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SECTION A (20 marks)


1. For each of the following items (1) (x), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and
write its letter beside the item number in your answer booklet.

I. Which among the following includes the methods used in showing chronological order of events?
A. Famine, epidemics, drought and heavy rains
B. Carbon 14, archives, Museums and historical sites
C. Family trees, timelines, time charts and time graphs
D. Periods, generations, millennia and centuries
E. Timelines, time charts, carbon 14, family trees and generations

II. After abolition of slave trade, the capitalists introduced another alternative trade known: -
A. Barter trade B. Long distance trade
C. Trans-Atlantic slave trade D. Legitimate trade
E. Trade liberalization

III. The following was one of the impacts of the Industrial capitalism in Africa
A. Development of industries in Africa
B. Termination of foreign rule in Africa
C. Introduction of food crops in Africa
D. Exploitation of African raw materials
E. Increased slave trading activities

IV. Egypt and Congo attracted more attention of the European powers during the scramble for Africa because
A. There were no African resistances
B. Areas were potential for the production of raw materials
C. Areas shortened the route to India and offered means of transport into the interior of Africa
D. The Africans invited the colonialists
E. The colonialists were eager to develop those areas

V. Which countries formed the Triple Entente?

A. Britain, France and Germany
B. Australia, France and Germany
C. Russia, Britain and Austria-Hungary
D. Britain, France and Russia
E. France, Italy and Russia

VI. On 9th July 2002 the Africa leaders signed the charter that launched the African Union (AU) to
replace the A.O.U. This meeting was held in
A. Ethiopia B. Egypt C. Durban
D. Arusha E. Nairobi

VII. Each colony of the Federation of French West Africa that consisted of eight colonies which were all governed
from Dakar, Senegal was administered by
A. Lieutenant governors who were in charge of constituent colonies
B. African chiefs who were overseeing the maintenance of laws and order in their areas
C. Chamber of Deputies in Paris
D. French Governor-General who was answerable to the French Minister of colonies in Paris.
E. Minister for colonies in Paris.

VIII. The main objectives of the construction of the railway networks during colonial rule in Africa were the
following except transportation of
A. Raw material from the interior of Africa
B. The tourists to the interior of Africa
C. The colonial officials and troops to the interior of Africa
D. European manufactured goods to the interior of Africa
E. Missionaries, settlers and labourers from and to the interior of Africa.

IX. The term African consciousness means

A. When a black a black person becomes totally changed to a conscious level of involvement in the
struggle for their own (and others) minds liberation and empowerment.
B. The situation whereby people living in Africa ignore people living in Europe and America.
C. State of mind when an Africans do not need help from rich countries
D. Period when the black people started the fighting to remove colonialists
E. When a black man with the African origin returns home and hate the white people culture.

X. The term "decolonization" as applied to African struggle for independence means

A. A process of liberating children and women from forced labour
B. A process of strengthening colonial ties
C. To welcome the colonialists for the second time
D. Process and activities leading to independence
E. To deny taxation.

2. Match the items in Column I with the corresponding historical events in Column II by writing the letter of the
correct event beside the number of the item.

i. Khoikhoi A. The British and control of the Cape
B. The Dutch made permanent settlement under Jan van Riebeeck at the Cape
ii. 1652
C. The earliest inhabitants of the Cape
iii. The Dutch East Indian D. The earliest inhabitants of Southern Africa
Company E. The first trading company which set a regular supply station at the Cape
iv. Cape of Good Hope F. The trading company for the Far East
G. Took place from 1836-1854
v. 1806 H. The Drakensberg mountains
vi. The British I. The Voortrekkers
vii. The Boer Trek J. Took place from 1800-1850
K. Created new stations in Southern Africa
viii. Mfecane
L. L Leaders of the Ndebele Kingdom
ix. Moshoeshoe M. Expansion of Zulu under Shaka
x. The Ngoni N. Founded the Sotho Kingdom
O. Founded the Shona Kingdom.
P. Moved to Central Africa under Zwangendaba
Q. The trading company for the Far East
R. Introduced Merino sheep in South Africa
S. Introduced barter trade in South Africa
T. An early important region for European
commerce in South Africa.

