You are on page 1of 106

Tutorial

Tutorial
Introduction

NEPLAN is a very user friendly planning and information system for electrical-,
gas- and water-networks. All menu options and calculation modules are
described in details in the following chapters.
To get to know NEPLAN in a quick and easy way, we recommend you to follow
this tutorial.
The program will be explained by examples and we show how to start a new
project and how to build a small power system. That means, that the user will
learn how to enter the elements graphically, how to enter data, how to use
libraries, how to run calculations and how to present the results in a manner
adapted to the objectives of the analysis.
As mentioned, the Tutorial is a first step to get used to the NEPLAN software. For
details about models of elements, data input or calculation inputs, please consult
the respective chapters of the User's Guide or use the context sensitive Online
Help.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-1


Tutorial

The User Interface

1
2
3

6
5
4

Fig. 1.1 Window features in the user interface

The numbers indicate the following window features:


1. Titlebar 5. Variant Manager
2. Menu option bar 6. Symbol Window
3. Toolbar 7. Message Window
4. Workspace with diagrams and data tables 8. Status bar

Toolbar
All command buttons are equipped with balloon help texts, which pop up when
the cursor is held still at the button for a moment without pressing any keys.
Many commands, which can be accessed in the Toolbar, may be found as well in
the respective menus. Others, mainly the graphical commands can only be
accessed in the Toolbar.

1-2 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Workspace
In the Workspace the different diagrams can be opened. The same diagrams may
be used for entering the network, building control circuits or sketching drawings.

Variant Manager
The Variant Manager gives a good overview of the open projects and variants.
New projects and variants may be managed, what means that they can be
deleted, added, activated or deactivated.
From the Variant Manager, the user can switch to the Diagram Manager, which
administrates the open Diagrams with its graphic layers.

Symbol Window
The Symbol Window contains all element symbols available. Apart from the
standard symbol for some elements there exist other symbols with a different
graphical appearance but exactly the same characteristics.
New symbols also can be created or existing symbols may be modified with the
Symbol Library.

Message Window
The message window is the channel to communicate with the user. It supplies
information about the executed processes, error messages and further
information.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-3


Tutorial

The Online Help

Fig. 1.2 How to call the Online Help

The figure above shows how to call the Online Help. With button 1) a context
sensitive help is called, what means, that after pressing this button, the user may
click on the feature or dialog for which he needs more information.
Selecting the Help Topics in the menu Help or pressing F1, the user can get more
information with a topic or with an index search.

1-4 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Data Organization

Fig. 1.3 Data Organization of NEPLAN

The figure above shows the data organization of NEPLAN. The NEPLAN
directory contains the following folders:

Bin: contains executable and control files


Examples: contains Examples and NEPLAN projects
Hardlock: contains the executable file for the Hardlock driver
HTML Help: contains the HTML Help files
Lib: contains NEPLAN Libraries
Manual: contains the manuals as pdf files
NPL: contains NEPLAN Programming Libraries
SystemMFCDLLs: contains DLLs for Microsoft Foundation Classes

During the installation process, an entry in the operational system registry will be
made by NEPLAN. It's the information about where the program can find the
different folders to save and read data.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-5


Tutorial

The Basic Elements of NEPLAN

To understand the NEPLAN environment, it is essential that certain concepts


used in the system are described:

Station

Node Node
Node

Network Feeder Disconnect,


Load Switch

Load

Logical Switches

Fig. 1.4 One line diagram with network components

An electrical power system consists of nodes and elements.

Nodes
A node is the connection point of two elements or a location, where electrical
energy will be produced or consumed (generator, load). A node is described by
its
Name,
nominal system voltage in kV,
zone and area,
type of node (main bus bar, bus bar, sleeve, special node),
description,
The nominal system voltage Un is the line-to-line voltage, for which a power
system is designated and on which several characteristics of the power system
has been referred. In NEPLAN the nominal system voltage of the nodes must be
entered during the node data input. Every voltage is given as a line-to-line voltage
(delta voltage).
It is not necessary to past a node in between all elements. They may also be
connected directly with a link. In this case no node results will be presented and
not more than two elements can be connected together in the same point.

1-6 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Elements
An element corresponds to a network component, like e.g. line, transformer or
electrical machine. There are active elements and passive elements. An element
is described topological by a starting and an ending node. For three windings
transformers a third node must be given. The elements will be described electrical
by
the rated current, rated power and rated voltage and
its parameters, such as losses, reactances, ...
In NEPLAN these parameters are entered with input dialogs.

The active elements are network feeders, asynchronous machines, synchronous


machines and power station units. A network feeder represents a neighboring
network.
The passive elements are lines, couplings, switches, reactors, two and three
windings transformers, shunts and loads. The loads can also be entered along a
line without entering nodes (line loads).

Modeling of Active Elements


For a short circuit calculation the active elements are modeled with the help of
their subtransient reactance.
For a load flow calculation these elements will be represented by resistive and
reactive powers (PQ-nodes) or by voltage magnitude and angle (slack nodes) at
the node. The network feeder usually will be modeled as a slack node.

Protection Devices, Current and Voltage Transformers


Protection devices (overcurrent relays, distance protection relays, circuit
breakers) and current or voltage transformers are associated with the built-in
node and the switching element. They have no influence on the load flow and
short circuit calculation. Only their limits are checked during the calculation.
These elements are used in the relay coordination modules.

Station
A station can contain several nodes and has no meaning for the calculations or
for protection device coordination. It will only be used in relation to the database.

Symbol
For each element type there are different symbols in the Symbol Window.
Choose the one you want to past in the diagram. A Symbol Library is included in
the NEPLAN package, where user defined symbols may be created.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-7


Tutorial

Switches
In NEPLAN the switches are used to change the network topology (switching
on/off elements). There are two different types of switches:
physical switch and
logical switch.
Physical switches are couplings, circuit breakers and disconnect or load switches.
Logical switches are fictive switches, which are assigned to all elements by the
system. A line, for example, has two logical switches, one at the starting and one
at the ending node. A physical switch has no logical switch, because it will
already be switchable.
During the input of a network, the physical switches can be neglected, because
switching can be done with the help of the logical switches. This has a disad-
vantage, when a line leads to a double bus bar system. Switching from one bus
bar to an other, the user has to change the starting or the ending node of the line.
If the user enters two disconnect switches (one to each bus bar) with an addi-
tional node in between, the switching can be done with the disconnect switches.
The physical switches can be reduced during the calculation (see the Parameters
dialog of the respective calculation modules).

Zones and Areas


Zones and areas are network groups, which may be defined. This means, that
every element and node belongs to a zone and to an area. An area normally
includes one or more zones. For load flow calculation it's possible to define
transactions between zones and between areas.
Each zone and area may be presented in a different color.
In Step 4 - E it will be explained how to define zones and areas.

Partial Networks
Unlike zones and areas, a partial network is an independent network. A partial
network has no connections to any other networks. You can make partial
networks by opening logical or physical switches. It is possible to color each
partial network differently (see below).

