RULE 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS SECTION 1. Title of the Rules.—These Rules shall be known and c !ed as !he Rules o" Cou#!.

$1% SEC. &. In what courts applicable.—These #ules shall a''l( n all cou#!s) e*ce'! as o!he#w se '#o+ ded b( !he Su'#e,e Cou#!. $n% SEC. -. Cases governed.—These Rules shall .o+e#n !he '#ocedu#e !o be obse#+ed n ac! ons) c + l o# c# , nal) and s'ec al '#oceed n.s. $a% A c + l ac! on s one b( wh ch a 'a#!( sues ano!he# "o# !he en"o#ce,en! o# '#o!ec! on o" a # .h!) o# !he '#e+en! on o# #ed#ess o" a w#on.. $1a) R&% A c + l ac! on ,a( e !he# be o#d na#( o# s'ec al. /o!h a#e .o+e#ned b( !he #ules "o# o#d na#( c + l ac! ons) sub0ec! !o !he s'ec " c #ules '#esc# bed "o# a s'ec al c + l ac! on. $n% $b% A c# , nal ac! on s one b( wh ch !he S!a!e '#osecu!es a 'e#son "o# an ac! o# o, ss on 'un shable b( law. $n% $c% A s'ec al '#oceed n. s a #e,ed( b( wh ch a 'a#!( seeks !o es!abl sh a s!a!us) a # .h!) o# a 'a#! cula# "ac!. $&a) R&% SEC. 1. In what cases not applicable.—These Rules shall no! a''l( !o elec! on cases) land #e. s!#a! on) cadas!#al) na!u#al 2a! on and nsol+enc( '#oceed n.s) and o!he# cases no! he#e n '#o+ ded "o#) e*ce'! b( analo.( o# n a su''le!o#( cha#ac!e# and whene+e# '#ac! cable and con+en en!. $R11-a% SEC. 3. Commencement of action.—A c + l ac! on s co,,enced b( !he " l n. o" !he o# . nal co,'la n! n cou#!. I" an add ! onal de"endan! s ,'leaded n a la!e# 'lead n.) !he ac! on s co,,enced w !h #e.a#d !o h , on !he da!e o" !he " l n. o" such la!e# 'lead n.) ##es'ec! +e o" whe!he# !he ,o! on "o# !s ad, ss on) " necessa#() s den ed b( !he cou#!. $4a% SEC. 4. Construction.—These Rules shall be l be#all( cons!#ued n o#de# !o '#o,o!e !he # ob0ec! +e o" secu# n. a 0us!) s'eed( and ne*'ens +e d s'os ! on o" e+e#( ac! on and '#oceed n.. $&a% PART I CIVIL ACTIONS ORDINARY CIVIL ACTIONS RULE &

CAUSE O5 ACTION SECTION 1. Ordinary civil actions, basis of.—E+e#( o#d na#( c + l ac! on ,us! be based on a cause o" ac! on. $n% SEC. &. Cause of action, defined.—A cause o" ac! on s !he ac! o# o, ss on b( wh ch a 'a#!( + ola!es a # .h! o" ano!he#. $n% SEC. -. One suit for a single cause of action.—A 'a#!( ,a( no! ns! !u!e ,o#e !han one su ! "o# a s n.le cause o" ac! on. $-a% SEC. 1. Splitting a single cause of action; effect of.—I" !wo o# ,o#e su !s a#e ns! !u!ed on !he bas s o" !he sa,e cause o" ac! on) !he " l n. o" one o# a 0ud.,en! u'on !he ,e# !s n an( one s a+a lable as a .#ound "o# !he d s, ssal o" !he o!he#s. $1a% SEC. 3. oinder of causes of action.—A 'a#!( ,a( n one 'lead n. asse#!) n !he al!e#na! +e o# o!he#w se) as ,an( causes o" ac! on as he ,a( ha+e a.a ns! an o''os n. 'a#!() sub0ec! !o !he "ollow n. cond ! ons6 $a% The 'a#!( 0o n n. !he causes o" ac! on shall co,'l( w !h !he #ules on 0o nde# o" 'a#! es7 $b% The 0o nde# shall no! nclude s'ec al c + l ac! ons o# ac! ons .o+e#ned b( s'ec al #ules7 $c% 8he#e !he causes o" ac! on a#e be!ween !he sa,e 'a#! es bu! 'e#!a n !o d ""e#en! +enues o# 0u# sd c! ons) !he 0o nde# ,a( be allowed n !he Re. onal T# al Cou#! '#o+ ded one o" !he causes o" ac! on "alls w !h n !he 0u# sd c! on o" sa d cou#! and !he +enue l es !he#e n7 and $d% 8he#e !he cla ,s n all !he causes o" ac! on a#e '# nc 'all( "o# #eco+e#( o" ,one() !he a..#e.a!e a,oun! cla ,ed shall be !he !es! o" 0u# sd c! on. $3a% SEC. 4. !is"oinder of causes of action.—9 s0o nde# o" causes o" ac! on s no! a .#ound "o# d s, ssal o" an ac! on. A , s0o ned cause o" ac! on ,a() on ,o! on o" a 'a#!( o# on !he n ! a! +e o" !he cou#!) be se+e#ed and '#oceeded w !h se'a#a!el(. $n% RULE PARTIES TO CIVIL ACTIONS SECTION 1. #ho may be parties; plaintiff and defendant.— Onl( na!u#al o# 0u# d cal 'e#sons) o# en! ! es au!ho# 2ed b( law ,a( be 'a#! es n a c + l ac! on. The !e#, :'la n! ""; ,a( #e"e# !o !he cla , n. 'a#!() !he coun!e#<cla ,an!) !he c#oss<cla ,an!) o# !he !h #d $"ou#!h e!c.%—'a#!( 'la n! "". The !e#, :de"endan!; ,a( #e"e# !o !he o# . nal de"end n. 'a#!() !he

ene#al n!e#es! !o . Unless o!he#w se au!ho# 2ed b( law o# !hese Rules) e+e#( ac! on . n a " duc a#( ca'ac !() !he bene" c a#( shall be ncluded n !he ! !le o" !he case and shall be dee. $1-a% SEC.o!he#) .e !#ansac! on o# se# es o" !#ansac! ons s alle. Should !he cou#! " nd !he #eason "o# !he o.a!!e# o" !he con!#o+e#s( s one o" !he co.'os n.a( be a !#us!ee o" an e*'#ess !#us!) a . sa d en! !( .h!s o" such necessa#( 'a#!(. a.a( o#de# !he nclus on o" !he o. no " nal de!e#. s no! !he#eb( e*! n.a( #e>u #e7 when h s den! !( o# !#ue na.ed !o be !he #eal 'a#!( n n!e#es!. +eath of party.on o# .a ns! one . A.en! n !he su !) o# !he 'a#!( en! !led !o !he a+a ls o" !he su !.a( 0o n an( o# all o" !he. !inor or incompetent persons. o# a. !!ed necessa#( 'a#!( " 0u# sd c! on o+e# h s 'e#son .ed !o e* s!) whe!he# 0o n!l() se+e#all() o# n !he al!e#na! +e) .%—'a#!( de"endan!. as de"endan!s n !he al!e#na! +e) al!hou.l(.onl( known.'e!en!) .ua#d an) o# " he has none) a .e o" !he ac! on and on such !e#. 1&.eone ac! n. SEC. n h s own na. A #e'#esen!a! +e . ssal o" an ac! on.a ns! who.'l( w !h !h s du!( shall be a . !o !he '# nc 'al.na! on as !he case .us! all be #e+ealed. (lternative defendants.e and "o# !he bene" ! o" an und sclosed '# nc 'al . —8he#e !he ac! on s allowed !o be '#osecu!ed o# de"ended b( a #e'#esen!a! +e o# so.a ns! who o" se+e#al 'e#sons he s en! !led !o #el e") he . The "a lu#e !o co. &.a( a# se n !he ac! on7 bu! !he cou#! . Compulsory "oinder of indispensable parties.—Ne !he# .h a # .a( e*ce'! as o!he#w se '#o+ ded n !hese Rules) 0o n as 'la n! ""s o# be 0o ned as de"endan!s n one co. $1&a% SEC. no# o# a 'e#son alle.ene#all( o# co.h! !o #el e" n #es'ec! !o o# a# s n.'l( w !h !he o#de# "o# h s nclus on) w !hou! 0us! " able cause) shall be dee.e s d sco+e#ed) !he 'lead n.. e.e o" !he #eal 'a#!( n n!e#es!.a( be ob!a ned.'le!e de!e#. $1B% SEC.#ound "o# d s.— Pa#! es n n!e#es! w !hou! who. ac! on d es) and !he cla .e o" a de"endan! s unknown) he .s n wh ch he . *ntity without "uridical personality as defendant. +e !he na.a( .s as a#e 0us!. $@a) Aa% SEC. !is"oinder and non&"oinder of parties.a( be ncons s!en! w !h a # . %ecessary party.e#ous and #e'#esen!a! +e as !o "ull( '#o!ec! !he n!e#es!s o" all conce#ned . duty of counsel.a( sue o# be sued) w !h !he ass s!ance o" h s "a!he#) .a ns! !he o!he#.en! o" !he cla .'#ac! cable !o 0o n all as 'a#! es) a nu.e and add#ess o" h s le.e) " known) and shall s!a!e wh( he s o.. !he '# nc 'al e*ce'! when !he con!#ac! n+ol+es !h n. In !he answe# o" such de"endan! !he na. n wh ch a cla . s asse#!ed a necessa#( 'a#!( s no! 0o ned) !he 'leade# shall se! "o#!h h s na.—A . 1-.—All 'e#sons n who. n s!#a!o#) o# a 'a#!( au!ho# 2ed b( law o# !hese Rules.—A necessa#( 'a#!( s one who s no! nd s'ensable bu! who ou.es and add#esses o" !he 'e#sons co. 14..ba##assed o# 'u! !o e*'ense n connec! on w !h an( '#oceed n. 1.a ns! a . $11a% SEC. $4% SEC.an 2ed as an en! !( w !h 0u# d cal 'e#sonal !( en!e# n!o a !#ansac! on) !he( .u shed) ! shall be !he du!( o" h s counsel !o n"o#.a( be se+e#ed and '#oceeded w !h se'a#a!el(. 13. .on !o all such 'la n! ""s o# !o all such de"endan!s .'la n!. n !he ac! on) and !he 0ud.— 8hen !wo o# .— 8hene+e# !he den! !( o# na. $arties in interest. wh ch !he cou#! " nds !o be su"" c en!l( nu.de"endan! n a coun!e#cla . An a. 'nwilling co&plaintiff. . 'n)nown identity or name of defendant. a. na! on can be had o" an ac! on shall be 0o ned e !he# s 'la n! ""s o# de"endan!s.—8hene+e# a 'a#!( !o a 'end n.) !he c#oss<de"endan!) o# !he !h #d $"ou#!h) e!c.e# !o# ous) ! .o#e 'e#sons no! o#. be n.a( sue o# be sued w !hou! 0o n n.'la n!) whe#e an( >ues! on o" law o# "ac! co.be# o" !he.ua#d an) an e*ecu!o# o# ad.ua#d an ad litem.#ound "o# d sc 'l na#( ac! on. !!ed.a( be d#o''ed o# added b( o#de# o" !he cou#! on . ss on un. $-a% SEC. Spouses as parties. 11.— I" !he consen! o" an( 'a#!( who should be 0o ned as 'la n! "" can no! be ob!a ned ) he .us! be '#osecu!ed o# de"ended n !he na. %on&"oinder of necessary parties to be pleaded.ed a wa +e# o" !he cla .a( be sued unde# !he na..h! !o #el e" a.an( 'e#sons so nu. An( cla . $11% SEC. $?% SEC. $1a% SEC. $@a% SEC. 11.—A #eal 'a#!( n n!e#es! s !he 'a#!( who s!ands !o be bene" !ed o# n0u#ed b( !he 0ud. @. Class suit. An( 'a#!( n n!e#es! shall ha+e !he # .ake such o#de#s as .—=usband and w "e shall sue o# be sued 0o n!l() e*ce'! as '#o+ ded b( law.us! be a.— 8hene+e# n an( 'lead n. $3a% SEC. an( # .al #e'#esen!a! +e o# #e'#esen!a! +es. 3. na! on o# se!!le.a( ha+e no n!e#es!.—8hen !he sub0ec! .h! !o be 0o ned as a 'a#!( " co.—8he#e !he 'la n! "" s unce#!a n a.'le!e #el e" s !o be acco#ded as !o !hose al#ead( 'a#! es) o# "o# a co.ade a de"endan! and !he #eason !he#e"o# shall be s!a!ed n !he co. $1a% SEC. Representatives as parties. '#oceed n. -.e#ous !ha! ! s . sub0ec! o" !he ac! on. ?.ended acco#d n. 1B.s belon.h! o" #el e" a. 4.h! !o n!e#+ene !o '#o!ec! h s nd + dual n!e#es!. $13a% SEC.ed !o be nco.a ns! such 'a#!(..o! on o" an( 'a#!( o# on !s own n ! a! +e a! an( s!a.en! ac! n. s0o nde# no# non<0o nde# o" 'a#! es s . !he cou#! w !h n !h #!( $-B% da(s a"!e# such dea!h o" !he "ac! !he#eo") and !o .a( sue o# de"end "o# !he bene" ! o" all. Pa#! es . n.a( be . ou! o" !he sa.en! #ende#ed !he#e n shall be w !hou! '#e0ud ce !o !he # .a( be 0us! !o '#e+en! an( 'la n! "" o# de"endan! "#o. $&a%. $ermissive "oinder of parties. 5a lu#e o" counsel !o co. s0o ned 'a#!( . The non< nclus on o" a necessa#( 'a#!( does no! '#e+en! !he cou#! "#o.a( be sued as !he unknown owne#) he #) de+ see) o# b( such o!he# des .e b( wh ch !he( a#e .

