Your Opening, Middlegame
and Endgame Play
Volume II
Ken Smith & Roy De Vault
TEST YOUR OPENING, MIDDLEGAME
AND ENDGAME PLAY, VOLUME II
Copyright 1994 Chess Digest, Inc.
This is the first edition of Test Your Opening, Middlegame
and Endgame Play, Volume II by Ken Smith and Roy
DeVault. All rights reserved under Pan American and
International Copyright conventions.
ISBN 087568243X
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means:
electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tapes, mechanical photo
copying, recording or otherwise, without prior and current
permission from the publisher.
Authors: Ken Smith and Roy DeVault
Editors: Ken Smith and Roy DeVault
Computer Typesetting: Roy DeVault
Cover: Elaine Smith
Proofreader: David Sewell
Final Preparation and Diagrams: Roy DeVault
Publisher: Chess Digest, Inc., 1601 Tantor (P.O. Box 59029)
Dallas, Texas 75229
Send the publisher $2. 00 for the new Chess Guide that catalogs
every chess book for general sale in the United States. You are
given publishers, page counts, notation and critical reviews.
Also included is a free Chess Improvement Course for
beginners up through Master level players.
3
Editor's Note
Permission to publish these games was granted by the
late B.H. Wood, Chess, Sutton Coldfield, England from the
column How Good is Your Chess. Most of the games were
published in Chess Digest Magazine. Those and a few new ones
make up Volume I (already published in 1992) and this Volume
II.
The Introduction to this Volume II is the same one used
in Volume I. We don't believe it could be improved.
INTRODU CTION
Why One Should Study Complete Games
There is no better way to improve your chess than by studying
complete games. The opening moves  with their associated ideas  should
be observed as they take you into the strategy of the middlegame, which
then evolves into the final stage  the endgame.
Within the game itself, true chess instruction and enjoyment come
when we suffer, fight and rejoice with each move. Yes, both moves  the
White move and then the Black. When one side has the advantage, work
with him when it is his turn to press his edge. Then, after the move is made,
dig in a struggle with the side that is defending, because a fine defensive
move of a triumphant counterattack is also a fabulous chess reward.
How To Use This Book
Our format consists of game scores with you playing on the side of
the victorious player. Each move for the winning side receives a point
award. If there are reasonable alternatives, then secondary choices will be
given with their appropriate point awards. Some moves will be so routine
and obvious that a single point or even none (in the case of a forced or
obvious move) will be awarded.
Play over the game by "uncovering" the moves one at a time.
When it is White's move (on occasion you  as the winning side  will have
Black) ask the question "White's best move is __ ?". Look at the board and
answer questions in your mind. Record the fruit of your observations on
paper, as credit is given for variations, moves and ideas, some of which do
not occur in the game. In order to avoid "tipping off' moves, in some cases
credit is given for a move choice in the notes to a later move ! Make your
move on the board, and read the annotations. Then ask the question
"Black's best move is __ ?". Uncover Black's move and make this one in
the game as you absorb the notes. Continue this process until the game is
over. Always ask yourself the questions, since we are trying to establish a
thought pattern. Only after much practice can you shorten the questions,
and then finally, eliminate them entirely.
Make Your Decision, Then Stop and Question
The basic logic behind selecting a chess move is the process of
elimination: "I want to do this, but I can't go there because he takes me. I
can't go here because it leaves this square unprotected. So, I have to do this
INTRODUCTION 5
first" . Seeing ahead is difficult, because it involves your opponent's best
reply as well. "If I do this, he probably does that; then if I play this, what
does he do? Wait a minute . . .I can't see this far ahead in my mind ! Yes ! He
must play there, and then I go here  or do I?" . This procedure is often over
the head of the novice, because it is difficult to visualize relationships
without moving the pieces. A Master does all his analysis in his head  not
with his hands ! It's easy once you get into the habit.
Use Our Method
If you use the method outlined, you are exposed time and again to the
strategy. You are forced to make a decision, then correct it over and over
again. Repetition is the key, and fringe benefits are enormous. You are
learning to "feel" the openings; you are exposed to the intricacies of the
middlegame; and you become involved in accurate endgames. By induction
the subconscious is storing up valuable information, and the conscious mind
is being trained. We are literally building chess into our fingertips with our
increasing chess knowledge, learning judgment of positions, and developing
chess "intuition" .
If you study the diagrams before the games, you will be given a clue
to the course the game will take. With this help, we expect you to make an
excellent showing as you go in the right direction.
Set A Time Limit
By covering both side's next move, you will be in a position similar to
actual tournament conditions. This method will often require hard
consideration, so be sure to allow yourself sufficient time to think. We
recommend setting a time limit of at least thirty minutes to as much as two
hours to simulate the playing constraints of "real" games. In this manner
you can get a true estimate of your playing strength as gauged against top
notch international players. Pace yourself! There is little credit in making a
strong player's score by taking far longer than he would be allowed.
One the other hand, the clock may reveal that you are not giving
yourself enough time for the depth of thought required. If personal time
constraints dictate that you work through these tests an hour at a time, try to
play 20 moves per hour. At the end of each game you can compare your
total points to the corresponding level of playing on the scale.
Playing over these games in this fashion will hone your decision
making skills, leading to an increase in your practical playing strength.
Good luck !
6
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Editor's Note 3
Introduction 4
Test No. 1 VaulinVaravin, Budapest, 1990 8
Griinfeld Defense
Test No. 2 ChristiansenLagunov, Porz, 1991 12
Grunfeld Defense
Test No. 3 van WelyNunn, Wijk aan Zee, 1992 18
King's Indian Defense
Test No. 4 M. GurevicKasparov, Reggio Emilia, 1991/92 20
English Opening
Test No. 5 S. KudrinReshevsky, Lugano, 1985 25
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 6 B. PerenyiKr. Georgiev, Budapest, 1985 31
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 7 K. BischoffE. Lobron, Bad Neuenahr, 1984 35
Queen's Gambit
Test No. 8 KorchnoiPolugaevsky, London, 1984 40
Reti Opening
Test No. 9 E. LobronG. Tringov, Plovdiv, 1983 45
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 10 R. VaganyanHubner, Tilburg, 1983 50
Queen's Gambit Accepted
Test No. 11 KarpovDorfman, Moscow, 1976 54
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 12 TimmanSpassky, Linares, 1983 60
Ruy Lopez
Test No. 13 J. ArnasonR. Keene, London, 1981 64
Modern Defense
Test No. 14 E. GufeldB. Ivanovic, Sochi, 1980 68
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 15 LarsenW. Schmidt, Sweden, 1971 74
Bird's Opening
Test No. 16 G. TimoschenkoGulko, Baku, 1977 79
Ruy Lopez
Test No. 17 KarpovS. Garcia, Portoroz, 1975 83
TABLE OF CONTENTS 7
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 18 GaprindashviliAlexandria, Tbilisi, 1 975 88
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 19 GellerGrigorian, U.S.S.R., 1 976 93
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 20 LutikovCiocaltea, Bucharest, 1975 98
Ruy Lopez
Test No. 2 1 NajdorfKeres, Los Angeles, 1963 102
FrancoIndian Defense
Test No. 22 PolugaevskyEspig, Budapest, 1975 1 06
Old Indian Defense
Test No. 23 LarsenU. Andersson, Match, 1975 1 10
NimzoIndian Defense
Test No. 24 BalashovNei, U.S.S.R., 1 973 1 16
English Opening
Test No. 25 BalashovPolugaevsky, Tallin, 1973 121
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 26 KarpovU. Andersson, Madrid, 1974 1 25
Queen's Indian Defense
Test No. 27 RytovTimman, Tallin, 1973 1 30
NimzoIndian Defense
Test No. 28 VelimirovicStein, Kapfenberg, 1970 1 33
Sicilian Defense
Test No. 29 GendlekRadchenko, U.S.S.R., 1970 137
Queen's Fianchetto Defense
Test No. 30 PetrosianGligoric, Zagreb, 1970 1 40
King's Indian Defense
Test No. 31 AngantyssonPolgar, Dresden, 1969 1 44
Four Knights Game
Test No. 32 GellerRee, Beverwijk , 1969 1 48
Pirc Defense
Test No. 33 LehmannDonner, Beverwijk, 1965 1 54
Ruy Lopez
Test No. 34 FernandezKavalek , Tel Aviv, 1964 1 56
English Opening
Test No. 35 NiemelaPfleger, Tel Aviv, 1965 160
Benoni Defense
8 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol.II
Test No. 1 8 Nc3
You have the White pieces. One point. Also one point
Your consultation partner is for 8 Ne5 .
Vaulin. Your opponent, Varavin, 8 ... Ne4
will reply with the Griinfeld 9 Ne5
Defense in this "Battle of the "V's" . One point. Also one point
Start your test after the first for 9 Bf4 or 9 Nxe4 .
diagram. Cover this page with a 9 ... Nxc3
sheet of notebook paper and lower 10 bxc3
it line by line. Grade yourself by No points, it's forced.
guessing White's moves. Whenever
10 ... Nc6
you have made a Black move,
11 Nxc6
STOP ! and try to work out White's
One point White hopes the
reply. Keep track of your point
extra tempo will be of benefit in
awards and see how you grade at
the symmetrical position.
the end of the game.
1 1 ... bxc6
Budapest, 1990 12 Qa4
One point. Pressing on c6
White: Vaulin
while preventing the response
Black: Varavin 12 . . . Qa5 . Also one point for 1 2
Griinfeld Defense Ba3 .
1 c4 Nf6 2 g3 g6 3 Bg2 Bg7 4 12 ... Qb6
Nf3 00 5 00 c6 6 d4 d5 7 cxd5 13 e4
cxd5 Two points. Opening up
play in the center. Now if 13 . . . dxe4
then there could follow 14 Bxe4
Bh3 1 5 Re l Rac8 16 Ba3 followed
by 1 7 Bc5 with a large positional
advantage for White (Two bonus
points if you analyzed this).
13 ... Qa6
14 Qa3
Two points. Pressuring
Black's epawn. Now if 14 . . . Qxa3
then 15 Bxa3 is very strong. Also,
if 14 . . . e6 then 1 5 Rb l (Or 15 Qb3
Start Your Test Now!
and 16 Ba3) maintains pressure
Reaching a symmetrical (One bonus point if you saw these
Griinfeld type of formation. Now possibilities).
cover up both side's moves and try 14 ... dxe4
to guess White's next. 15 Bxe4
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 9
One point. No points for 1 5 tremendous pressure down the c
Qxe7 allowing 1 5 . . . Bf5 ( 1 6 Bxe4? file against the weak cpawn.
Rae8). 18 ... Re8
1 5 ... e5 19 Rael
Two points. Defending c3.
Two bonus points if you saw that
1 9 Bxg6 (Intending 19 . . . hxg6 20
Rxe5 and if 20. . . Rxe5 21 Qf8ch
mates) is countered effectively by
1 9 . . . Bh3 ! (Guarding the back rank)
20 Be4 Bxc3 . One point for 1 9 Re3
though after 1 9 . . . Be6 Black is
equal.
19 ... Be6
1 6 dxe5
One point. Two bonus
points if you analyzed 16 . . . Bxe5 1 7
Qc5 ! Bg7 (Or 1 7. . . Bh3 18 Rel
Rfe8 19 Bh6 Rac8 20 Bxg6 hxg6
21 Rxe5) 1 8 Qxc6 Qxc6 1 9 Bxc6
Rb8 20 Ba3 Bxc3 2 1 Bxf8 Bxa l 22
Bc5 Bg7 23 Bxa7. A long
variation, but the theme is to force
play based on Black's exposed
pawns and White's latent initial 20 Bxg6 !
tempo. Two points. One bonus
16 . .. Qc4 point if you analyzed 20 Qb4
1 7 Rel Qxb4 ! 2 1 cxb4 Bd5 ! and Black
One point. Bringing the neatly neutralizes the pressure on
Rook into play while protecting the the c pawn. One more bonus point
Bishop. if you spotted the tactical quirk 22
1 7 ... Bxe5 Rxc6 (Envisioning 22. . . Bxc6 23
18 Bh6 Bxc6 forking both Rooks)
One point. Bringing the 22 . . . Bg7 ! and the pin on the efile
other Bishop out with tempo. Two leaves White in a lost position.
points if you saw 1 8 . . . Bg7 1 9 Bxg7 20 ... hxg6
Kxg7 20 Qb4 and if 20. . . Qxb4 21 Rxe5
then 2 1 cxb4 gives White
10 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
No points; it's the only One point. Necessary in
possibility. view of the threatened mates at g2
21 ... Bd5 or hl.
22 Qd6 26 ... Bxf3
Two points. Threatening 23 27 Rxe8
Qf6 with mate at g7 next. One point.
22 ... Kh7 27 ... Rxe8
23 Be3 28 Bxa7
Two points. Two more One point. One bonus point
points if you saw that the more if you saw 28 . . . Ra8 29 Re3 ! Be2 3 0
aggressive looking 23 Bg5 is met Ra3 Bxc4 3 1 f3 with a favorable
by 23 . . . Qd3 (Threatening 24... ending (True, with opposite
Q/3). colored Bishops it would be hard to
23 ... Qe2 win).
24 c4 28 ... Rel
Two points. Now if 24 . . . 29 Rat
Bxc4 then 2 5 Rxe8 Rxe8 26 Qxc6 One point. The outside
Bb5 (Forced) 27 Qf6 Rxe3 passed a pawn must be preserved.
(Otherwise 28 Bd4 wins) 28 29 ... Re4
Qxf7ch (Not 28 fxe3 Qxe3ch and
White has blown the win) 28 . . . Kh8
(28. . . Kh6 29 Qf4ch and 30 Qxe3)
29 Qf8ch Kh7 30 Rc7ch wins. Two
bonus points if you saw all this.