1-8 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Station
Partial network 1
Node Node Node

Network feeder Disconnect,


Load switch
Line

logical switch "open"


Partial network 2

Fig. 1.2 Partial networks

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-9


Tutorial

Step 1 Create a new project

To create a new project, after having started the program, click on the menu
"File New".
1. Enter the location or directory for saving the project. Pressing the button
"", you can choose the directory.
2. Enter the project name.
3. Choose the network type: Electric, Water or Gas.
4. If you wish, you may enter a project description.
5. Choose the diagram size and the page orientation.
6. Press the OK button.

Fig. 1.5 Create a new project

The figure below shows the user interface after having created the new project.
a. The titlebar shows the name of the active project.
b. One diagram is open for the rootnet.

1-10 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

c. The variant manager shows the project tree, which consists at the moment
of only one Rootnet.

b
c

Fig. 1.6 After creating a new project

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-11


Tutorial

Step 2 Enter a small network

In this step, you'll enter nodes and elements to build a small electrical network.
The Symbol window allows you to choose the desired element symbol in an easy
way.
You can start entering any element you want. It is not necessary to enter first the
nodes, because the new philosophy of NEPLAN is to first enter the elements and
nodes independently in the diagram, and then to connect them with a link. Only
lines can't be entered independently. They need connection points, which are
nodes or other elements.
It's not necessary to enter a node between all elements, because the elements
can be interconnected directly with a link. However, if the user wants to see the
node results, he has to enter the node graphically.

Input data
We will draw the following network:

Fig. 1.7 Network to be entered in NEPLAN

1-12 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

The necessary parameters are all listed in the following tables.

Network Feeder:
Name Sk''max Ik''max R(1)/X(1) Z(0)/Z(1) C1 Sk''min Ik''min R(1)/X(1) Z(0)/Z(1) LF- U oper Uw oper Poper Qoper
- MVA kA max max uF MVA kA min min Type % Deg MW Mvar
NETZ 1500 3.936 0.1 1.667 0 1500 3.936 0 0 SL 100 0 0 0

Lines:
Name Length Numb Units R(1) X(1) C(1) G(1) R(0) X(0) C(0) Ir min Ir max Red. fact. Q mm2
km Ohm/.. Ohm/.. uF/... uS/... Ohm/.. Ohm/.. uF/... A A mm2
LEIT. 1 1.16 1 Ohm/km 0.103 0.403 0.009 0 0.150 1.400 0.005 0 90 1 0
LIN 2- 4 1.16 1 Ohm/km 0.103 0.403 0.009 0 0.140 1.499 0.005 0 90 1 0
LIN 2- 3 0.59 1 Ohm/km 0.103 0.403 0.009 0 0.140 1.599 0.005 0 70 1 0
LIN 4- 8 0.20 1 Ohm/km 0.113 0.410 0.009 0 0.150 1.599 0.004 0 100 1 0
LIN 3- 8 0.37 1 Ohm/km 0.113 0.413 0.009 0 0.153 1.619 0.004 0 75 1 0
LIN 3- 9 0.16 1 Ohm/km 0.113 0.413 0.009 0 0.154 1.639 0.004 0 60 1 0
LIN 7- 6 1.61 1 Ohm/km 0.066 0.382 0.010 0 0.085 1.459 0.004 0 400 1 0
LIN 5- 2 7.80 1 Ohm/km 0.091 0.415 0.009 0 0.130 1.659 0.004 0 200 1 0
LIN 5- 6 11.90 1 Ohm/km 0.141 0.413 0.009 0 0.160 1.649 0.004 0 190 1 0
LIN 8- 7 19.10 1 Ohm/km 0.112 0.400 0.009 0 0.144 1.587 0.005 0 200 1 0

Loads:
Name LF Type P Q Domestic Units Units
V_ZWOELF PQ 5 4 0 HV
V1 PQ 2 2 0 HV

Synchronous Machines:
Name Sr Ur pUr cosphi xd sat xd' sat xd'' sat x(2) x(0) Ufmax/ur Ikk
- MVA kV % - % % % % % - kA
GEN 1 45 8.5 0 0.85 160 0 20 20 20 2 0

Name mue RG Turbo Amort. Winding Unit Geneator Motor LF-Type P oper Q oper
- - Ohm - - - - - MW Mvar
GEN 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 PQ 40 10

Transformers:
Name From To Vector Unit Comp. Sr Ur1 Ur2 ukr(1) uRr(1) ukr(0) uRr(0)
Node Node Group Transf. Winding MVA kV kV % % % %
TRA8 -12 EIGHT TWELVE YD,05 0 0 60 65 16 10 0 10 0
TRA6 -13 SIX THIRTEEN YD,05 0 0 140 65 8.5 10 0 10 0
TRA8 -11 EIGHT ELEVEN YD,05 0 0 12 65 5.2 10 0 10 0
TRA9 -10 NINE TEN YD,05 0 0 6 65 5.2 8.46 0 8.46 0
TRA1-2 ONE TWO YY,00 0 0 200 220 65 9 0 9 0

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-13


Tutorial

Name I0 Pfe U01(0) U02(0) Earthing RE1 XE1 ZE1 active Earthing RE2 XE2 ZE2 active
% kW % % primary Ohm Ohm % secondary Ohm Ohm %
TRA8 -12 0 0 0 0 impedance 0.1 0 100 impedance 6 0 100
TRA6 -13 0 0 0 0 direct 0 0 100 direct 0 0 100
TRA8 -11 0 0 0 0 direct 0 0 100 direct 0 0 100
TRA9 -10 0 0 0 0 direct 0 0 100 direct 0 0 100
TRA1-2 0 0 0 0 direct 0 0 100 impedance 1 35 100

Name On-load Tap side Controlled Tap act Tap min Tapr Tap max Delta U Beta U Uset Pset Sr min Sr max
Tapchanger bus % % % MVA MVA
TRA8 -12 0 Primary Primary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 60
TRA6 -13 0 Primary Secondary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 140 140
TRA8 -11 0 Secondary Primary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 12
TRA9 -10 0 Secondary Primary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 6
TRA1-2 1 Primary Secondary 0 -10 0 10 2 0 100 0 200 200

Asynchronous Machines:
Name From Pr Sr Ur Ir cosphi eta Ia/Ir Number Pole- Conv.- cosphi Ma/Mr Mk/Mr Rm sr
Node MW MVA kV A - - - - pairs Drive start - - Ohm %
0.73
U3 5.2 ELEVEN 5 6.6489 5.2 8 0.8 0.94 5 1 1 1 0.3 0.9 2.2 0 2
0.73
U1 5.2 TEN 5 6.6489 5.2 8 0.8 0.94 5 1 1 1 0.3 0.9 2.2 0 1.8

Name J H LF type P oper Q oper ANSI Load M0 M1 M2 M0,1,2 Model


kg*m2 s - MW Mvar factor torque in Nm
U3 5.2 100 0.742 PQ oper 2 1 1.5 Parabola 4500 0 7000 1 3. Order
U1 5.2 100 0.742 PQ oper 4 3 1.5 Parabola 3500 0 7000 1 3. Order