SECTION B: (20 marks)

3. Study the map below carefully and answer the questions that follows






Trans Saharan Trade Routes

(a) What were commodities in the following Routes
i. Route A (mention any three commodities)
ii. Route B (mention, any three commodities)
iii. Who were the traders from outside Africa that participated in Route A? Mention two
iv. Who took the leading role in the trade route A?
v. What was the main currency in the trade?

(b) List down any (5) five consequence of the trade relationship in that region

4. (a) Arrange the following statements in chronological order by writing number 1 to 5 beside the item
i. The further they pushed into the interior the more the African societies were affected by this
ii. They killed, enslaved and robbed Africans of their land and cattle.
iii. The African societies in the Mfecane area were already affected by two forces coming from
European expansionism of the time.
iv. Their contact with Africans was constantly violent.
v. First there was the penetration of white colonists northwards
from the Cape as farmers and cattle herders.

(b) One of the following statements is not historically correct. Choose it and write its letter beside the
item number.

i) A. By AD 1000 Iron technology began to appear widely in East Africa.

B. Iron technology revolutionized agriculture
C. Iron technology replaced Stone age
D. Hunting and gathering societies did not use iron tools till 2000 A.D
E. The Nok, Axum and Meroe became famous sites for iron technology

ii) A. Iron tools contributed to the economic specialization

B. Iron tools increased military operations and expansion of states by the 19th century
C. The invention of fire had nothing to do with protection of man against wild animals.
D. With fire and iron tools, man was able to clear large forests for farming
E. Some of the tools made from the invention of iron were spears, hoes and axes

iii) A. The Berlin conference of 1884/85 was attended by Ethiopian representatives.

B. Chancellor Otto von Bismarck chaired the Berlin Conference of 1884/85.
C. The resolutions of Berlin conference were collectively a statement to colonized Africa.
D. One-sided treaties made by explorers in Africa helped the conference to identify areas of exploitation.
E. USA attended the Berlin conference as an observer

iv) A. Politically, Africa had its own political organizations before the coming of the colonialists.
B. Technologically, African societies had small scale industries before 19th century namely, hand-craft
C. Many African societies had education systems which were transferred by elders from one generation
to another by the 16th century, called indigenous education.
D. Without colonial intervention, Africa would remain a dark continent and with no history.
E. In initiations Africans had their own instructors for the youth in so called Jando and Unyago.

v) A. History is a record of human activities.

B. Human needs enabled man to obtain his needs from nature.
C. Man enters into definite social relations with other people.
D. History accounts for Kings and Queens
E. Mans basic needs constitute food, shelter and clothing.

SECTION C: (60 marks)

Answer three (3) questions from this section

5. What were the socio-political and economic changes brought by the Neolithic revolution in pre-
historical societies?
6. Explain three reasons and three significances behind the Boer trek in South Africa.
7. Sum-up six effects of the establishment of colonial infrastructure in Africa during colonialism.
8. Analyze six Impacts of great depression on Tanganyika
9. Give six reasons on how the system of the colonial economy in Kenya influenced the nature and
character of the struggle for independence in that country.
10. Explain the six (6) factors, which led to changes in economic developmental policies and strategies

20 MARKS @ 1Mark




3. (a) I. from route A(north-east) to south-west commodities were:- SILK, OIL LAMPS, EBONY, GLASS,
II. From route B (South-west) to North-East Commodities were:- TEXTILES/CLOTHES, GOLD,
III. The traders from North (Route B) were the Europeans and Asians (1 MARK)
IV. The Berbers, Taghaza and Wangara (1 MARK)
V. The main Currency was SALT and Barter trade (1 MARK) TOTAL 05 MARKS