Three more points if you saw that
Black's best was 24 . . . Rad8 ! 25 Qf6
Rxe5 ! (On 25 . . . Bxc4 26 Bd4! with
mating threats at g7  26... Rxd4
2 7 Rxe8 and if 26. . . Rxe5 27
Qh4ch and 28 Qxd8 wins) 27
Qh4ch (Not 2 7 Qxd8 because of
2 7. . . Rxe3! 28 cxd5 Rd3! and Black
30 a4
holds) 27 . . . Qh5 28 Qxd8 Be4 and
Two points. No points for
the game is equal.
the passive 30 c5 allowing
24 ... Be4 30 . . . Ra4 ! blocking the advance of
25 Qf6 the a pawn. Also no points for 30
One point. j3 must be Re l Be2 !
guarded. Rxc4
30 ...
25 ... Qf3 31 a5
26 Qxf3
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 11
One point. Two points for 40 Be3
the more accurate 3 1 Be3 , clearing No points; it's forced.
the way for the passed pawn. 40 ... f5
31 ... c5 4 1 g4
32 a6 One point. Now 42 Rxc2 is
One point. There is no on since 42 . . . Rh l ch 43 Kg3 is
reason to delay marching the harmless to White. White's plan
passer. is to create a Kingside passer to
32 ... Rc2 intensify the pressure.
33 Bb6 41 ... Rxcl
One point. Clearing the path 42 Bxcl
for the apawn. No points.
33 ... c4 42 ... fxg4
34 a7 43 hxg4
One point. No points.
34 ... Ba8 43 ... Kg7
35 Be3 44 Kg3
One point. Pulling back to One point. Bringing the
defend c 1 , the Queening square for King into active play.
the c pawn. 44 ... Kf6
35 ... c3 45 Kf4
36 h3 One point.
One point. Giving the King 45 ... Bd5
some air. 46 Bb2ch
36 ... Rb2 One point. Driving the
37 Rel Black King to a less favorable
One point. Harassing the c position.
pawn. 46 ... Ke6
37 ... Rb3 47 Kg5
38 Bd4 One point.
One point. Placing the 47 ... Be4
Bishop on a more aggressive 48 f4
square. Two points. Take two bonus
38 ... c2 points if you saw 48 a8=Q is poor
39 Kh2 because of 48 . . . Bxa8 49 Kxg6 Bf3 !
One point. Deduct five e.g., 50 g5 Bg4 5 1 Kh7 Bf5ch 52
points if you greedily played 39 g6 Kd5 ! 53 Kh6 Bxg6 ! 54 Kxg6
Rxc2?? allowing 39 ... Rb l ch 40 Ke4 (Going after White's last pawn
Kh2, Rh l mate. to force a draw) 55 Be l Kf3 56
39 .. Rbl
12 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Be3 c l =Q 57 Bxc l Kxf2  Draw. One point. Edging forward.
48 ... Kfi 54 ... Ke7
49 Bel 55 Ba3ch
One point. No points for 49 One point.
Kh6 Bd5 50 f5 gxf5 51 g5 f4 52 55 ... Kfi
Kh7 Be4ch drawing easily. Two 56 Ke5
bonus points if you analyzed 49 One point. Another factor
Kh6 Bd5 50 g5 ! ? Be4 5 1 Kh7 Ke6 ! appears: now White's King
(Not 51 . . . Bd5 52 j5! gxf5 53 g6ch threatens to move across to the
Kj8 54 g 7ch Ke8 55 g8=Qch Bxg8 Queenside to b8 followed by
and the apawn Queens) 52 a8=Q Queening the a pawn.
Bxa8 53 Kxg6 Be4ch 54 Kg7 (55 56 ... Ke8
Kh6 KP forms an unbreakable 57 Kf6
blockade at f5 and g6) 54 . . .Kf5 55
One point. Also a point for
Be l Bc6 ! 56 Kh7 (56 Kp Bj3 and
57 Kd6 which also wins ! Now
if 5 7 g6 then 5 7. . . Bh5! draws)
Black resigned since simply
56 . . . Be8 and White's pawns are
pushing the g pawn wins: 57 . . . Bd5
completely blocked.
58 g6 Kd8 59 g7 Ke8 60 g8=Qch
49 . .
. Kg7 Bxg8 6 1 a8=Qch.
50 Ba3
One point. A waiting move Now Total Up Your Points:
in order to soon make new inroads 7078 Grandmaster
into Black's position. 6 1 69 International Master
50 ... Kfi 5060 National Master
5 1 Bb2 4049 Expert
One point. Again narrowing 3039 Class A
Black's options. 2 1 29 Class B
5 1 ... Bd5 1420 Class C
52 f5 0 14 Need more study
One point. White creates the
second passer. Test No. 2
52 ... gxf5 You have the Black pieces.
53 Kxf5 Your partner is Lagunov, and your
One point. Now progress is rapid GM opponent is Larry Christ
since the widely separated passed iansen in this theoretically
pawns defeat Black's "overloaded" interesting game.
Bishop. Start your test after the first
53 . .. Bf3 diagram. Cover this page with a
sheet of notebook paper and lower
54 g5
it line by line. Grade yourself by
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 13
guessing Black's moves. Whenever One point for this or 7 . 00
. .
you have made a White move, or 7 . . . b6.
STOP ! and try to work out Black's 8 Ne2
reply. Keep track of your point 8 ... Nc6
awards and see how you grade at One point. Black's theme is
the end of the game. to pressure d4. Also score one
point for 8 . . . Qd7 or 8 . . . b6.
Porz, 1 991 9 Be3
White: L. Christiansen 9 ... 00
Black: Lagunov One point.
Griinfeld Defense 10 00
1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 g6 3 Nc3 d5 4 10 ... Bg4
cxd5 Nxd5 5 e4 Two points. A finesseful
Reaching the Exchange move, inviting White to win a
Variation of the Griinfeld, a pawn in return for substantial
guarantee of fighting play ahead. counterplay. Also two points for
Cover both side's moves and try to the older 10 . . . Qc7 (In order to play
pick Black's next. . . . Rd8 with more pressure in the
center).
1 1 f3
1 1 ... Na5
Two points. Now White can
play 1 2 Bxf7ch Rxf7 1 3 fxg4 but
Black has reasonable counter
chances according to Kasparov's
analysis. One bonus point if you
knew this or figured it out
intuitively.
1 2 Bd3
12 ... cxd4
Start Your Test Now!
One point for this, as well
5 ... Nxc3 as for 12 . . . Be6.
One point. Also a point for 13 cxd4
5 . . . Nb6 . 13 ... Be6
6 bxc3 Two points. Hoping to get in
6 ... Bg7 . . . Bc4 . Now on 14 Re l there could
One point. follow 14 . . . Bxa2 15 Qa4 Be6 1 6
7 Bc4 d 5 Bd7 1 7 Qb4 e6 with roughly
7 ... c5 even chances. Take two bonus
14 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
points if you examined this option. One point.
1 4 d5
19 Rbl
14 ... Bxal 19 ... Qd6
White's 14 d5 initiates a Two points. No points for
dangerous Exchange Sacrifice, 19 . . . Qc5 since then 20 Bb5 ! Bxb5
which has been analyzed for 21 Rxb5 Qc7 22 Ne6 wins.
decades. Black must accept or 20 Qc3
suffer passively (One point) . 20 ... Qe5 !
1 5 Qxal Two points. Now 2 1 Qxa5 is
15 ... f6 answered by 2 1 . . . Qxd4ch and
One point. Practically forced 22 . . . Qxd3 . Three bonus points if
in view of White's coming Bh6. you analyzed 2 1 Bb5 Rc8 22 Qb4
16 Bh6 Bxb5 ! (Not 22. .. Rc4 23 Bxc4
16 ... Bd7 Qxd4ch 24 Khl Nxc4 because of
Two points for returning the 25 Qxe 7 and White should win) 23
Exchange to dampen White's Nxb5 Rc2 ! 24 Qxa5 Qg5 ! with a
attacking chances. Also possible is winning attack for Black (25 g3
16 . . . Re8 (one point) or 16 . . . Qb6ch Qe3ch mates soon).
(one point). 21 Re l
1 7 Bxf8 21 ... Rc8
17 ... Qb6ch One point. Winning
Two points. Now if 18 Kh l material and eventually the game.
then 1 8 . . . Rxf8 is equal. Also, on 1 8 22 Qxc8ch
Qd4, Qxd4ch 1 9 Nxd4, Kxf8 20 22 ... Bxc8
Re l Rc8 the play is even. (One No points; it's forced.
bonus point if you saw this). 23 Rxc8ch
18 Nd4 23 ... Kg7
18 ... Rxf8 One point.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 15
2 4 Ne6ch and White has counter chances.
28 Bfl
.:a 28 ... Qe3ch
t
7.
... 
t7.
One point. Picking up the e
f)t
pawn.
t


29 Kg2
29 ... Qxe4ch
t One point.
At 30 Kf2
ft m
B m
ft
30 ... Qxd5
....
One point.
7. z
!b
31 Rh8
31 ... Kg4
24 ... Kh6 One point. One bonus point
No points. Deduct six points for noticing 3 1 . . . fxg5? 32 Rxh7ch
if you chose 24 . . . Kf7?? (25 Rj8 Kg4 33 Bh3 mate.
mate). 32 Rxh7
25 f4 32 ... Qd2ch
25 ... Qb2!
Two points. Black must play
accurately since White can obtain a
winning attack after 25 . . . Qa l ch?
26 Kf2 Qxa2ch 27 Be2 Nb3 28
g4 ! (Threatening to mate with 29
g5) 28 . . . g5 29 h4 ! Qb2 (29. . . gx/4
or 29. . . gxh4 30 Rg8/) 30 Rg8 ! and
a White pawn will reach g5 with
mate. Three bonus points if you
saw this.
26 g4
26 ... Qd2 Two points. Finessing
Two points. Again Black White's Bishop into a pin or
must play vigorously. making the White King retreat to
27 g5ch the back rank. Deduct six points
27 ... Kh5 for 32 . . . Qxe6? 33 Bh3ch.
Two points. One bonus 33 Be2ch
point if you foresaw that 27 .. .fxg5 33 ... Kf5
is poor: 28 fxg5ch Kh5 29 Be2ch! No points.
Kh4 (29. . . Qxe2 30 Nf4ch ) 30 Kf2
34 Rxe7
34 ... Nc6
16 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. I I
One point for returning the
Knight into play.
35 Ng7ch
35 ... Kxf4
No points  the only move.
36 gxf6
36 ... Nxe7?
One point. A natural move
but not best. Give yourself two
points for 36 . . . Qd4ch and
3 7 . . . Qxf6 winning easily.
37 Ne6ch! One point. Black threatens
37 ... Ke5 44 . . . Qc5ch.
Two points. A bonus point if 44 Qd4ch
you calculated 38 fxe7 Qd7 39 Nf8
44 ... Ke6
Qe8 (Not 39. . . Qxe 7 40 Nxg6ch)
One point.
and wins.
45 Kfl
38 f7
45 ... Qf5ch
38 . Kxe6 One point. Preparing to
One point. White Queens,
centralize the Queen.
but is left with a lost ending.
46 Kel
39 f8=Q
46 ... Qe5
39 ... Qxa2 One point. Centralizing
One point.
while pinning the Bishop.
40 Qa8 47 Qa4
40 ... b6 47 ... a5
One point.
One point. Also a single
41 Qe4ch point for 4 7 . . . Qa5ch forcing the
41 ... Kd6 Queens off.
One point. 48 Kd2
42 Qb4ch 48 ... Kf6
42 ... Kd7 One point. Moving out of
One point. range of the enemy Bishop.
43 h4 49 Bd3
43 ... Qc2 49 ..
. Nf5
(See next diagram) A point for bringing the
Knight into active play.
50 Qc6ch
50 ... Qd6
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 17
One point. One point. Hiding from
51 Qc3ch checks.
51 ... Qd4 61 Bxg6
One point. Now on 52 61 ... Qb4ch
Qc6ch Black plays 52 . . . Kg7. One point, but not 6 1 . . . Kxg6
52 Qc8 62 Qxb6ch.
52 ... Qe3ch 62 Ka2
One point. Now if 53 Kc2 62 ... Kxg6
then 53 . . . Nd4ch wins as 54 Kc3 One point. Now it can be
fails to 54 . . . Qc l ch. played.
53 Kc3 63 Qe4ch
53 .. Qel ch 63 ... Kf6
One point for this or One point.
53 . . . Qc5ch. 64 Qf4ch
54 Kb2 64 ... Nf5
54 ... Qb4ch One point.
One point for this or any 65 Qg5ch
other waiting move. 65 ... Ke5
55 Ka2 One point. Now White can't
55 ... Qa4ch check.
One point. Still tacking. 66 h5
56 Kb2 66 ... a4
56 .. . Qb4ch One point.
One point. 67 h6
57 Ka2 67 ... Qb3ch
57 ... Qd2ch One point.
One point. 68 Kal
58 Bc2 68 ... a3
58 ... Kg7 One point. Now if 69 Qd2
One point. No credit for Qb2ch 70 Qxb2 axb2ch 7 1 Kxb2
58 . . . Nd4 59 Qf8ch which allows Nxh6 wins. So White resigned .
the White Queen to harass your
King in the open. Now Total Up Your Points:
59 Ka3 7086 Grandmaster
59 ... Nd4 5769 International Master
One point. 4256 National Master
60 Qb7ch 324 1 Expert
Kh6 253 1 Class A
60 . .
1 924 Class B
14 1 8 Class C
18 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. I I
013 Need more study
7 00
One point. Also one point
Test No. 3
for 7 d5 or 7 Be3 or even 7 dxe5.
You are White, in
7 ... Nc6
partnership with the Dutch player
von Wely. Your formidable 8 d5
opponent is GM John Nunn. One point. Also give
Start your test after the first yourself a point for 8 Be3 .
diagram. Cover this page with a 8 ... Ne7
sheet of notebook paper and lower 9 b4
it line by line. Grade yourself by One point. One point for 9
guessing White's moves. Whenever Nd2, 9 Bd2 or 9 Ne l . The text
you have made a Black move, aims to overrun the Queenside
STOP ! and try to work out White's before Black can get a Kingside
reply. Keep track of your point initiative underway.
awards and see how you grade at 9 ... Nh5
the end of the game. 10 g3
Two points. Keeping the
Wijk aan Zee, 1992 Knight out of f4 . One point for 1 0
White: Loek van Wely Nd2 o r 10 c5 ! ?