Nodes:
Name Node Un Frequ. Umin Umax Ir Ipmax
Type kV Hz % % A kA
THREE Busbar 65 50 0 0 0 0
FOUR Busbar 65 50 0 0 0 0
TEN Busbar 5.2 50 0 0 0 0
TWELVE Busbar 16 50 0 0 0 0
SEVEN Busbar 65 50 0 0 0 0
ELEVEN Busbar 5.2 50 0 0 0 0
THIRTEEN Busbar 8.5 50 0 0 0 0
ONE Busbar 220 50 0 0 0 0
TWO Busbar 65 50 0 0 0 0
EIGHT Busbar 65 50 0 0 0 0
SIX Busbar 65 50 0 0 0 0
FIVE Busbar 65 50 0 0 0 0
NINE Busbar 65 50 0 0 0 0

1-14 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Enter the network

Enter an element
1. To draw an element from the symbol window, click on it, hold the mouse
button pressed, drag the symbol to the diagram and drop it.
2. A data-input-dialog for the element appears.
3. Enter a name for the element.
4. Enter the element parameters.
5. Press the OK-button when finished.

2 1
1
3

Fig. 1.8 Enter an element

Enter a node

6. To enter nodes, click on one of the node button in the Toolbar.


7. Click once in the diagram for a round-point-node. To draw a bar-node, click
in the diagram, but hold the mouse button and move the mouse to define
the length of the bar-node, then leave the mouse button.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-15


Tutorial

8. A data-input-dialog for the node appears.


9. For the node data at least the nominal system voltage and frequency are
required.
10. Press the OK-button when finished.

10

Fig. 1.9 Enter a node

Enter a link

11. To interconnect elements with elements or with nodes, use the links.
Press on the link-button.
12. First click on one end of the element.
13. Then click on the node to finalize the link.

1-16 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

11

12

13

Fig. 1.10 Interconnecting the elements with Links

Build up the whole network (Hint for entering lines)


14. Build up the network in the same manner as explained before. To
enter lines you need nodes where to connect them.
15. For entering lines press on the Line-button.
16. Click on the starting-node.
17. Click in the diagram, wherever you wish to have supporting points.
18. Click on the ending-node
19. Enter the line data in the appearing dialog.
20. Press OK when finished.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-17


Tutorial

15

16

19
17

18

20

Fig 1.11 Enter a line

1-18 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Enter a text field


21. Click on the text-button.
22. Click in the diagram. The text field will be inserted and you may enter
a text.

21

22

Fig. 1.10 Enter a text field

23. To change the properties of the text field, select it and press the right
mouse button.
24. In the appearing pop-up menu choose Graphic Properties and the
dialog appears.
25. You may change the text and the font or apply a frame and colors.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-19


Tutorial

23

25
24

Fig. 1.11 Change the text field properties

Test your network


After having entered the network with all nodes and elements data, you should
check if all elements are linked and all data is entered correctly. For this reason
perform a load flow calculation with "Analysis Load Flow - Calculation". Watch
out for any error messages in the Message Window and correct your network, till
the load flow calculation is running successfully.

In case that you get an error message for a certain element, the elements ID will
be indicated. There is a feature in NEPLAN to search this element in an easy
way:

Search for an element


1. Choose the Search-feature in the Edit-menu.
2. Select the search-criteria. In this case choose Id.
3. Enter the ID of the element you are looking for.
4. Press the button Find Next.

1-20 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

1
3 4

Fig. 1.12 Search for an element

5. The program will move the view of the network, so that the searched
element is displayed in the center with an orange frame around it.
6. Use the button Show Dialog to show the data input dialog of the marked
element.
7. Enter an other ID to look for an other element.
8. Press Cancel to finish the Search.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-21


Tutorial

7
6

8 5

Fig. 1.13 Find the element

1-22 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Step 3 Insert Header, Save, Print, Exit

Insert Header
In every diagram a header may be inserted and its data can be edited.

1. Insert a header with "Insert - Header".


2. Click in the diagram to past the header.

Fig. 1.14 Insert a header into the diagram

3. With "Options Header" a dialog with the header text lines appears.
4. The text lines may be modified.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-23


Tutorial

Fig. 1.15 Modify the header lines

5. With "Options Project Settings" a respective dialog appears.


6. You may modify the project description.

1-24 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.16 Modify the project description

The project name and the variant name are displayed automatically in the header.

Save the network


From time to time the network has to be saved to avoid data loss. Generally just
do it by pressing the Save-Icon or with "File - Save". In the following it's shown
how you save a network for the first time or how to save it with a different name.

1. Choose "File Save as".

Fig. 1.17 Save a project

2. Choose the directory, where the project should be saved.


3. Enter the file-name.
4. Click on the button "Save"

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-25


Tutorial

Fig. 1.18 Enter the file-name

Print the diagram


To be able to print a diagram window as you desire, you need to switch to the
Preview Mode (1).
1. Switch to the Preview-Mode

Fig. 1.19 Change to Preview Mode

2. Define paper format and margins with Page Setup

1-26 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.20 Page Setup

3. The printout will contain exactly what you see in the preview window. Use the
zoom options to define the print window.

Fig. 1.21 Prepare your print window

4. Finally select a printer with Print Setup, use Print Preview for a last check
and print with Print.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-27


Tutorial

4c

4b 4a

Fig 1.24 Print the Diagram

Close and open projects


Projects may be opened and closed without quitting the program. Several
projects can be open at the same time, they will be displayed in the variant
manager.

1. Make a right-mouse-button click on the project symbol in the variant


manager. A popup menu appears.
2. Choose "Close Project" to close the respective project. The same is
possible with "File - Close".

Fig. 1.22 Close a project

1-28 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

3. Open an other, already existing project with "File Open"

Fig. 1.23 Open a project

4. To exit the program use "File Exit"

Fig. 1.24 Exit the program

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-29


Tutorial

Step 4 Use of Diagrams, Layers, Areas and Zones

In this step you will learn how to handle diagrams and graphic layers and you'll
define areas and zones. We use the example network MyProject.nepprj, entered
in Step 2.

Use of Diagrams
For a certain project, the network may be entered in different diagrams. With the
help of this function, the user can for instance enter the high voltage network in
one diagram and the low voltage network in several other diagrams. The high
voltage network could also be divided into several diagrams.
Another use is zooming into stations. In the general diagram the station can be
drawn as a "black box" and in another diagram the station can be drawn in detail
with all protection and switching devices.

In this step, we will learn the handling of diagrams in a project.

Rename a Diagram
The following figure explains the procedure to rename the single diagram in our
project, which actually has the name Diagram 0.

1. Select the diagram manager.


2. Double click on the existing "Diagram 0" and the Diagram Properties dialog
appears.
3. The name can now be changed to "HV-Network".
4. If you wish, insert a diagram description.