(b) Five consequences of Trans-Saharan trade

i. Some people become rich and powerful a good example is Mansa Kankan Musa.
ii. Growth and development of towns into cities such as Sijilimasa, Gao, Jenne, Timbuktu, etc.
iii. Rise of empires/Sudanic states/forest state like Ghana, Mali, Songhai, etc.
iv. Spread of Islamic religion and culture in West Africa.
v. Development of education
vi. Introduction of new goods in West Africa and from West Africa
vii. Introduction of camel as major means of transport
@ 1 mark = 05 marks in total
4. (a)
I II III IV V @ 1 Mark = 05 Marks in Total
4 5 1 3 2
I II III IV V @ 1Mark = 05 Marks in Total


Distribution of marks in all essay questions

Introduction 3 marks
Points only six points in each question 2.5 marks @ point = 15
Conclusion 2 marks

11. What were the socio-political and economic changes brought by the Neolithic revolution in pre-historical

Pre-historical societies are those societies existed before history is started to be recorded.

The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution (domestication of animals and plants),
describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement as first adopted by various
independent prehistoric human societies in numerous locations in most continents between 12-10 thousand years
ago (or in the latter part of the Stone Age). The term refers to both the general period over which these initial
developments took place and the subsequent changes to Neolithic human societies, which either resulted from, or
are associated with, the adoption of early farming techniques and crop cultivation. The Neolithic Revolution had the
following socio-political and economic changes on pre-historical societies. (Or any relevant introduction)

Establishment of permanent settlement. The hunter-gatherer way of life was replaced by domestication of crops and
animals, enabling people to live lives that are more sedentary. Permanent settlements arose, creating new social,
cultural, economic, and political institutions

Extension of the division of labour that had existed only along sex and age lines. It was a result of agricultural
development that people decided to engage in different activities basing on age, sex and gender. For example, while a
woman was staying at home, man will walk afar to search for food or better shelter or sometimes a new land for

Increase of population. For presence of enough food and permanent settlements, the pre-historical societies populated
faster as a sign of blessing (belief) and for labour power in agriculture (economy) and defending the society
(political). Also, this increase in the birth rate was required to offset increases in death rates, required settled
occupation of territory, and encouraged larger social groups. These sedentary groups were able to reproduce at a
faster rate due to the possibilities of sharing the raising of children in such societies.

Emergence of specialization of labour. Neolithic Revolution encouraged the introduction of specialization by

providing diverse forms of new labour. For presence of many activities enabled by development of tools and high
production, things like trade, handcrafts, agriculture and even healing and fortunetelling or foreseeing, became
possible and only special people did.

Food surpluses made possible the development of a social elite who were not otherwise engaged in agriculture,
industry or commerce, but dominated their communities by other means and monopolized decision making.

Introduction of mechanization on agriculture for more yield and more land. Agricultural development enabled humans
to make use of the energy possibilities of their animals in new ways and permitted permanent intensive subsistence
farming and crop production, opening up heavier soils for farming. It also made it possible for nomadic pastoralism in
semi-arid areas, along the margins of deserts leading to the domestication of camel.

Environments became determinant of activities that should be done hence development of trade; the specific
environment determined the economy that was practiced. Thus, people in the grasslands tended to dwell in
pastoralism while those in wetter regions tended to go for agriculture, or at least mixing the two. This was the
beginning of regional differentiation leading to the emergence of trade between different communities.

Production of surplus and development of slavery. Increased food production made it possible for one to produce a
surplus a factor that in turn brought about other changes. It now became possible to extend the division of labour
within the community. This facilitated the development of society, politics and economy as some people became
wealth accumulators while others became producers to them hence the beginning of slavery as system.

Production of better tools; this was due to the great demand for more production and defense of the community. This
accompanied by more discoveries of more minerals (e.g. coper and bronze) and more invention.

Emergence of different political organization; this was needed so that the society could stayed safe in all aspects.

Development of culture; civilization is associated with agriculture in all pre-historic communities. It was after
Neolithic revolution people begun to establish strong roots in belief (religion), tradition, dances (esp. after harvest).
Calendars (through astronomical aid), writing and language development (possibly by interaction through demand
of marriage, migration and trade) made possible.