a( be au!ho# 2ed !o l ! .e " *ed b( !he cou#!) e*ecu! on shall ssue o# !he 'a(.e) !o '#ocu#e !he a''o n!.a( allow !he ac! on !o be con! nued b( o# a..anne# es'ec all( '#o+ ded n !hese Rules "o# '#osecu! n.en! o" docke! and o!he# law"ul "ees) and o" !#ansc# '!s o" s!eno. +eath or separation of a party who is a public officer. /e"o#e a subs! !u! on s .a ns! !he nco.'ose. &.) s sa! s" ed !ha! !he 'a#!( s one who has no . !he#e!o) shall be ..a ns! !he es!a!e o" a deceased 'e#son.a( be con! nued b( o# a..'!ed "#o.un c 'al !# al cou#! o" !he .na!ed b( h .a( o#de# !o be "u#n shed h . $&-a% RULE 1 VENUE O5 ACTIONS SECTION 1.en! n !he cou#! n wh ch !he ac! on was 'end n.e o# '#o'e#!() !he '#o'e# docke! and o!he# law"ul "ees shall be assessed and collec!ed b( !he cle#k o" cou#!. nal 'a#!(.e as . &&.ula! ons) !he cou#!) n !s d sc#e! on) .one( a# s n. A "a+o#able 0ud.o! on w !h no! ce) . I" no le.enced and !# ed whe#e !he 'la n! "" o# an( o" !he '# nc 'al 'la n! ""s #es des) o# whe#e !he de"endan! o# an( o" !he '# nc 'al de"endan!s #es des) o# n !he case o" a non< #es den! de"endan! whe#e he ..—In case o" an( !#ans"e# o" n!e#es!) !he ac! on .#an! o" such au!ho# !( a! an( ! .en! o" an e*ecu!o# o# ad.en! s no! . &B.ade w !h n !he ! .—I" an( o" !he de"endan!s does no! #es de and s no! "ound n !he Ph l '' nes) and !he ac! on a""ec!s !he 'e#sonal s!a!us o" !he 'la n! "") o# an( '#o'e#!( o" sa d de"endan! loca!ed n !he Ph l '' nes) !he ac! on .e be"o#e 0ud.al #e'#esen!a! +e s na. !he +al d !( o" an( !#ea!() law) o#d nance) e*ecu! +e o#de#) '#es den! al dec#ee) #ules o# #e. l(. I" !he 'a(.a n!a n n.en! ob!a ned b( !he 'la n! "" !he#e n shall be en"o#ced n !he . con!#ac!) e*'#ess o# . !he a''o n!. o# ..—All o!he# ac! ons .a( o#de# !he o''os n..es n '#ocu# n.a( .sel" and h s "a..enue of actions against nonresidents.ns) o# o!he# w se ceases !o hold o"" ce) !he ac! on .en! s #ende#ed b( !he !# al cou#!.—8hen !he ac! on s "o# #eco+e#( o" .enced and !# ed n !he cou#! o" !he 'lace whe#e !he 'la n! "" #es des) o# whe#e !he '#o'e#!( o# an( 'o#! on !he#eo" s s !ua!ed o# "ound..a ns! h s successo# ") w !h n !h #!( $-B% da(s a"!e# !he successo# !akes o"" ce o# such ! . .a( a''o n! a ..enue of real actions.a ns! !he o# . The cou#! shall "o#!hw !h o#de# sa d le. Such au!ho# !( shall nclude an e*e. ne a"!e# hea# n. $&1a% SEC. 'a#!() w !h n a s'ec " ed ! .a( be "ound) a! !he elec! on o" !he 'la n! "". +en #easonable no! ce o" !he a''l ca! on !he#e"o# and acco#ded an o''o#!un !( !o be hea#d.en!. n s!#a!o# and !he cou#! .al #e'#esen!a! +e o# #e'#esen!a! +es !o a''ea# and be subs! !u!ed w !h n a 'e# od o" !h #!( $-B% da(s "#o.. $&B% SEC.ua#d an o# . parte a''l ca! on and hea# n. An( ad+e#se 'a#!( .a( be hea#d n 'e#son o# !h#ou.'! on "#o.a( be con! nued and .—I" a 'a#!( beco. $1@a% SEC. Indigent party. shall be a l en on an( 0ud.ua#d an ad litem "o# !he .e o" such dea!h) ! shall no! be d s. 1A. a! !he ! . The cou#! cha#.#a'h c no!es wh ch !he cou#! . n s!#a!o# "o# !he es!a!e o" !he deceased and !he la!!e# shall .ed shall "a l !o a''ea# w !h n !he s'ec " ed 'e# od) !he cou#! .—A 'a#!( . "#o. o# de"ense as an nd .al .a!e h s ac! on) cla . 1?.—Ac! ons a""ec! n.'e!en! o# nca'ac !a!ed 'e#son ass s!ed b( h s le.a n!a ned b( o# a.#an!ed b( !he cou#!) ! s sa! s"ac!o# l( shown !o !he cou#! b( an( 'a#!( !ha! !he#e s a subs!an! al need "o# con! nu n. !ha! !he 'a#!( decla#ed as an nd . Incompetency or incapacity. 1@.'e!en! o# nca'ac !a!ed) !he cou#!) u'on .en!) " de"#a(ed b( !he o''os n.ua#d an ad litem.o! on d #ec!s !he 'e#son !o who. such a''o n!. The a. $&&a%. Transfer of interest. 'a#!() .en!) unless !he cou#! o!he#w se '#o+ des.a( be .'l ed) and !he de"endan! d es be"o#e en!#( o" " nal 0ud. nal 'a#!() unless !he cou#! u'on .un c 'al !( o# c !( whe#e n !he #eal '#o'e#!( n+ol+ed) o# a 'o#! on !he#eo") s s !ua!ed.The he #s o" !he deceased . !he n!e#es! s !#ans"e##ed !o be subs! !u!ed n !he ac! on o# 0o ned w !h !he o# .a( be co. cla .—8hen a 'ubl c o"" ce# s a 'a#!( n an ac! on n h s o"" c al ca'ac !( and du# n. ! !le !o o# 'ossess on o" #eal '#o'e#!() o# n!e#es! !he#e n) shall be co.. no! ce.enced and !# ed n !he '#o'e# cou#! wh ch has 0u# sd c! on o+e# !he a#ea whe#e n !he #eal '#o'e#!( n+ol+ed) o# a 'o#! on !he#eo") s s !ua!ed.h a #e'#esen!a! +e dul( des . 'a( n.a( con!es! !he .enue of personal actions. $1Aa% SEC.en! #ende#ed n !he case "a+o#able !o !he nd . &1. $14a) 1?a% SEC. SEC. no# he #s. (ction on contractual money claims. ! and !ha! !he successo# ado'!s o# con! nues o# !h#ea!ens !o ado'! o# con! nue !he ac! on o" h s '#edecesso#.a( be allowed !o be subs! !u!ed "o# !he deceased) w !hou! #e>u # n.en! !he#eo") w !hou! '#e0ud ce !o such o!he# sanc! ons as !he cou#! .ed b( !he counsel "o# !he deceased 'a#!( o# " !he one so na. $&CcDa% .en! was e*e.a( be co.enced and !# ed n !he ..—In an( ac! on n+ol+ n.s a. $&CbDa% SEC. . !s 'endenc( d es) #es .a( #e>u #e !he a''ea#ance o" !he Sol c !o# Gene#al who .one( o# '#o'e#!( su"" c en! and a+a lable "o# "ood) shel!e# and bas c necess ! es "o# h .en! s n "ac! a 'e#son w !h su"" c en! nco. $1CaD) &CaDa% SEC.oun! o" !he docke! and o!he# law"ul "ees wh ch !he nd . ssed bu! shall ns!ead be allowed !o con! nue un! l en!#( o" " nal 0ud.a( be #eco+e#ed as cos!s.en! " !he cou#!) u'on an e. . -. %otice to the Solicitor -eneral.ed a!el( a''ea# "o# and on behal" o" !he deceased.es nco. 'a(.en! o" an e*ecu!o# o# ad. I" !he cou#! should de!e#.ade) !he 'a#!( o# o"" ce# !o be a""ec!ed) unless e*'#essl( assen! n. 5o#c ble en!#( and de!a ne# ac! ons shall be co.

