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Rack Structural Design Standards

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JIMS

The Japan Society of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers Standards

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

STANDARDS

Established: February 2012

Construction Subcommittee

Logistics Equipment Committee

Transportation Machinery Section

J-1001:2012

CONTENTS

PREFACE

FOREWORD

1. Scope ....................................................................................................................................................... 2

2. Standards Cited ....................................................................................................................................... 2

3. Target Earthquake Resistance Performance ............................................................................................ 2

4. Terms and Definitions ............................................................................................................................. 2

4.1 Maximum Load.................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Average Load..................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Solidity Ratio ..................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4 Effective Mass Coefficient ................................................................................................................ 3

4.5 Static Seismic Intensity Method ........................................................................................................ 3

4.6 New Earthquake Resistance Design Method ..................................................................................... 3

5. Operation................................................................................................................................................. 3

6. Structure of Unit Type Rack ................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 Material .............................................................................................................................................. 4

6.2 Permissible Degree of Stress ............................................................................................................. 5

7. Load ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1 Fixed Load ......................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Movable Load .................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Seismic Load ..................................................................................................................................... 9

8. Structural Planning ................................................................................................................................ 10

8.1 Design Standards ............................................................................................................................. 10

8.2 Calculation Methods ........................................................................................................................ 10

8.3 Combinations of Stresses ................................................................................................................. 11

9. Design of Members ............................................................................................................................... 12

9.1 Column Members ............................................................................................................................ 12

9.2 Beam Members ................................................................................................................................ 12

10. Joining Elements ................................................................................................................................... 12

10.1 High Strength Bolts and Bolted Connections .................................................................................. 12

10.2 Riveted Joints................................................................................................................................... 12

10.3 Welded Joints................................................................................................................................... 12

10.4 Column Base .................................................................................................................................... 12

11. Design of Hazardous Material Storage .................. !

J-1001:2012

PREFACE

The introduction of automated warehouses in Japan started around 1965 and the number of their

installations increased due to the social background factors such as lack of land in the country, shortage of

personnel, and increase in the logistics volume, and at present Japan is the country having the most number

of automated warehouses in the world.

Automated warehouses are classified based on their forms into building type racks (the racks and the

building are integrated) and unit type racks (the racks and the building are separated). The standards for

their design in the case of the building type racks need to conform to the laws on building standards due to

their form, and the standards established by the Construction Sub-committee, Logistics Equipment

Committee, Transportation Machinery Section of the Japan Society of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers

(JSIM) were being used in the case of the unit type racks which are not covered by the laws on building

standards.

Experiments on the earthquake resistance of automated warehouses were carried out by the Construction

Sub-committee, Logistics Equipment Committee, Transportation Machinery Section of the Japan Society

of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers (JSIM) ahead of the establishment of the new earthquake resistance

laws of June 1981, and the results of these experiments were published in June 1981 as the Research

Study Report on the Safety of Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems during an Earthquake. Further,

subsequently these results were analyzed and the results of the analysis were published as a second report

in July 1982 titled On the handling of Load during an Earthquake in Automated Storage and Retrieval

Systems. An important aspect of this report was that the vibration suppression effect due to the storage

method unique to racks has the result of increasing the earthquake resistance of racks. In view of the above

results, the design standards of unit type racks reflecting the vibration suppression effect were published in

January 1983 as the Unit type Automated Storage and Retrieval System Design Standards (Proposed).

During the Great Hanshin Earthquake of January 1995, while ordinary buildings and infrastructure

facilities were greatly damaged, the structural damage to unit type racks was comparatively small. This

experience of earthquake disaster unexpectedly proved the vibration suppression effect of racks. Thereafter,

in October 1996 the Unit Type Rack Structural Design Standards were published, and further, in July

2005 their contents have been revised.

In the publication by JIMS this time, the target earthquake resistance performance has been made clear in

view of the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011, and the design standards have been expressed in

an easy to understand manner without leading to any misinterpretation.

UNIT TYPE RACK STRUCTURAL DESIGN STANDARDS

FOREWORD

These standards stipulate the structural design standards of unit type racks and are based on the Unit Type

Rack Structural Design Standards published in 1995 by the Construction Sub-committee, Logistics

Equipment Committee, Transportation Machinery Section of the Japan Society of Industrial Machinery

Manufacturers (JSIM).