With no doubt, the development of todays society is the product of a pre-historical communities development
because of mans struggle against nature to survive. In this sense, Neolithic revolution is still the most achievement
human beings ever done in his past, present and future history. (or any other relevant conclusion).

12. Explain three reasons and three significances behind the Boer trek in South Africa.
The Boer trek (Great trek) was the mass movement of the Boers as far away as possible from the control of the
British administration (i.e. from the Cape Northward to the interior of South Africa; Natal, Transvaal and Orange
Free State). The Trek Boers were those that had become semi-nomadic pastoralists requiring large areas of land.
They often abandoned land when it became too uneconomic to farm. The Boers were as dissatisfied with the British
authority as they had been with the Company. Small groups of Boers had made independent decisions to move but
in 1835, there was a mass exodus from the Cape. To understand why so many settlers moved out at much the same
time the following reasons were responsible. (Or any relevant)
The Fiftieth Ordinance of 1128 removed all restrictions on the Khoikhoi and allowed them equality before the law
with the white population of the Cape. No longer were they tied to the Boer farm. They were allowed to move about
without needing to produce a pass on demand. The Boers accused the British of providing no protection against the
newly freed Khoikhoi. Many of the Khoikhoi left the farms and went to the towns, leaving the Boers very short of
The abolition of slavery; in 1834 by the British Government was also resented by the Boers, who lost their slaves.
They were forced to employ agents to collect compensation money in London. A whole way of life was being upset
at the Cape by the British who only recently had accepted the same system themselves.
In addition to that, imposition of English as the official language of the courts was another reason for Boer trek.
Many of the Boers did not know English and were embarrassed to witness non-whites acting as court translators for
their benefit. Boers were not used, and did not like, to have to be helped by nonwhites in this way.

Control of land ownership; The British insisted that land should be bought by an annual rent scheme. They introduced
the system of fencing land and the requirement of legal documents to prove ownership of land. Farmers were not
supposed to abandon land to move to a new land and all selling had to be done by auction. This upset the Boers who
considered all the land as being theirs where they often abandoned land when it became too uneconomical to farm
hence decided to move further north for a new start.

Unfulfilled promise of the British; the British through Governor D'Urban, promised the compensation for loss of
property and offering them new province in The Sixth War of Dispossession (1834) in which 1,200 Xhosa raided
their old homeland, now part of the new colony. That would be possible if they will help the British to clear all
Xhosa from the Kei-Keiskamma area and annex it to the colony as Queen Adelaide Province, something that they
did. Failure to fulfill this promise made them very angry and among three options that they had, moving away was
what they chose.

The significance of the Great Trek

It was no longer possible for the British to control or separate Boer from Bantu.

Exposure of the interior of South Africa to European settlement; The major result of the Trek was that the interior
was opened to European settlement that led to the eventual setting-up of the Boer republics. This led to the eventual
setting-up of the Boer republics.

Discovery of minerals; The settlement of Europeans in the interior of South Africa led to the discovery of minerals.
Further problems came from the discovery of diamond and gold under the new land. Southern Africa was now divided

into a group of politically independent units that were to become more involved with each other towards the end of the
nineteenth century.

Division of South Africa; Southern Africa was now divided into a group of politically independent units, which
were to become more involved with each other towards the end of the nineteenth century.

Cultural interference; the cultural differences between the Boer and the Bantu were clearly defined as both people
held fast to their own traditions.

Re-introduction of race segregation in new land; while in the Cape the Fiftieth Ordinance was generally accepted
and led to more tolerant and liberal attitudes, in the Boer republic and Natal the difference between the races

Introduction of slavery in the new land; the relationship between master and servant continued in the tradition laid
down by the Afrikaners.

Disputes between the Bantu and the Boers were intensified; this was the result of Boers inhumane attitudes of
humiliating, exploiting, confiscating the Bantus properties like cattle and land, oppressing and so on the Bantu
who were the original people of a place. This led to endless war (Kaffir wars) and it is among the reason for the
Ngoni movement from Natal to other parts of South, Central and East Africa.