%—'a#!( co.a! ons n !he 'lead n..n 2able b( !he #e. $leadings defined. $n% SEC.'l edl( a''l ed onl( !o e !he# o" sa d cou#!s) o# $b% n c + l cases .e "ac!s n den al o# a+o dance o" new . !he .—The '#ocedu#e n !he 9un c 'al T# al Cou#!s shall be !he sa.an! would ne+e#!heless '#e+en! o# ba# #eco+e#( b( h .a!!e# o" !he o''os n.s shall be se! "o#!h n an a.ed such cla .—Th s Rule shall no! a''l(— $a% In !hose cases whe#e a s'ec " c #ule o# law '#o+ des o!he#w se7 o# $b% 8he#e !he 'a#! es ha+e +al dl( a. 'niform procedure. 'a#!(Gs cla .—A coun!e#cla .—A #e'l( s a 'lead n. asse#! n.an! "o# all o# 'a#! o" a cla .'ulso#( #e.en!) lle.a! +e. @.oun! and !he na!u#e !he#eo") e*ce'! !ha! n an o# ..n !() sub#o. Reply.a!!e# wh ch) wh le h('o!he! call( ad.ed n !he answe# a#e dee.oun!.—An answe# s a 'lead n.s o" a 'a#!( a#e asse#!ed n a co. 1.a ns! h .a!!e# e !he# o" !he o# . The de"enses o" a 'a#!( a#e alle.a( nclude a cla .a!!e# b( wa( o" con"ess on and a+o dance.'la n!< n< n!e#+en! on.a! +e de"enses nclude "#aud) s!a!u!e o" l .%—'a#!( co. &.e# #eco+e#() d scha#.an!.us! be s!a!ed n !he co.SEC.a( also be " led a. nal ac! on o# o" a coun!e#cla .'ulso#( coun!e#cla . Counterclaims and counter&cross&claims. !a! ons) #elease 'a(. !eaning of terms.—The cla .e n bank#u'!c() and an( o!he# .'la n!.s and de"enses o" !he 'a#! es sub.a ns! an o''os n. co. !! n. $11% SEC. asse#!ed n !he ac! on a. n wh ch a de"end n.'la n! s a cla .—A c#oss<cla . An answe# .ended o# su''le. $1a% PROCEEURE IN REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS RULE 4 FINES O5 PLEAEINGS SECTION 1. b( one 'a#!( a. .a ns! an o# . ou! o" !he !#ansac! on o# occu##ence !ha! s !he sub0ec! . nal c#oss< cla . :9un c 'al T# al Cou#!s.a ns! !he c#oss<cla ..a() w !h lea+e o" cou#!) " le a. $3a% SEC.a!!e#s alle.—Ee"enses .an!. !ha! a de"end n. Such a coun!e#cla . !ha! !he 'a#!( a.a! on o# an( o!he# #el e") n #es'ec! o" h s o''onen!Gs cla . nal coun!e#< cla .a( ha+e a. $n% SEC.a( be l able !o !he c#oss<cla . I" a 'a#!( does no! " le such #e'l() all !he new . $-a) 3a% RULE 3 UNI5OR9 PROCEEURE IN TRIAL COURTS SECTION 1. a.a#dless o" !he a.—The !e#.—A co.a( be asse#!ed a.—A coun!e#cla . a cla . A. as used n !hese Rules shall nclude 9e!#o'ol !an T# al Cou#!s) 9un c 'al T# al Cou#!s n C ! es) 9un c 'al T# al Cou#!s) and 9un c 'al C #cu ! T# al Cou#!s.s a# s n. 'a#!( . $4a% SEC. nal ac! on be"o#e !he Re.ed b( wa( o" de"ense n !he answe# and !he#eb( 0o n o# .a ns! an o# . !he sub0ec! .a#( '#ocedu#e.a ns! a 'e#son no! a 'a#!( !o !he ac! on) called !he !h #d $"ou#!h) e!c.ed n !he answe# !o !he 'lead n.) c#oss<cla .ed con!#o+e#!ed. !he 'la n! ""Gs cause o# causes o" ac! on. The a"" #. !he cou#! canno! ac>u #e 0u# sd c! on.a ns! who. $leadings allowed. 1.a!!e#s so alle.en!al co. ou! o" !he new .a( e !he# be ne. (nswer. etc.a( be #es'onded !o b( a #e'l(. !!ed !o !he cou#! "o# a''#o'# a!e 0ud. #hen Rule not applicable.#eed n w# ! n.ula# cou#!s o" 0us! ce) a# ses ou! o" o# s connec!ed w !h !he !#ansac! on o# occu##ence cons! !u! n.a! on o" a new . $?% SEC. Third.—Plead n. $n% SEC.us! be w !h n !he 0u# sd c! on o" !he cou#! bo!h as !o !he a. . s an( cla . I" !he 'la n! "" wh shes !o n!e#'ose an( cla . !he#e n.a!e# al "ac! o# "ac!s alle. s an( cla .) !he o"" ce o# "unc! on o" wh ch s !o den() o# alle.a!e# al alle. Counterclaim.) !h #d $"ou#!h) e!c. $a% A ne. n. The na. Such c#oss<cla .'la n!) o# co. nal ac! on s #e>u #ed "o# .es and #es dences o" !he 'la n! "" and de"endan! . -. o" !he ac! on on !he e*clus +e +enue !he#eo". and does no! #e>u #e "o# !s ad0ud ca! on !he '#esence o" !h #d 'a#! es o" who. Cross&claim. 1B. .—8hen !he '#esence o" 'a#! es o!he# !han !hose !o !he o# . onal T# al Cou#!s) e*ce'! $a% whe#e a 'a#! cula# '#o+ s on e*'#essl( o# . ! s asse#!ed s o# . 1&. $b% An a"" #. $1a% SEC.a! +e de"ense s an alle.a( be cons de#ed co. $-a% SEC. onal T# al Cou#!) !he coun!e#cla . ?.—The co. &. 11.a!!e#s alle.an! essen! al !o h s cause o# causes o" ac! on. 1ringing new parties. /fourth.. wh ch a de"end n.o+e#ned b( !he Rule on Su. . 3. o" !he cla .s a#e !he w# !!en s!a!e.e as n !he Re.'la n!.en!. $1a% SEC.'la n! s !he 'lead n. 'a#!(.a! +e o# a"" #. alle.ed n !he 'lead n. 'a#!( .—A !h #d $"ou#!h) e!c. Compulsory counterclaim.a ns! a co<'a#!( a# s n. $1&a% SEC.. o" !he cla .al !() s!a!u!e o" "#auds) es!o''el) "o#.a!!e#s. be"o#e !he " l n.0—party complaint. Complaint. 4. $n% SEC.ake ssue as !o such new .'la n!) coun!e#cla . s one wh ch) be n. . A c#oss<cla .%—'a#!( de"endan!) "o# con!# bu! on) nde.an!.en!s o" !he #es'ec! +e cla . +efenses.a! +e de"ense s !he s'ec " c den al o" !he . 'a#!( se!s "ou#!h h s de"enses.

The ! !le o" !he ac! on nd ca!es !he na. ac! on o# cla . shall be da!ed.a! ons o" !he 'a#!(Gs cla . =owe+e#) !he cou#! . a cla . !he sa.ed n !he o# .a! ons !he#e n a#e !#ue and co##ec! o" h s 'e#sonal knowled. . o# lacks a '#o'e# +e# " ca! on) shall be !#ea!ed as an uns .'l ance w !h an( o" !he unde#!ak n.e o# s . !o be b#ou.7 !ha! !o !he bes! o" h s knowled. na! on o" a coun!e#cla .2E+e#( 'lead n. shall be d + ded n!o 'a#a. h . The body. has been " led o# s 'end n.e#e a.'la n! o# o!he# n ! a!o#( 'lead n.%—'a#!( de"endan! .'an ed b( a"" da+ !..) !he cou#! shall o#de# !he.) s!a! n. s 'end n.2E*ce'! when o!he#w se s'ec " call( #e>u #ed b( law o# #ule) 'lead n. se!s "o#!h !s des .#an! n. $1a)&a% SEC.s o# c#oss<cla .end.e o" h s add#ess) shall be sub0ec! !o a''#o'# a!e d sc 'l na#( ac! on. 5a lu#e !o co.na!u#e o" counsel cons! !u!es a ce#! " ca!e b( h .s!ances so "a# as !ha! can be done w !h con+en ence. $11% SEC.!he . $1% $c% Relief. Certification against forum shopping. a. 'lead n. o# :answe# !o !he second cause o" ac! on.a( add a .) o# s .ul!aneousl( " led !he#ew !h6 $a% !ha! he has no! !he#e!o"o#e co.en!s shall no! be cu#able b( . 1. and so on "o# !he o!he#s.ned 'lead n. n+ol+ n.en! o" !he '#esen! s!a!us !he#eo"7 and $c% " he should !he#ea"!e# lea#n !ha! !he sa.s. !o !he cou#! whe#e n h s a"o#esa d co.al e""ec!.s o# de"enses) !he #el e" '#a(ed "o#) and !he da!e o" !he 'lead n. A 'lead n.02party complaint.h! n as de"endan!s) " 0u# sd c! on o+e# !he. —The 'la n! "" o# '# nc 'al 'a#!( shall ce#! "( unde# oa!h n !he co.enc( and) !o !he bes! o" h s knowled.en! o" a s n. -. la# ac! on o# cla .e#e nad+e#!ence and no! n!ended "o# dela(. &. $n% $a% $aragraphs..'! o" cou#!) w !hou! .'!l( #e'o#! !o !he cou#! a chan.. A 'lead n.ned 'lead n.e ssues n an( cou#!) !# bunal o# >uas <0ud c al a.) a co.'l( w !h !he "o#e. and so on7 and when one o# . o" !he second b( :second cause o" ac! on).en! o" !he " #s! shall be '#e"aced b( !he wo#ds :" #s! cause o" ac! on).#ound !o su''o#! !7 and !ha! ! s no! n!e#'osed "o# dela(. !he#e n7 $b% " !he#e s such o!he# 'end n.a! on and bel e"). n + ola! on o" !h s Rule) o# alle.. s +e# " ed b( an a"" da+ ! !ha! !he a"" an! has #ead !he 'lead n.en! o" !he co.a( ha+e a. has been " led. and !ha! !he alle.es o" !he 'a#! es. In '#o'e# cases) he .ed ed " ! shall a''ea# !ha! !he sa.a ns! !he o# .e o" !he " #s! 'a#!( on each s de be s!a!ed w !h an a''#o'# a!e nd ca! on when !he#e a#e o!he# 'a#! es.'le!e s!a!e.ed 0us! o# e>u !able. o" co.#a'hs so nu. The s .e) n"o#.e o" !he cou#!) !he ! !le o" !he ac! on) and !he docke! nu.a( be dee.'le!e #el e" n !he de!e#. The sub.. #e>u #ed !o be +e# " ed wh ch con!a ns a +e# " ca! on based on : n"o#.ns a 'lead n. nal 'la n! "" n #es'ec! o" !he la!!e#Gs cla .a ns! !he o# .'la n! o# o!he# n ! a!o#( 'lead n. 1-. $-a) R4% $d% +ate. can be ob!a ned.ned.be#ed as !o be #ead l( den! " ed) each o" wh ch shall con!a n a s!a!e.#a'hs o" !he answe# a#e add#essed !o se+e#al causes o" ac! on) !he( shall be '#e"aced b( wo#ds !o !ha! e""ec!.a!!e# !he#e n) o# "a ls !o '#o. shall s'ec "( !he #el e" sou.na! on) !he alle.e) n"o#. such de"enses !ha! !he !h #d $"ou#!h) e!c. $-a% $b% 3eadings2#hen !wo o# . $n% RULE ? PARTS O5 A PLEAEING SECTION 1.ood . A 'a#a.#a'hs n !he answe# a#e add#essed !o one o" se+e#al causes o" ac! on n !he co. #e>u #e.e o# based on au!hen! c #eco#ds. n e !he# case h s add#ess wh ch should no! be a 'os! o"" ce bo*.a( be #e"e##ed !o b( !s nu.s) ! shall be su"" c en! " !he na. Signature and address. The( shall all be na.a ns! !he !h #d<'a#!( 'la n! "".ene#al '#a(e# "o# such "u#!he# o# o!he# #el e" as . Caption. Counsel who del be#a!el( " les an uns . o# c#oss<cla .a! on) and bel e" !he#e s . ss on) o" a "alse ce#! " ca! on o# non<co.—A !h #d $"ou#!h) e!c. "o# #el e") o# n a swo#n ce#! " ca! on anne*ed !he#e!o and s .o#e 'a#a. $1a% SEC.a() n !s d sc#e! on) allow such de" c enc( !o be #e.a! on and bel e").es scandalous o# ndecen! .o! on and a"!e# hea# n.o#e 'a#a.—The ca'! on se!s "o#!h !he na.a( also asse#! a coun!e#cla .erification. o# u'on :knowled. bu! shall be cause "o# !he d s.a! ons n !he bod( o" a 'lead n.s need no! be unde# oa!h) +e# " ed o# acco.be# n all succeed n.e n h s answe# h s de"enses) coun!e#cla .e) no such o!he# ac! on o# cla . $3a% SEC.'la n! o# n ! a!o#( 'lead n.ned 'lead n.ned b( !he 'a#!( o# counsel #e'#esen! n.e was due !o . An uns . 8hen one o# . '#oduces no le.—The bod( o" !he 'lead n.enced an( ac! on o# " led an( cla .%—'a#!( 'la n! "" .le se! o" c #cu. The # #es'ec! +e 'a#! c 'a! on n !he case shall be nd ca!ed.'la n!) !he( shall be '#e"aced b( !he wo#ds :answe# !o !he " #s! cause o" ac! on.be# " ass . (nswer to third /fourth.'la n! o# 'e! ! on7 bu! n subse>uen! 'lead n. $n% SEC. etc. ssal o" !he case w !hou! '#e0ud ce) unless o!he#w se '#o+ ded) u'on .—The alle. nal 'la n! ""Gs cla .#a'h . . !ha! he has #ead !he 'lead n. 3.2E+e#( 'lead n. nal co.) he shall #e'o#! !ha! "ac! w !h n " +e $3% da(s !he#e"#o.h!) bu! ! .us! be s .2The 'lead n.o#e causes o" ac! on a#e 0o ned) !he s!a!e.o n.s !he#e n shall cons! !u!e nd #ec! con!e.a( alle. a. asse#! n.s) nclud n.