Black: John Nunn 10 ... f5
King's Indian Defense 1 1 Ng5
1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 g6 3 Nc3 Bg7 4 Two points. Driving back
e4 d6 5 Nf3 00 6 Be2 e5 the Nh5 and intending to invade e6
A standard position in the in certain contingencies.
King's Indian Defense. Now cover 1 1 ... Nf6
both side's moves and try to guess 1 2 f3
White's next move. One point. Reinforcing the
vital e4 square. Deduct one point
for 12 c5 ( 1 2 . . . fxe4 1 3 Ngxe4 Nxe4
14 Nxe4 Nf5 15 Bg5 Qe8).
1 2 ... f4
13 Kg2
Two points. A con
solidating move to control h3. Also
feasible is 13 c5 (two points).
13 ... Kh8
14 c5
Two points. Play now
intensifies; White opens up play on
Start Your Test Now!
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 19
the Queenside and in the center. Qb8 23 Bxf8 Bxf8 24 g4 !
14 ... h6 (Stopping g4) and White's Rooks
15 cxd6 will seize the cfile with decisive
Two points. Now on results (Give yourself three bonus
1 5 . . . cxd6 16 Ne6 Bxe6 17 dxe6 d5 points if you saw all of this).
1 8 exd5 Nexd5 1 9 Nxd5 Nxd5 1 7 ..
. Nfxd5
(1 9. . . Qxd5 20 Qxd5 the ending is 18 exd5
much better for White) 20 Qb3 One point.
White is clearly better. One bonus 18 ... hxg5
point if you saw this. 19 a5
15 .. . Qxd6 One point. Drives the Queen
from its defense of cl.
19 ... Qf6
20 Nxc7
One point. Give yourself a
bonus point if you saw that 20 . . . e4
is strongly answered by 2 1 Ra3 .
20 ... Rb8
21 g4 !
Three points. Shutting down
Black's Kingside activity
21 ... Bd7
22 b5
1 6 Nb5 Two points. Controlling c6
Two points. Harrying the (So d6 can't be answered with
Queen figures in White's plans. . . . Nc 6) .
16 ... Qb6 22 ... Rfc8
17 a4 ! 23 d6
Four points. The main threat One point. Driving Black's
is 1 8 a5. If now 17 . . . Ne8 (to clear Knight back ( Note that 21 g4!
f6 for the Queen) then 18 Ne6 ! prevented . . . Nj5).
(One bonus point) 1 8 . . . Bxe6 1 9 a5 23 ... Ng8
Bh3ch 20 Kxh3 and White is on
24 Ra2
top. If 1 7 . . . c6 then 18 d6 ! (One
Two points. Slipping the
bonus point). Also, if 17 . . . hxg5
Rook into the center via the second
then 1 8 a5 Qa6 19 Nxc7 Qd6 20
rank.
Nxa8 Bd7 2 1 b5 ! (Threatening 22
24 ... Nh6
Ba3 spearing the Ne l) 2 1 . . .Neg8
( 21 . .. Nfg8 22 Ba3 Qb8 23 d6 and 25 Rd2
the Na8 escapes via cl) 22 Ba3
20 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
31 Bxf3
No points; it's forced.
31 ... Nc4
32 Bxg7ch
One point.
32 ... Qxg7
33 Qcl
One point. Black threatened
33 . . . Ne3ch.
33 ... Bxg4
34 Bxg4
One point. Securing the One point. Black's
passed d pawn. desperation sacrifice is quickly
25 ... Nfi refuted.
26 Bc4 34 ... Rxfl
One point. However even 35 Kxfl
better was 26 Bb2 (Two points) One point. Deduct four
which prevents Black's next. points for 35 Qxfl ? allowing
26 ... e4 3 5 . . . Ne3ch.
27 fxe4 35 ... Rf8ch
One point. Black has 36 Kel
sacrificed the epawn to clear e5 One point. Black resigned.
for his pieces. for now on 36 . . . Qf6 there follows
27 ... Ne5 37 Qxc4 and if 37 . . . Qflch 38 Kd l
28 Be2 Qg l ch 3 9 Kd2 Rflch 40 Be2 wins.
One point. Take a bonus
point if you saw that 28 Bb2 allows Now Total Up Your Points:
Black counterplay with 28 . . . Nxc4 4449 Grandmaster
(Threat: 29. . . Ne3ch). 3843 International Master
28 ... Rf8 3237 National Master
263 1 Expert
29 Bb2
2025 Class A
One point. Completing
14 1 9 Class B
development and lining up on the
9 1 3 Class C
long diagonal.
08 Need more study
29 ... Qfi
30 Rd5 Test No. 4
Two points. Assailing the
You have the Black pieces.
Ne5.
Your partner is World Champion
30 ... Och
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 21
Garry Kasparov, and your GM
opponent is M. Gurevic.
Start your test after the first
diagram. Cover this page with a
sheet of notebook paper and lower
it line by line. Grade yourself by
guessing Black's moves. Whenever
you have made a White move,
STOP ! and try to work out Black's
reply. Keep track of your point
awards and see how you grade at
the end of the game. Start Your Test Now!
Reggio Emilia 1991/2 7 ... a5
White: M. Gurevic Two points. Restraining
Queenside expansion by b2b4.
Black: G. Kasparov
One point for 7 . . 00 or 7 . . . Nc6.
.
English Opening
8 00
1 c4 g6 2 Nc3 Bg7 3 g3 e5 4
8 ... 00
Bg2 d6 5 d3 f5 6 e3 Nf6
One point for this or 8 . . c6
.
7 Nge2 or 8 . . . Nc6.
A topical variation of the
9 b3
English has arisen: Normally,
9 ... c6
Black will seek the initiative on the
Two points. An aggressive
Kingside while White aims at the
stratagem to limit the action of the
Queenside. Naturally both players
Bg2 while controlling d5 and b5.
must keep a "weather eye" on the
One point for 9 . Nc6. . .
center. Now cover both side's
moves and try to guess Black's 10 Bb2
next. 10 ... Na6
(See next diagram) Two points. A flexible
deployment, watching b4 and c5.
One point for 10 . . . Nbd7 or
10 . Be6.
. .
1 1 Qd2
1 1 ... Bd7!
Two points. A fine
strategically motivated move; the
main idea is to play for Queenside
space via b7b5. Note this flies in
the face of White's usual Queensidc
expansion policy.
22 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
1 2 Khl One point. Targeting d3 and
12 ... Rc8 clearly more active than 16 . . . gxf5
Two points. Getting off the (No points).
h l a8 diagonal in order to prepare 17 Ne4
b 7b5. 1 7 ... b4
13 Rael Two points. A nice
13 ... b5 positional move limiting the scope
One point. Take a bonus of the Ne2. Add a bonus point if
point if you analyzed 14 cxb5 cxb5 you saw that 17 . . . Ncxe4? 18 dxe4
1 5 Bb7 Rc7 ! 16 Bxa6 Qa8ch and Nxe4 (18 . . . Bxe4 19 Bxe4 Nxe4 20
1 7. . . Qxa6 with advantage to Qd5ch) 19 Qd5ch picks up a piece.
Black. 1 8 Rcl
14 e4 18 ... Nfxe4
14 ... Nc5 One point. But better is
18 . . . Qe7 (Two points) with an edge
for Black due to his more active
pieces.
19 dxe4
19 ... Bd7!
Three points. No points for
the obvious 1 9 . . . Be6 allowing 20
Rcd l Rc6 21 f4 ! Qb6 22 f5 ! with
initiative for White. Three bonus
points if you calculated 19 . . . Bd7 !
20 Qxd6? Bb5 ! 2 1 Bxe5 Bxe5 !
(Not 21. . . Bxe2 22 Rxc5! with
One point. Bringing the murky complications) 22 Qxe5
Knight into more active play and Re8 ! (Again 22. . . Bxe2 23 Rxc5 ! ,
pressuring e4. One bonus point if e.g. , 23 . . . Bxfl 24 Bxfl with Bishop
you saw 1 5 f3 fxe4 ! 16 dxe4 (16 and two pawns for the Rook
fxe4 b4 drives White's Nc3 for a 24. . . Rx/2 25 Bc4ch) 23 Qb2 Nd3
slight plus for Black) 16 . . . bxc4 17 24 Rxc8 Nxb2 25 Rxd8 Rxd8 26
bxc4 Be6 and White's weak c4 Bf3 (Not 26 Rel Bxe2 27 Rxe2
gives Black the advantage. Rdlch winning a piece) 26 . . . Rd2
15 cxb5 27 Re l Nd3 28 Ra l Nxf2ch 29
Kg2 (29 Kgl ? Nh3ch 30 Kg2 Ng5
15 ... cxb5
31 Rel Rxa2) 29 . . . Nd3 , and,
No points  it's the only
despite the extra pawn, Black is
possibility.
practically winning since all his
16 exf5 pieces are markedly better placed
1 6 ... Bxf5 than White's.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 23
20 Rcdl QxcS 28 QxcS dxcS! 29 fS Bf7 and
20 ... Bb5 a following c5c4 will unhinge
Two points. Now 2 1 Qxd6 White's Queenside. Note the
Qxd6 22 Rxd6 Bxe2 drops a piece. usefulness of the Bishop on its new
21 Qe3 a2g8 diagonal.
21 ... a4 27 Nf2
One point. Also one point 27 ... Nd7
for 2 1 . . .Qb6. One point. But two points
22 Rfel for 27 . . . Qc7 ! since 28 fS gxfS 29
exfS RxfS 30 Bxc6 Qxc6ch gives
22 ... Qb6
Black a terrific position for a small
One point. Clearing the
material investment.
back rank.
23 Ncl 28 Qd2
28 ... Nc5
23 ... a3
Admitting his mistake  two
One point. Severely
points. None for 28 . . . Rfc8 since
cramping White's Queenside.
then 29 Nd3 attacks b4 and es.
24 Bal
29 Bh3
24 ... Bd7
Two points. Relocating the
29 ... Bti
One point. Black avoids
Bishop to e6 since it has done its
trades to keep up the tension.
job on the a6fl diagonal.
25 Nd3 30 fxe5
25 ... Be6 30 ... dxe5
One point. No points for
One point.
30 . . . BxeS allowing White to
exchange the buried Bal.
31 Ng4
31 ... Be6
Two points for seeking
active play in the center (See
Black's 34th).
32 Nh6ch
32 ... Kh8
One point. Of course not
32 . . . Bxh6 (deduct two points) 33
Qxh6 and White's Bal is now a
powerful piece with Black's Bg7
26 f4
gone.
26 ... Rc6
Two points. One bonus
33 Bxe6
point if you analyzed 27 Nxc5? 33 .
.. Nxe6
24 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
One point. The Knight is Two points. Invading the
headed for d4. weakened c3 while fighting for
34 Ng4 control of d3.
37 Nh3
37 ... d3
Two points. The idea is to
control c2 so the Rc3 can reach the
2nd rank.
38 Nf4
38 ... Rc2
One point.
39 Qxd3
39 ... Rxa2
One point. Black has traded
the d pawn in order to get a
34 ... Nd4 dangerous passed a pawn. Note
One point. A timely central that the Bg7 controls its' Queening
incursion. Give yourself three square.
bonus points if you calculated 3 5 40 Rfl
Nxe5 Bxe5 36 Bxd4 Bxd4 37 Qxd4 40 ... Rf2
ch Qxd4 38 Rxd4 Rc2 39 e5 Rfl2 One point, but much better
with equal chances  the Rooks was 40 . . . Qf6 ! with the idea of
doubled on the 2nd rank are very 4 1 . . .Qb2 (Take three bonus points
strong. if you chose this line).
35 Bxd4 41 Rxf2 Qxf2
35 ... exd4 No points for the obvious re
Two points. Black rightly capture.
avoids 3 5 . . . Qxd4 36 Qxd4 since 42 Rd2
his Queen is more active. Give 42 ... Qa7
yourself three bonus points if you
Two points. The idea is to
envisioned 3 5 . . . exd4 36 e5 h5 ! 37
simply push the apawn.
Nf6 (3 7 Nj2 Rc3! followed by
43 Qe2
. . . Re3 is good for Black) 3 7 . . . Bxf6
3 8 exf6 Rcxf6 3 9 Qxd4 Qxd4 40 43 ... Bc3
Rxd4 Rf2 4 1 Rxb4 Rxa2 and Black Two points. Add two bonus
should win the Rook and pawn points if you looked at 44 Ra2 Qfl
45 Nd5 Qflch 46 Qxfl Rxfl ch 47
ending.
Kg2 Rb l 48 Nxc3 bxc3 49 Rxa3
36 Nf2
(49 Kj3 Rb2 50 Rxa3 [50 Ra l c2
36 ... Rc3 5 1 Re l a2 and 52 . . . Rb l will win]
50. . . c2 51 Ral Rb l wins).
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 25
44 Rc2 One point. The rest is easy.
44 ... Qf7 50 Rxf8ch
Two points. Now the idea is 50 ... Kg7
to infiltrate down the ffile. Take One point.
two bonus points if you analyzed 51 Rfl
45 Nd5 Qf3ch 46 Qxf3 Rxf3 4 7 51 ... Bxe5
Kg2 Rd3 with a won ending. One point. Mopping up.
52 Kf3
52 ... al=Q
No points  it's too easy.
53 Rxal
53 ... Bxal
Again no points.
54 Ke4
54 ... Kf6
One point. With only one
pawn for the piece, White decided
to throw in the towel.