1. Scope

These standards apply to the unit type racks among the racks of automated storage and retrieval

systems stipulated in JIS B 8941.

2. Standards Cited

By being cited in these standards, the following standards constitute a part of these standards. The

latest versions (including supplements thereof) of these cited standards shall be applicable.

JIS B 8941 Automated storage and retrieval systems System Design Rules

The target of these standards is that the structural members are not damaged by earthquakes (medium

seismic movements) that occur 2 to 3 times during the lifetime of a building as stipulated by the basic

laws on buildings (the state of permissible degree of stress).

The degree of medium seismic movements is considered to be a magnitude of about weak 5 in the

earthquake magnitude scale of the Meteorological Agency of Japan, and a guideline for the strength of

seismic movements causing this horizontal force is about 80 to 100 gal in terms of the maximum

acceleration of the seismic movement.

The major terms and definitions used in these standards are the following apart from those in JIS B

8941.

The force generated by the maximum mass (including the mass of the pallet) of the load handled in

the automated storage and retrieval system. Used in the calculation of the strength of load bearing

members of a rack.

The force obtained by weight-averaging the force generated by the mass (including the mass of the

pallet) of the load handled in the automated storage and retrieval system, using the ratio of the

quantity stored. Used in the calculation of the overall strength of a rack.

J-1001:2012

The ratio obtained by dividing the mass of the load stored during operation by the mass of the load

that can be stored (average load total number of racks).

The coefficient used for obtaining the effective mass considering the attenuation due to sliding motion,

etc. during an earthquake.

The earthquake resistance design method in which the seismic force is replaced by a static force. Used

for the calculation of the seismic load.

This is the design method for carrying out safety verification against a seismic force according to

Order No. 88 for Enforcement of the Building Standards Act. Used for the calculation of the seismic

load.

5. Operation

When carrying out design using these standards, it is desirable to submit drawings and documents

containing descriptions of the following items.

1) Method of calculation (static seismic intensity method or new earthquake resistance design

method)

2) Standard seismic intensity for design: Ks (when using the static seismic intensity method)

Standard shear force coefficient: C0 (when using the new earthquake resistance design method)

3) Solidity ratio

4) Effective mass coefficient

6. Structure of Unit Type Rack

6.1 Material

As a rule the material of the structural materials of the unit type rack should be as stipulated in the

standards given in the following table.

Standard No. Name

JIS G 3136 Rolled steel material for building structures

SN400A, SN400B, SN400C, SN490B, SN490C

JIS G 3101 Rolled steel material for general structures

SS400, SS490, SS540

JIS G 3106 Rolled steel material for welded structures

SM400A, B, C, SM490A, B, C, SM490YA, YB, SM520B, C, SM570

JIS G 3114 Weather resistant hot rolled steel material for welded structures

SMA400A, B, C, SMA490A, B, C

JIS G 3475 Carbon steel pipes for building structures

STKN400W, B, STKN490B

JIS G 3444 Carbon steel pipes for general structures

STK400, STK490

JIS G 3466 Carbon steel square pipes for general structures

STKR400, STKR490

JIS G 3138 Rolled steel rods for building structures

SNR400A, B, SNR490B

JIS G 3350 Lightweight steel for general structures

SSC400

JIS G 3353 Lightweight welding H type steel for general structures

SWH400

JIS G 3131 Hot rolled soft steel plates and steel bands

SPHC

JIS G 3302 Molten zinc plated steel pates and steel bands

SGHC

JIS B 1186 Set of high force hexagonal bolts, hexagonal nuts, and flat washers for friction joints.

JIS B 1178 Foundation bolts

JIS Z 3211 Coated arc welding rods for soft steel

JIS Z 3212 Coated arc welding rods for high tensile strength steel

JIS Z 3351 Submerged arc welding solid wire for carbon steel and low alloy steels

JIS Z 3352 Submerged arc welding flux for carbon steel and low alloy steels

JIS G 5101 Carbon steel cast products

SC480

JIS G 5102 Cast steel products for welded structures

SCW410, SCW480

JIS G 5201 Centrifugal force cast steel pipes for welding structures

SCW410-CF, SCW480-CF, SCW490-CF

JIS G 3201 Carbon steel forged items

SF490A

However, these restrictions do not apply when the material strength has been confirmed by the

manufacturer or the purchaser.