$A% SEC. 2U'on .uch o" ! as s !#ue and . $?% SEC.a( be) o.o#e s!a!e. ?.e o# n"o#. A 'a#!( des # n.al e* s!ence o" an o#.en! o# docu.an 2ed assoc a! on o" 'e#sons !ha! s . !!ed unless !he ad+e#se 'a#!() unde# oa!h) s'ec " call( den es !he.en!) he sh ll s'ec "( so .e 'a#! es "o# !he sa. $n% RULE @ 9ANNER O5 9AFING ALLEGATIONS IN PLEAEINGS SECTION 1.s!ances cons! !u! n.ed ad. cal "o#.2A 'a#!( . " .en! shall be dee.o! on .a( be a+e##ed . o# de"ense al!e#na! +el( o# h('o!he! call() e !he# n one cause o" ac! on o# de"ense o# n se'a#a!e causes o" ac! on o# de"enses. (ction or defense based on document. $&% SEC.a( o#de# an( 'lead n.us! be a+e##ed. A.ene#all(. Conditions precedent.ade nde'enden!l( would be su"" c en!) !he 'lead n. be!ween !he sa.. 8he#e a de"endan! s w !hou! knowled.ade nsu"" c en! b( !he nsu"" c enc( o" one o# .en! o" an oa!h does no! a''l( when !he ad+e#se 'a#!( does no! a''ea# !o be a 'a#!( !o !he ns!#u. ss o# n !he answe# a#e dee.28hen an ac! on o# de"ense s "ounded u'on a w# !!en ns!#u. 8he#e a de"endan! des #es !o den( onl( a 'a#! o" an a+e#.a!!e# show n.) o# u'on !he cou#!Gs own n ! a! +e a! an( ! . -.ed ad. nal ac! ons. (lternative causes of action or defenses. 9al ce) n!en!) knowled.a nde#.e#e e+ den! a#( "ac!s.28hene+e# an ac! on o# de"ense s based u'on a w# !!en ns!#u.) o# sa d co'( .en! o# dec s on o" a do. sho'' n.es) shall be . Official document or act. !!ed when no! s'ec " call( den ed.ance o# occu##ence o" all cond ! ons '#eceden! shall be su"" c en!.en! o# dec s on w !hou! se!! n..ade b( a 'a#!( be"o#e #es'ond n..e shall be .en! n !he co.a( w !h l ke e""ec! be se! "o#!h n !he 'lead n. 0u# sd c! on !o #ende# !.al e* s!ence o" an( 'a#!( o# !he ca'ac !( o" an( 'a#!( !o sue o# be sued n a #e'#esen!a! +e ca'ac !() shall do so b( s'ec " c den al) wh ch shall nclude such su''o#! n. 1B.) !he sa. $1% SEC.ade n !he co.o! on !o d s. I" !he ac!s o" !he 'a#!( o# h s counsel clea#l( cons! !u!e w ll"ul and del be#a!e "o#u. u'on h .) and !he o# .a! ons o" usu#( n a co. $4% SEC. !he 'lead n. ss !he cla . o#) " no #es'ons +e 'lead n. 1. "o#!h . $@a% SEC.en! o" !he 'e#"o#.s !o be !he "ac!s7 bu! !he #e>u #e. +efenses and ob"ections not 'leaded.en!) !he subs!ance o" such ns!#u.ed !o be a 'a#! o" !he 'lead n.'la n!) he shall so s!a!e) and !h s shall ha+e !he e""ec! o" a den al.en! o# b( s!a!u!e o" l . "#aud o# .—E+e#( 'lead n. s 'e#. Stri)ing out of pleading or matter contained therein. $&a% .n cou#!) 0ud c al o# >uas <0ud c al !# bunal) o# o" a boa#d o# o"" ce#) ! s su"" c en! !o a+e# !he 0ud. shall be clea#l( and conc sel( s!a!ed.e o# o!he# cond ! on o" !he .o! on .a!!e#s u'on wh ch he #el es !o su''o#! h s den al.'la n! !o #eco+e# usu# ous n!e#es! a#e dee.o#e s!a!e.a! on o" "ac! !he !#u!h o" wh ch he does no! ad. s!ake) !he c #cu.en!s o" "#aud o# . 4. s!ake .en! was ssued o# !he ac! done n co. 29a!e# al a+e#.en! o# docu. !! n.2A de"endan! .2In an( 'lead n.'#e0ud ce !o !he co##es'ond n.ed ad.e..2In all a+e#. o# "alse) #edundan!) .a!e# al and shall den( onl( !he #e.a.en! o" !he ul! .en! o# o"" c al ac!) ! s su"" c en! !o a+e# !ha! !he docu. n s!#a! +e sanc! ons. Specific denial.o#e o" !he al!e#na! +e s!a!e. nal o# a co'( !he#eo" shall be a!!ached !o !he 'lead n. nd o" a 'e#son .#ound "o# su.oun! o" unl >u da!ed da.en! o# when co. !!ed " no! den ed unde# oa!h.en! shall be se! "o#!h n !he 'lead n.en! . In general .. Capacity. Alle.'e#! nen!) o# scandalous . =owe+e#) when ! a''ea#s "#o. !he ca'ac !( o" a 'a#!( !o sue o# be sued o# !he au!ho# !( o" a 'a#!( !o sue o# be sued n a #e'#esen!a! +e ca'ac !( o# !he le. !!ed by !hese Rules) u'on . ad. 'a#! cula#s as a#e 'ecul a#l( w !h n !he 'leade#Gs knowled.en!s.enu neness and due e*ecu! on o" !he ns!#u. !o a 'lead n. an o"" c al docu.en! o" .—In 'lead n.ene#al a+e#. (llegations not specifically denied deemed admitted.en!s a#e . s no! . as an e*h b !) wh ch shall be dee..'l ance w !h law. shall con!a n n a .e!hod cal and lo.en! s #e"used.a#( d s. @.a!!e# be s!# cken ou! !he#e"#o.'l ance w !h an o#de# "o# an ns'ec! on o" !he o# .a!e# al a+e#. condition of the mind. $1Ba% SEC.es! c o# "o#e .a!!e#) !ha! !he#e s ano!he# ac! on 'end n. #el es "o# h s cla . mista)e.a! on su"" c en! !o "o#.a( se! "o#!h !wo o# .dee.e cause) o# !ha! !he ac! on s ba##ed b( a '# o# 0ud. &.a!e# al) .'la n!) o!he# !han !hose as !o !he a. 11.'!) as well as a cause "o# ad. $3) RA% RULE A E55ECT O5 5AILURE TO PLEAE SECTION 1...ade n !he al!e#na! +e and one o" !he. 8hen !wo o# . a 0ud. 3ow to contest such documents. ! and) whene+e# '#ac! cable) shall se! "o#!h !he subs!ance o" !he .a!e# al alle. nal ns!#u. !o #a se an ssue as !o !he le.25ac!s show n. as '#o+ ded n !he '#eced n. 1&.) and se!s "o#!h wha! he cla .en!s o" a cla .) a 'la n) conc se and d #ec! s!a!e. 3.a!e "ac!s on wh ch !he 'a#!( 'lead n. o# de"ense) as !he case . $n% SEC. 4raud. n s!#a! +e and c# . $1% I" a de"ense #el e" on s based on law) !he 'e#! nen! '#o+ s ons !he#eo" and !he # a''l cab l !( !o h .us! be s!a!ed w !h 'a#! cula# !(. !he s!a!e. $-% SEC.s o# !he e+ dence on #eco#d !ha! !he cou#! has no 0u# sd c! on o+e# !he sub0ec! .us! s'ec "( each . udgment.—Ee"enses and ob0ec! ons no! 'leaded e !he# n a . $3a% SEC.2In 'lead n. ssal w !h '#e0ud ce and shall cons! !u!e d #ec! con!e.en!) co' ed n o# a!!ached !o !he co##es'ond n.ed wa +ed.ade a 'a#!() . sec! on) !he . a bel e" as !o !he !#u!h o" a . !o be s!# cken ou! o# !ha! an( sha. 'lead n.ade b( a 'a#!( w !h n !wen!( $&B% da(s a"!e# !he se#+ ce o" !he 'lead n. !a! ons) !he cou#! shall d s.e) !he cou#! . a . $1a) RA% SEC.