45 e5 Now Total up Your Points :
45 ... Qb7ch 7989 Grandmaster
Two points. A rapid change 6678 International Master
of directions. Now if 46 Ng2 Qe4 ! ! 5565 National Master
is powerful since 4 7 Qxe4 allows 4454 Expert
4 7 . . . Rfl mate. (Two bonus points if 3 3 43 Class A
you saw this trick). 223 2 Class B
46 Qg2 1 42 1 Cfass C
46 ... Qxg2ch 0 1 3 Need more study
One point. Simplifying into an
easily won ending. Test No. 5
47 Kxg2 You have Black, alongside
47 ... B b2 Sammy Reshevsky, then a 73 year
Two points. Threatening old American Grandmaster. Your
48 . . . a2 49 Rxb2 a l =Q. opponent is the then 25year old
48 Rf2 American GM Sergei Kudrin.
48 ... a2 Start your test after the first
One point. diagram. Cover this page with a
49 Nxg6ch sheet of notebook paper and lower
49 ... hxg6 it line by line. Grade yourself by
guessing Black's moves. Whenever
26 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
you have made a White move, our statement about avoiding pawn
STOP ! and try to work out Black's moves to heart, and chose 6 . . . Bd7,
reply. Keep track of your point also take two points, as well as for
awards and see how you grade at 6 . . . e6 and 6 . . . g6.
the end of the game. 7 Be3
7 .. . e6
Lugano, 1 985 Entering the Scheveningen
White: S. Kudrin pattern of play. Two points for this,
Black: S. Reshevsky but only one for 7 . . . g6. White's set
Sicilian Defense up is a more promising one against
1 e4 c5 2 Nf3 d6 3 d4 cxd4 4 the Dragon (. . . g6 and . . . Bgl) than
most other Black systems.
Nxd4 Nf6 5 Nc3 Nc6
An oldfashioned way to 8 Qe2?!
play the Sicilian, but a good one. It Although this speeds
may be argued that at master level Queenside castling, so does 8 Qd2,
and above, the soundest variation but without blocking in the Bfl .
is probably that in which Black 8 ... Nxd4
develops naturally, keeping pawn Two points. The timing of
moves to a minimum and obliging this exchange is worth noting:
White to show his hand first. Black captures at the moment
6 f3 when White cannot bring his
This is an unusual, rather Queen to the strong central post at
insipid, move. Most often played d4 via the recapture. Also take two
are 6 Bg5, 6 Bc4 and 6 Be2 . points for 8 . . . Be7, and a single
point for 8 . . . Bd7 and 8 . . . Qc7 . No
W ,
.
.& dn
.a 8.1Lwaw
kWJ.
credit for 8 . . . g6 or other moves;
t
 U 'i/,tf.t
.._ L ..
.
after Black's 7 . . . e6 the Dragon
.
system is no longer promising .
.
wt 9 Bxd4
"  9 ... e5
. A
.e. Two points. Give yourself a
point for routine development by
Bft8 9 . . . Be7 as well.
ft, ft .
. m
.e.
B r
A?.' 10 Bf2
.il.BB: 10 ... Be6
Two points. 10 . . . Be7 is still
Start Your Test Now! worth a point. Reshevsky's choice
6 ... a6 is better because it speeds his effort
Two points. Black has many to contest the key d5 square.
playable alternatives. If you took 1 1 000
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 27
1 1 ... Rc8 looking move, does not score. After
Two points. Black's plan of 1 5 Nd5 ! , Qd8 (15. . . Qxe l ? 1 6 Nxe 7
play is becoming clear: he intends ch) 16 Bb6 Black is driven onto
to fight for the initiative on the the defensive. One point for each
Queenside and in the center. To of 14 . . . b5, 1 4 . . . Qc7 and 1 4 . . . h6 
gain tempos towards that end, he all useful but less incisive moves.
delays castling. To be fair, many 15 Qxc3
players would chose the routine 15 ... Qxa2ch
l l . . . Be7, and it earns a single Two points. 15 . . . Bxa2ch
point. earns one point. Black will be
12 Qel unable to avoid the Queen swap
White must lose a tempo to after 16 Ka l ! when it is doubtful
free his King's Bishop. whether he has enough for the
1 2 ... Be7 exchange (16. . . Qa4 1 7 Qa3 Qxc2?
At last ! One point. Also 18 Kxa2 Qxdl 19 Bb5ch).
take a point for l2 . . . Qa5 . Nothing for 15 . . . Qxc3 when
13 g4 Black definitely has no
13 ... Qa5 compensation. Deduct a point for
Two points. Black continues anything else  two points if you
to pursue Queenside play, and missed the threat of 16 Qxa5 .
defer castling. One point if you 16 Kcl
thought of 1 3 . . . 00. 16 ... d5
14 Kbl Five points. Black brings
his Be 7 into the game, preventing
a Queenswap by 17 Qa3 , and
threatens 1 7 . . . d4 and 1 7 . . . dxe4.
Two points for 16 . . . Qa l ch if you
intended 17 Kd2 Qa4 menacing
1 7 . . . Bxg4 (1 7. . . Nxe4ch 18 .fxe4
Bg5ch 19 Be3 Bxe3ch 20 Qxe3
does not work). One point for 1 6 . . .
00 allowing 1 7 Qa3 .
1 7 Qxe5
1 7 ... 00
Three points. Black
safeguards his King and brings his
14 ... Rxc3 !
Rook into play. Two points for
Four points. This exchange
17 . . . Nd7. White replies 18 Qc3 (18
sacrifice exposes the artificiality of
Qxg7? Bf6!) e.g. 1 8 ... Bf6 1 9 Bd4
White's setup and refutes his last
Bg5ch 20 Be3. Deduct five points
move. 14 . . . 00, though a natural
for 17 . . . dxe4?? 18 Qb8ch mating,
28 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
and take off two points for 2 1 Qg5 h6 22 Qe3 g5? 23 Bxf6
17 . . . Bb4? 1 8 Qb8ch Ke? 1 9 Bf4 24 Rxd8 mate.
Qxb7ch (19 Qxh8?? Qal mate) Two points also for l 9 . . . Ne8
and 20 Qxb4. If you played 1 7 . . . menacing 20 . . . Bf6 when 20 exd5
Qa l ch intending 1 8 Kd2 Qa5ch seems adequate. 19 . . . Bd6 gains
take one point. After 19 c3 (19 one point. After 20 Qg5 h6 2 1 Qe3
Qc3 ? ? Bb4) it is hard to find a Black has achieved little (21 . . .g5?
good followup for Black. How 22 e5). How would you have
would you have met 1 7 exd5? Take answered 1 9 exd5? Take two bonus
up to ten bonus points in points if you intended 19 . . . Rxd5
accordance with how much you when 20 Qb8ch Rd8 2 1 Qxb7?
had seen of 1 7 exd5 Nxd5 1 8 Qxe5 fails to 2 1 . . .Qa l ch 22 Kd2 Rxd4ch
(18 Qb3 Bg5ch) 18 . . . 00 threat and 2 1 Qe5 Qa l ch 22 Kd2 Qxb2
ening 1 9 . . . Bf6, 1 9 . . . Bb4 and 1 9 . . . is little better.
Qa l ch; and 1 7 g5 Nxe4 1 8 fxe4 20 Qc7
Bxg5ch 1 9 Be3 (19 Rd2 Qal mate) 20 ... dxe4
1 9 . . . d4 20 Rxd4 exd4 2 1 Qxd4 Two points. White
Bxe3ch 22 Qxe3 Qa lch 23 Kd2 threatened 2 1 Qxe7, 2 1 e5 and 2 1
Qxb2 winning. Qxb7, but Black replies with a
18 Bd4 double threat of his own 2 l . . . exd3
18 ... Rd8 and 2 1 . . . Rxd4. One point for
Two points. Black prepares 20 . . . Rd? when 21 Qb8ch Rd8 22
to meet 1 9 g5? with 1 9 . . . Bd6 Qc7 repeats, or 22 Qxb7 dxe4 23
winning the Queen, at the same Qxe7 when White has a pawn
time activating his Rook on the more than in the game. Deduct
potentially open Queen's file. three points if you played 20 . . . Bd6
18 . . . dxe4 (One point) is weaker 2 1 Qxd8ch.
after 1 9 g5 ! 1 8 . . . Rc8 earns one 21 Qxe7
point  1 9 Bd3 is a good reply.
Deduct five points if you played
1 8 . . . Nd??? allowing 1 9 Qxg7
mate. Nothing for 1 8 . . . Qa l ch 1 9
Kd2 o r 1 8 . . . B b4 1 9 c3 .
1 9 Bd3
19 ... h6
Three points. This threatens
to trap the White Queen by
20 . . . Bd6, while providing a
loophole against back rank mates.
1 9 . . . dxe4 (deduct two points) can
be met by 20 Bxe4, e.g. 20 . . . Bd6
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 29
2 1 ... Rxd4 for perpetual check but 23 . . . Bb3 is
Three points. 2 1 . . .Rd7 risky after 24 Qa3 !
merits one point. After 22 Qa3 ! 23 Qe8ch
Qxa3 23 bxa3 Rxd4 (23 . . . exd3 24 23 ..
. Kh7
Rxd3 or 24 Bxf6) 24 Bxe4 Rxd l ch One point. If you saw that
25 Rxd l Nxe4 26 fxe4 Bxg4 27 23 c3 would have been unavailing
Rd8ch, White has all the winning after 23 . . . Rxd3 24 Rxd3 Qa l ch
chances. Nothing for other and 25 . . . Qxh l , take a bonus point.
moves, e.g. 2 1 . . .exd3 ? 22 Qxd8ch, 24 Bxe4ch
or 2 1 . . .Qa l ch 22 Kd2 Qa5ch 23 Rxe4
24 ...
b4.
One point.
Take up to four bonus points
25 Qd8
if you planned to refute White's
25 ... Qal ch
alternatives on move 2 1 as follows:
Three points. Black picks up
21 Bxf6 Bxf6 winning; 2 1 fxe4
a second pawn for the exchange,
Rxd4 transposing to the game; 2 1
and keeps the White King on the
Bxe4 Nxe4 ! 2 2 fxe4 (22 Qxe 7 Qal
run. Three points also for
mate) 22 . . . Bg5ch; if 2 1 'other
25 . . . Bxg4. After 26 Qd3 (26 Qd5
moves' by the Bd4, 2 1 . . .Nd5 !
Qa4!) 26. . . f5 White also faces
winning.
insuperable problems. One point
22 fxe4 for 25 . . . Rxg4 (after 26 Qd3ch and
22 ... Nxe4 27 Qa3 White is still fighting), but
Four points. Black keeps the deduct four points for 25 . . . Re2??,
pressure on by menacing 23 . . . Qa l losing to 26 Qd3ch. Take three
mate. Three points for 22 . . . Qa l ch. bonus points if you had seen when
After 23 Kd2, Qxb2 (23. . . Nxe4ch playing 22 . . . Nxe4 that 25 Qd8 was
24 Ke3) 24 Rb l is decidedly forced by the threats of 25 . . . Re2
murky, e.g. 24 . . . Nxe4ch 25 Ke2 ! and 25 . . . Qa l ch 26 Kd2 Rd4ch 27
(25 Ke3 Qc3!) 25 . . . Nc3ch 26 Kf2 Ke2 Bc4ch.
and 26 . . . Nxb l is not playable due 26 Kd2
to 27 Qe8 mate.
26 ... Qxb2
22 . . . Nxg4 is worth two points.
Two points. One point for
White has 23 Qc5 ! (23 Qxb 7
26 . . . Qa4 (27 Qd3!), but if you
returning the exchange after
played 26 . . . Qa5ch??, or overlooked
23 . Nf2 is also possible) when
. .
White's threat of 27 Rxa l , you lose
23 . . Qa l ch? 24 Kd2 Qxb2 fails to
.
five points.
25 Rb l . One point for 22 . . . Bxg4
when 23 Rde l initiates a threat of 27 Qd3
24 e5 ; one point also for 22 . . . Rxd3 27 ... f5
when 23 cxd3 (23 Rxd3? Qa l ch) Three points. Black defends
23 Qa l ch should be good enough
. . .
and unpins his Rook. Two points
30 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
for 27 . . . Qb4ch or 27 . . . Qd4. The of a) 29 . . . Qa5ch 30 c3 (30 Qc3
exchange of Queens would give Rd4 ch) 30 . . . Bc4 3 1 Qc2 (3 1 Qd7
White some swindling chances. Qa2ch) 3 1 . . .Qd5ch; b) 29 . . . Bc4 30
One point for 27 . . . Qe5 when 28 Qd7 Rxg4; c) 29 ... Rxg4 (30 Rxb 7
Rde 1 forces an exchange of Rooks, Bd5).
weakening Black's attack 30 c3
28 Rb l 30 ... Bc4
28 ... Qe5 Two points. Again Black
One point. Black must avoids exchanges, which would not
retain the threat of 29. . . Rd4. be the case after 30 . . . Qa2ch (one
Award yourself a bonus point in point) 3 1 Qc2 . Give yourself a
each case for seeing that White's bonus point if you realized 3 0 Kd l
alternatives 28 Rde l and 28 gxf5 would also have lost to 30 . . . Bc4,
could have been met by 28 . . . Bc4 ! e.g. 3 1 Qd7 (3 1 Qg3 Rd4ch)
and 28 . . . Bxf5 (28. . . Rd4 29 fxe6ch 3 1 . ..Qa l ch 32 Kd2 Rd4ch 3 3 Ke3
Rxd3ch 3 0 Kxd3) bringing the Qc3ch.
Bishop decisively into the attack. 31 Qc2
29 Rbel 31 ... Rf4
Three points. Threatening
32 . . . Rf2ch. This is stronger than
3 1 . . .Rxg4 (two points), as we shall
see. One point for 3 1 . . . Qd5ch or
3 1 . . .Qd8ch, which spoil nothing,
but are less incisive. If you had
noticed that 3 1 Qd7 would have
lost to 3 1 . . .Qa2ch 32 Kc l Qa3ch,
take a bonus point. One more for
seeing 3 1 Qg3 Qa2ch 32 Kc l Bb3 !
and one more for 3 1 Qf3 Qa2ch 3 2
Kc l Qa3ch 3 3 Kb l Ba2ch 34 Kc2
29 .. . Qa5ch Bb3ch 35 Kd3 Qd6 mate.