1-30 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

1 3

Fig. 1.29 Change of diagram name

Define a new diagram


A low voltage network for the substation STAT-LV shall be inserted in another
diagram. We'll define this new diagram, like shown in the figure below:
1. Make a right-mouse-button click on the Diagram Manager and choose
"Insert new Diagram". The Diagram Properties dialog appears.
2. Enter the name of the new diagram.
3. If you wish, insert a diagram description.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-31


Tutorial

Fig. 1.30 Insert a new diagram

After having closed the Diagram Properties by clicking the OK-button, the
following diagram structure is displayed.

Fig. 1.31 Rootnet with two diagrams

To display a diagram, check its checkbox and uncheck it for closing. The last
checked diagram is the active one and can be edited.

Enter a low voltage network


Activate the diagram "LV-network" and draw the following network.

1-32 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.32 LV-Network, drawn in the new diagram

The necessary parameters are all listed in the following tables.

Lines:
Name Type Length Number Units R(1) X(1) C(1) G(1) R(0) X(0) C(0) Ir min Ir max Red. Q
Ohm/.. Ohm/..
km . . uF/... uS/... Ohm/... Ohm/... uF/... A A fact. mm2
N-L2 KS 3x150/150 0.03 1 Ohm/km 0.1240 0.072 0 0 0.508 0.115 0 0 360 1 150
N-L1 KS 3x240/240 0.02 1 Ohm/km 0.0754 0.072 0 0 0.308 0.119 0 0 470 1 240

Loads:
Name From node LF Type P Q Domestic Units Units
N-V3 N3 PQ 20 10 0 LV
N-V2 N2 PQ 40 30 0 LV

Transformers:
Name Type From To Vector Unit Comp. Sr Ur1 Ur2 ukr(1) uRr(1) ukr(0) uRr(0)
Node Node Group Transf. Winding MVA kV kV % % % %
16/0.4 KV
TRAFO-NS 630 KVA TWELVE NS_SS_N1 DY,07 0 0 0.63 16 0.4 5.24 1.12 5.24 1.12

Name I0 Pfe U01(0) U02(0) Earthing RE1 XE1 ZE1 active Earthing RE2 XE2 ZE1 active
% kW % % primary Ohm Ohm % secondary Ohm Ohm %
TRAFO-NS 0 0 0 0 direct 0 0 100 direct 0 0 100

Name On-load Tap side Controlled Tap Tap Tapr Tap Delta U Beta U Uset Pset Sr min Sr max
Tapchanger bus act min max % % % MVA MVA
TRAFO-NS 0 Primary Secondary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.63 0.63

Nodes:

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-33


Tutorial

Name Node Un Frequ. Umin Umax Ir Ipmax


Type kV Hz % % A kA
N3 Sleeve 0.4 50 0 0 0 0
N2 Sleeve 0.4 50 0 0 0 0
NS_SS_N1 Busbar 0.4 50 0 0 0 0

Enter an element more than once in a project


Elements may be represented graphically as many times as you want in the same
project. Mainly this makes sense, when you wish to see the same element in
different diagrams, like in our case. The substation STAT-LV, where the low
voltage network is connected, shall be represented in the LV- and in the HV-
diagram to connect the two networks. It concerns the substation symbol and the
node TWELVE. To draw the node TWELVE a second time follow the instructions:
1. Select the node symbol as usual and draw the node in the diagram.
2. In the appearing Input-dialog, select the Info-tab.
3. Press the button beside the name field.
4. Select an already existing node from a list.
5. By pressing the OK-button, the data of the respective element will be
adopted.

2 3

Fig. 1.33 Enter an already existing element again in the same project.

After you entered the whole low voltage network, perform a Load Flow calculation
to proof the entered data and the connections of the elements.

1-34 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Use of graphic layers


To each diagram, any number of graphic layers may be assigned. The user can
decide, which graphic layers of a diagram shall be displayed simultaneously. The
figure below shows the principle of diagrams and graphic layers.

Diagram 1

1
2
3
Graphic Layer 1-3 of Diagram 1

Diagram 2

1
2
Graphic Layer 1-2 of Diagram 2

Fig. 1.34 Assignment of graphic layers to diagrams

In each graphic layer any number of graphic elements, electric elements or nodes
can be entered or bitmaps imported. Before you insert a new component, you can
choose the graphic layer, to which it should belong. The graphic layers can be
displayed selectively. For example, it's possible to use different layers for current
transformers and relays. If you are doing load flow calculation, you could switch
off the layer for the relays. If you are doing relay coordination you can switch on
the relay layer.

In our example we'll introduce a second graphic layer for the HV-diagram with the
name Areas/Zones. In the new graphic layer, we will draw the regions of network
areas and zones. We then have the possibility to display or not this graphical
input, by switching on or off the respective graphic layer.

Insert new graphic layers


Follow the instructions to insert new graphic layers:

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-35


Tutorial

1. In the Diagram Manager make a right-mouse-button click on the diagram


symbol "HV-Network".
2. In the menu choose "Insert new Graphic Layer".

Fig. 1.35 Add a new graphic layer to the diagram "HV-Network"

3. In the "Graphic Layer Parameters" dialog, enter the name of the graphic
layer.
4. If you wish, you may write a description.

Fig. 1.36 Enter the graphic layer parameters

1-36 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Finally the Diagram Manager will look like this:

Fig. 1.37 Diagram Manager after entering the new graphic layer

Enter drawings in the new graphic layer


To be able to edit a graphic layer, it has to be activated.
1. Activate the new graphic layer Areas/Zones of the diagram HV-Network,
either by mouse click in the checkbox or by choosing the right option in the
menu, which appears with a right-button mouse click.
2. Draw the regions for an area and a zone and write a text, like in the figure
below, by using the graphical tools in the toolbar.

Fig. 1.38 Input for the graphic layer "Areas/Zones" of the diagram "HV-Network"

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-37


Tutorial

Actually, both graphic layers (GrLayer 0 and Areas/Zones) are shown. Switch off
the graphic layer "Areas/Zones", so that only the network is displayed.
1. To be able to switch off the graphic layer Areas/Zones, it mustn't be active.
For that reason, activate the other graphic layer.
2. Right-mouse-button click on the symbol of the "Areas/Zones" layer.
3. Unselect the "Show Graphic Layer" option.

1
2

Fig. 1.39 Switch off the graphic layer "Areas/Zones"

Now, the graphical elements we entered before disappeared and only the
network is visible. A red cross over the graphic layer symbol indicates, that the
"Areas/Zones" layer is not shown, respectively switched off:

Fig. 1.40 Only the graphic layer "GrLayer 0" is shown

1-38 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Define and assign Areas and Zones


Areas and zones are both network groups and can be defined by the user. Every
element and node belongs to one zone and to one area. An area normally
includes one or more zones. For load flow calculation it is possible to define
transactions between different zones and between different areas.
When creating a new project, there is one area and one zone predefined and
every entered element is assigned to these network groups. After an element has
been entered its area and zone may be changed.
There are different possibilities to assign an area or/and a zone to network
elements. They will be explained below. In general areas and zones have to be
defined first, before they can be assigned to elements.

