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J-1001:2012

JIMS
The Japan Society of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers Standards

UNIT TYPE RACK


STRUCTURAL DESIGN
STANDARDS
Established: February 2012

Construction Subcommittee
Logistics Equipment Committee
Transportation Machinery Section

The Japan Society of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers (JSIM)


J-1001:2012

CONTENTS

PREFACE
FOREWORD
1. Scope ....................................................................................................................................................... 2
2. Standards Cited ....................................................................................................................................... 2
3. Target Earthquake Resistance Performance ............................................................................................ 2
4. Terms and Definitions ............................................................................................................................. 2
4.1 Maximum Load.................................................................................................................................. 2
4.2 Average Load..................................................................................................................................... 2
4.3 Solidity Ratio ..................................................................................................................................... 3
4.4 Effective Mass Coefficient ................................................................................................................ 3
4.5 Static Seismic Intensity Method ........................................................................................................ 3
4.6 New Earthquake Resistance Design Method ..................................................................................... 3
5. Operation................................................................................................................................................. 3
6. Structure of Unit Type Rack ................................................................................................................... 4
6.1 Material .............................................................................................................................................. 4
6.2 Permissible Degree of Stress ............................................................................................................. 5
7. Load ........................................................................................................................................................ 9
7.1 Fixed Load ......................................................................................................................................... 9
7.2 Movable Load .................................................................................................................................... 9
7.3 Seismic Load ..................................................................................................................................... 9
8. Structural Planning ................................................................................................................................ 10
8.1 Design Standards ............................................................................................................................. 10
8.2 Calculation Methods ........................................................................................................................ 10
8.3 Combinations of Stresses ................................................................................................................. 11
9. Design of Members ............................................................................................................................... 12
9.1 Column Members ............................................................................................................................ 12
9.2 Beam Members ................................................................................................................................ 12
10. Joining Elements ................................................................................................................................... 12
10.1 High Strength Bolts and Bolted Connections .................................................................................. 12
10.2 Riveted Joints................................................................................................................................... 12
10.3 Welded Joints................................................................................................................................... 12
10.4 Column Base .................................................................................................................................... 12
11. Design of Hazardous Material Storage .................. !

Discussion on the Effective Mass Coefficient................ !



J-1001:2012

PREFACE

The introduction of automated warehouses in Japan started around 1965 and the number of their
installations increased due to the social background factors such as lack of land in the country, shortage of
personnel, and increase in the logistics volume, and at present Japan is the country having the most number
of automated warehouses in the world.
Automated warehouses are classified based on their forms into building type racks (the racks and the
building are integrated) and unit type racks (the racks and the building are separated). The standards for
their design in the case of the building type racks need to conform to the laws on building standards due to
their form, and the standards established by the Construction Sub-committee, Logistics Equipment
Committee, Transportation Machinery Section of the Japan Society of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers
(JSIM) were being used in the case of the unit type racks which are not covered by the laws on building
standards.
Experiments on the earthquake resistance of automated warehouses were carried out by the Construction
Sub-committee, Logistics Equipment Committee, Transportation Machinery Section of the Japan Society
of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers (JSIM) ahead of the establishment of the new earthquake resistance
laws of June 1981, and the results of these experiments were published in June 1981 as the Research
Study Report on the Safety of Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems during an Earthquake. Further,
subsequently these results were analyzed and the results of the analysis were published as a second report
in July 1982 titled On the handling of Load during an Earthquake in Automated Storage and Retrieval
Systems. An important aspect of this report was that the vibration suppression effect due to the storage
method unique to racks has the result of increasing the earthquake resistance of racks. In view of the above
results, the design standards of unit type racks reflecting the vibration suppression effect were published in
January 1983 as the Unit type Automated Storage and Retrieval System Design Standards (Proposed).
During the Great Hanshin Earthquake of January 1995, while ordinary buildings and infrastructure
facilities were greatly damaged, the structural damage to unit type racks was comparatively small. This
experience of earthquake disaster unexpectedly proved the vibration suppression effect of racks. Thereafter,
in October 1996 the Unit Type Rack Structural Design Standards were published, and further, in July
2005 their contents have been revised.
In the publication by JIMS this time, the target earthquake resistance performance has been made clear in
view of the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011, and the design standards have been expressed in
an easy to understand manner without leading to any misinterpretation.
UNIT TYPE RACK STRUCTURAL DESIGN STANDARDS

FOREWORD
These standards stipulate the structural design standards of unit type racks and are based on the Unit Type
Rack Structural Design Standards published in 1995 by the Construction Sub-committee, Logistics
Equipment Committee, Transportation Machinery Section of the Japan Society of Industrial Machinery
Manufacturers (JSIM).

1. Scope
These standards apply to the unit type racks among the racks of automated storage and retrieval
systems stipulated in JIS B 8941.

