4.7% 18.4% 6.2% 0.2% 33.1% 56. Enrich) USANA He alth Scie nces USANA He alth Scie nces Va lu-Rite Va lu-Rite Va xa Ve ga Nutritiona ls Ve ga Nutritiona ls Ve gLife VirtuVites Vitality Products Vitality Products Vitamin Pow er Vitamin Pow er Vitamin Pow er Vitamin Pow er Vitamin Re search Products Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld Vitamin W orld VitaSmart VitaSmart Vitaza n He rbs a nd Vitamins Vitaza n He rbs a nd Vitamins Viva Life Sciences Viva Life Sciences Vita-Complete W algreens W algreens W ampole W atkins W atkins W ebbe r Na tura ls W ellne ss International Netw ork W este rn Fa mily W este rn Fa mily W este rn Fa mily W este rn Fa mily YourLife YourLife YourLife ZonePerfe ct   Product Ma xum Essentials Ultra Body Toddy Hi Pote ncy Sw iss One "80" Super Adult Chew a ble Super Sw iss One "50" NutraPack Ultra Vitality Sunnie Pow erMate Pow erVites Human Nature Gree n Multi Me ga 80 Multi-Formula for W ome n Multiple Choice Super Max icaps Al's Formula Ba sic Nutrients III Ba sic Nutrients V Bone Plants Vita Active s Electro-Vita -Min ImmunoMa x Ma xi Multi Se lect Empow erplus Ce ntury Premium Ce ntury Silver Da ily One w ithout Iron Da ily Tw o Caps w ithout Iron DualTa bs Me ga 6 Ca ps SuperTw in Multiplex-2 w ithout Iron 40+ Multiple P.6% 25.The Multivitamin Guide Company Supra Life Supra Life Sw iss Natural Sources Sw iss Natural Sources Sw iss Natural Sources Symmetry Symmetry The Green Turtie Bay Vitamin Co.2% 2.5% 6.1% 4.1% 25. Thompson Thompson Thompson Thompson Thompson Thorne Re search Thorne Re search Thorne Re search Total Health Solulions Total Health Solutions Trace Mine rals Trace Mine rals Trace Mine rals Trophic Truehope Truly Health Truly Health Tw inLab Tw inLab Tw inLab Tw inLab Tw inLab Tyler Ultima te Health Ultima te Health Ultima te Nutrition Unicity Netw ork (Re xall.M. The Green Turtle Bay Vitamin Co.1% 26.3% 4.5% 25.

 where the biological activity is about one‐half  [or less] of the natural vitamin E)?    5. what percent are found at potency levels  meeting or exceeding 50 percent of the potency for those nutrients in the Blended  Standard?    3.13 - . at levels meeting or exceeding 50 percent of the  Blended Standard?    7. Completeness ‐ Does the product contain the full spectrum of nutrients listed in the  Blended Standard and considered essential for optimal health?    2. silicon and zinc) at potencies equal to or  exceeding 50 percent of the potencies listed in the Blended Standard?    8. folic acid. Bioactivity of Vitamin E ‐ Does the product contain only the d‐isomer of vitamin E  (the natural. vitamin  B6. Cardiac Health Triad ‐ Does the product contain vitamin E. Homocysteine Reduction Triad ‐ Does the product contain the nutritional triad of  vitamin B6. biologically active form of alpha tocopherol) or does the product use the  d/l isomers of vitamin E (a synthetic form. Antioxidant Triad ‐ Does the product contain the important antioxidant triad of  vitamin E. Potency ‐ Of those nutrients in the product. calcium. store and utilize  energy. three nutritional components important to cardiac health. Metabolic Support ‐ Does the product contain the nutrients necessary to help  regulate glucose metabolism and support the body's ability to generate. magnesium. at potencies that  meet or exceed 50 percent of the Blended Standard?    6. and are these nutrients available at potencies equal to or exceeding 50 percent  of the potencies listed in the Blended Standard?  . vitamin B12. Glutathione Support ‐ Does the product contain the nutritional precursors necessary  for glutathione synthesis and the proper functioning of the Glutathione Peroxidase  Pathway. vitamin C and beta‐carotene at potencies equal to or exceeding 50 percent of  the potencies listed in the Blended Standard?    9. Bone Health Complex ‐ Does the product contain the nutrients shown by clinical  studies to be important for optimal bone health (vitamin D. coenzyme Q10 and  magnesium.The Multivitamin Guide Appendix B: Definition of the 14 comparison criteria   The definitions of each of the fourteen criteria used in the comparison are as follows:    1. boron. vitamin B12 and folic acid. vitamin K. at potencies equal to or exceeding 50 percent of the potencies listed in the  Blended Standard?    10. Bioavailability ‐ Does the product contain minerals in their most bioavailable firms as  amino acid chelates or organic acid complexes?    4.