a ns! se+e#al de"end n.e# !s o" !he ac! on and !he ends o" subs!an! al 0us! ce w ll be subse#+ed !he#eb(.a( be necessa#( !o cause !he.2A de"ec! n !he des .ade.s .a( s'eed l( be de!e#.anne#.ended 'lead n.'ose n !he n!e#es! o" 0us! ce.a( be #ece +ed n e+ dence a.end does no! a""ec! !he #esul! o" !he !# al o" !hese ssues. sou.28hen a 'lead n.en!7 bu! "a lu#e !o a. s!aken o# nade>ua!e alle. !he su''le. Compulsory counterclaim.s bu! no! !o !ake 'a#! n !he !# al.a!!e#s '#o+ ded n !h s sec! on shall be .a. 4ormal amendments. s!ake o# e*cusable ne.o! on o" a 'a#!( !he cou#! . !o con"o#.s as . $1a) R1@% $a% *ffect of order of default.#a'h cal e##o#s .) nco#'o#a! n. !!ed s no! "ab# ca!ed.h! !o be su''le.a( be . s!a!es a co.. $&a% SEC. declaration of.s and cond ! ons as !he 0ud.e# !s o" !he con!#o+e#s( . $4a% SEC.s. 'a#!( w !h no! ce !o !he de"end n. n. !! n.2A 0ud. a!!o#ne( !o n+es! .o! on unde# oa!h !o se! as de !he o#de# o" de"aul! u'on '#o'e# show n.o! on o" an( 'a#!( a! an( ! . asse#! n. s se#+ed o#) n !he case o" a #e'l() a! an( ! .ended and shall do so w !h l be#al !( " !he '#esen!a! on o" !he .h!. or cross&claim. @.a!e whe!he# o# no! a collus on be!ween !he 'a#! es e* s!s) and " !he#e s no collus on) !o n!e#+ene "o# !he S!a!e n o#de# !o see !o ! !ha! !he e+ dence sub.2A co.oun! o# be d ""e#en! n k nd "#o. &.s !o be a.ence and !ha! he has a . *ffect of amended pleadings.) o# a c#oss<cla . /u! such lea+e .a#ks) shall be " led.ends. ou! an alle. $4a) R1@% RULE 1B A9ENEEE ANE SUPPLE9ENTAL PLEAEINGS SECTION 1.en! u'on !he e+ dence '#esen!ed.tent of relief to be awarded.ended) a new co'( o" !he en! #e 'lead n. $1a) R1@% $d% *. o# s!# k n..e w !h n !en $1B% da(s a"!e# ! s se#+ed. I" e+ dence s ob0ec!ed !o a! !he !# al on !he .a!ed !o !he cle#k o" cou#!..en!ed.an! !o sub. a cla .a( . answe# and !he o!he#s "a l !o do so) !he cou#! shall !#( !he case a.a## a.—E*ce'! as '#o+ ded n !he ne*! '#eced n.2 8hen an( 'lead n.ade onl( u'on lea+e o" cou#!.ade u'on .an! such #el e" as h s 'lead n. $3a% SEC. $?a% SEC. 'a#!( n de"aul!.en!s) wh ch shall be nd ca!ed b( a''#o'# a!e . (mendments in general. a .2A 'a#!( n de"aul! shall be en! !led !o no! ce o" subse>uen! '#oceed n.ade b( !he 'lead n. !ha! '#a(ed "o# no# awa#d unl >u da!ed da. sec! on) subs!an! al a. !o !he e+ dence and !o #a se !hese ssues .e# !o# ous de"ense.a ns! a 'a#!( n de"aul! shall no! e*ceed !he a.. +efault.s a#e !# ed w !h !he e*'#ess o# .a( .o! on was .end.a( be se! as de on such !e#. se!! n. ned) w !hou! #e.s) !he cou#! . not set up barred. !he a.a ns! !he 'leade#7 and cla . 4. ! h ..a( be #e"used " ! a''ea#s !o !he cou#! !ha! !he .e) e+en a"!e# 0ud.a ns! all u'on !he answe#s !hus " led and #ende# 0ud.e o" !he ac! on) a! !s n ! a! +e o# on . (mendment to conform to or authori5e presentation of evidence.en! #ende#ed a.en!al 'lead n.end.ade w !h n!en! !o dela(. 1.a( 'lead !he#e!o w !h n !en $1B% da(s "#o.en!al 'lead n.ed wa +ed.2I" !he de"end n. 'a#!() and '#oo" o" such "a lu#e) decla#e !he de"end n. $1% SEC.SEC.s o# de"enses alle. The#eu'on) !he cou#! shall '#oceed !o #ende# 0ud.2A 'a#!( decla#ed n de"aul! .ended b( add n. su'e#sedes !he 'lead n. $-a) R1@% $c% *ffect of partial default.al se'a#a! on "a ls !o answe#) !he cou#! shall o#de# !he '#osecu! n. s!ake n !he na.. (mendments as a matter of # . The cou#! . no! ce o" !he o#de# ad.ade u'on .a( be dele. (mendments by leave of court.#an! a con! nuance !o enable !he a.'l ed consen! o" !he 'a#! es) !he( shall be !#ea!ed n all #es'ec!s as " !he( had been #a sed n !he 'lead n.e be"o#e a #es'ons +e 'lead n. The ad+e#se 'a#!( .on cause o" ac! on a..a# l( co##ec!ed b( !he cou#! a! an( s!a. $1a% SEC. !he cla . Such a.s .'ulso#( coun!e#cla . Such #ece'! on o" e+ dence .end.a( be a.e o" a 'a#!( o# a .e a"!e# no! ce !he#eo" and be"o#e 0ud.na! on o" !he 'a#! es and o!he# clea#l( cle# cal o# !('o. O#de#s o" !he cou#! u'on !he .en! .o! on) '#o+ ded so '#e0ud ce s caused !he#eb( !o !he ad+e#se 'a#!(. 4iling of amended pleadings. ss ons n su'e#seded 'lead n..—A 'a#!( .ended 'lead n. $-a% SEC. 3.#ound !ha! ! s no! w !h n !he ssues . -. !o se#+e a su''le.s asG a#e 0us!) 'e#.en! o# decla#a! on o" null !( o" . Supplemental pleadings.l .a( wa##an!) unless !he cou#! n !s d sc#e! on #e>u #es !he cla . $1a% SEC.en! !o be .a!!e# o" # .h! a! an( ! . shall be dee.e o" an( 'a#!() o# b( co##ec! n.#an! n.en!s .2I" !he de"end n. 2 U'on .a! on o# !he na.a( be . !ha! ! a.) no! se! u' shall be ba##ed.a( a! an( ! .es. 'a#!( n an ac! on "o# annul. .—8hen ssues no! #a sed b( !he 'lead n.a! on o# desc# '! on n an( o!he# #es'ec!) so !ha! !he ac!ual .en! o" !he 'lead n. &. once as a . s a.a( a.e o" who. ?. $&a) R1@% $b% Relief from order of default.e o# "o# le. 'a#! es) so. "o#!h !#ansac! ons) occu##ences o# e+en!s wh ch ha+e ha''ened s nce !he da!e o" !he 'lead n. -.e .2 An a.o! on o" !he cla .a( be su. !ha! h s "a lu#e !o answe# was due !o "#aud) acc den!) . ! e+ dence.a( allow !he 'lead n.—Plead n.end.end h s 'lead n.os! e*'ed ! ous and ne*'ens +e .ed !he#e n no! nco#'o#a!ed n !he a.o! on " led n cou#!) and a"!e# no! ce !o !he ad+e#se 'a#!() and an o''o#!un !( !o be hea#d. $n% RULE 11 8=EN TO 5ILE RESPONSIVE PLEAEINGS . =owe+e#) ad.a() u'on #easonable no! ce and u'on such !e#. $3a) R1@% $e% #here no defaults allowed. In such case) !he o#de# o" de"aul! . 'a#!( "a ls !o answe# w !h n !he ! .en! " le a .e allowed !he#e"o#) !he cou#! shall) u'on .a#d !o !echn cal ! es) and n !he .