2. Standards Cited
By being cited in these standards, the following standards constitute a part of these standards. The
latest versions (including supplements thereof) of these cited standards shall be applicable.

JIS B 8941 Automated storage and retrieval system Vocabulary


JIS B 8941 Automated storage and retrieval systems System Design Rules

3. Target Earthquake Resistance Performance


The target of these standards is that the structural members are not damaged by earthquakes (medium
seismic movements) that occur 2 to 3 times during the lifetime of a building as stipulated by the basic
laws on buildings (the state of permissible degree of stress).
The degree of medium seismic movements is considered to be a magnitude of about weak 5 in the
earthquake magnitude scale of the Meteorological Agency of Japan, and a guideline for the strength of
seismic movements causing this horizontal force is about 80 to 100 gal in terms of the maximum
acceleration of the seismic movement.

4. Terms and Definitions


The major terms and definitions used in these standards are the following apart from those in JIS B
8941.

4.1 Maximum Load


The force generated by the maximum mass (including the mass of the pallet) of the load handled in
the automated storage and retrieval system. Used in the calculation of the strength of load bearing
members of a rack.

4.2 Average Load


The force obtained by weight-averaging the force generated by the mass (including the mass of the
pallet) of the load handled in the automated storage and retrieval system, using the ratio of the
quantity stored. Used in the calculation of the overall strength of a rack.
J-1001:2012

4.3 Solidity Ratio


The ratio obtained by dividing the mass of the load stored during operation by the mass of the load
that can be stored (average load total number of racks).

4.4 Effective Mass Coefficient


The coefficient used for obtaining the effective mass considering the attenuation due to sliding motion,
etc. during an earthquake.

4.5 Static Seismic Intensity Method


The earthquake resistance design method in which the seismic force is replaced by a static force. Used
for the calculation of the seismic load.

4.6 New Earthquake Resistance Design Method


This is the design method for carrying out safety verification against a seismic force according to
Order No. 88 for Enforcement of the Building Standards Act. Used for the calculation of the seismic
load.

5. Operation
When carrying out design using these standards, it is desirable to submit drawings and documents
containing descriptions of the following items.
1) Method of calculation (static seismic intensity method or new earthquake resistance design
method)
2) Standard seismic intensity for design: Ks (when using the static seismic intensity method)
Standard shear force coefficient: C0 (when using the new earthquake resistance design method)
3) Solidity ratio
4) Effective mass coefficient
6. Structure of Unit Type Rack
6.1 Material
As a rule the material of the structural materials of the unit type rack should be as stipulated in the
standards given in the following table.
Standard No. Name
JIS G 3136 Rolled steel material for building structures
SN400A, SN400B, SN400C, SN490B, SN490C
JIS G 3101 Rolled steel material for general structures
SS400, SS490, SS540
JIS G 3106 Rolled steel material for welded structures
SM400A, B, C, SM490A, B, C, SM490YA, YB, SM520B, C, SM570
JIS G 3114 Weather resistant hot rolled steel material for welded structures
SMA400A, B, C, SMA490A, B, C
JIS G 3475 Carbon steel pipes for building structures
STKN400W, B, STKN490B
JIS G 3444 Carbon steel pipes for general structures
STK400, STK490
JIS G 3466 Carbon steel square pipes for general structures
STKR400, STKR490
JIS G 3138 Rolled steel rods for building structures
SNR400A, B, SNR490B
JIS G 3350 Lightweight steel for general structures
SSC400
JIS G 3353 Lightweight welding H type steel for general structures
SWH400
JIS G 3131 Hot rolled soft steel plates and steel bands
SPHC
JIS G 3302 Molten zinc plated steel pates and steel bands
SGHC
JIS B 1186 Set of high force hexagonal bolts, hexagonal nuts, and flat washers for friction joints.
JIS B 1178 Foundation bolts
JIS Z 3211 Coated arc welding rods for soft steel
JIS Z 3212 Coated arc welding rods for high tensile strength steel
JIS Z 3351 Submerged arc welding solid wire for carbon steel and low alloy steels
JIS Z 3352 Submerged arc welding flux for carbon steel and low alloy steels
JIS G 5101 Carbon steel cast products
SC480
JIS G 5102 Cast steel products for welded structures
SCW410, SCW480
JIS G 5201 Centrifugal force cast steel pipes for welding structures
SCW410-CF, SCW480-CF, SCW490-CF
JIS G 3201 Carbon steel forged items
SF490A

However, these restrictions do not apply when the material strength has been confirmed by the
manufacturer or the purchaser.
J-1001:2012

6.2 Permissible Degree of Stress


6.2.1 Steel material for structures
The permissible degree of stress with respect to the permanent force of steel materials for
structures is stipulated based on the F value of the following table.

