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Journal of Evolution and Health

Volume 2
Issue 1 Special Issue of the Ancestral Health Article 10
Symposium 2016


Diet, kidney stones and kidney failure
lynda frassetto

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Part of the Disorders of Environmental Origin Commons, and the Nutritional and Metabolic
Diseases Commons

Recommended Citation
frassetto, lynda (2017) "Diet, kidney stones and kidney failure," Journal of Evolution and Health: Vol. 2: Iss. 1, Article 10.

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calcium oxalate. protein. . kidney stones and kidney failure Keywords vascular disease. paleo Cover Page Footnote This extended abstract is available in Journal of Evolution and Health: http://jevohealth.Diet.

or a combination of the two. high blood pressure and atherosclerosis [1. 6. blood sugar control and to help subjects lose weight to a greater degree than American Diabetes Association or Mediterranean diets [5. Subjects who are overweight or obese are particularly prone to all of these medical illnesses. 2017 1 . such a factor would help improve calcium balance. kidney stones and kidney failure Most common renal diseases are due to vascular disease. as in fructose corn syrup). Obesity and having a high waist-to-hip ratio is also associated with an increased risk for kidney stones [13]. 2]. Common renal stones are also related to dietary factors In western countries. In controlled studies. In a low calcium environment. frassetto: Diet. much of which is related to dietary factors Both kidney stones and the most common kinds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are in part affected by what we eat. 10]. Paleolithic diets have also been shown to improve vascular tone and elasticity. and is thought to be due to increased uric acid production from the AMP released during the first step of fructose metabolism to fructose-1-phosphate [12]. The vascular disease that affects the kidneys also affects the other organs in the body. CKD is essentially a vascular disease. and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome [9. The presence of kidney stones increases with increasing free fructose intake (e. and subjects with CKD are at increased risk of death [4].. such as calcium oxalate. Paleolithic type diets have been shown to improve blood pressure control. this vascular disease appears to be increasing over time in all ethnic groups [3]. kidney stones tend to be made out of calcium. uric acid. which is important for vascular health [8].g. 7]. Many dietary factors are important in kidney stone formation. the presence of kidney stones is now found at higher latitudes than previously. such as the heart and brain. including hydration status. and therefore worsened by diabetes. Subjects at risk for calcium stones appear to have an increased propensity to absorb calcium from the gut compared to subjects without kidney stones [14]. urine pH. calcium and table salt. and the combination of kidney stones and CKD has been increasingly described in hot climates in agricultural workers with inadequate intake of water during the daytime hours [11]. Presumably due to an increasingly warm climate. intake of protein. fructose. kidney stones and kidney failure Diet. but would be a hindrance in a high calcium Published by Journal of Evolution and Health.

Iss. 1. tend to lower calcium intake. who also tend to have high blood sugar and high lipid levels [17].1056 . We are therefore now increasingly recognizing a greater proportion of people with CKD related to having kidney stones [16]. Journal of Evolution and Health. but predispose to damage to the blood vessels and direct damage to the kidneys. Low salt intakes also generally improve blood pressures. and lower diet acid production. 2 [2017]. Paleolithic type diets might be particularly helpful in those people most predisposed to developing calcium or uric kidney stones. they would help decrease the probability of developing kidney stones. The combination of all of these factors (high salt. diabetic. especially in people with metabolic syndrome. and help those predisposed to developing progressive kidney disease from hypertensive. http://jevohealth.15310/2334-3591. Paleolithic type diets may help Inasmuch as Paleolithic type diets lower salt intake. acid and calcium) not only make calcium kidney stones more likely to form. 10 environment. Vol. High salt intake also increase urine calcium excretion and adds to the acid load due to the lack of fruits and vegetables in typical western diets [15]. Therefore. 2 DOI: 10. Calcium stone formers then excrete more calcium in the urine than non-stone formers [15]. atherosclerotic vascular disease. 2. NHANES 1999–2006 participants age 20 & older. World J Urol. 4. Granfeldt Y et al. Jönsson T. 63:947-55. 7.usrds.. Masharani US Renal Data System CKD 2010. Emeksiz S. Morris RC Jr. Karellas ME. 2007.niddk. Diabetologia 50:1795-807. Sherchan P. https://www. 10. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. hunter-gatherer type diet. Adj: age/race/hospitalization/comorbidity. 8. 2017 3 .org/: US Renal Data System CKD 2005. Eur J Clin Nutr. Metabolic and physiologic effects from consuming a hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic)-type diet in type 2 diabetes.nih. 6. http://www. 26(6):627-30. https://www. Eur J Clin Nutr. 11. Point prevalent Medicare patients age 66 & older. 9. Frassetto L A. Risk factors for nephrolithiasis in children. Schloetter M. 5. Medical management of common urinary calculi.usrds. 74(1):86-94. Am Fam Phys. ref: 2005 cohort. Dallar Y. Sebastian A. Inci Arikan F. Ahren B et al. Lindeberg S.expansion. Cardiovasc Diabetol 8:35-48. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic. Granfeldt 2009. http://www. Pietrow PK. Jönsson T.globalsherpa. Mietus-Synder M. Schloetter M et al. 3. 2006.html Published by Journal of Evolution and Health. kidney stones and kidney failure References 1. frassetto: Diet. A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. 69:944-8. 2015. Acar B. 2009. http://kidney.

Li X. Alfieri AB. 293(4):455-462. 73:207-12. doi:10. Taylor EN. Bergstralh EJ. Journal of Evolution and Health. Vol.1038/sj.15310/2334-3591. Clin J Am Soc Neph. Impact of calcium intake and intestinal calcium absorption on kidney stones in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. Iss. Fructose consumption and the risk of kidney stones. Schwille PO Ed. Jr.4. Stampfer MJ. Stone KL et al. Sorensen MD. Curhan GC. in Urolithiasis And Related Clinical Research. 2009. doi:10. weight gain. 4 DOI: 10. Plenum Press NY1984 16. J Am Med Assoc. 2 [2017]. 13. Hoffmann IS. Kidney stones and the risk for chronic kidney disease.455 14.293. Cubeddu LX.1002182. J Urol.jhh. http://jevohealth. 4(4): 804–11. Curhan GC. Art. 17. Lemann J. 15. 2005. 10 12.1001/jama. 2007.1056 . 1. and the risk of kidney stones. Taylor EN. Kidney Int. Rule AD. Effects of lifestyle changes and metformin on salt sensitivity and nitric oxide metabolism in obese salt-sensitive Hispanics. LieskeJ. Chap 7: Urinary calcium excretion and net acid excretion: effects of dietary protein. Joseph Melton L III. 187:1287-92. J Human Hypertens. 2012. Weaver AL. Eisner BH. Obesity. carbohydrate and calories. 21:571–8.