s 0us!. '#o'e#l( !o '#e'a#e h s #es'ons +e 'lead n. The answe# !o !he co. -. (nswer of a defendant foreign private "uridical en! !(.ended coun!e#cla .us! . 11.a!u#ed o# was ac>u #ed b( a 'a#!( a"!e# se#+ n.'la n!. $3a% SEC.ended co.a( e*!end !he ! .o! on) wh ch shall no! be less !han " +e $3% da(s n an( e+en!.o+e "o# a de" n !e s!a!e.2A coun!e#< cla . o" !he . s a #e'l() !he .a( se#+e as !he answe# !o !he a. $&a% SEC. Stay of period to file responsive pleading2A"!e# se#+ ce o" !he b ll o" 'a#! cula#s o# o" a . Omitted counterclaim or cross&claim. a co'( !he#eo" on !he ad+e#se 'a#!(.2I" !he o#de# s no! obe(ed) o# n case o" nsu"" c en! co. wh ch e !he# .ended !h #d $"ou#!h) e!c.a( also) u'on l ke !e#. ou! o" !he 'lead n.ended 'lead n..'l ance !he#ew !h . (ction by the cou#!.#a'hs whe#e n !he( a#e con!a ned) and !he de!a ls des #ed.en!al co. $1CcDa% SEC.ade on !he . (nswer to counterclaim or cross&claim. (nswer to supplemental complaint. purpose.e #ule as !he answe# !o !he co. h s . Counterclaim or cross&claim arising after answer. (nswer to amended complaint. @.ended c#oss<cla .2A #e'l( .ed a!el( b# n.us! be e""ec!ed w !h n !en $1B% da(s "#o.'la n!) " no new answe# s " led.. 1. The cou#! .) a 'a#!( . o# a c#oss<cla . Such .2I" !he .'l ance !he#ew !h) !he cou#! . no! ce o" !he o#de# ad..ended co.s as .lec!) o# when 0us! ce #e>u #es) he . $1CaDa% RULE 15ILING ANE SERVICE O5 PLEAEINGS) HUEG9ENTS ANE OT=ER PAPERS . I" !he 'lead n.e !o 'lead '#o+ ded n !hese Rules.e) unless a d ""e#en! 'e# od s " *ed b( !he cou#!.s) allow an answe# o# o!he# 'lead n. .e) !he answe# shall be " led w !h n !h #!( $-B% da(s a"!e# #ece '! o" su.o#e de" n !e s!a!e.ended co. #es'onded !o. &.en!al answe# s " led.'la n! w !h n !en $1B% da(s "#o. 1ill a part of pleading. o# !he 'o#! ons !he#eo" !o wh ch !he o#de# was d #ec!ed o# . An answe# ea#l e# " led .o! on s . $a% SEC. 'a#!( . $4% SEC.es 'a#! o" !he 'lead n..ons b( such en! !(.a( " le h s #es'ons +e 'lead n.h!) !he de"endan! shall answe# !he sa. $n% SEC.2. !ha! a de"end n. Th s Rule shall a''l( !o !he answe# !o an a. b( a.h!) nad+e#!ence) o# e*cusable ne. $-a% SEC. b( su''le.%— 'a#!( co.end. #hen applied for. The ! .e he " les h s answe# shall be con!a ned !he#e n.a() w !h !he 'e#. be"o#e 0ud. ! !o !he a!!en! on o" !he cou#! wh ch .'la n! shall se#+e as !he answe# !o !he su''le.o#e de" n !e 'lead n.2 A coun!e#cla . $@a) R4% SEC. &. ?.isting counterclaim or c#oss<cla .na!ed b( law !o #ece +e !he sa.28hen a 'leade# "a ls !o se! u' a coun!e#cla .a!!e# o" # . no! ce o" !he o#de#) unless a d ""e#en! 'e# od s " *ed b( !he cou#!.e " *ed b( !hese Rules.a( o#de# !he s!# k n. *.'la ned o") !he 'a#a.h o+e#s . $A) R4% SEC.o! on) !he cle#k o" cou#! .tension of time to plead . *. (nswer to third /fourth.ended co.. (nswer to the co. The b ll o" 'a#! cula#s o# a .) o# a"!e# no! ce o" den al o" h s .o+e#n.h!) !he de"endan! shall answe# !he a. !o a 'lead n. 4.ons s . 3. !! n. -.e w !h n " "!een $13% da(s a"!e# be n.en!al co. $1% SEC.SECTION 1.o! on shall 'o n! ou! !he de"ec!s co.) a.2U'on .a( be " led w !h n !en $1B% da(s "#o. *ffect of non&compliance.o+ n. se#+ed w !h a co'( !he#eo". A.—/e"o#e #es'ond n. se#+ ce.02party complaint.2A su''le.a!!e# wh ch s no! a+e##ed w !h su"" c en! de" n !eness o# 'a#! cula# !( !o enable h . a.h!) o# allow !he 'a#! es !he o''o#!un !( !o be hea#d. "o# wh ch ! s n!ended. $1a% SEC. $1a% SEC.en! be"o#e 0ud. !o be " led a"!e# !he ! .en!. $1CbDa% SEC 4. se#+ ce o" !he 'lead n.a( .e.a( e !he# den( o# .'la n! w !h n " "!een $13% da(s a"!e# se#+ ce o" su.<<A co.28he#e !he 'la n! "" " les an a. 3. Reply.en! o#de#ed b( !he cou#! .a( be 0us!) !he cou#! . 1.'ulso#() coun!e#cla . $-a) RA% SEC. o# a c#oss<cla . .'la n! shall be .en! o"" c al des . o# c#oss<cla .. h s 'lead n.us! be " led w !h n !en $1B% da(s "#o.o! on) !he . s no! a .#an! ! ou!# . o# c#oss<cla .'la n! " no new o# su''le.en!al 'lead n.en!. ss on o" !he cou#!) be '#esen!ed as a coun!e#cla .—The de"endan! shall " le h s answe# !o !he co. w !h n !he 'e# od !o wh ch he was en! !led a! !he ! .%—'a#!( co. !he sa.'la n! . Compliance with order.#an!ed) e !he# n whole o# n 'a#!) !he co. se#+ ce !he#eo"..a!!e# o" # . —8he#e !he de"endan! s a "o#e .'la n!< n< n!e#+en! on.2A b ll o" 'a#! cula#s beco. !h#ou.e o" " l n. 1B.a( be " led e !he# n a se'a#a!e o# n an a. !! n.o+e#ned b( !he sa.e !o answe# a !h #d $"ou#!h) e!c. $n% SEC.'la n! as a . no! ce o" !he O#de# ad.o! on and on such !e#. o# a c#oss<cla .'la n!. 'a#!( has a! !he ! . etc.ons) unless a d ""e#en! 'e# od s " *ed b( !he cou#!. $?% RULE 1& /ILL O5 PARTICULARS SECTION 1.a( be answe#ed w !h n !en $1B% da(s "#o.en! o# "o# a b ll o" 'a#! cula#s o" an( .—U'on !he " l n.n '# +a!e 0u# d cal en! !( and se#+ ce o" su.o! on .. !he sa.a() b( lea+e o" cou#!) se! u' !he coun!e#cla . o# a c#oss<cla . 8he#e !s " l n.us! be answe#ed w !h n !en $1B% da(s "#o.) se#+ n.ake such o!he# o#de# as ! dee.'la n!) and a.

s!e#ed .as!e# !o #e!u#n !he . $1a% SEC. !he#e n. 1-. Service of "udgments. o# 'a'e# shall be '#o+ed b( !s e* s!ence n !he #eco#d o" !he case. o# o!he# 'a'e# !o !he cle#k o" cou#!.. shall be se#+ed u'on h .ade b( such a"" da+ ! and !he #e. -. 'a#!(. nal co' es !he#eo") 'la nl( nd ca!ed as such) 'e#sonall( !o !he cle#k o" cou#! o# b( send n.s) . a "ull s!a!e. !he .ed le!!e# !o.a( be . a 'a#!( w !h a co'( o" !he 'lead n.en!s) " nal o#de#s o# #esolu! ons shall be se#+ed e !he# 'e#sonall( o# b( #e.a l n. —8hene+e# '#ac! cable) !he se#+ ce and " l n. $n% SEC. and s * n !he e+en n.e!he# w !h !he ce#! " ed o# swo#n co'( o" !he no! ce . " ! s no! n !he #eco#d) bu! s cla . $1a% SEC.a l) b( !he #e. The en+elo'e shall be a!!ached !o !he #eco#d o" !he case. shall be .—The " l n.ade b( #e.as!e# !o !he add#essee. s!#( se#+ ce s a+a lable n !he local !( o" e !he# !he sende# o# !he add#essee) se#+ ce .a l.a l) '#oo" !he#eo" shall cons s! o" an a"" da+ ! o" !he 'e#son . I" an( 'a#!( has a''ea#ed b( counsel) se#+ ce u'on h .s and o!he# 'a'e#s) as well as !he se#+ ce !he#eo") e*ce'! !hose "o# wh ch a d ""e#en! . !he da!e he #ece +ed !he " #s! no! ce o" !he 'os!.. s!#( #e!u#n ca#d shall be " led . Substituted service. Completeness of se#+ ce. o" "ac!s show n. !he 'lead n. ?.and) o""e# o" 0ud.ade b( '#esen! n. "#o.) a! !he 'a#!(Gs o# counselGs #es dence) " known) w !h a 'e#son o" su"" c en! a. s!e#ed .e "ull( '#e'a d) and w !h ns!#uc! ons !o !he 'os!.'an ed b( a w# !!en e*'lana! on wh( !he se#+ ce o# " l n. $apers re6uired to be filed and se#+ed.ode o" se#+ ce s '#esc# bed.us! be acco.e and d sc#e! on !hen #es d n.ade e !he# 'e#sonall( o# b( .a( be cause !o cons de# !he 'a'e# as no! " led. 1B..en!) #esolu! on) o#de#) 'lead n. 4iling and service. Coverage . In !he " #s! case) !he cle#k o" cou#! shall endo#se on !he 'lead n.) 'a(.2Se#+ ce o" !he 'a'e#s .as!e# !o #e!u#n !he . ss on o" !he 'a#!( se#+ed) o# !he o"" c al #e!u#n o" !he se#+e#) o# !he a"" da+ ! o" !he 'a#!( se#+ n.a l s co. The #e.a l !o !he sende# a"!e# !en $1B% da(s " undel +e#ed.o! ons) no! ces) #esolu! ons) o#de#s and o!he# 'a'e#s canno! be . @. I" no #e. $n% SEC.ed a!el( u'on !s #ece '! b( !he sende#) o# n l eu !he#eo" o" !he uncla .< . o" 'lead n.h! o" 'ossess on o" #eal '#o'e#!() !he 'la n! "" and !he de"endan!) when a"" #. I" !he se#+ ce s b( o#d na#( .anne# o" se#+ ce.e !he#eo". $@a% SEC. s!#( #ece '! ssued b( !he .en! o" !s " l n.2P#oo" o" 'e#sonal se#+ ce shall cons s! o" a w# !!en ad.s) ..o! ons) no! ces) o#de#s) 0ud. Se#+ ce s !he ac! o" '#o+ d n. $?a% SEC.o#n n. subse>uen! !o !he co.oned b( 'ubl ca! on has "a led !o a''ea# n !he ac! on) 0ud.en!s) " nal o#de#s o# #esolu! ons a. ! n h s o"" ce w !h h s cle#k o# w !h a 'e#son ha+ n. In !he second case) !he da!e o" !he .a l n. !he. !odes o" se#+ ce. $1Ba% SEC.' on !he en+elo'e o# !he #e.—Th s Rule shall . +en b( !he 'os!.) unless se#+ ce u'on !he 'a#!( h . 4.ade u'on h s counsel o# one o" !he.a l shall be . also b( 'ubl ca! on a! !he e*'ense o" !he '#e+a l n. s!e#ed . 'e#sonall( a co'( !o !he 'a#!( o# h s counsel) o# b( lea+ n. $3a% SEC.a l) '#oo" shall be .a l. s!e#ed .SECTION 1. b( !he o''os !e s de. 8he#e one counsel a''ea#s "o# se+e#al 'a#! es) he shall onl( be en! !led !o one co'( o" an( 'a'e# se#+ed u'on h .e o" such del +e#(. s!#( #ece '!) shall be cons de#ed as !he da!e o" !he # " l n..) con!a n n.sel" s o#de#ed b( !he cou#!.en!) o# de'os ! n cou#!.) unless !he cou#! o!he#w se '#o+ des.— E+e#( 0ud. !he co'( !o !he cle#k o" cou#!) w !h '#oo" o" "a lu#e o" bo!h 'e#sonal se#+ ce and se#+ ce b( . !he cou#!) a #eso#! !o o!he# .as!e#) wh che+e# da!e s ea#l e#.a( be done b( o#d na#( .ade b( de'os ! n.en! o" !he da!e) 'lace and . 11. was no! done 'e#sonall(. 11. cha#. b( #e.o+e#n !he " l n. de" ned.a( be . E*ce'! w !h #es'ec! !o 'a'e#s e. !he co'() be!ween !he hou#s o" e . !he ! !le o# !he # .a! +e #el e" s cla . $&a% SEC. o# 'a'e# conce#ned. s!e#ed . I" se#+ ce s . 3.) con!a n n.'le!e a! !he ! . $riorities in modes of service and " l n. o"" ce. Se#+ ce b( #e. !he da!e and hou# o" " l n.a l n !he 'os! o"" ce n a sealed en+elo'e add#essed !o !he cou#!) w !h 'os!a.'le!e u'on !he e*' #a! on o" !en $1B% da(s a"!e# .—5 l n. b( !he cle#k o" cou#! on a co'( o" !he sa. !he o# .. $roof of filing. $&a% SEC. s!e#ed .ade b( del +e# n.'la n!) w# !!en . 2The " l n. Service by mail.2 Hud.ade unde# !he !wo '#eced n. I" no 'e#son s "ound n h s o"" ce) o# h s o"" ce s no! known) o# he has no o"" ce) !hen b( lea+ n.'l ance w !h sec! on ? o" !h s Rule.o! ons) no! ces) o#de#s) 0ud.e "ull( '#e'a d) and w !h ns!#uc! ons !o !he 'os!. $n% SEC.o! ons) 'lead n.—Pe#sonal se#+ ce s co. s!#( #ece '! and b( !he a"" da+ ! o" !he 'e#son who d d !he . shall be '#o+ed b( !he w# !!en o# s!a.—Se#+ ce o" 'lead n. 8hen a 'a#!( su.'le!e u'on ac!ual #ece '! b( !he add#essee) o# a"!e# " +e $3% da(s "#o. co.—I" se#+ ce o" 'lead n...s and o!he# 'a'e#s shall be done 'e#sonall(.'ed acknowled. unknown) se#+ ce . la# 'a'e#s shall be " led w !h !he cou#!) and se#+ed u'on !he 'a#! es a""ec!ed. The se#+ ce s co. sec! ons) !he o"" ce and 'lace o" #es dence o" !he 'a#!( o# h s counsel be n.. Se#+ ce b( o#d na#( . final orders.en! o# s . o" . $roof of service.en!s and all o!he# 'a'e#s shall be .ed !o ha+e been " led 'e#sonall() !he " l n.en!s and o!he# 'a'e#s shall be .ade b( del +e# n.—Se#+ ce b( #e.a l. A.a l s co. 1.en! o" !he da!e and 'lace o" de'os ! n. A + ola! on o" !h s Rule .e7 " " led b( #e.s) a''ea#ances) .o! on) no! ce) a''ea#ance) de.en!s o# de'os !s) as shown b( !he 'os! o"" ce s!a. !anner of filing .a l. %otice of lis pendens. &. $ersonal service.a ns! h .a l !o !he sende# a"!e# !en $1B% da(s " no! del +e#ed. or resolutions. $-a% SEC. o" 'lead n.'le!e u'on ac!ual del +e#(. s !he ac! o" '#esen! n. a "ull s!a!e.a l n. $4a% SEC.ana! n.a l. o" all 'lead n.a l n.odes .2In an ac! on a""ec! n. o" a 'lead n. 1&.s) o# an( o!he# 'a'e#s o# 'a(.h! n !he .ed n h s answe#) . !he co'( n !he o"" ce) n a sealed en+elo'e) 'la nl( add#essed !o !he 'a#!( o# h s counsel a! h s o"" ce) " known) o!he#w se a! h s #es dence) " known) w !h 'os!a.a l n.