For building structures For general structures For welding structures


SS400 SM490
Type of steel material SN400 SN490 STK400 SM490Y
SM400
SNR400 SNR490 STKR400 SS490 SS540 SMA490 SM520 SM570
SMA400
STKN400 STRN490 SSC400 STKR490
SWH400 STK490
Thickness
40 mm or 235 325 235 275 375 235 325 355 400
less
F Thickness
335
(N/mm2) more than
325 in the
40 mm but case of
215 295 215 255 - 215 295 400
less than or items
equal to exceeding
75 mm
100 mm
* The above values should be multiplied by 1.5 in the case of short term force.

However, in the case of materials for which no F value has been indicated, the yield point shall
be taken as the F value.

6.2.2 Permissible degree of tensile stress

(6.1)

t: Permissible degree of tensile stress

6.2.3 Permissible degree of shear stress

(6.2)

s : Permissible degree of shear stress

6.2.4 Permissible degree of compression stress


a) For the entire cross-section:
When

(6.3)

When >

(6.4)
(6.5)

c : Permissible degree of compression stress


: Slenderness ratio of compressed material
E: Youngs modulus

: Critical slenderness ratio

(6.6)

lk: Buckling length


i: Secondary radius of cross-section regarding the buckling axis
b) The permissible degree of compression stress of the tip portion of the web fillet of the rolled type
steel and welded H type cross-section shall be the value obtained by Equation (6.7) irrespective of
the stipulation in a).

(6.7)

c: Permissible degree of compression stress

6.2.5 Permissible degree of bending stress


a) The compressing side degree of bending stress of a material being bent around a strong axis
(excepting a rectangular hollow cross-section) is according to Equations (6.8) to (6.10).
When b p b,

(6.8)

When pb < b e b,

(6.9)

When eb < b,

(6.10)

Here,

(6.11)
J-1001:2012

(6.12)

i) When the bending moment varies linearly in the stiffening section,

(6.13)

(6.14)

ii) When the bending moment becomes a maximum in the stiffening section,

(6.15)

(6.16)

(6.17)

b: Permissible degree of bending stress


b: Slenderness ratio of bent material
lb: Distance between fulcrums of the compressed flange

eb: Slenderness ratio at the tensile limit


pb: Slenderness ratio at the plastic limit
C: Correction coefficient of the permissible degree of bending stress
Me: Lateral elastic buckling moment
Z: Cross-section coefficient
IY: Cross-section secondary moment around the weak axis
Iw: Bending torsion constant
G: Elastic shear coefficient
J: St. Venants torsion constant
My: Yield moment (My = F Z)
M1, M2: The large and small bending moments around the strong axis at the ends of the
respective buckling sections is positive when (M2/M1) is double curvature and negative
when single curvature.
b) The permissible degree of compression and tension side bending stress of round steel pipes,
materials with rectangular hollow cross-sections, materials having symmetric axes in the loading
surface and receiving bending around the weak axis, and gusset plates receiving bending within the
surface are taken as t.
c) The permissible degree of bending stress of plates receiving bending outside the surface, such as
bearing plates, is taken to be the value given by Equation (6.18).
(6.18)

b1: Permissible degree of bending stress


d) The permissible degree of bending stress of pins receiving bending is taken to be the value given
by Equation (6.19).

(6.19)

b2: Permissible degree of bending stress

6.2.6 Permissible degree of bearing stress


a) The permissible degree of bearing stress of pins and contacting parts of load point stiffeners, and
other general finishing surfaces is according to Equation (6.20).

(6.20)

However, when the materials of the contacting members are different, F takes the smaller of the
values, and the degree of bearing stress p is calculated using Equation (6.21).

(6.21)

p1: Permissible degree of bearing stress


P: Compressive force
Ap: Generally, the cross-sectional area of the contacting part. However, in the case of pin
contact, Ap = td, where t: thickness of the plate portion of the pin, and d: pin diameter.
p: Degree of bearing stress
b) The permissible bearing stress of sliding shoe or roller shoe is calculated using Equation (6.22).

(6.22)

However, when the materials of the contacting members are different, F takes on the smaller of the
values, and the degree of bearing stress p is calculated using Equation (6.23).

(6.23)

p1: Permissible degree of bearing stress


P: Compressive force
E: Youngs modulus
b: Width of the bearing section
r: Bending radius of the supporting section
p: Degree of bearing stress
J-1001:2012

7. Load
The loads used in the strength calculation of unit type racks are the following.
1) Fixed load
2) Movable load
3) Seismic load

7.1 Fixed Load


The force generated in the vertical direction due to the own weight of the rack structural material.