J-1001:2012

6.2.1 Steel material for structures

The permissible degree of stress with respect to the permanent force of steel materials for

structures is stipulated based on the F value of the following table.

SS400 SM490

Type of steel material SN400 SN490 STK400 SM490Y

SM400

SNR400 SNR490 STKR400 SS490 SS540 SMA490 SM520 SM570

SMA400

STKN400 STRN490 SSC400 STKR490

SWH400 STK490

Thickness

40 mm or 235 325 235 275 375 235 325 355 400

less

F Thickness

335

(N/mm2) more than

325 in the

40 mm but case of

215 295 215 255 - 215 295 400

less than or items

equal to exceeding

75 mm

100 mm

* The above values should be multiplied by 1.5 in the case of short term force.

However, in the case of materials for which no F value has been indicated, the yield point shall

be taken as the F value.

(6.1)

(6.2)

a) For the entire cross-section:

When

(6.3)

When >

(6.4)

(6.5)

: Slenderness ratio of compressed material

E: Youngs modulus

(6.6)

i: Secondary radius of cross-section regarding the buckling axis

b) The permissible degree of compression stress of the tip portion of the web fillet of the rolled type

steel and welded H type cross-section shall be the value obtained by Equation (6.7) irrespective of

the stipulation in a).

(6.7)

a) The compressing side degree of bending stress of a material being bent around a strong axis

(excepting a rectangular hollow cross-section) is according to Equations (6.8) to (6.10).

When b p b,

(6.8)

When pb < b e b,

(6.9)

When eb < b,

(6.10)

Here,

(6.11)

J-1001:2012

(6.12)

(6.13)

(6.14)

ii) When the bending moment becomes a maximum in the stiffening section,

(6.15)

(6.16)

(6.17)

b: Slenderness ratio of bent material

lb: Distance between fulcrums of the compressed flange

pb: Slenderness ratio at the plastic limit

C: Correction coefficient of the permissible degree of bending stress

Me: Lateral elastic buckling moment

Z: Cross-section coefficient

IY: Cross-section secondary moment around the weak axis

Iw: Bending torsion constant

G: Elastic shear coefficient

J: St. Venants torsion constant

My: Yield moment (My = F Z)

M1, M2: The large and small bending moments around the strong axis at the ends of the

respective buckling sections is positive when (M2/M1) is double curvature and negative

when single curvature.

b) The permissible degree of compression and tension side bending stress of round steel pipes,

materials with rectangular hollow cross-sections, materials having symmetric axes in the loading

surface and receiving bending around the weak axis, and gusset plates receiving bending within the

surface are taken as t.

c) The permissible degree of bending stress of plates receiving bending outside the surface, such as

bearing plates, is taken to be the value given by Equation (6.18).

(6.18)

d) The permissible degree of bending stress of pins receiving bending is taken to be the value given

by Equation (6.19).

(6.19)

a) The permissible degree of bearing stress of pins and contacting parts of load point stiffeners, and

other general finishing surfaces is according to Equation (6.20).

(6.20)

However, when the materials of the contacting members are different, F takes the smaller of the

values, and the degree of bearing stress p is calculated using Equation (6.21).

(6.21)

P: Compressive force

Ap: Generally, the cross-sectional area of the contacting part. However, in the case of pin

contact, Ap = td, where t: thickness of the plate portion of the pin, and d: pin diameter.

p: Degree of bearing stress

b) The permissible bearing stress of sliding shoe or roller shoe is calculated using Equation (6.22).

(6.22)

However, when the materials of the contacting members are different, F takes on the smaller of the

values, and the degree of bearing stress p is calculated using Equation (6.23).

(6.23)

P: Compressive force

E: Youngs modulus

b: Width of the bearing section

r: Bending radius of the supporting section

p: Degree of bearing stress

J-1001:2012

7. Load

The loads used in the strength calculation of unit type racks are the following.

1) Fixed load

2) Movable load

3) Seismic load

The force generated in the vertical direction due to the own weight of the rack structural material.

1) The movable load used in the strength calculation of unit type racks is the average load of the

movable load.

2) The solidity ratio is according to the actual situation, but can also be as follows.

State of the load Solidity ratio

Long term Normal conditions 100%

Short term During an earthquake *80%

* From the rack warehouse handling standards of the Japan Conference of Building Administration.