Two points. Black avoids 32 Kdl
the exchange of Rooks and keeps 32 ... Qal ch
the attack going. 29 . . . Qf4ch earns One point. Black moves in
one point. Nothing is spoilt, but for the kill.
after 30 Kc3 Rc4ch 3 1 Kb2 Rb4ch 33 Qcl
32 Kc3 a decisive blow still needs 33 ... Qa4ch
to be struck. How would you have One point. 33 . . . Bb3ch also
met a) 29 Rhe l , b) 29 c3 and c) 29 gains one point. If you noticed that
Kc l ? Take a bonus point for each 33 Kd2 would have failed to
Test Y our Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 31
33 . . Rflch 34 Ke3 Qxe l ch, it's
. Black: Kr. Georgiev
worth one bonus point. Sicilian Defense
34 Kd2 1 e4 c5 2 Nf3 d6 3 d4 cxd4 4
34 ... Qa2ch Nxd4 Nf6 5 Nc3 a6
One point, plus a bonus Black enters the pattern of
point for seeing 34 Qc2 Bb3 . We the popular Najdorf Variation.
now see why 3 l . . .Rf4 was more 6 Bg5
accurate than 3 1 . . .Rxg4  in view White enters a popular line
of 35 Ke3 (35 Qc2 Rf2ch; 35 Kdl of play as well.
Bb3ch) 3 5 . . . Qf2 mate. 6 . e6
White resigned.
7 f4 Nbd7
Now total Up your points:
85 and over  Grandmaster
7584 International Master
6474 National Master
5 3 63 Expert
4252 Class A
3 1 4 1 Class B
1 830 Class C
0 1 8 Need more study
Test No. 6
You have White, alongside the
Hungarian International Master
Bela Perenyi. Your opponent is the 8 Qf3
Bulgarian International Master Three points. We are not
Krum Georgiev. yet out of the "book". As 8 Qe2, 8
Start your test after the first Qd2 and 8 Bc4 have all been tried
diagram. Cover this page with a and led to wellcontested games,
sheet of notebook paper and lower each gains three points; 8 Qe2 only
it line by line. Grade yourself by one unless you had a subsequent
guessing White's moves. Whenever g2g4 and Bg2 in mind. For 8
you have made a Black move, Be2, two points; for 8 Bd3 , one
STOP ! and try to work out White's point, because 8 . . . Qb6 9 Nb3 (what
reply. Keep track of your point else?) would leave White weak in
awards and see how you grade at the diagonal of black squares to his
the end of the game. gl.
8 ... Qc7
Budapest, 1985 9 000
White: B. Perenyi
32 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Three points. 9 Bxf6 or 9 for 12 Rhe l or 12 Bxf6. Nothing
Bd3 earns a grudging point. else scores.
9 ..
. bS 12 .. . RaS
10 BxbS For some time, 12 . . . Bb7 was
Six points, especially if you considered as Black's best move.
feel your style of play is suited to, Trial revealed it as inferior to the
and you are more effective in, wild text, but you had to consider it
positions. This sacrifice was seriously. Two points if you did so.
already well known in 1 970 when Give yourself up to four more
David Levy published it in his points (honest now ! ) accordingly
book Sacrifices in the Sicilian. as you foresaw some or all of the
Stean said of it "Although it is key continuations: 1 3 Qe2 dxe5
difficult to believe that such a (13 . . . d5 14 ex/6 gx/6 15 f5 Jxg5 1 6
sacrifice is technically sound, it fxe6 N/6 1 7 Rhfl Be 7 18 exj7ch
certainly presents Black with some Kxj7 1 9 Rde 1 with a fine game for
tricky defensive problems" . Here, White; or if 13. . . Be 7 14 Bxf6 Nxf6
White's prospects are favorable as 15 ex/6 Bx/6 1 6 Nxd6ch Kj8 1 7
they could be. Black's Queen at c7 Nxc8 Qxc8 18 Qe4, again tn
will be "hit" by a Knight capturing White's favor) 14 Qc4 Be7 (Or
on b5, and Black's decision to 14. . . Bc5 15 Bx/6 gx/6 16 Rxd7!) 1 5
postpone . . . Be 7 has made it more Bxf6 (15 Nc 7ch Kj8 1 6 Rxd7 Nxd7
cumbersome to castle and get his 1 7 Rdl Bxg5 1 8 .fxg5 Bc8 1 9 N3b5
King away from the center. Of g6 with an obscure situation)
the alternatives worth trial, only 1 0 15 . . . Nxf6 16 Nc7ch Kf8 17 fxe5
g 4 scores two points, I O e 5 one. Nd5 18 N3 xd5 exd5 19 Nxd5 and
10 ... axb5 White's extra pawns more than
1 1 Ndxb5 compensate for Black's extra
Two points. One point for Bishop with his misplaced King
1 1 e5. To capture with the other and cramped King's wing.
Knight would leave the important 13 exf6
dfile blocked and each White Two points. For 1 3 exd6
Knight "hanging" on the other's (13. . . Rxb5) nothing. 1 3 Nd4 has
support. been tried and earns two points, as
1 1 ... Qb8 13 . . . Bb7 14 Qh3 dxe5 1 5 Nxe6
12 e5 leads to obscure situations with
Three points. An extra two prospects for White possibly as
good as in the game.
points if you realized that you are
now threatening to win a piece by 13 ..
. gxf6
1 3 Qxa8 as well as 1 3 exf6; add With only a pawn plus and
two more points if you saw this two White pieces en prise, White
when playing IO Bxb5 . One point has to find some way of
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 33
maintaining his attack. If fact, captured by B or Q, it would not be
Stean announced once that with check. An extra point if you
"White's attack now fizzles out". had noticed that it freed White to
How could it be kept going? play N3e4 without inviting the
14 Bh6 ! ! reply . . . Rxa2. Either 16 g4 (Three
This i s it. I t took the points) or 16 Rhe l (Three points)
Grandmasters about five years to would be quite a sound way to
find. At the cost of a piece for a maintain the attack. You could
pawn, it drags the Black King out earn more points if, as you should,
and weakens Black's center  five you considered Black's alternative
points. 1 4 Bh4, 1 4 Nxd6ch, and 14 1 5 . . . Kf8 . The best reply would
Bxf6 gain two points each. One have also been 16 Kb l , and after
point more if you checked up on 16 . . . Rg8 17 Rhe l , 17 . . . Rg7 was
14 . Rxb5 and decided you would
. . tried in a Russian game, but the
be quite happy as White after 1 5 precarious situation of the Bh6,
B xf8 Rxf8 1 6 Nxb5 Qxb5 1 7 Rxd6. threatened after 1 8 f5 and Qh5,
14 ... Bxh6 made the win easier for White.
15 Nxd6ch (Score one or two points according
"Who says A must say B", to how much of this you aw).
as dear old Max Euwe used to say. 16 ... Rg8
One point. 17 Rhel
15 ... Ke7 Two points only  because it
is so clearly the best move now.
Only one point for 17 g4 because,
though a further g4g5 or f4f5
might be effective, retaining the
possibility of Qh5 keeps Black
under usefi!l pressure for a while.
Did you consider 1 6 . . . Rd8 as an
alternative for Black? When tried,
it failed against 17 Qe4 !
(Threatening 18 Qxhl) 1 7 . . . Nf8 1 8
Nc4 Rxd l ch 1 9 Rxd l Rc5 2 0 Qd4
Nd7 2 1 Nd6. Award yourself one
to four points according to how
16 Kbl much of this went through your
Four points. It takes great head.
acu men to realize that this quiet
17 ... f5?
move is best, unpinning White's f
Probably not the best move.
pawn and in many variations
en suring that, if it were to be 18 Qh5
34 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Three points. Deduct two Eight points. Possibly the
points for any other move; to best move of the game. No other
threaten 1 9 Qxf7ch; 1 9 Qxh6 or 1 9 continuation of the attack is so
Nxf5ch i n one go i s not the sort of deadly. Without it, White's attack
opportunity to pass up. would falter; so no credit for
18 ...Rg6 anything else. 20 Rxe6ch fails to
19 Qh4ch 20 . . . Kxe6 2 1 Qe l ch, Ne5 . The
Four points. Three for 1 9 move chosen threatens 2 1 Nxf5ch
Nxf5ch which actually puts White and 2 1 gxf5, so Black is in serious
in difficulties after the reply trouble.
1 9 Kf8. Then 20 g4, for instance,
. . .
20 ... Qxd6
allows Black to answer 20 . . . Qxf4! Desperation.
1 9 g4 is interesting (19 . Rxg4 20
. . 21 Rxd6
Qxh6 or 1 9. . .fxg4? ? 20 Qxa5 or One point. Deduct 20 points
1 9. . . Bx/4 20 gxf5) and earns three for anything else!
points. Help yourself to a further 21 ... Kxd6
two points if you considered these Here you can pick up three
two alternatives and rejected them more points by answering a new
in favor of 1 9 Qh4ch. sort of question: What is the over
19 ... f6 whelmingly important strategic
One point more if you saw factor in the situation (it can be
that 1 9 . Nf6 would fail against 20
. . expressed in a few words) which
Nd5ch with Black's King grossly reduces the effectiveness of
hopelessly exposed, if he tries 20 . . . Black's pieces?
Kxd6, by 2 1 Nxf6ch. Hence Black 22 b4
must play 20 . . . Rxd5, leaving White It is, that Black's entire
at least even material but with a army is split in two, by his own
good attack still. central pawn mass.
White seizes the opportunity
to rob the f5 pawn of the Black
Rook's support. Four points. Three
points for 22 g5, if you saw
2 . . . fxg5 23 fxg5 Bxg5 (23 . . . Bj8 24
Qxh 7) 24 Qb4ch, when Black loses
the exchange and his King remains
exposed. Deduct a point for 22
Rd l ch which would drive the King
to a slightly safer square at e7.
Deduct two points for 22 gxf5?
Rxf5 . Nothing else scores.
20 g4 ! 22 ... Ra6
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 35
23 gxf5
Even one point is kind; the Now Total Up Your Points:
move is so obvious. Nothing else 8090 Grandmaster
scores. Now, the Black King will 7079 International Master
never reach the Kingside, which is 6069 National Master
marginally safer. Score a point if 5059 Expert
you had noticed this. There is 4049 Class A
strategy in chess as well as 3039 Class B
tactics . . . 2029 Class C
2 3 ... exf5 1  1 9 Need more study
24 Qf2
Three points. Obviously the
Queen must come into action. This Test No. 7
rules out a Black Knight move, but You have the Black pieces,
24 Qh3 or 24 Qh5 (each three alongside Grandmaster Eric
points) would equally threaten a Lobron of West Germany. Your
Queen check on the file and keep opponent, in the 1 984 West
the Rg6 tied to defending the German Championship, is Inter
Bishop as well. 24 a4 would also national Master Klaus Bischoff.
win (one point) but much more Lobron won the event with 9 of 1 1 .
slowly. Start your test after the first
24 ... Rg8 diagram. Cover this page with a
sheet of notebook paper and lower
25 Qd4ch
it line by line. Grade yourself by
Three points. Nothing for
guessing Black's moves. Whenever
anything else, except that the
you have made a White move,
alternative 25 Nb5ch would deny
Black a retreat to c 7, and after STOP ! and try to work out Black's
reply. Keep track of your point
25 . . . Kc6 26 c4 threatens 27 Re6ch
awards and see how you grade at
so it is worth two.
the end of the game.
25 ... Kc7
26 b5
Bad Neuenahr, 1 984
Four points. White is going
to win a Rook by 27 Qc4ch.
White: K. Bischoff
Without this intermediate move Black: E. Lobron
Black could reply 26 . . . Rc6 and Queen's G ambit
salvage a Knight from the 1 d4 d5 2 c4 e6 3 Nc3
w reckage. Black could still try The Queen's Gambit
2 6 . . . Ra3 , hence three points for 26 Declined is a venerable opening
Qc4ch, intending 27 Qxg8. Black system, and is still played by many
resigned. players at all levels.
3 ... Nf6
36 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
4 Bg5 No credit for 1 0 . . . Ba6; after
The move associated with 1 1 Bxa6 Black's white squares on
Pillsbury's name since the tum of the Queenside are very weak. No
the century. credit for other moves.
4 ... Be7 1 1 Rdl
5 Nf3 h6 1 1 ... Qe7
Black's options include Two points. Also take two
5 . . 00, 5 . . . Nbd7 and 5 . . . c6.
.
points for l l . . .Be7, as in Petrosian
6 Bh4 00 Hubner, match, Seveille 1 97 1 ,
7 e3 b6 which continued 1 2 a3 c6 1 3 g3
Black chooses the Qc8 14 Bg2 Bh3 15 00 Bxg2 1 6
Tartakower Variation. In one move Kxg2 Nd7 with equal play. 1 1 . . .
it plans both to develop the Bc8, so Nd7 is worth a point.
often a problem for Black in the 12 g3
Queenside openings, at b 7, and 12 ... Rd8
supports an eventual c 7c5. Two points. Black supports
8 Bxf6 Bxf6 his d5 pawn again. In case he plays
9 cxd5 exd5 a later c7c5, he wants the central
pawn firmly secured.
1 0 Qd2
Two points for 12 . . . Nc6 or
1 2 . . . Nd7, aiming to complete
development. One point for 12 . . .
Na6, also supporting a pawn thrust
to c5.
13 Bg2
13 ... c5
Three points. Black has the
two Bishops, and should try to
open lines for them. Two points for
1 3 . . . Nc6 or 1 3 . . . Nd7, completing
development in a less aggressive
Start Your Test Now! manner. One point for 1 3 . . . Na6 or
13 . . . c6  both solid but passive.
10 ... Be6
14 00
Two points. Black changes
14 ... Nc6
his plan for development of this
piece, now that White's exchange Two points, completing
at move 9 opened the e6 square. At development and pressurizing the
this post, the Bishop controls f5, center. 14 . . . Nd7 earns one point,
while at b 7 it would be "biting on but nothing now for 14 . . . Na6, or
granite" . One point for 10 . . . Qe7. for the premature 14 . . . c4 1 5 Ne5 or
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 37
15 e4, nor for 1 4 . . . cxd4 15 Nxd4 so much. 17 . . . c4 (no points) is not
with advantage to White. Take a so good now because of 1 8 Nc3 ,
bonus point if you intended to meet intending 1 9 Nxe4.