Define areas and zones


To define areas and zones, choose "Edit Variant Properties".
1. Select the "Areas" tab first.
2. In the list, there exists only the predefined area. To add a new area click on
the respective button.
3. Enter the name of the area
4. Choose a color.
5. Press the OK button.

3
2
4

Fig. 1.41 Define a new area Area_red

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-39


Tutorial

Let us change the color of Area 1.


1. Select Area 1 in the Area tab.
2. Click on the Properties button.
3. Change the color.
4. Press the OK button.

1 2

Fig. 1.42 Change the properties of Area 1

In the same manner define the zone Zone_motors:


1. Select the "Zones" tab first.
2. To add a new zone click on the respective button.
3. Enter the name of the zone and the color.
4. Different scaling factors for a zone may be defined.
5. Press the OK button.

1-40 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

2
3

Fig. 1.43 Define zones

Now, zones and areas are defined and they can be assigned to the elements.
You have several possibilities to do it.

Assign areas and zones to the elements, one by one


As shown below, for every single element you may choose independently a zone
and an area, which have been defined previously.

Fig. 1.44 Assign an area and a zone to an element

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-41


Tutorial

Assign areas and zones to a group of elements


Another, much easier method is to mark a group of elements and to assign to all
of them an area or/and a zone.
1. Mark a group of elements by using the mouse to put up a selection window
or/and by clicking on different elements, while keeping the Shift-key
pressed.
2. Choose "Assign Areas/Zones" and the "Assign Properties" dialog will
appear.
3. In the "Assign Properties" dialog check the Area-box to assign an area to
the elements. If you want to assign as well (or only) a zone to the elements,
just mark the respective checkbox.
4. You now can select the name of the area, to which the element should
belong to.
5. As we marked a group of elements for the assignment, we choose the
option "Assign to graphical selection".
6. Press the OK button.

3 4

Fig. 1.45 Assign an area (or/and a zone) to a group of elements

As a control, you can now open the Info tab of a Data Input Dialog of an element
that belongs to this area and you'll notice that the area name has been changed.

1-42 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Assign areas and zones to all elements of a partial network


For this procedure you first have to create a partial network. This means, a part of
the network has to be disconnected from the rest.
1. Disconnect the part of the network, which you want to assign to an area
or/and zone. A partial network is built.
2. Get to the Assign Properties dialog by the menu option "Edit - Data
Assign Areas/Zones".
3. Select Area (or/and Zone) and choose the respective name.
4. Check the box "Assign to all elements of selected partial network" and
select the ID of the partial network. If you don't know this ID, open the Data
Input dialog of one element of this partial network and get it of the Info tab.
5. By pressing the OK button, the assignment will be finalized. Don't forget to
reconnect the partial network.

4
5
6

Fig. 1.46 Assign an area (or/and a zone) to a partial network

You now have the possibility to color the network according to the different areas
or zones.
1. Get to the Colors tab of the Diagram Properties with "Edit Diagram
Properties".

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-43


Tutorial

2. Select "Partial Networks" for a coloration of the network according to areas.


3. Press the OK button and the coloration of the network will change.

3
Fig. 1.47 Network coloration according to areas

1-44 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Step 5 Create and use Libraries

The NEPLAN Library File *.neplib may contain many element libraries, which are
sorted by element type.
In the following we explain how to create new libraries, how to copy library data to
an element and how to export data from an element to a library.

Create a new Library


The following steps explain how to create a new element library:

1. Choose "Libraries" in the menu "Libraries". The NEPLAN Library


Application appears.

Fig. 1.48 Open the Library Application

2. Select "File - New" to create a new Library File.


3. Enter the Library File name.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-45


Tutorial

Fig. 1.49 Create a new Library File

4. Select "Library New Library" to create a new library.


5. Choose the element type, for which a library has to be created.

Fig. 1.50 Create a new library

6. A new library appeared in the library tree. The libraries are sorted by
element type.
7. Change the name of the new library and open it by double-clicking.

1-46 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

6 7

Fig. 1.51 Change name of library

8. Insert a new Library Element (type) by selecting "Edit-New Element".

Fig. 1.52 Insert new library element

9. A new library element appeared in the library "50MVA".

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-47


Tutorial

Fig. 1.53 New library element in the library "50MVA"

10. Change the type name of the library element.


11. Enter the data for the new library element.
12. If you wish, enter additional library elements.
13. If you wish, enter other libraries.
14. When finished, close the Library Editor with "File-Close".

14 13 12

10
11
0

Fig. 1.54 Enter library data

1-48 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Import data from a library


When a network element has been entered in the diagram and you wish to copy
the data from an element type of the library, proceed as follows:

1. In the Parameters tab of the Element-Data-Input-Dialog, press the button


"".

Fig. 1.55 Copy the data from an element type of the library

2. Choose the NEPLAN-Library-File, where the respective element type can


be found.
3. Select the element type in the respective library.
4. To copy the data from the library to your element, click on the OK-button.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-49


Tutorial

Fig. 1.56 Choose the element type

Update your network data with a library type


In case that the data of a certain element type in the library has been changed,
you have the possibility to update this data easily in all network elements, which
are of the same type.
1. Click on the Library button in the Data-Input-Dialog of an element with the
respective element type.
2. In the Library dialog, select the element type.
3. Press the button "Update Data with Model Type" to update the data in
every network element with the same type.
4. Proceed in the same way to update other elements with a modified type.
When finished, click the OK-button to close the dialog.

1-50 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.57 Update all elements of a certain element by the library data

Export data to a library


In case that you entered data in the Data-Input-Dialog of an element and you
want to create an element type of this data in a library, proceed as follows.
1. Enter an element type name in the element dialog.
2. Click on the Export-button in the Data-Input-Dialog of the element, to call
the Library dialog.
3. Choose the Library File, where to export the data.
4. If you want to create a new library, press this button (A new element type
can be inserted in a new or in an already existing library).
5. Select the library, whereto the new element type should be added.
6. To finalize, click the OK-button.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-51


Tutorial

5 4

2 6

Fig. 1.58 Export data of an element to the library

7. When you open the Library dialog again, you'll recognize the new library
element.

Fig. 1.59 New element type

1-52 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

In the same manner you may also update an already existing element type in a
library. Select the library in which this element type already exists and press OK.
You then will be asked if the existing element type shall be overwritten.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-53


Tutorial

Step 6 Define variants

For calculating different cases, NEPLAN has the possibility to create different
variants of the rootnet and to combine them with topology and loading data files.
The following figure shows the principle.

BASE CASE or ROOT NETWORK

Variants Loading Topology

Loading-1 Topology-1
Loading-2 Topology-2
Loading-3 Topology-3
... ...

BASE or ROOT

VAR-1 VAR-2 VAR-3 VAR-4

VAR-12 VAR-31 VAR-42

VAR-131 VAR-132 VAR-133 VAR-43

Fig. 1.3 Variant Management System with NEPLAN

The variants are saved together with the Rootnet in the project file (.nepprj), for
topology and loading data separate files will be defined. When activating a
variant, assigned topology and loading files will be opened automatically.