7.2.1 Handling of the movable load for calculating the seismic force

The movable load multiplied by the effective mass coefficient is taken as the movable load for

calculating the seismic load.

The effective mass coefficient shall be 0.6 or more. However, when sliding movement cannot be

expected such as when pallets are positioned using guides. or when receiving rolls directly by

the load receiving member, no reduction of the movable load is made but it is necessary to judge

matching with the actual conditions.

This is the load in the horizontal direction in the rack due to an earthquake.

8. Structural Planning

The placement of members should be planned so that the external force acting on the rack is rationally

transmitted to the foundation or to the floor.

The strength calculation of unit type racks shall be done based on these standards.

However, this restriction shall not apply when the safety has been confirmed according to the design

calculation standards stipulated by the Architectural Institute of Japan.

The forces acting continuously on the different parts of the rack due to vertical load and seismic force

shall be grasped, and it shall be confirmed that the allowable load bearing capacities of the different

parts or the equivalent load bearing capacities at which the safety has been confirmed are not

exceeded.

In addition, elastic design shall be the basis, and no investigations shall be made of the horizontal load

bearing capacities. (Permissible degree of stress design)

The method of calculating the seismic load shall be according to the flow of calculations shown in the

figure and shall follow either the static seismic intensity method or the new earthquake resistance

design method. The calculations shall be made according to the new earthquake resistance design

method when the height of the rack exceeds 20 m.

However, this restriction does not apply when safety has been confirmed by the dynamic analysis, etc.

<Flow of Calculations:>

Start

No

* Height 20 m?

Yes

Stress calculation by

Stress calculation the new earthquake

by the static seismic resistance design

intensity method or the method

new earthquake

resistance design

method

Checking the

permissible stress

END

* The height shall be the height from the top projecting part.

J-1001:2012

F=K W

Apply "Zone Factor" as "K"

F: Seismic force

W: Weight

K: Horizontal intensity for design.

K = Z Ks

Z: Earthquake region coefficient (take as 1.0)

Ks: Standard seismic intensity for design (take as 0.2)

8.2.2 When using the new earthquake resistance design method

Qi = Wi Ci

Ci = Z Rt Ai C0

Qi: Seismic layer shear force occurring at layer i.

Ci: Seismic layer shear force coefficient at layer i

Wi: Sum of the fixed load and the movable load above the layer i.

Z: Earthquake region coefficient (take as 1.0)

Rt: Vibration characteristics coefficient

Ai: Coefficient expressing the distribution of the seismic layer shear force in the

height direction.

C0: Standard shear force coefficient (take as 0.2)

Apply "Zone Factor" as "C0"

The combinations of loads used for calculating the strength of a unit type rack are as follows.

State of load Combination

Long term Normal conditions G+Q

Short term During an earthquake G+Q+E

G: Fixed load

Q: Movable load

E: Seismic load

9. Design of Members

9.1 Column Members

The calculation of the cross-section of a column is done based on the force in the axial direction of

the column and the bending moment.

The member should be selected considering the effect of buckling occurring according to the material

restricting conditions, shape of the cross-section, and member length.

The slenderness ratio of the column supporting bearing the seismic force shall be 200 or less.

The calculation of the cross-section of a beam member shall be done based on the axial force, bending

moment, and the shear force.

The member should be selected considering the effect of lateral buckling occurring according to the

shape of the cross-section and the member length.

10.1 High Strength Bolts and Bolted Connections

Basically bearing joints shall be used. The size shall be selected so that the stress generated in the

joint part is less than the permissible shear strength of the bolt.

Also carry out confirmation of safety such as the bearing capacity of plate members or rupture of

gusset plates.

Determine the permissible strength from the rupture strength of rivets considering safety, and select

the size so that the stress generated in the joint part is less than the permissible strength.

Also carry out confirmation of safety based on the bearing strength of plate members.

The weldability should be considered according to the plate thickness used.

Carry out the design so that welding deformation and residual stress become small.

The permissible strength of welds shall be a value obtained by multiplying the effective

cross-section of the weld by the permissible degree of stress.

The column base of columns bearing the seismic force shall be fixed to the foundation or the floor

by anchor bolts, etc.

For details of the design of mechanical anchor bolts, and chemical anchor bolts, see Design

Recommendations for Composite Constructions.

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