 quercitrin. including curcumin) at a potency level recently  established in the literature (25 mg) that has been associated with a reduced incidence  of coronary heart disease?    13. bilberry extract and  green tea catechins) and proanthocyanidins at potencies that meet or exceed 50  percent of the combined recommended potencies for PCOs and mixed bioflavonoids in  the Blended Standard?    12. quercetin.The Multivitamin Guide   11. hesperidin.14 - . Bioflavonoid Profile ‐ Does the product contain a mixture of bioflavonoids (citrus  flavonoids. at levels meeting or exceeding 50  percent of the Blended Standard?    14. soy isoflavones. rutin. Phenolic Compound Profile ‐ Does the product contain phenolic compounds (poly  phenolic acids and their derivatives. Potential Toxicities ‐ Does the nutritional supplement contain levels of vitamin A  and iron that exceed 100% of the Blended Standard?    .  choline (including phosphatidylcholine) and inositol. Lipotropic Factors ‐ Does the product contain the important lipotropic factors.

 on the other hand are different. the world would look black and white  without them! And if you've ever wondered what helps make your teeth healthy and  strong. They are not stored as much in  your body. carbohydrates. vitamins!    Vitamins regulate metabolism reactions. E and K).15 - . Unlike the oil in your car. for example. all of the water‐soluble vitamins assist  enzymes that function in energy transfer or in the metabolism of fats. Some fat‐ soluble vitamins also may function at the genetic level to control the synthesis of certain  enzymes. fats. For this reason. absolutely critical for maintaining a healthy  body. they travel through your bloodstream and whatever your body  doesn't use comes out when you urinate.     Some of the fat‐soluble vitamins form part of the structure of biological membranes or  assist in maintaining the integrity and functioning of these membranes. Think of vitamins kind of like the fluids in your car. like help you grow and develop.    Daily vitamin supplementation is. Your body uses  vitamins to do many things.The Multivitamin Guide Appendix C: Why take vitamin supplements?  By Dr. Vitamins contain no calories but play an  essential role in your body. D. proteins. George Obikoya    Vitamins are substances that are found in many of the foods we eat. which are the compounds  utilized in the reactions regulated by the vitamins. Some vitamins help us make energy. then you'll be sure to smile when you find out it's. the vitamins are stored in the fat  tissues in your body and in your liver until your body needs them. guess what.    . in contrast to other dietary components known  as macronutrients. Vitamins are  even involved in making sure you can see in color. In other words. and many people fail to do so. it will be difficult for our body to break down these  nutrients into energy we can use without vitamins. So these kinds of vitamins need to be replaced  often. Instead. That is why you need to take a high‐quality  multivitamin in order to replenish lost vitamins and minerals. many vitamins are  purged from your body daily.    When you take fat‐soluble vitamins (A. your car will not run. If you  have no oil (vitamins) in your car. it is critically important to ensure a  proper supply of vitamins in your car. no doubt.     With the exception of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).  and proteins. some for up to six months! Water‐soluble vitamins such as Vitamin C and the  B group of vitamins. Absence of a vitamin blocks one or  more specific metabolic reactions in a cell and eventually may disrupt the metabolic  balance within a cell and in our entire body. it does not matter how much gasoline (calories) you  put in your car. It needs vitamins to help  your blood clot when you get a cut. Some are stored for a  few days. carbohydrates. These vitamins are necessary for specific functions in highly differentiated  cells.