The Great Trek needs to be considered as part of the general expansion which had been going on in the Cape
Colony from the earliest days. The major difference was that the trekker Boers were not interested in expanding
the colony but rather with leaving it behind. The direction of the Trek was determined by the resistance of the
Xhosa in the area of the Keiskamma River. The Boers, did not take the more favourable parts near the coast but
moved to the drier areas of the Transvaal and Natal. (Or any relevant)

13. Sum-up six effects of the establishment of colonial infrastructure in Africa during colonialism.
Colonial infrastructure in Africa refers to the means of transport and communication networks such as roads,
railways, marine services and air transport established to facilitate colonial economy on exploitation of African
resource. (Or any relevant)
Facilitated the import and export trade; With the introduction of transport infrastructures, it became possible to
export manufactured goods toward the interior and also to transport raw materials to the coast ready for export to
Intensification of forced labour; Africans were forced to work during the construction of these infrastructures. This
forced labour facilitated with the introduction of heavy tax such as hut and head tax.
Land alienation; Much land was alienated from the natives where those infrastructures passed. Examples were in
Nandi areas in Kenya.
Increase of Asians and Europeans to the interior; with the introduction of railways and roads, the member of
Europeans and Asians increased to the interior. The Europeans opened plantations of cash crops along the roads and
railway while the Asians conducted commerce. Examples were in Uganda-Kenya railway line.
Intensification of colonial exploitation; Colonial government became able to exploit the resources of the interior
which before was difficult to exploit. These were fertile land as well minerals that now became possible to exploit
and take to the coast.
It facilitated mobility of labour; through these transports, it was easy for mobility of labourers from one area to
another. Therefore, it became possible for labourers to be transported from reserve areas to production centres.
It helped in the suppression of African resistances; with the building of railways etc. African resistances were
easily suppressed since the colonial government used these transport networks to transport troops to resistant areas.
Example is Nandi resistance that was easily suppressed by the British government in Kenya.
It cheapened transportation costs; the development of railways and roads helped to reduce the costs of
transportation. Before the construction of railway, for example, it cost twenty-six shillings by head portage from the
coast to Kumasi, but with the introduction of the railway transport, the cost dropped to four shillings by railway. In
addition, Africans farmers had the opportunity to sell their produce outside their home areas because railway
transport provided a cheap means of communication.
Provision of employment; the construction of railway provided employment to a large number of Asians and
Africans. Some were employed as permanent staff in the railways while others were messengers, storekeepers and
casual labourers.
Led to the growth of towns and cities; various centres which were used for European settlements and storing goods
grew up in towns. The construction of railways finally encouraged the growth of business centres, big ports and
European settlement that led to urbanization. Examples were Dakar, Takoradi, Lagos and Accra in West Africa, Dar
es Salaam, Nairobi, Mombasa and Tanga in East Africa etc.
Colonial infrastructure was never aimed to make Africa a good place for Africans, the blessings that Africa inherited
by their presence are just accidently occurred. This is to say, colonial infrastructure was basically aimed at exploiting
Africa but we cannot claim it has no any positive impacts of Africa of today. (Or any relevant)

14. Analyze six Impacts of great depression on Tanganyika

Great Depression was the worst and longest economic collapse in the history of the modern industrial world, lasting
from the end of 1929 until the early 1940s. Beginning in the United States, the depression spread to most of the
world's industrial nations, which in the 20th century had become economically dependent on one another. The Great
Depression was characterized by rapid declines in the production and sale of goods and a sudden, severe rise in
unemployment. Businesses and banks closed their doors, people lost their jobs, homes, and savings, and many
depended on charity to survive. Since the world was a global village under the influence of colonialism, Tanganyika
as the British sphere of influence experienced the following impacts. (Or any relevant)