1 4 dxc5 with 1 4 . . . bxc5 when . . . d5 18 dxc5
d4 will soon be a threat. 18 ... bxc5
15 Ne2 One point. Black must
15 ... Bf5 recapture.
Two points. White has taken 19 Nc3
the pressure off d5, so Black seizes 19 ... Bxc3
the chance to place this Bishop Two points. White was
more actively. 1 5 . . . Rac8 earns one ready for 20 Qe2 followed by 2 1
point, as does 1 5 . . . c4, setting up a Nxe4 so Black takes action while
Queenside pawn majority, but his Rd8 is still visavis White's
blocking out his Bishops. Nothing Queen. One point for 1 9 . . . Bxf3
for 1 5 . . . cxd4 16 Nfxd4, playing when 20 Bxf3 d4 2 1 Nd5 !
into White's hands. liquidates safely. Take a bonus
16 Rel point if you spotted 2 1 Nd5 in this
16 ... Be4 line. Deduct a point for 1 9 . . . d4? 20
Two points. The logical Nxe4 Qxe4 2 1 Nxd4 ! with
consequence of his 1 5th move. advantage to White.
1 6 . . . Rac8 and 16 . . . c4 are again 20 Rxc3
worth a point each. Deduct three 20 ... d4 !
points for 16 . . . cxd4?? 1 7 Rxc6. Two points. The logical
1 7 Rfdl followup, threatening 2 1 . . .dxe3 ,
1 7 ... Rac8 a s well a s 2 1 . . . dxc3 . 20 . . . Bxf3
earns one point. After 2 1 Bxf3 d4
22 exd4 Nxd4 (22 . . cxd4? 23
.
Rxc6) White has no worries.
How would you have met 20 bxc3?
Take a bonus point for 20 . . . Na5
intending 2 l . . .Nc4 or 20 . . . Rb8,
preparing to dominate the open b
file. A further bonus point if you
saw that the best recapture, 20
Qxc3 , would be met by 20 . . . Nb4 !
defending the cpawn and
menacing 2 1 . . . Nxa2, e.g. 2 1 Qa3
One point. Black defends Rd6 or 2 1 Ra l d4 or 2 1 Qb3 Rb8 .
his Knight and brings his last piece 21 exd4
into play. No other move achieves 21 ... Nxd4
38 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Three points. Two points for 24 Rd3
2 1 . . . cxd4, which could be 24 ... Rxd3
answered by 22 R3c l , and not 22 One point. He cannot allow
Nxd4 when either 22 . . . Rxd4 or 25 Rxd8ch, nor lose a tempo.
22 . . . Bxg2 are winning for Black. 25 Qxd3
One point for 2 l . . .Bxf3 which
25 ... Bh3
relieves the tension and allows Two points. Black saves his
White equality.
Bishop with gain of time. 25 . . . Bc6
22 Nxd4 is worth one point. Nothing for
22 ... Bxg2 25 . . . Bb7 or 25 . . . Ba8 allowing 26
Two points. 22 . . .Rxd4 is Qd7 when White has the initiative.
worth one point  23 Qxd4 ! cxd4 After 25 . . . Bh3 the Bishop is a
24 Rxc8ch Kh7 25 Bxe4ch (25 thorn in White's flesh, exploiting
Rxd4? Bxg2 26 Kxg2 Qb 7ch) the weak white squares. If you
25 . . . Qxe4 26 Rd8 holds. Nothing played 25 . . . Qc6?? losing the Queen
for 22 . . . cxd4 when 23 Rxc8 Rxc8 to 26 Ne7ch deduct six points.
24 Bxe4 Qxe4 25 Qxd4 wins a 26 Nd6
pawn. How would you have coped Rb8
26 ...
with 22 Qe l ? A bonus point for
Three points. The most
22 . . . Qb7 !
active square for the Rook.
23 Nf5 26 . . . Rc6 or 26 . . Rf8 is worth one
.
23 ... Qf6 point. 26 . . . Rc7 gains two points,
Three points. Black attacks provided you saw the trap 27 Ne8?
the Knight while keeping his Rd8 Qc6 winning. Deduct two points
well defended. 23 . . . Qb7 or for 26 . . . Rd8 27 Ne4 ! Rxd2 28
23 . . . Qe4 (Two points each) allows Nxf6ch winning.
24 Qxd8ch Rxd8 25 Rxd8ch when 27 b3
White can survive. 23 . . . Qf8 and
27 ... a5
23 . . . Qc7 (One point each) are
Two points. Black tries to
weaker as White's Knight is not
open lines for his Rook. One point
attacked. 23 . . . Qe6 and 23 . . . Qe5
for 27 . . . Bg4, intending . . . Bj3.
merit one point. After 24 Qxd8ch
White could reply 28 Ne4 and if
Rxd8 25 Rxd8ch Kh7 26 Kxg2
28 . . . Qf5, 29 Nd6 . Similarly, 27 . . .
White has no problems. Deduct
Qb2 (one point) is met by 2 8 Qd2 .
five points for 23 . . . Rxd2?? 24
27 . . . Rb4 and 27 . . . h5 are also worth
Nxe7ch and two points for
a point each.
23 . . . Qe8 24 Nd6. If you saw that
28 Nc4
23 Kxg2 lost a pawn to
23 . . . Qb7ch ! 24 Kg l Rxd4 and 25 . . . 28 ... a4
Rxd l ch and 26 . . . Qxb2, award Three points, but only if you
yourself two bonus points. saw that 29 bxa4 could be met by
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 39
29 . . . Qc6 30 Ne3 Qxa4 with bonus point if you intended to play
advantage. One point for 28 . . . Bg4 30 . . . Re8 after 30 Qd6.
or 28 . . . Bf5 when White could 31 Qc2
answer 29 Qd6. Black is now ready 31 ... Re8
to meet this by 29 . . . Qxd6 and Three points. Black gives
30 . . . axb3 winning a pawn. White himself the possibility of . . . Rxe3
threatened 29 Nxa5 so nothing else and prepares the decisive
gains credit. maneuver. Nothing else gains
29 Ne3 credit  Black is a pawn down and
29 ... Qf3! must play accurately. He now has a
Five points. Black infiltrates forced winning sequence.
and pins the Knight to defense of 32 a5
g2. 29 . . . Qc6 (one point), in 32 ... Bc8 !
contrast, could be met by 30 Nd5 ! Three points. Again, the
Four points for 29 . . . axb3 only if only move to score  Black stops
you intended to reply to 30 axb3 the apawn and threatens 3 3 . . .
with 30 . . . Qf3 ! By delaying the Bb7.
pawn exchange, Black gives 33 h4
himself an extra chance. One point Bb7
33
for 29 . . . Qb2 when White puts a One point. Black menaces
spoke in the wheel by 30 Qd6. 34 . . . Qh l mate and ties up the
Knight again. Deduct five points if
you chose 33 . . . Rxe3 allowing 34
Rd8ch, mating.
Take two bonus points if you
noticed that 33 Qxc4 and 3 3 Nxc4
both would have failed to 3 3 . . . Bb7,
e.g. 33 Qc4, Bb7 34 Rd5 Rxe3 ! If
you planned 33 . . . Re2 in reply to 3 3
Nd5, award yourself one more
bonus point (34 Ne 7ch Kj8! or 34
Nf6ch gx/6 35 Rd8ch Kg7).
34 Kh2
30 bxa4 34 ... Be4
30 ... c4 ! Three points. Black takes
Four points. The passed advantage of the fact that the
pawn suddenly becomes White Queen must guardf.?.
dangerous, as 3 1 Qxc4 (3 1 Nxc4? ? 35 Qd2
Qg2 mate) i s refuted by 3 l . . .Rb2 . 35 ... c3
The immediate 30 . . . Rb2 (one
point) is met by 3 1 Rd2 . Take a
40 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
One point. The passed Switzerland. Your opponent is
pawn is pushed  with gain of time. Soviet Grandmaster Lev Polug
(36 Qxc3? Qxf2ch 3 7 Kh3 Bj3!). aevsky, and the game was played
36 Qel in round two of the USSR vs. Rest
36 ... f5 of the World match in London,
Two points. The threat of 1 984, on board three.
3 7 . . .f4 forces White's Queen still Start your test after the first
further out of play. One point for diagram. Cover this page with a
37 . . . c2 when 37 Rd2 ! Rb8 38 Rxc2 sheet of notebook paper and lower
prolongs the game. 36 . . . Rb8 (two it line by line. Grade yourself by
points) allows 37 Qxc3 Qxf2ch 38 guessing White's moves. Whenever
Kh3 but then 3 8 ... Rb2 should be you have made a Black move,
terminal. STOP ! and try to work out White's
37 Qfl reply. Keep track of your point
37 ... Rb8 awards and see how you grade at
Two points. Black threatens the end of the game.
3 8 . . . Rb2. One point only for
3 7 . . . f4 3 8 Ng2 and 37 . . . c2 38 Rd2. London, 1984
38 Nc4 White: V. Korchnoi
38 ... c2 Black: L. Polugaevsky
One point. This is crushing. Reti
39 Rcl 1 NfJ Nf6 2 g3 d5 3 Bg2 c6 4
39 ... Rbl 00 Bf5
One point. In view of the threat of Black defends with the
40 . . . Rxc l 4 1 Qxc l Qg2 mate, London System, considered sound
White now resigned. and solid against White's opening
pattern.
Now Total Up Your Points: 5 d3 h6
Over 7 1 Grandmaster 6 c4 e6
6 1 7 1 International Master
5 1 60 National Master
4 1 50 Expert
3 1 40 Class A
2 1 30 Class B
1 1 20 Class C
0 1 0 Need more study
Test No. 8
You have White, alongside
Grandmaster Viktor Korchnoi of
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 41
Start Your Test Now! 10 ... Bh7
7 Be3 1 1 cxd5
Two points. The time is ripe
Two points. An enterprising
to open lines. 1 1 Rc2 and 1 1 Rfd l
posting for the Bishop in contrast
gain one point each ( 1 J . . . Nbd7!),
to the normal fianchetto. Two
but deduct three points for 1 1
points also for 7 b3 , 7 Bf4 or 7
Nd4?? e5 and 1 2 . . . d4, winning a
Nbd2, all good developing moves.
piece. Give yourself a bonus point
One point for 7 cxd5, which is
if you spotted that 10 . . . Nbd7 would
rather dull after 7 . . . exd5, but
have been bad due to 1 1 Nd4 Bh7?
nothing for 7 Nc3 d4 gaining
12 cxd5 exd5 13 Nxd5, winning a
space, or for 7 Nd4 Bh7.
pawn.
7 . Be7
1 1 ... exd5
8 Qb3!
Three points, plus a bonus
12 Ne5
Four points, provided you
point if you planned this when
had seen that White threatens 1 3
playing 7 Be3 , realizing that you
Nxd5 and can refute 1 2 . . . Nbd7 by
had prevented 8 . . . Qb6, the most
1 3 Bh3 ! winning a pawn (if not,
aggressive reply. White also
take only one point). 1 2 Nb5 (one
pressurizes b 7 and d5. One point
point) could be met by 1 2 . . . Nbd7
for 8 Nc3 or 8 Nbd2. Nothing else
(12. . . a6 13 Na 7!), and if 1 3 Nxa7
gains credit. Take a bonus point if
Qb8. One point also for 1 2 Nd4
you saw that 7 . . . Ng4 would be
when 12 . . . Qd7, planning . . Na6 is
easily met by 8 Bd2 (8 Bd4 c5).
.
solid.
8 ... Qc8
12 ... Bd6
9 Nc3
Two points. More
13 Bd4
Two points. A beautifully
development aimed at Black's
centralized post for the Bishop  if
strong point on d5. One point for 9
Nbd2, but nothing for 9 cxd5 (9. 1 3 . . . c5, simply 14 Nxd5 . 1 3 f4 or
. .
13 Bf4 earns one point, but
Nxd5 or 9. . . exd5), which is
premature. nothing for the static 1 3 d4.
Deduct two points if you played 1 3
9 ... 00
N or Bxd5, losing to 1 3 . . . Bxe5 .
10 Rael
13 ... Bc7
Two points. The whole idea
of White's plan is the visavis of
14 e4
Three points; revealing
his Rook with the Black Queen on
the cfile. One point for either 10 another facet of his last move, and
cxd5 exd5 (JO . . cxd5 J J Rael Nc6 opening up the game for his better
laced pieces. 14 f4, consolidating,
.
1 2 Nd4), or 10 Rfc l (right idea,
wrong Rook). 1s worth two points, while 14 Na4
42 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
(one point) is adequately met by 17 . . . N7c5 1 8 Bxc8 Nxb3 1 9 Bxb7 !
14 . . . Na6 . One point for 1 7 f4, or 17 Qa3 but
only if you planned 17 Qa3 b5 1 8
Nxb5 (18 Na5 b4) 1 8 . . . cxb5 1 9
Nd6 which Black can survive after
19 . . . Bxd6 ( 1 9. . . b4 20 Qa4) 20
Qxd6 Qb7 2 1 e5 Be4 22 Bxe4
Qxe4 23 Qxd7 Rfd8. Nothing for
17 e5, allowing 17 . . . N6c5 eyeing
d3 or l 7 . . . Bd3 .
1 7 ... N6c5
18 Qa3
Four points. White attacks
the Knight and keeps d3 under
1 4 ... dxe4 observation. After 18 Qc2 or 1 8
15 dxe4 Qd l (three points) Black could
One point; naturally White play 18 . . . a5, anchoring his Knight,
does not allow any simplification while 18 Qa2 (one point) allows
by a piece recapture  the Bh 7 will 18 . . . Nd3b4 and . . . a5. Nothing for
remain out of play. Nothing else 18 Bxc5, relinquishing the two
scores. Bishops and freeing Black's game.