In this step 6, you'll get in contact with the concept of variants. In the following,
different variants will be defined.

1-54 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Insert new Subvariants


Variants first have to be created in the variant tree, before the modifications for
the different variants can be saved. Several variants will be defined.

1. Make a right-mouse-button click on the Rootnet symbol in the Variant


Manager
2. Choose "Insert new Subvariant"

Fig. 1.60 Insert new Subvariant

3. A "Variant Properties" dialog appears.


4. Enter a Name for the new variant and if you wish, a description.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-55


Tutorial

Fig. 1.61 Enter name and description

5. Variant replacement is displayed in the variant tree.

Fig. 1.62 "Variant replacement" appears in the variant tree

6. Define another variant Variant additional in the same way as before.

1-56 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.63 Define a variant "Variant additional"

7. Define two subvariants (Variant a and Variant b) of "Variant replacement"

Fig. 1.64 Define subvariants "Variant a" and "Variant b"

Save modifications to the variants


A variant tree now has been created, but all variants still contain the same data.
Now we will modify the different variants.

1. Activate Variant replacement by clicking on the checkbox.


2. As a modification for this variant, change the length and Ir of LIN 7-6.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-57


Tutorial

2 2

Fig. 1.65 Realize the modifications in "Variant replacement"

3. Deactivate Variant replacement by clicking on the checkbox. This is


necessary if you wish to edit next a variant of the same tree branch.
4. You'll be asked, if you want to save the modifications in Variant
replacement. Click on YES.

Fig. 1.66 Save the modifications of Variant replacement

1-58 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

5. Activate Variant a
6. Notice that the modifications carried out in Variant replacement have also
been realized in Variant a (in this case the length and Ir of the LINE 7-6).
7. Call the data input dialog of LINE 8-7 by double clicking the line.
8. Modify the data of the resistance.

5
7

8 8

Fig. 1.67 Realize modifications for Variant a

9. Activate Variant b. As you may notice, the Variant a can still be activated,
because the two open variants are not depending from each other.
10. For this Variant b, you can introduce a compensation to LINE 8-7.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-59


Tutorial

10

10

Fig. 1.68 Realize modifications for Variant b

11. Activate Variant additional


12. Draw a new line from node FIVE to SEVEN and enter its data.

12
11

12

12

1-60 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.69 Introduce a new line for Variant additional

Create and assign a Topology Data File


Topology data, such as the state of logical switches in the whole network, may be
saved to a Topology Data File.
To define different topology cases of a network, several variants could be defined
with exactly the same characteristics but with a different topology data file.
In the following we'll create such a topology data file by saving a modification of
the state of a few logical switches in our example network.

1. Activate Variant replacement


2. Change the topology. In this case you may open the logical switches of a
transformer.
3. Save the topology with "File - Export - Topology Data", using the name
Topology1.

Fig. 1.70 Create a topology file

4. Deactivate and activate again the Variant replacement but don't save it,
because the topology modifications shouldn't be saved directly to the
variant, but only in the topology file. Now the logical switches are closed
again.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-61


Tutorial

5. We now want to assign the topology file to the Variant replacement. Make
a right-mouse-button click on the symbol of Variant replacement to call
the popup menu, where you choose Properties. The same is possible by
double-clicking the symbol of Variant replacement.

Fig. 1.71 Call the Properties dialog of the variant

6. The Variant Properties dialog appeared.


7. Press the respective button for choosing a "Topology Data File".
8. Look for the topology file and select it.
9. Open the topology file.
10. Press the OK button to finalize.

1-62 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

6
8

10

Fig. 1.72 Assign the topology file to Variant replacement

Create and assign a Load Data File


Data, such as the power to be consumed by a load or the power to be produced
by a generator, may be saved to a Load Data File.
To define different loading cases of a network, several variants could be defined
with exactly the same characteristics but with a different load data file.
In the following we'll create such a load data file by saving a modification of the
operational active power of a generator.

1. By double-clicking the generator, call its data input dialog.


2. Change the operational data of the generator and save this modification to
a "Load Data File with "File Export Load Data".

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-63


Tutorial

1
2

Fig. 1.73 Change Load data

3. Call the Variant Properties dialog by double clicking the symbol of Variant
replacement.
4. Look for the Load Data File.
5. Open the Load Data File.
6. Finalize by pressing the OK button.

1-64 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.74 Assign the load data file to Variant replacement

You mustn't save the Variant replacement after these modifications, but you
need to save the project. So the best way to do is, to first deactivate the variant
without saving it and then you may save the project.

In general be careful that you don't save the variant, when you changed Load or
Topology data, which only should be contained in the Load and the Topology
Data File.

Now the Variant 1 includes a Load Data File and a Topology Data File. When the
variant is opened, also these two data files are loaded.

In the same manner you may assign the same or other Load and Topology Data
File to the other variants.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-65


Tutorial

Load Flow Calculation

In this section, you will learn how to perform a load flow calculation on a small
network and how to get the desired results.

Open the project


1. Load the Load Flow network example: Example_LF_SC.nepprj.
2. Call the Load Flow Parameters dialog.

Fig. 1.75 Adjustment of load flow calculation parameters

Adjust the calculation parameters


3. Select the calculation method.
4. You may change the maximum number of iterations. Default is 20
iterations.
5. Define whether the on-load tap-changing transformers shall be regulated
automatically during the load flow calculation.
6. You may choose a *.rlf result file, which can be opened with a text editor or
Excel.
7. Use the References tab to edit the reference loading for elements and the
reference minimum and maximum voltage.
8. If you want to work with Area/Zone Control, use the respective tab to define
the transactions.

1-66 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

9. Press the OK button to save the changes and quit the Load Flow
Parameters dialog.

7
3

Fig. 1.76 Load flow parameters

Choose the result variables

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-67


Tutorial

10. For the results showed in the single-line diagram, you can choose
the variables to be displayed. This can be done before or after the
calculation. Open the Diagram Properties dialog.
11. Choose the Load Flow tab.
12. Select the variables to be displayed for nodes and elements in the
single-line diagram. This selection does not have any influence on the
result tables. The result tables will contain all variables.
13. Define the units and number of digits for the result variables and
decide whether you want to see only the load flow results or also the last
short circuit calculation results at the same time.

11
12

12
10

13

13

Fig. 1.77 Result variables

Perform the calculation


14. You may now perform the load flow calculation.

1-68 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

14

Fig. 1.78 Load flow calculation

Analyze the results in the single-line diagram


15. The results can be analyzed directly in the single-line diagram. If
additional variables should be displayed, proceed as in step 10. It is not
necessary to repeat the calculation.
16. Use the zoom buttons to get a better view of the result boxes.
17. The network elements and nodes may be colored depending on the
results. In this example, the node became red because the voltage is below
the minimum reference.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-69


Tutorial

16

15

17

Fig. 1.79 Analyzing the results

18. Use the Diagram Properties dialog (Edit Diagram Properties) to


define the coloration of the network, depending on the network
characteristics or the calculation results (Colors and Color Ranges tabs).