Impact of the Great Depression on Tanganyika

Intensification of colonial economic exploitation especially in Agriculture. There was increased
forced labour, land alienation, etc. Forced labour needed much during the depression period. The aim was to
overcome the capitalist economy affected by the First World War and the great depression.
Fall of prices in agricultural crops. As production fell in Europe, so did the market for primary products and
Tanganyika was unable to sell its export crops at a reasonable price. Between 1929 and 1933, for example, the value
of Bukoba's coffee export fell from 32 per ton. Throughout the 1930s, the price of sisal followed exactly the fortunes
of the American economy. From 32 per ton in 1929, it fell to 11 during the depths of the American depression in
1932, rose again to 23 during a temporary recovery in 1937, and then fell to 14 when a renewed depression shook
America in 1938.
Fall of wages. The wages of sisal cutters in the Tanga area, which had reached a peak of over thirty shillings a month in
1927, reduced to shilling 15-18 by 1935 and did not regain their 1927 level until 1951. Native authorities, too, faced with
a severe test when their income drastically cut at a very moment when they were hoping to expand their activities.
Fall of government revenue. Some thing of the problem, which the Government faced, is to be seen in the figures
for African hut and poll tax which in 1929-30 amounted to 750,000 and which dropped to 450,000 in 1931-32.
This tax was both the main source of government revenue and the main source of income for the native authorities.
New and more effective methods of collecting the hut and poll tax were introduced, including payment in installments
and by deduction from wages.
Mass unemployment. The fall of prices in important agricultural products such as coffee, and cotton, and the
reduction of wages to workers led many migrant laborers to be out of work. Most of them left the plantations and
went home; hence, few permanent labourers remained on the plantation. Moreover, due to the fall of prices of crops,
many settlers who were living in Usambara, Kilimanjaro, Upare, etc. left their plantations, thus leaving many
labourers unemployed.
Expenditure on all government projects had now to be seriously reduced. The budget for welfare services such as
schools, hospitals, water, etc. were cut. Instead, the colonialists tried to raise the economy by introducing different
types of taxes, which became a burden to the peasants and workers.
Increased campaign of crop production, for example, the "grow more crops" campaign instituted by the Director of
Agriculture, Mr. E. Harrison. Although informed that the Government had no control over world prices the chiefs were
told to impress upon their people the vital need to increase their output of crops. This was vitally necessary not only to
enable colonialists recover from the economic slump but also to integrate all Africans into capitalist monetary system.
However, it is important to note that those effects on Africa and particularly Tanganyika, was a seed that the colonialist
sown for their own destruction as they were advantages for the people of Tanganyika since they stimulated people's
consciousness about exploitation as well as oppression resulted into nationalism and the rise of decolonization in 1940s.
(Or any relevant)

15. How the system of the colonial economy in Kenya influenced the nature and character of the struggle for
independence in that country?
Kenya was a settler colony under the British where the settlers had heavily invested and for that they were reluctant
to grant independence to Kenya, This made Kenyans resort to both violent or liberation by warfare and later by
peaceful means in the struggle for independence. Africans in Kenya resorted to war (MAU MAU) for the following
reasons:- (Or any relevant)
Intensive land alienation; In favouring the influx of settlers in Kenya, the colonial state confiscated most of the fertile
land to give it to the settlers leaving Africans landless or with unproductive land and for that Africans fought to regain
their lost land.
Africans prohibition from growing cash crops; The settlers were also given monopoly of cultivating certain cash
crops like pyrethrum, tea, wheat and rubber where Africans were barred from growing these crops to avoid
competition with the settlers.
Excessive oppression and injustice to Kenyans; the Kenyans decided to choose war as the only way to end political,
economic and social injustices in Kenya as Africans were discriminated upon and oppressed in all economic sectors and
spheres of life.
Forced labour; the colonial state in Kenya passed a number of labour ordinances in order to support the settlers.
These legislations compelled African labourers to carry identity cards (Kipande) to show that they provide labour in
the settler farms.
Banning of political parties; the settlers in Kenya feared the growing pressures for independence demanded by the
nationalist parties in Kenya. They pressurized their government to ban the political parties that were eventually banned
in June 1953.
Killing and imprisonment of freedom fighters: most of African freedom fighters were either killed or imprisoned hence
they lacked the conscious of resorting their efforts on hope that the colonialists will grant them independence without
a fight. Some political and freedom fighters who faced this kind of situation were, Deadan Kimathi and Jommo
Failure of whites to agree to the peaceful means, to grant independence to the Kenyans.
Imperialist powers supported the whites minority over the black majority.
The role of the returned soldiers who could not find jobs which they were promised when they were taken in the
Second World War.
The presence of Kenya setters who thought Kenya was their permanent territory. They were not willing to let Kenya
go into the hands of the black African political leaders; such sentiment prompted the Kikuyu people to up guns.
However, the struggle for independence by using violence was not successful in Kenya as the violent movement was
suppressed in 1957. Upon failure of MAU-MAU, the Kenyan nationalists decided to resort to peaceful means by
forming political parties that led to the attainment of independence.
16. Explain the six (6) factors, which led to changes in economic developmental policies and strategies