15 ... Na6 If you played 19 Qb4 ?? Nd3 deduct
three points. Take a bonus point
16 Nc4
for seeing that 18 . . . Nd3 19 Rcd l
Three points. White
N3e5 20 Ne3 , menacing 2 1 f4,
menaces 1 7 Bxf6 or 17 e5 and at
does not help Black.
the same time meets the threat of
16 . . . c5 ( How would you have 18 ... Ne6
answered 1 5 . . . c5? Take a bonus 19 Be3
point for either 16 Nb5 or 16 Nd5 One point. You should have
with advantage). 16 f4 is worth two found this after our comment about
points; 1 6 Nd3 , allowing simplifi keeping the two Bishops !
cation by 16 . . . Rd8, merits one 19 ... Nb6
point. (See next diagram)
16 ... Nd7
1 7 a4
Three points. Black's pieces
are poorly placed, and this prevents
any counterplay based on the
advance of the b 7 pawn. Two
points for 1 7 Bh3 if you saw
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 43
One point. White gains the
advantage of the two bishops in an
open position with play on both
sides of the board. Other moves let
Black off lightly. Deduct two
points if you overlooked that Black
menaced 22 . . . cxd5 in earnest now.
22 ... Qxc7
23 b4
Three points. White keeps up the
pressure by threatening 24 b5. 23
f4 intending 24 f5 is also worth
20 Nd5 ! three points, while 23 a5 gaining
Six points. This threatens 2 1 more space earns two points. One
Ne7ch, and ensures White of the point only for 23 Rd l , when Black
Bishop pair or material gain. If will be able to contest the open file
20 . . . cxd5 2 1 exd5 Ng5 (21 . . . Nxc4 adequately by 23 . . . Rfd8. Take a
22 Rxc4; 21 . . . Qb8 22 dxe6.fxe6 23 bonus point if you saw that
Nxb6 Bxb6 24 Bxb6 axb6 25 Qe 7) 22 . . . Nxc7 would have allowed 23
22 Nxb6 axb6 23 d6 Bxd6 24 Rd4 ! seizing control of the dfile.
Qxd6 with overwhelming pressure 23 ... Qe7
against Black's Queenside pawns.
24 Qc3
Take only four points if you had
Two points. White unpins
not seen all of this. (Honest, now ! ).
the bpawn while maintaining
20 Nxb6 gains three points (20. . .
pressure down the cfile and
axb6!), 2 0 Nd2 two points. Only
seizing the long black diagonal. 24
one point, however, for 20 Nd6,
f4 merits two points, as 24 . . . a5 25
Bxd6 2 1 Qxd6 Nc4 with welcome
Qb3 axb4 26 Rxb4 would put
simplification for Black.
Black's bpawn under pressure.
20 . Nxc4 One point for 24 a5, 24 Rd l or 24
21 Rxc4 Rfc l .
One point. Nothing for 2 1 Rfd8
2 4 ...
Ne7ch Kh8 when 22 Nxc8? loses a
25 f4
piece, while 2 1 Nxc7?? loses five
Three points. By menacing
points (21 . . . Nxa3). If you planned
f5 f6 (Now we see why the Rfl was
to meet 20 . . . Nxd5 with simply 2 1
left at home), White forces a
exd5 cxd5 2 2 Bxd5 with strong
weakening of Black's Kingside.
positional pressure, award yourself
Two points for 25 b5, when
a bonus point.
25 . . . cxb5 is not bad for Black. One
21 ... Qd8 point for 25 a5 (25. . . a6!) or 2 5
22 Nxc7 Rfc l , but deduct a point fo r 25 e5?
44 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Bd3 winning the exchange.
25 ... f6
26 b5
Three points. It is best to
play this at once before Black has
time for . . . a6. He could eliminate
another pawn and obtain an open
file for his Rook. One point for 26
a5 or 26 Qb3 intending 27 f5, but
nothing for 26 f5 Ng5 ! when Black
intends 27 . . . Nf7e5.
26 ... cxb5
30 Qc4ch
27 axb5
Two points. The immediate
One point. The only
30 Bxa7 also earns two points
reasonable reply.
(30. . . Bxe4? 31 Bc5!). Take a
27 ... Rd7
bonus point if you spotted that the
28 Rc8ch tempting 30 Bc5 (no points) could
Two points. Simplification be met by 30 . . . Rc7 ! holding on.
is in White's favor. Two points also Another bonus point for seeing
for 28 Ra l , which likewise picks 29 . . . Rd8 30 Qc4 ! threatening 3 1 f5
up the a pawn. One point only for as well as 3 1 Bxa7.
28 Ra4  Black responds 28 . . . Qd6 !
30 Qe6
28 ... Rxc8
31 Qxe6ch
29 Qxc8ch One point. Nothing else
One point, plus a bonus scores.
point if you intended meeting
31 ... Nxe6
28 . . . Rd8 by 29 Rxa8  not 29
32 Bxa7
Rxd8ch Nxd8 !  29 . . . Rxa8 30 Ra l
One point. White wins a
(30. . . b6: 3 1 Bxb6) .
pawn without compensation.
29 ... Nf8
32 .. Nd4
(See next diagram)
33 Bh3 !
Three points. This ties up
the Black pieces while White
builds up his final attack. Black
threatened 3 3 . . . Nxb5 . One point
for 33 Bxd4; after 33 . . . Rxd4 Black
menaces 34 . . . Bxe4 and 34 . . . Rb4
with drawing chances. One point
only for 33 b6, which would leave
the Ba7 out of play. Deduct five
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 45
points for 33 Re l and four for 3 3 39 ... gxf4ch
Rd l , which would have been met 40 gxf4
by 3 3 . . . Ne2ch. How would you One point.
have answered 3 2 . . . Rd2? Give 40 ... Bg6
yourself a bonus point for 33 Re l ! , And Black lost on time.
maintaining control. White has many wins, e.g. 4 1
33 ... Ne2ch Bf8ch Kh7 (41 . . . KhB 42 Ba3ch ) 42
34 Kf2 Rd7ch Kh8 43 Bg7ch Kh7 44 Bxf6
One point. White improves ch.
his King position while attacking
two pieces. A bonus point for Now Total Up Your Points:
seeing 3 3 . . . Rd8 34 Bb6 Rd6 3 5 Over 75 Grandmaster
Bc7. 6575 International Master
34 ... Rd2 5564 National Master ./
35 Ke3 4554 Expert
One point. More of the same  3544 Class A
Black threatened 3 5 . . . Nxf4ch. 2534 Class B
35 ... Rb2 1 5 24 Class C
36 Be6ch 0 1 4 Need more study
One point. 36 Rf2 ! (three
points) would have won a piece Test No. 9
and compelled instant resignation You have White, alongside West
(36. . . Ra2 3 7 Be6ch). The players German Grandmaster Erik Lobron.
were short of time. Your opponent is Bulgarian
36 ... Kh8 Grandmaster Georgi Tringov. The
37 Rdl game is from the European Team
One point. Again 37 Rf2 Championship.
(two points) is stronger. Take a Start your test after the first
bonus point if you saw 36 . . . Kf8? 37 diagram. Cover this page with a
Bc5ch Ke8 3 8 Ra l , mating. sheet of notebook paper and lower
it line by line. Grade yourself by
37 ... g5
guessing White's moves. Whenever
38 Rd8ch you have made a Black move,
One point. Both 38 fxg5
STOP ! and try to work out White's
intending 39 Rd2, and 38 Rd2 are
reply. Keep track of your point
as good and earn one point here.
awards and see how you grade at
38 ... Kg7 the end of the game.
39 Bc5 Plovdiv, 1983
One point. 39 Rd7ch, 39
White: E. Lobron
Rd2 , and 3 9 fxg5 also merit one
Black: G. Tringov
point.
46 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Sicilian Defense Two points. White
1 e4 c5 2 Nf3 d6 3 d4 cxd4 4 anticipates the attack against e4
Nxd4 Nf6 5 Nc3 a6 corning via . . . b4 and/or . . Bb 7,
.
The longtime popularity of while preparing to castle long or
the Najdorf Variation attests to its play Rd l . Two points also for 8
counterpunching qualities. Bd3 . Only one point for the passive
8 a3 . Other moves fail to secure e4
and do not score.
8 ... Bb7
9 Bd3
Two points. White must still
pay attention to the threatened
. . . b5b4, and reinforces his e4
pawn. No credit for 8 a3 , which is
now too passive.
9 ... Nbd7
10 g4
Two points. The most
aggressive continuation, threat
6 Be3 ening to drive the N/6 back by g4
Two points for this, one of g5. Only one point for the slower
White's lessused choices, as well moves 10 a3 , 10 000 and 1 0 00.
as for 6 Bc4, 6 Bg5, 6 f4, 6 g3 and Each performs a certain task, but
6 Be2 . sets Black less problems than the
6 ... e6 text.
This transposes into the 10 . .. Nc5
Scheveningen Variation, while Departing from the path of
6 . . . e5 retains the unique character MicayabasBrowne, New York,
of 6 Be3 . 1 984, which went 10 . . . b4 1 1 Nce2
7 f4 e5 12 Nb3 exf4 and Black soon
Two points. Since White has equalized.
chosen to post his Bishop at e3, 1 1 g5
there is no need to keep the Two points. Black's last
diagonal to g5 open. The text move renewed his threat of . . . b5b4
visualizes central control (e5) as by adding an attacker to his
well as the thematic advance of pressure against e4. The only other
this pawn as an agent of Kingside move to consider is, again, the
attack. quiet 1 1 a3 (one grudging point)
7 ... b5 which meets the immediate threat,
but does nothing else for White.
8 Qf3
11 ... Nfd7
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 47
moves of the King's Rook) which
meet the threat of 14 . . . dxe4 1 5
Nxe4 f5 .
1 4 ... b4
15 axb4
Two points. One point for
15 N3e2, the only other move to
score.
15 ... Nxd3ch
16 cxd3
One point. The only
reasonable move.
1 2 a3 16 ... Bxb4
Three points. l 1 . . .Nfd7 is an 17 Ke2 !
attempt to improve on the "book" Four points. White links his
move 1 1 . . .b4, so White prevents Rooks, unpins the Nc3 and
. b5b4 followed by . . . d6d5 while
. .
defends his d3 pawn. If Black
reserving all options on the placing grabs the offered pawn by
of his King. One point for 12 000 1 7 . . . Bxc3 1 8 bxc3 Rxc3 1 9 Bd2 !
or 1 2 00 or 1 2 h4, when Black can Rc8 20 Rhb 1 gives White a strong
obtain good play by 1 2 . . . b5b4. initiative  he has a grip on the
Nothing for 1 2 f5, allowing 1 2 . . . dark squares, and Ba5 and Bb4
Ne5, or 1 2 . . . b4, allowing 12 . . . are in the air. 17 00 (Two points)
Nxd3 ch 1 3 cxd3 d5 ! 1 2 Rg l also would be equally effective if Black
merits one point. accepted the proffered pawn, but
12 ... Rc8 the King's Rook is better placed on
13 h4 h I if it is declined. 17 Kf2 (Two
Two points. 1 3 00 and 1 3 points) leaves the d3 pawn en prise
Rg l still merit one point, but with check after 17 . . . Nc5 . 1 7 Kd2
deduct two points for 1 3 b4 ?? (Two points) leaves the Nc3
Nxd3ch 14 cxd3 Rxc3 . pinned, and allows 17 . . . Qb6 (18
13 ... d5 N4b5? Qxb5). One point only for
14 e5 moves which defend the Nc3 but
Two points. White shuts the lose the initiative, e.g. 17 Re l
Bb 7 out of the game. 14 exd5 (one Qa5 ! ; 1 7 Bd2 Qb6, or 1 7 N4e2
point) is met by 14 . . . Nxd3ch ( 1 4 . . . Nc5 .
Nb 6 1 5 Nc6 i s less clear) 1 5 cxd3 17 . .. 00
Rxc3 16 bxc3 Bxd5 . Take a bonus 18 h5
point if you saw this variation. One Two points. Now the Black
point for 14 00, 14 Rg l (or other King has committed himself,
48 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
White wastes no time in opening nowhere. 20 gxf7ch deserves no
lines. 1 8 Nd l planning to bring the credit  20 . . . Rxf7 with the
Knight to the Kingside merits one additional threat of 2 1 . . .Nxe5 . 20
point. Deduct a point for 1 8 f5? Na4 is worth five points if you
allowing 1 8 . . . Nxe5, e.g. 1 9 Qg3 intended to follow up with
Nc6. 20 . . . Qb4 2 1 h6 ! (21 Nxc5? Qxb2ch
18 ... Bc5 or 21 Nc2? Qb3).
Nothing for 20 Nc2? Qxb2
or 20 Qf2 when Black has a choice
of 20 . . . Qxb2ch 2 1 Bd2 Qb6, 20 . . .
fxg6 and 2 0. . . Bxd4 .
Deduct three points if you
overlooked that Black was
threatening to win a piece by
20 . . . Bxd4. How did you intend to
meet (a) 1 9 . . . fxg6 and (b) 1 9 . . .
Bxd4? Take up to five bonus points
in accordance with how much you
had seen of:
(a) 20 Nxe6 winning the
19 g6
exchange, as 20 . . . Nxe5? 2 1 Nxd8
Four points. White cal
Nxf3 22 Nxb7 wins;
culates he can ignore Black's
{b) 20 gxh7ch Kxh7 2 1 Bxd4 Nc5
counterplay. The preventive 1 9
22 Rag l Nb3 23 Qe3 with
Na4 gains one point; Black could
advantage.
reply 1 9 . . . Bxd4 20 Bxd4 Bc6 or
20 . . . Rc2ch with some activity.
20 ... fxg6
Deduct two points for the 21 hxg7
positional blunder 1 9 h6? allowing Two points. In view of the
Black to block the Kingside with threats of 2 1 . . .Bxd4 and 2 1 . . .Nxe5
1 9 . . . g6. How would you have met White must act quickly  2 1 Qh3
1 8 . . . Bxc3 1 9 bxc3 Rxc3 ? If you (two points) is equally good. Take
planned 20 Bd2 Rc8 2 1 g6 with a up to three bonus points if you saw:
strong attack, take a bonus point. 1 ) 20 . . . Bxd4 2 1 gxh7ch Kh8 22
19 . Qb6 hxg7ch Kxg7 23 h8=Qch;
2) 20 . . . Qxb2ch 2 1 Bd2 fxg6 22
20 h6!