1-70 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

18 18

Fig. 1.80 Coloration of the network

Analyze the results using the result tables


19. Choose Show Results to get the results presented in tables.
20. You may get tables for a summary, the node results, the element
results, or all results.
21. There is still the possibility to export the results to a file if this option
was not activated in the Load Flow Parameters dialog.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-71


Tutorial

19
20

21

Fig. 1.81 Result tables

Analyze specific results


22. If you wish to display only the results of specific elements and nodes,
either in the single-line diagram or in the result tables, you may use the
Select Results option to select these elements.

22

22

22

1-72 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.82 Result output only for certain elements and nodes

23. To make sure that the results will be displayed in the single-line
diagram according to this selection table, you need to activate this option in
the Edit Diagram Properties Load Flow tab.
24. To make sure that the results will be displayed in the result tables
according to this selection table, you need to activate this option in the
Analysis Load Flow Show Results dialog.

23 24

23

23
24

Fig. 1.83 Result output for all elements and nodes or according to list

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-73


Tutorial

Short Circuit Calculation

In this section, you will learn how to perform a short circuit calculation on a small
network and how to get the desired results.

Open the project


1. Load the Short Circuit network example: Example_LF_SC.nepprj.
2. Call the Short Circuit Parameters dialog.

Fig. 1.84 Adjustment of short circuit calculation parameters

Adjust the calculation parameters


3. Select the fault type.
4. Select the calculation method.
5. Enter a fault distance if you also want to display the results of nodes in the
neighborhood of the fault location.
6. You might need to adjust the parameters depending on the calculation
method and according to your needs.
7. You may choose a *.rsc result file, which can be opened with a text editor
or Excel.
8. Define the reference for maximum loading of elements.

1-74 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

3
4

7
8

Fig. 1.85 Short circuit parameters

Select the faulted nodes


9. Select the Faulted nodes tab in the Short Circuit Parameters dialog.
10. Select the nodes that should be faulted and move them to the table
with the arrow button.

10

10

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-75


Tutorial

Fig. 1.86 Select faulted nodes

Select faulted lines


11. Select the Faulted lines tab in the Short Circuit Parameters dialog.
12. Select the lines that should be faulted and move them to the table
with the arrow button.
13. Insert the distance where the fault takes place, in % from the From
node.

1-76 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

11

12
13

12

Fig. 1.87 Select faulted lines

Define special faults


14. Select the Special fault tab in the Short Circuit Parameters dialog.
15. Insert new fault descriptions.
16. Define the node numbers and their phases, between which the fault
takes place.
17. Assign the node numbers to the faulted network nodes.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-77


Tutorial

14

15

16

17

Fig. 1.88 Define special faults

Choose the result variables


18. For the results showed in the single-line diagram, you can choose
the variables to be displayed. This can be done before or after the
calculation. Open the Diagram Properties dialog.
19. Choose the Short Circuit tab.
20. Select the variables to be displayed for nodes and elements in the
single-line diagram. This selection does not have an influence on the result
tables. The result tables will contain all variables.
21. Define the units and number of digits for the result variables and
decide whether you want to see only the short circuit results or the last load
flow calculation results at the same time.

1-78 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

19

20

20
18

21

21

Fig. 1.89 Result variables

Perform the calculation


22. You may now perform the short circuit calculation.

22

Fig. 1.90 Short circuit calculation

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-79


Tutorial

Analyze the results in the single-line diagram


23. The results can be analyzed directly in the single-line diagram. If
additional variables should be displayed, proceed as in step 18. It is not
necessary to repeat the calculation.
24. Use the zoom buttons to get a better view of the result boxes.

24

23

Fig. 1.91 Analyzing the results

Analyze the results using the result tables


25. Choose Show Results to get the results presented in tables.
26. You may get tables for all fault currents, only the currents at fault
locations, or the node voltages.
27. There is still the possibility to export the results to a file if this option
was not activated in the Short Circuit Parameters dialog.

1-80 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

25

26

27

Fig. 1.92 Result tables

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-81


Tutorial

Transient Stability Analysis

In this section, you will learn how to perform a simulation with the Transient
Stability module on a small network and how to get the desired results.

Open the project


1. Load the Transient Stability network example:
Example_TransientStability.nepprj.

Fig. 1.93 Open the project

Enter Dynamic Data


2. Enter the Dynamic data of the synchronous machines in the data input
dialog.

1-82 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.94 Dynamic data of synchronous machine

3. Enter the Saturation data of the synchronous machines.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-83


Tutorial

Fig. 1.95 Saturation data of synchronous machine

Enter control circuits CCTs


4. Click on the CCT button
5. Click in the diagram near a synchronous machine to enter the CCT.
6. A CCT dialog appears. Enter a name for this CCT.
7. Press the OK button.

Fig. 1.96 Enter a CCT

8. A new diagram for the design of the CCT appears.

1-84 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.97 Diagram for the design of the CCT

Design the block diagram for an AVR


9. Switch the Insert menu to a Function Block Menu.

Fig. 1.98 Use of the Function Block Menu

10. Choose an Input block.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-85


Tutorial

11. Make a mouse click in the diagram, where you wish to place the block.
12. A properties dialog of the entered block appears. Enter the name of the
block.
13. Select the variable. In this case, for an AVR, we choose the bus voltage
magnitude.
14. Press the button and choose the respective node (BUS 1) from a list.
15. Press the OK button to close the window.

10

12
11

13

14

15

Fig. 1.99 Enter function blocks

16. The Input block has been entered in the diagram.

1-86 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

16

Fig. 1.100 An Input block has been entered

17. Choose a Sum block.


18. Click in the diagram. The properties dialog appears.
19. Enter a name.
20. Enter the constants and press the OK button to close the window.

17

19

20

18

Fig. 1.101 Enter a Sum block

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-87


Tutorial

21. Choose a Source block for the reference voltage.


22. Place it in the diagram.
11. Enter the name and the source constant.

21

22 23

Fig. 1.102 Enter a Source block

12. Select the Source block and turn it with the rotate buttons.
13. Use the link to interconnect the function blocks.

1-88 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

24 25

25

24

Fig. 1.103 Interconnection of the function blocks with a link

14. Build the rest of the control circuit in the same manner.
15. Build control circuits for other generators. Function blocks and
control circuits may be copied from one diagram to another.

27
26

Fig. 1.104 Complete the control circuit (CCT)

Adjust the calculation parameters


1. Choose the parameters menu for transient stability.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-89


Tutorial

Fig. 1.105 Choose the parameter menu

2. Enter the simulation time


3. You may choose a synchronous machine as reference for the rotor angle.
4. You have the possibility to change the step length and iteration data, but try
the default values first.