$1-a% SEC. Cler) to issue summons.na!ed b( law !o !ha! e""ec!) o# on an( o" !s o"" ce#s o# a.and o" !he 'la n! "") . Service upon foreign private "uridical entity. ?. $?a% SEC. Issuance of alias summons. s!e#ed .ons. Substituted service. !he ..en! des . 11. Contents. Re!u#n. 1.'la n! and o#de# "o# a''o n!.a( be e""ec!ed on !he Sol c !o# Gene#al7 n case o" a '#o+ nce) c !( o# .o+e#n. A co'( o" !he co.ade on !he '#es den!) ..28hen !he de"endan! s a "o#e . !he su.onl( known) se#+ ce .28hen !he de"endan! s a '# sone# con" ned n a 0a l o# ns! !u! on) se#+ ce shall be e""ec!ed u'on h . $&1a) R11% RULE 11 SU99ONS SECTION 1. 3.ons.ua#d an ad litem whose a''o n!.'e!en! 'e#son n cha#.en!) on !he . !he#e n) o# $b% b( lea+ n.—8hen !he de"endan! s !he Re'ubl c o" !he Ph l '' nes) se#+ ce . b( !he o"" ce# ha+ n. nal and each co'( o" !he su. $11a% SEC.#an!ed !he #el e" a''l ed "o#.ua#d an ad litem. $1Ba) 11a% SEC.e and d sc#e! on !hen #es d n.a( be se#+ed b( !he she# "") h s de'u!() o# o!he# '#o'e# cou#! o"" ce#) o# "o# 0us! " able #easons b( an( su !able 'e#son au!ho# 2ed b( !he cou#! ssu n. $@a% SEC @..a( be e""ec!ed on !s e*ecu! +e head) o# on such o!he# o"" ce# o# o"" ce#s as !he law o# !he cou#! .en! o" !he #e>u s !e le. co' es o" !he su.e !he#eo".h!.'an ed b( '#oo" o" se#+ ce. Service upon entity without "uridical personality. 1B.. -.e o" " l n.) se#+e a co'( o" !he #e!u#n) 'e#sonall( o# b( #e. In !he case o" a . $-a% SEC.o!he#.es. Onl( "#o.e o" !he o"" ce o# 'lace o" bus ness . !ha! !he no! ce s "o# !he 'u#'ose o" . n.e.'e!en!) se#+ ce shall be .ons shall be se#+ed hand n. In such a case) o# " !he su.ula# 'lace o" bus ness w !h so.2 I". The no! ce o" lis pendens he#e nabo+e .oles! n..2 8hen !he de"endan! s a co#'o#a! on) 'a#!ne#sh ' o# assoc a! on o#.e " *ed b( !hese Rules7 $c% a no! ce !ha! unless !he de"endan! so answe#s) 'la n! "" w ll !ake 0ud.a( be .ene#al .un c 'al !() o# l ke 'ubl c co#'o#a! ons) se#+ ce .ons . $1&a% SEC.na!ed n acco#dance w !h law "o# !ha! 'u#'ose) o#) " !he#e be no such a.ons. ! !o h .en! shall be a''l ed "o# b( !he 'la n! "".. s!#( o" deeds o" !he '#o+ nce n wh ch !he '#o'e#!( s s !ua!ed a no! ce o" !he 'endenc( o" !he ac! on.ade on !s #es den! a.a( #eco#d n !he o"" ce o" !he #e. Service upon domestic private "uridical entity. 2 8hene+e# '#ac! cable) !he su.. u'on an( one o" !he.e as '#o+ ded n !he '#eced n.e.a( be cancelled onl( u'on o#de# o" !he cou#!) a"!e# '#o'e# show n. 'e#sonall( and on h s le. $4a% SEC.al "ees) !he cle#k o" cou#! shall "o#!hw !h ssue !he co##es'ond n. !he ad+e#se 'a#!() o# !ha! ! s no! necessa#( !o '#o!ec! !he # . " an() shall be a!!ached !o !he o# . !he co' es a! de"endan!Gs o"" ce o# #e.a ns! !he 'a#! es des .en! o" such 0a l o# ns! !u! on who s dee.2U'on !he " l n.n '# +a!e 0u# d cal en! !( wh ch has !#ansac!ed bus ness n !he Ph l '' nes) se#+ ce . a co'( !he#eo" !o !he de"endan! n 'e#son) o#) " he #e"uses !o #ece +e and s .an 2ed unde# !he laws o" !he Ph l '' nes w !h a 0u# d cal 'e#sonal !() se#+ ce . 'a#!ne#) .ed !o ha+e cons!#uc! +e no! ce o" !he 'endenc( o" !he ac! on) and onl( o" !s 'endenc( a.ana.a( also be .ned b( !he cle#k o" cou#! unde# seal) and con!a n6 $a% !he na.ana..a n!a ned n such na. &..a( d #ec!.a( ssue an al as su. 4. $1a% SEC.e b( wh ch !he( a#e . !he #easons "o# !he "a lu#e o" se#+ ce) w !h n " +e $3% da(s !he#e"#o. Service in person on defendant.en! o" .en! o"" c al des .2The su.ade on h s "a!he# o# . se#+ed on an( o# all o" !he de"endan!s) !he se#+e# shall also se#+e a co'( o" !he #e!u#n on !he 'la n! ""Gs counsel) s!a! n.ade u'on h .al . A.na!ed b( !he # #eal na. "o# 0us! " able causes) !he de"endan! canno! be se#+ed w !h n a #easonable ! . 1-..ons has been los!) !he cle#k) on de.en! b( de"aul! and .'la n! and !he 'a(..e o" !he cou#! and !he na. $3a% SEC.2 8hen 'e#sons assoc a!ed n an en! !( w !hou! 0u# d cal 'e#sonal !( a#e sued unde# !he na.2 I" a su.a l) !o !he 'la n! ""Gs counsel) and shall #e!u#n !he su..ene#all( o# co. Service upon public corporations.es o" !he 'a#! es and !he ob0ec! o" !he ac! on o# de"ense) and a desc# '! on o" !he '#o'e#!( n !ha! '#o+ nce a""ec!ed !he#eb(.e co. sec! on) se#+ ce .en!s w !h n !he Ph l '' nes. 1y whom served.h!s o" !he 'a#!( who caused ! !o be #eco#ded.—8hen !he se#+ ce has been co.es o" !he 'a#! es !o !he ac! on7 $b% a d #ec! on !ha! !he de"endan! answe# w !h n !he ! .ons shall be d #ec!ed !o !he de"endan!) s . Service upon prisoners.a( be e""ec!ed u'on all !he de"endan!s b( se#+ n..ed de'u! 2ed as a s'ec al she# "" "o# sa d 'u#'ose. such no! ce "o# #eco#d shall a 'u#chase#) o# encu.—The su. $1a% SEC. Sa d no! ce shall con!a n !he na.e 'e#son o" su !able a.ons !o !he cle#k who ssued !) acco. no#) nsane o# o!he#w se an nco. !he ! . Service upon minors and incompetents 2 8hen !he de"endan! s a .ons a! !he de"endan!Gs #es dence w !h so..ana.b#ance# o" !he '#o'e#!( a""ec!ed !he#eb() be dee.a( be ..ons !o !he de"endan!s.en! oned ..ua#d an " he has one) o# " none) u'on h s .) o# u'on !he 'e#son n cha#.e#) co#'o#a!e sec#e!a#() !#easu#e#) o# n<house counsel.a( be e""ec!ed $a% b( lea+ n. no#) se#+ ce .ons s #e!u#ned w !hou! be n.'le!ed) !he se#+e# shall) w !h n " +e $3% da(s !he#e"#o. 1&. su.n "o# !) b( !ende# n. $13% . o" !he co. /u! such se#+ ce shall no! b nd nd + duall( an( 'e#son whose connec! on w !h !he en! !( has) u'on due no! ce) been se+e#ed be"o#e !he ac! on was b#ou.a( be . $Aa% SEC.