 are risk  factors for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease.16 - . and low levels of the vitamins are associated with increased risk of  heart disease. vitamin B6 and B12 are required for proper homo cysteine  metabolism. BSc. Robert Fletcher and Dr. even well above those causing deficiency syndromes. the American Medical Association (AMA) has completely reversed its  anti‐vitamin stance and now encourages all adults to supplement daily with a multiple  vitamin. Among their conclusions. lycopene and lutein). Robert  Fletcher and Dr. when  taken with calcium.  .   Inadequate vitamin B12 is associated with anemia and neurological disorders.   Vitamin E and lycopene appear to decrease the risk of prostate cancer. cancer and  osteoporosis. published in the June 19.   Low levels of the carotenoids appear to increase the risk of breast. including vitamins A. 2002 edition of JAMA. prostate and  lung cancer. while sufficient to prevent vitamin deficiency  diseases (such as scurvy and pellagra).   Vitamin D is associated with a decreased risk of osteoporosis and fracture. convinced the conservative Journal of the American  Medical Association (JAMA) to rewrite its policy guidelines regarding the use of vitamin  supplements.  E. B6. Kathleen Fairfield    In the study. cryptoxanthin.   Inadequate folic acid status increases the risk of neural tube defects and some  cancers.     Insufficient vitamin intake is apparently a cause of chronic diseases. A large portion of the general population is apparently at  increased risk for this reason. K. they note:     Folic acid. Kathleen Fairfield. D. FP    After 20 years. the authors examine several nutrients. Dr. the authors conclude  that the current North American diet.  Recent evidence has shown that sub‐optimal levels of vitamins (below  standard).   Dr. C. and.   Inadequate vitamin C is associated with increased cancer risk. MSc. folic acid and several of the carotenoids (alpha‐ and beta‐carotene.    In two reports. is inadequate to support the need for optimal  health. B12.    A landmark review of 38 years of scientific evidence by Harvard researchers.  zeaxanthin.The Multivitamin Guide Appendix D: Do medical authorities recommend vitamin  supplements?  By Lyle MacWilliam.

 reduced the risk of male mortality from  cardiovascular disease by 42 percent and lowered the risk of death by all causes by 35  percent. and what they found was remarkable: the death rate for  supplement users was significantly lower than for non‐users. cancer. vitamin E was associated with reduced  coronary risk." along with JAMA’s public  declaration that supplementation is now deemed important to your health. over a  given time period. conducted among 39. daily supplementation with a multiple vitamin  is a prudent preventive measure against chronic disease.    Much of the evidence supporting the need for daily supplementation as a preventive  measure comes from large population‐based (epidemiological) studies. providing an estimated six‐year increase in life expectancy.17 - . They examined mortality rates in  elderly Californians.    All of us grew up believing that if we ate a reasonable diet. Jim Enstrom.  Dr.    The JAMA declaration also underscores a growing concern among nutrition experts that  the current recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for vitamins and minerals are too  low.       In two large studies of self‐supplementation. Linus  Pauling. underscores  the strength of the scientific evidence that now prevails. Among them is a  study conducted some years ago by three eminent scientists.  however. is that vitamins also prevent the usual diseases we  deal with everyday ‐ heart disease. Dr.The Multivitamin Guide  Low vitamin A status is associated with vision disorders and impaired immune  functions. in excess of  250 mg per day (much above the RDA standard). a growing volume of evidence supports the argument that higher levels of  many vitamins and minerals are necessary to achieve optimal health.    In a striking departure from JAMA’s anti‐vitamin stance of the last twenty years. the new evidence. much of it in the  last couple of years. osteoporosis and birth defects. The studies. the  authors conclude that. Nobel Laureate Dr.    Later. Robert Fletcher    JAMA’s last comprehensive review of vitamins. The sudden "about‐face.910 male health care professionals and  . The RDAs were originally established to prevent acute vitamin deficiency disorders. conducted in the 1980s. that would  take care of our vitamin needs. The researchers base their  guidance on the fact that more than 80 percent of the American population does not  consume anywhere near the five‐per‐day servings of fruits and vegetables required for  optimal health. Enstrom and co‐workers found that supplementation with vitamin C. But. Richard Passwater and Dr. concluded that  people of normal health do not need to take a multivitamin and can meet all their  nutritional needs through diet. Male supplement users  had a 22 percent lower risk of death and female users a 46 percent lower risk. given today's diet.

  . These results indicate that supplementing your diet with a  high‐quality multivitamin on a daily basis is essential for long‐term health. Quebec.The Multivitamin Guide 87.245 female nurses. respectively. in the  risk of heart disease. which found a 69 percent reduction in ischemic heart disease and a  47 percent reduction in cardiac‐related deaths among long‐term consumers of  nutritional supplements. found that men and women who took vitamin E supplements for  more than two years showed a 37 percent and 41 percent reduction.18 - . These results support a recent large‐scale study conducted at Laval  University.

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