1-90 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.106 Adjust the simulation parameters

5. Use the Disturbances tab to define the disturbances during the transient
sequence.
6. The disturbance with the sign is active for the following simulation.
7. You may edit the disturbance by double-clicking on it or with the Edit
button.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-91


Tutorial

6
7

7 6

Fig. 1.107 Select a disturbance

Enter the disturbance data


8. In this case, we want to add an initial load of 10% to a static load.
9. Pick the element to which the disturbance should be applied and the time,
when the disturbance has to occur.
10. Press ok to add this disturbance with the new parameters.

1-92 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

9
9

10
Fig. 1.108 Define disturbances

Define the Screen Plots


11. Use the Screen Plots tab to define the variables, which shall be
displayed on the screen or saved to a file.
12. The selected variables will be displayed as screen plots during the
simulation.
13. Check the File if you want the results to be stored in a file and
change the position of the graph. Use "-" if you want no graph of this
variable
14. Press the Add variable button to add a Model with it's variables in the
list of displayed models.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-93


Tutorial

11

12
12

14

13

14

Fig. 1.109 Screen plots to display on the screen or to save to a file

15. Define the element and the variable for which you want to draw a screen plot
or a chart and change the parameters.
16. Using this window we can also set units or change the displayed variable.

1-94 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

15

16

Fig 1.110 Changing variables of element or displayed units

Simulation and Analysis


1. Run a Transient Stability simulation.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-95


Tutorial

Fig. 1.110 Run a Transient Stability simulation

2. A screen plot appears and the curves of the selected variables are being
drawn. Below the diagrams, an event report is displayed.

Fig. 1.111 Screen plot at the end of the simulation

3. The screen plot displays the selected variables during the whole simulation
process. The user has the possibility to pause, to continue, or to exit the
simulation process and also to save the results.

Fig. 1.112 Options to pause, continue, or exit the simulation

4. Close the screen plot and choose Graphical Results for Transient Stability.
If no charts were defined for this project, one empty chart will appear.

1-96 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Fig. 1.113 Call the Graphical Results

5. You can define several charts. Every chart represents a graphical sheet
and may consist of one or more subcharts. To start, add a subchart in your
existing chart.
6. In the appearing dialog, enter a name for the curve and select the values
for the X-Axis and Y-Axis.
7. Press the OK button to get to the next dialog.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-97


Tutorial

Fig. 1.114 Select the variables for a curve

8. Enter a name for the chart.


9. Select the curve's drawing settings.
10. If there is more than one curve entry, the displayed drawing settings
are only valid for the marked curve.
11. To add curves in the same subchart or to edit or delete existing
curves, use the corresponding buttons.
12. Switch to the Subchart Settings tab.

1-98 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

12
8

11

10

Fig. 1.115 Define all the curves to be displayed in one subchart

13. Select an axis.


14. Adjust the properties for the selected axis.
15. You have the possibility to show a legend in the subchart.
16. Press the OK button to finalize.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-99


Tutorial

13

14

15

16

Fig. 1.116 Adjust the subchart settings

17. The defined curves are drawn in the subchart.

Fig. 1.117 A chart with one subchart and one curve

1-100 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

18. Define as many charts, subcharts, and curves as you wish. They
need to be defined only once for the project. After each simulation the
same curves will be drawn in the graphical results. Remember that only
variables, which have been declared as variables to be saved to a file, in
the "Transient Stability Parameter Screen Plot" menu, are available for
presentation in these charts.

18

Fig. 1.118 Define several charts and subcharts

19. To see the Transient Stability results listed in a table choose Result
Table(Elements).

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-101


Tutorial

19

Fig. 1.119 Have a look at the presentation of the results in the Result Table

20. Look at the results in the result table.

20

Fig. 1.120 Transient Stability results listed in a table

1-102 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Interfaces to NEPLAN

NEPLAN has several interfaces to external applications:


Import/Export through ASCII file
Export to data base
Result data base
Clipboard
DXF files
Raster Graphics (e.g. BMP, PCX, TIFF, etc.)

Import/Export
There are two import/export files for external programs, such as Microsoft Excel,
the EDT file, and the NDT file.
The EDT file contains topological and electrical data of the elements and the NDT
file contains the topological and loading data of the nodes.
The file structure of the import/export files is given in the appendix (see
"Appendix").
If data is imported without graphic, then it is possible to generate the graphic of
the network automatically by the NEPLAN "Auto-Layout" function.

Topology/Loading-data files
The topology and the loading data of a network may be saved in the ZDB file
(topology) and in the NDB file (loading).
The ZDB file and the NDB file are used to define variants. To each variant, a
Load Data File and a Topology Data File can be assigned (see "Edit Variant
Properties" in the "Menu Options" chapter).

Clipboard
The diagram can be exported to the clipboard. The clipboard data can be
imported by an external program, such as a word processing program.

DXF Files
DXF files can be imported. All diagrams are identified and displayed. The user
can select the diagrams to be imported from a list. The imported drawing can be
additionally scaled. The imported diagrams are managed by the program in
different graphic layers. The imported drawing can be changed.

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-103


Tutorial

Cadastre and Raster Graphics Files (BMP, PCX, TIFF)


Raster graphics files (BMP, PCX, TIFF, etc.) can be imported in any diagram. It is
possible to import a raster graphic (e.g. PCX) as a cadastre. The cadastre can be
used as background for the NEPLAN network data. The cadastre can be
calibrated to use real world coordinates.

1-104 NEPLAN User's Guide V5


Tutorial

Tips from the Practice

Important tips from the practice are given here.

Asymmetrical Network Structure

Representation of an Asymmetrical Line


It is recommended to enter lines in a compact way. A 3-phase line from node A to
B can theoretically be entered as three single-phase lines, which are coupled
between one another. In this way, the program will not only work with the current
circuit and the series impedance matrices, but also with the coupling matrices.
This increases the calculation effort. The better way is to represent the 3-phase
line with one 3-phase line. The same is valid for a 2-phase line.

Load Flow

Divergence using PV Nodes

When using PV nodes, the Newton-Raphson method should be used. The


user has to make sure that no disconnect or load switches, as well as short
lines, are connected to the PV node, because of numerical problems. If
disconnect and load switches are connected to PV nodes, it is advisable to
reduce them during calculation. If, for example, a generator is connected to
a bus bar through disconnect switches (one open, one closed), the
generator node should be marked as reducible (see "Node" data input in
"Element Data Input and Models" chapter).
When using the Current Iteration method, the same is valid. The
convergence can be additionally influenced by the accelerating factor (see
"Calculation Parameters (LF)" in "Load Flow" chapter). The value might
have to be reduced to 0.05 to obtain convergence. The convergence
criteria should also be reduced.

Switching Topology or Connecting Motors

If the motor starting module is not available and the user like to make
voltage drop calculation when switching the topology or connecting motors,

NEPLAN User's Guide V5 1-105


Tutorial

the network impedance (network feeder) must be represented by a line. In


the normal load flow calculation, the internal network impedance (Sk", Un)
is not considered.

1-106 NEPLAN User's Guide V5