7.2 Movable Load


1) The movable load used in the strength calculation of unit type racks is the average load of the
movable load.
2) The solidity ratio is according to the actual situation, but can also be as follows.
State of the load Solidity ratio
Long term Normal conditions 100%
Short term During an earthquake *80%
* From the rack warehouse handling standards of the Japan Conference of Building Administration.

7.2.1 Handling of the movable load for calculating the seismic force
The movable load multiplied by the effective mass coefficient is taken as the movable load for
calculating the seismic load.
The effective mass coefficient shall be 0.6 or more. However, when sliding movement cannot be
expected such as when pallets are positioned using guides. or when receiving rolls directly by
the load receiving member, no reduction of the movable load is made but it is necessary to judge
matching with the actual conditions.

7.3 Seismic Load


This is the load in the horizontal direction in the rack due to an earthquake.
8. Structural Planning
The placement of members should be planned so that the external force acting on the rack is rationally
transmitted to the foundation or to the floor.

8.1 Design Standards


The strength calculation of unit type racks shall be done based on these standards.
However, this restriction shall not apply when the safety has been confirmed according to the design
calculation standards stipulated by the Architectural Institute of Japan.

8.2 Calculation Methods


The forces acting continuously on the different parts of the rack due to vertical load and seismic force
shall be grasped, and it shall be confirmed that the allowable load bearing capacities of the different
parts or the equivalent load bearing capacities at which the safety has been confirmed are not
exceeded.
In addition, elastic design shall be the basis, and no investigations shall be made of the horizontal load
bearing capacities. (Permissible degree of stress design)
The method of calculating the seismic load shall be according to the flow of calculations shown in the
figure and shall follow either the static seismic intensity method or the new earthquake resistance
design method. The calculations shall be made according to the new earthquake resistance design
method when the height of the rack exceeds 20 m.
However, this restriction does not apply when safety has been confirmed by the dynamic analysis, etc.

<Flow of Calculations:>

Start

No
* Height 20 m?

Yes
Stress calculation by
Stress calculation the new earthquake
by the static seismic resistance design
intensity method or the method
new earthquake
resistance design
method

Checking the
permissible stress

END

* The height shall be the height from the top projecting part.
J-1001:2012

8.2.1 When using the static seismic intensity method


F=K W
Apply "Zone Factor" as "K"
F: Seismic force
W: Weight
K: Horizontal intensity for design.
K = Z Ks
Z: Earthquake region coefficient (take as 1.0)
Ks: Standard seismic intensity for design (take as 0.2)
8.2.2 When using the new earthquake resistance design method
Qi = Wi Ci
Ci = Z Rt Ai C0
Qi: Seismic layer shear force occurring at layer i.
Ci: Seismic layer shear force coefficient at layer i
Wi: Sum of the fixed load and the movable load above the layer i.
Z: Earthquake region coefficient (take as 1.0)
Rt: Vibration characteristics coefficient
Ai: Coefficient expressing the distribution of the seismic layer shear force in the
height direction.
C0: Standard shear force coefficient (take as 0.2)
Apply "Zone Factor" as "C0"

8.3 Combinations of Stresses


The combinations of loads used for calculating the strength of a unit type rack are as follows.
State of load Combination
Long term Normal conditions G+Q
Short term During an earthquake G+Q+E
G: Fixed load
Q: Movable load
E: Seismic load
9. Design of Members
9.1 Column Members
The calculation of the cross-section of a column is done based on the force in the axial direction of
the column and the bending moment.
The member should be selected considering the effect of buckling occurring according to the material
restricting conditions, shape of the cross-section, and member length.
The slenderness ratio of the column supporting bearing the seismic force shall be 200 or less.

9.2 Beam Members


The calculation of the cross-section of a beam member shall be done based on the axial force, bending
moment, and the shear force.
The member should be selected considering the effect of lateral buckling occurring according to the
shape of the cross-section and the member length.

10. Joining Elements


10.1 High Strength Bolts and Bolted Connections
Basically bearing joints shall be used. The size shall be selected so that the stress generated in the
joint part is less than the permissible shear strength of the bolt.
Also carry out confirmation of safety such as the bearing capacity of plate members or rupture of
gusset plates.

10.2 Riveted Joints


Determine the permissible strength from the rupture strength of rivets considering safety, and select
the size so that the stress generated in the joint part is less than the permissible strength.
Also carry out confirmation of safety based on the bearing strength of plate members.

10.3 Welded Joints


The weldability should be considered according to the plate thickness used.
Carry out the design so that welding deformation and residual stress become small.
The permissible strength of welds shall be a value obtained by multiplying the effective
cross-section of the weld by the permissible degree of stress.

10.4 Column Base


The column base of columns bearing the seismic force shall be fixed to the foundation or the floor
by anchor bolts, etc.
For details of the design of mechanical anchor bolts, and chemical anchor bolts, see Design
Recommendations for Composite Constructions.