1@.o! on !o d s.a!!e#s o" "o#.o! on s an a''l ca! on "o# #el e" o!he# !han b( a 'lead n. such lea+e shall s'ec "( a #easonable ! . 13.ade n o'en cou#! o# n !he cou#se o" a hea# n. $@a% SEC.ed wa +ed. Contents. sec! on.e 'e#son on h s behal" se!! n. "o#!h !he .a l !o h s las! known add#ess. !he # .. 3earing of motion.) su''o#!ed b( a"" da+ ! o" !he 'la n! "" o# so.. b( 'ubl ca! on n a news'a'e# o" . 3. Service upon defendant whose identity or whereabouts are un)nown. !he de"endan! "#o.2A .o! on shall be acco.2In an( ac! on whe#e !he de"endan! s des .2All .h! !o be ad. an( n!e#es! !he#e n) o# !he '#o'e#!( o" !he de"endan! has been a!!ached w !h n !he Ph l '' nes) se#+ ce .anded cons s!s) wholl( o# n 'a#!) n e*clud n.o! ons shall be n w# ! n.28hen !he de"endan! does no! #es de and s no! "ound n !he Ph l '' nes) and !he ac! on a""ec!s !he 'e#sonal s!a!us o" !he 'la n! "" o# #ela!es !o) o# !he sub0ec! o" wh ch s) '#o'e#!( w !h n !he Ph l '' nes) n wh ch !he de"endan! has o# cla . &B. s!e#ed . A. 7eave of court.na!ed as an unknown owne#) o# !he l ke) o# whene+e# h s whe#eabou!s a#e unknown and canno! be asce#!a ned b( d l . shall be add#essed !o all 'a#! es conce#ned) and shall s'ec "( !he ! .o! on shall be se! "o# hea# n. $14a% SEC. $3a% SEC.na!u#e) and o!he# .2A .o! on a!!ack n. ss o" o!he# .ade n w# ! n.ene#al c #cula! on and n such 'laces and "o# such ! .2A .a( o#de#. $Aa% RULE 14 9OTION TO EIS9ISS . on 5# da( a"!e#noons) o# " 5# da( s a non<wo#k n. $1a% SEC. da(.a( dee. ?.a() b( lea+e o" cou#!) be e""ec!ed ou! o" !he Ph l '' nes b( 'e#sonal se#+ ce as unde# sec! on 47 o# b( 'ubl ca! on n a news'a'e# o" .enced a.anne# as !o ensu#e !s #ece '! b( !he o!he# 'a#!( a! leas! !h#ee $-% da(s be"o#e !he da!e o" hea# n.anne#) 'lace) and da!e o" se#+ ce7 shall s'ec "( an( 'a'e#s wh ch ha+e been se#+ed w !h !he '#ocess and !he na. !otions must be in writing.o! on.anne# !he cou#! . 4orm.SEC.e as !he cou#! .ene#al c #cula! on n such 'laces and "o# such ! . &. s!e#ed . !he#eo" shall be se#+ed n such a . o# .) unless !he cou#! "o# .a( be '#o+ed b( !he a"" da+ ! o" !he '# n!e#) h s "o#e. 1A.#an! n.ons shall be .2The '#oo" o" se#+ ce o" a su.o! on se! "o# hea# n.o! ons so "a# as conce#ns ca'! on) des .ons and o#de# "o# 'ubl ca! on n !he 'os! o"" ce) 'os!a.ons. $roof of service necessary. !he de'os ! o" a co'( o" !he su.o! ons wh ch !he cou#! .2An( a''l ca! on !o !he cou#! unde# !h s Rule "o# lea+e !o e""ec! se#+ ce n an( .2Sub0ec! !o !he '#o+ s ons o" sec! on 1 o" Rule A) a . The nclus on n a .2No w# !!en . 1?. e*ce'! !hose .a( o#de#) n wh ch case a co'( o" !he su. o# !# al. $1?a% SEC. wh ch .o! on n w# ! n..an o# '# nc 'al cle#k) o# o" !he ed !o#) bus ness o# ad+e#! s n.ed !he#e n) shall be acco. $n% SEC. -. $4a% SEC.a() b( lea+e o" cou#!) be also e""ec!ed ou! o" !he Ph l '' nes) as unde# !he '#eced n. $?a% SEC. $&a% SEC. o" !he .us! no! be la!e# !han !en $1B% da(s a"!e# !he " l n.#ounds u'on wh ch ! s based) and " #e>u #ed b( !hese Rules o# necessa#( !o '#o+e "ac!s alle. $roof of service. Omnibus motion.ana.s a l en o# n!e#es!) ac!ual o# con! n.en!7 o# n wh ch !he #el e" de.'o#a# l( ou! o" !) se#+ ce . ..h! !o be ob!a ned and !he . $1a% SEC.28hen an( ac! on s co.o! ons #e>u # n.'an ed b( !he 'lead n.a() b( lea+e o" cou#!) be e""ec!ed u'on h .traterritorial service.o! on "o# lea+e !o " le a 'lead n. 1. lack o" 0u# sd c! on o+e# !he 'e#son o" !he de"endan! shall no! be dee. Residents temporarily out of the $hilippines.—E*ce'! "o# .a( ac! u'on w !hou! '#e0ud c n. b( !he a''l can!.anne# "o# wh ch lea+e o" cou#! s necessa#( shall be . $&1% SEC.s shall a''l( !o w# !!en . $&B% SEC.h!s o" !he ad+e#se 'a#!() e+e#( w# !!en .us! answe#.. shall nclude all ob0ec! ons !hen a+a lable) and all ob0ec! ons no! so ncluded shall be dee.#ounds as de "#o. @. !otion for leave..o! on shall s!a!e !he #el e" sou.ed a +olun!a#( a''ea#ance. %otice of hearing. .2The no! ce o" hea# n. !otion defined.#ounds "o# !he a''l ca! on.en! n>u #() se#+ ce .2I" !he se#+ ce has been .e#) !o wh ch a"" da+ ! a co'( o" !he 'ubl ca! on shall be a!!ached) and b( an a"" da+ ! show n.—E*ce'! "o# .ade b( 'ubl ca! on) se#+ ce .2The Rules a''l cable !o 'lead n.ed a!e ac! on) all . su"" c en!. !!ed.. on sho#!e# no! ce.e) wh ch shall no! be less !han s *!( $4B% da(s a"!e# no! ce) w !h n wh ch !he de"endan! .ade b( a 'e#son o!he# !han a she# "" o# h s de'u!(.a ns! a de"endan! who o#d na# l( #es des w !h n !he Ph l '' nes) bu! who s !e. 1B. b( !he se#+e# and shall se! "o#!h !he . 11.na! on) s .a l !o !he las! known add#ess o" !he de"endan!) o# n an( o!he# .e7 and shall be swo#n !o when . a"" da+ !s and o!he# 'a'e#s.ade b( . $roof of service by publication.'an ed b( su''o#! n.e o" !he 'e#son who #ece +ed !he sa. $-a% SEC. .2The de"endan!Gs +olun!a#( a''ea#ance n !he ac! on shall be e>u +alen! !o se#+ ce o" su.. 14.ood cause se!s !he hea# n. *.e as !he cou#! . a 'lead n.o! on #e>u #ed !o be hea#d and !he no! ce o" !he hea# n. !otion da(.o! ons shall be scheduled "o# hea# n. $1A% SEC.) o#de#) 0ud. $1@a% SEC. $&-a% RULE 13 9OTIONS SECTION 1. An( o#de# . E+e#( w# !!en . shall be ac!ed u'on b( !he cou#! w !hou! '#oo" o" se#+ ce !he#eo".oluntary appearance.en!) o# '#oceed n. o# .ons and o#de# o" !he cou#! shall be sen! b( #e.e and da!e o" !he hea# n.. da() n !he a"!e#noon o" !he ne*! wo#k n. 4.e '#e'a d) d #ec!ed !o !he de"endan! b( #e.o! on sou.

o! on "o# !he #eason !ha! !he . ss has been " led) an( o" !he . 'a#!(7 $b% Tha! !he cou#! has no 0u# sd c! on o+e# !he sub0ec! .) !he cou#! . . Resolution o" motion.o! on !o d s.a!!e# o" !he cla .'l ed w !h. $1a% SEC. na#( hea# n. ss had been " led.) a . a cla . .o! on) o# o#de# !he a. ssal o" !he co. has no! been co. be!ween !he sa. -..e o# se'a#a!e ac! on o" a coun!e#cla .en! o" !he 'lead n.2A! !he hea# n. I" !he 'lead n.a! call( be 'a#! o" !he e+ dence o" !he 'a#!( '#esen! n.7 $c% Tha! +enue s .o! on !o d s. The cou#! shall no! de"e# !he #esolu! on o" !he . s o#de#ed !o be a. Time to plead.SECTION 1. !he sa. shall au!o. ss based on 'a#a.#a'hs $"%) $h% and $ % o" sec! on 1 he#eo" shall ba# !he #e" l n. In e+e#( case) !he #esolu! on shall s!a!e clea#l( and d s! nc!l( !he #easons !he#e"o#.o! on s den ed) !he .a( d s. !he answe# !o !he co. s!a!es no cause o" ac! on7 $h% Tha! !he cla . o# de. h s #ece '! o" !he no! ce o" !he den al. $1a% SEC.e o" se#+ n. $n% SEC. ssal '#o+ ded "o# n !h s Rule .a! +e de"ense n !he answe# and) n !he d sc#e! on o" !he cou#!) a '#el .—Sub0ec! !o !he # .e# 'e# od. asse#! n.and se! "o#!h n !he 'la n! ""Gs 'lead n.o! on !o d s.) den( !he .o! on !o d s.2A"!e# !he hea# n. asse#! n.e.2I" no . has been 'a d) wa +ed) abandoned) o# o!he#w se e*! n.a( be . 4.ade on an( o" !he "ollow n.ended 'lead n.al ca'ac !( !o sue7 $e% Tha! !he#e s ano!he# ac! on 'end n. ! !he # a#.o !o !# al) !he e+ dence '#esen!ed du# n. h s . o" !he . $-a% SEC.) unless !he cou#! '#o+ des a lon. $3a% The d s. !he cla .en!s on !he >ues! ons o" law and !he # e+ dence on !he >ues! ons o" "ac! n+ol+ed e*ce'! !hose no! a+a lable a! !ha! ! .#an! n. $leading grounds as affirmative defenses..'u!ed "#o.ended) he shall " le h s answe# w !h n !he 'e# od '#esc# bed b( Rule 11 coun!ed "#o.end. *ffect of dismissal. $n% SEC.h! o" a''eal) an o#de# . 'leaded n !he answe#.a( be 'leaded as an a"" #.% Tha! !he 'lead n. !he hea# n.e "o# bu! be"o#e " l n.'la n! o# 'lead n. on wh ch !he ac! on s "ounded s unen"o#ceable unde# !he '#o+ s ons o" !he s!a!u!e o" "#auds7 and $0% Tha! a cond ! on '#eceden! "o# " l n. !a! ons7 $.en! o# b( !he s!a!u!e o" l . 3earing of motion.a( be had !he#eon as " a .#ound #el ed u'on s no! ndub !able. !he cla .u shed7 $ % Tha! !he cla . Should !he case .. se#+ ce o" !he a.'la n! unde# !h s sec! on shall be w !hou! '#e0ud ce !o !he '#osecu! on n !he sa. o" !he sa. ss !he ac! on o# cla .'#o'e#l( la d7 $d% Tha! !he 'la n! "" has no le.o! on) !he 'a#! es shall sub. &.o! on) bu! no! less !han " +e $3% da(s n an( e+en!) co. a . -rounds.e ac! on o# cla .o+an! shall " le h s answe# w !h n !he balance o" !he 'e# od '#esc# bed b( Rule 11 !o wh ch he was en! !led a! !he ! .e cause7 $"% Tha! !he cause o" ac! on s ba##ed b( a '# o# 0ud.e. 1.u.#ounds6 $a% Tha! !he cou#! has no 0u# sd c! on o+e# !he 'e#son o" !he de"end n.#ounds "o# d s. ss . $n% .e 'a#! es "o# !he sa.28 !h n !he ! . 3.2I" !he .

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