A student should give a bit of explanation on the background or situation of African states soon after independence
or any relevant introduction in relation to the question asked.
For example;
After independence many African states experienced economic problems that inherited from colonialism as
colonialist aimed at maximizing profits and minimizing costs as a result they applied different policies that left
African states with economic problem hence the changes in political, social and economic sector was inevitable.
Among of the factors that necessitated the changes of economic development policies and strategies after
independence involves the problems inherited which can be explain as follow.
Economic crises; the colonial government left African states with economic crises due to intensive exploitation of
African resources both human resources and material resources. For example, the exportation of raw materials like
agricultural materials and minerals and importing expensive manufactured goods.

Inadequate infrastructures; most of African independent states experienced inadequate of infrastructures such as
schools, hospitals transport networks since the colonialists failed to provide it in every region hence there were
regional imbalance development. For example, there were no regional roads or railway links between one region
from another as most of the transport network developed around the turn of the country to facilitate exportation of
raw materials from Africa and importation of manufactured goods from Europe. Not only that but also the few
infrastructure built needed repair hence the need for changes of economic and strategies to copy with the situation.
Economic stratification in the society; after independence there were two classes that of the peasants who lived in
rural areas living in miserable poverty as they depended on agriculture activities which had low prices and the other
class of bourgeoisie or working class lived in towns in a good standard of leaving compared to the peasants in the
rural areas. For example around 95% of the populations were rural dwellers depended on agriculture for survival and
only 5% the working class who lived in towns. Thus the need for economic changes to help the majority who lived
in miserable poverty.
Dependency economy; after independence most of the African states characterized by dependent economy as they
did not produce what they consume and consume what they did not produce. For example, they produced raw
materials, exported it to the European nations especially to their former colonial masters, and consumed finished
goods that imported from Europe. Following this situation there was the need for economic changes.
Inadequate industries; African independent states experienced deindustrialization this was because the colonialists
prepared Africa as potential market for European goods that is why they did not industrialize Africa. Following this
after independence African states started to change the economic strategy as a result they could industrialize.
Cultural dependence; the independent Africans wanted to develop their national culture through abandoning the
foreign culture that was established by the colonialist before independence. For example, Tanzania wanted to have
one language due to the presence of many vernacular languages. This aimed at ensuring strong unity and solidarity
among Tanzanians.
Administration centralization; the colonialist left Africa with highly centralized administration system whereby
central leader had got a lot of power in the state as a result such system brought inefficient and incompetence leaders
and misdirection in administration. Hence, there was a need to change political system.
Existence of relationship between military structures and political administration; the military structures was
organized in the way that it was not separated from political administration this resulted to the rise of coup de-tat for
example political juntas (regimes) took over the political arena resulted to political instability and economic sabotage
Tribalism among the Africans; after the independence most of African states experienced tribalism that influenced
by multiparty political system and chiefdoms as most of the states were based on the personal ethnic or regional
origin of a particular politician, therefore this situation necessitated political changes.
Foreign administration structure; after independence national planning remained in the hand of foreigners not only
that but also most of the important sector like financial, judicial system and military sectors. In addition to that, most
of foreigners were involved in internal political matters.
To solve those issues, African countries after independence adopted different economic development and strategies
for the aim of accelerating economic development through heavy infusion of capital investment either private,
bilateral or both. (Or any relevant conclusion)

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