Rhb l ;
Five points. White ensures
3 ) 2 0. . . hxg6 2 1 Qh3 .
an open hfile. 20 gxh7ch (two
points) is premature  Black can 2 1 ... Rf5
reply 20 . . . Kxh7 (or even 20. . . Kh8), 22 Na4
when 2 1 h6 g6 gets White Four points. The most
accurate. 22 Nxf5 (three points)
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 49
gives Black chances for the 26. . . Rc2chi mating) 26 . . . d4 27
exchange after 22 . . . exf5 with Qd2 Qe7.
threats of 23 . . . d4 and 23 . . . Qxb2ch, 25 .. Qb5
or he can try 22 . . . Bxe3?! .
Nothing for 22 Qh3 Rh5 ! 23
Qxe6ch Qxe6 24 Nxe6 Rxh l 25
Rx h l d4 !
Take a bonus point for each of the
following defenses you saw:
l ) 2 l . . .Nxe5 22 gxIB=Qch Rxf8
23 Qh3 ;
2) 2 l . . .Kxg7 22 Qh3 threatening
23 Qxh7 mate and 23 Nxe6ch;
3) 2 l . . .Rf7 22 Na4 Qb4 23 Rxh7 !
Bxd4 (23. . . Kxh 7 24 Qh3ch Kxg7
25 Nxe6ch Kg8 26 Rhl) 24 Qh3
26 Rhcl
Rc2ch (24 . . . Rxg7 25 Qxe6chi) 25
Three points. White re
Kd l .
moves the Rook from the long
2 2 ... Qb4 diagonal and contests the open c
23 Qh3 file. 26 Nxc5 earns two points 
Three points, but only if you both 26 . . . Nxc5 and 26 . . . Rxc5 give
saw 23 . . . Rh5 24 Qxe6ch Kxg7 25 Black counterplay.
Rxh5 gxh5 (25. . . Bxd4 26 Rxh 7chl) One point for 26 Qg3
26 Rg l ch Kh8 27 Qfl, mating. 23 hoping for 26 . . . Kxg7 27 Rxh5 .
Nxf5 (one point) allows Black to Black does better with 26 . . . Rc6.
throw a spanner in the works by How would you have met
23 . . . d4 ! 25 . . . Qd4? Tak a bonus point if
23 . h5 you intended 26 Qg3 ! menacing
24 Nxf5 both 27 Bc3 and 27 Qxg6.
Two points. White's attack 26 .. d4
can go no further, so he grabs the 27 Nxc5
exchange, with a decisive material Two points, plus a bonus
advantage. Nothing else scores. point if you saw that the plausible
24 ... exf5 27 e6 (no points) failed to 27 . . . Re8
25 Bd2 28 Nxc5 Nxc5 29 Ra5 Rxe6ch.
Two points. 25 Rhc 1 also One point for 27 Qg3 .
me rits two points, as 25 . . . Bxe3 26 27 ... Rxc5
Rxc8ch Bxc8 27 Qxe3 only helps 28 Ra5
White. Nothing for 25 e6 Bxe3 26 No points! In time trouble,
Qxe3 (deduct four points if you White misses the crushing 28 e6
planned 26 exd7 allowing
50 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
(28 . Rxcl 29 exd7, while 28. . . N
. . Two points. A bonus point
moves fail to 29 Ra5). Three points for seeing 32 . . . d3ch 33 Kfl ! Bg2ch
for 28 e6. 34 Kxg2 Qc6ch 35 Kh2 Qc2ch 36
Take a bonus point if you Kh3 . Two points for 3 3 Kxf3 , if
intended to meet the better you saw that White can avoid the
27 . . . Nxc5 by 28 Ra5 Qb6 29 b4, perpetual after 33 . . . Qb3ch by 34
forcing favorable simplification. Kf2 Qc2ch 3 5 Kg3 h4ch 36 Kh3
28 ... Qb6 Qd3ch 37 Kxh4 .
29 R5xc5 33 ... d3ch
Two points. The only 34 Kxf3
consistent followup, as 29 R l xc5 One point. The only sensible
leaves his other Rook misplaced. move.
29 ... Nxc5 34 ... Qc6ch
30 Qh4 ! 35 Kg3
Three points. White can One point. A point for 3 5
now infiltrate on the dark squares. Kf2 also.
30 b4 (one point) is far less 35 ... h4ch
incisive after 30 . . . Nb3 . Two points 36 Qxh4
for 30 Rc4. Give yourself three One point. One point also for 36
bonus points if you saw 30 . . . Qc6 Kxh4 Qh l ch 3 7 Kg5 Qg l ch 38
would now fail to 3 1 Qd8ch Kxg7 Kh6 or 38 Kf6 which also wins. 36
32 Qf6ch winning a piece. Kh2 Qc2ch 3 7 Kh3 also scores a
30 ... Nxd3 point.
31 Qe7! 36 ... Qxcl
Two points, avoiding a last 37 Qh8ch
trap of 3 1 Kxd3 ?  deduct two One point. Faced with mate
points for this  when 3 1 . . .Qb5ch in two, Black resigned.
or 3 1 . . . Qb3ch gives Black
perpetual check. Award yourself a Now Total Up Your Points:
bonus point if you planned this Over 70 Grandmaster
when playing 30 Qh4. 6 1 70 International Master
31 ... Nxclch 5560 National Master
32 Bxcl 4554 Expert
One point. 32 Kfl Qb5ch 3444 Class A
(or 32. . . Bg2ch 33 Kxg2 Qb8 34 e6) 2333 Class B
33 Kg l Ne2ch 34 Kh2 also scores 1 3 22 Class C
a point. 0 1 2 Need more study
32 ... Bf3ch
33 Kf2 Test No. 10
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 51
You have White, alongside puts his King's Knight on its most
Soviet Grandmaster Rafael active square for an isolated d
Vaganyan. Your opponent is West pawn position. 7 Nge2, 7 Bg5 , and
German Grandmaster Robert 7 Bf4 are also good developing
Hilbner. moves and merit one point each.
Start your test after the first 7 00
diagram. Cover this page with a 8 00
sheet of notebook paper and lower Two points. 8 h3 (one point)
it line by line. Grade yourself by is often played, but the game
guessing White's moves. Whenever HenleyDlugy, New York 1 983,
you have made a Black move, showed that 8 . . . Bg4 need not be
STOP ! and try to work out White's feared: 9 h3 Bh5 (9. . . Bxj3 1 0 Qxf3
reply. Keep track of your point Qxd4 1 1 Qxb 7 is better for White)
awards and see how you grade at 10 g4 Bg6 1 1 Ne5 (White has a
the end of the game. strong attack on j7) l l . . .c6? 1 2 f4
b5 1 3 Bb3 b4 1 4 f5 bxc3 1 5 fxg6
Tilburg, 1983 hxg6 1 6 bxc3 Nd5 1 7 Qf3 Bf6 1 8
White: R. Vaganyan Ba3 Re8 1 9 Rae l Bxe5 2 0 Qxf7ch
Black: R. Hilbner Kh8 2 1 Rxe5 Rxe5 22 Qf8ch Qxf8
Queen's Gambit Accepted 23 Rxf8 ch Resigns.
1 d4 d5 2 c4 dxc4 3 Nc3 e5 4 8 Bf4 and 8 Bg5 again merit one
e3 exd4 5 exd4 Nf6 6 Bxc4 Be7 point.
8 ... Nbd7
9 Rel
Three points. White seizes
the open file, pressurizing e 7. Two
points each for 9 Bb3 , 9 Bg5 and 9
Bf4 which are less flexible.
9 ... Nb6
10 Bb3
Three points. The most
active square for the Bishop,
preventing a Black Knight from
settling on d5 . Against 10 Bd3
Start Your Test Now! (two points) Black could reply
7 Nf3 10 . . . Bg4 and if 1 1 h3 , Bh5 1 2 g4
Two points, plus a bonus Bg6 when Henley's plan would not
work as Black is ready to exchange
point if you saw that 7 . . . Bg4?
would lose a pawn to 8 Bxf7ch ! Bishops. 10 Bfl earns one point.
Kxf7 9 Ne5ch and 1 0 Nxg4. White (White should retain this Bishop).
Deduct five points if you
52 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
overlooked that 10 . . . Nxc4 was Rxe7?! (two points) is very
threatened. speculative after 14 . . . Nxe7 1 5 Re l
10 ... c6 N6c8 16 Ne4 Qd7 ! One point for
1 1 Bg5 14 Nxd5, which allows Black to
Two points. White keeps up obtain opposite colored Bishops by
the pressure on e 7. 1 1 Bf4 and 1 1 14 . . . Bxg5, but nothing for time
Ne5 earn two points also. losing retreats of the Bg5 .
1 1 ... Bg4 Deduct a point for 14 Bxd5?
Bxg5 which wins Black the d4
12 Qd3
pawn. How did you intend to
Two points  White unpins
meet 1 3 . . . Nbd5? Take up to three
his Knight and threatens 13 Ne5 .
1 2 h3 (two points) is equally bonus points if you saw 14 Nxd5
cxd5 (14. . . Nxd5? 15 Rxe 7! Nxe 7
effective, though h3 might become
a useful square for a Rook. 16 Rel ) 1 5 Rad l winning the d5
pawn by the threat of 16 Bxf6.
1 2 ... BxtJ
14 ... Nxe7
13 QxtJ
One point, provided you 15 Re5 !
saw that 1 3 . . . Qxd4? would now fail Four points. White prevents
to 14 Rxe7. a Knight returning to occupy the
Nothing for 1 3 gxf3 , ruining blockading square d5, and prepares
to double Rooks or switch his Re5
White's King defenses without
compensation. If you chose 1 3 to the Kingside. Two points for 1 5
Rad l , 1 5 Re4, 1 5 Re3 or 1 5 Re2,
B xf6? deduct a point, as 1 3 . . . Bxf6
14 Qxf3 Qxd4 wins a pawn. one point for 1 5 g3 or 1 5 h3 ,
safeguarding the back rank while
13 Nfd5
waiting to see Black's plan.
15 ... Ng6
16 Re4
One point, plus a bonus
point if you planned this when
playing 1 5 Re5 . Black's Knight has
been decoyed to a poo r square on
g6, but he threatened 16 . . . Qxd4 .
Deduct two points for 1 6 Rf5?
Nh4, three points if you missed the
threat of 16 . . . Nxe5 . Take another
bonus point if you intended to meet
1 5 . . . Nd7 by 16 Rg5 .
14 Bxe7
16 ... Nd7
Three points. White forces
the Black Knight back from d5. 1 4
1 7 Rdl
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. I I 53
Two points. White brings Five points for this
his last piece into play, freeing his combination of attack and defense,
Re4 from the defense of the d4 but only if you saw that 20 . . . Nxh4
pawn, and preparing a possible d4 2 1 Qh5 Ng6 (21. . . Qf4 22 g3) 22
d5. 1 7 d5 gains no credit, as Rh3 h6 23 Qxg6 wins. Take a
17 . . . Nc5 is a fork greatly easing bonus point if you realized that
Black's problems. One point for 1 7 20 . . . Qf4 would lose a pawn to 2 1
Re3 , anticipating 1 7 . . . Nf6, but h5 ! Qxf3 22 Rxf3 Ne7 2 3 Nd6.
nothing for 1 7 Rae l Nf6, winning 20 g3 is worth two points, while
the d4 pawn or the exchange. Take 20 d5 (one point) could now be met
a bonus point if you had seen that by 20 . . . N7e5 followed by 2 1 . . .cxd5 .
an attempt to contest the efile by 20 Ng5 (one point) would allow
1 6 . . . Qd7 1 7 Rae l Rae8 would 20 . . . Nf6, reestablishing control of
have failed due to 1 8 Rxe8 Rxe8 d5. Black now attends to the threat
1 9 Qxf7ch ! Qxf7 20 Rxe8ch. of 2 1 h5h6.
17 ... Qa5 20 ... h6
18 Re3
Three points. The Rook has
served its purpose on e4 and now
moves to a less vulnerable square,
preparing to meet 1 8 . . . Nf6 with 1 9
d 5 ( a bonus point for planning
this). Two points for 18 R i e l when
1 8 . . . Nf6 followed by 1 9 . . . Qh5
limits White's edge. 1 8 g3 merits
one point. Take a bonus point if
you intended to meet the better
17 . . . Nf6 by 1 8 Re3 , e.g. 1 8 . . . Qc7
1 9 d5 . 21 Qg4
18 ... Rad8 Three points. White
19 Ne4 threatens 22 Qxg6 and 22 Rg3 . 2 1
Two points. White threatens h5 (three points) is equally
20 Nd6 with a double attack on j7 effective, though giving Black
and b 7, at the same time fewer ways to go wrong. Nothing
preventing 19 . . . Nf6. 19 d5 for other moves, as White now has
deserves one point only  19 . . . Nc5 a decisive attack.
would be an adequate reply, e.g. 20 2 1 ,,. Kh8
dxc6 Nxb3 2 1 axb3 Rxd l ch 22 22 h5
Nxd l bxc6 23 Qxc6 Qd2. Two points. 22 Rg3 (two
19 ... Qc7 points) is just as good. Take a
20 h4!
54 Test Your Opening, Middlegame an d Endgame vol. II
bonus point if you considered 22 Two points. White unpins
Bxf7 and rejected it because of his Knight and prepares to seize
22 . . . N7e5 ! 23 dxe5 Nxe5 24 Rxd8 the King's file, simultaneously
Qxd8 25 Qg3 Nxf7. menacing 27 g3 . Nothing else
22 ... Nf4 scores.
23 Rg3 26 ... Nb6
One point you should have 27 Nc5
found this after reading the Two points. The simplest, as
previous notes. Give yourself a 27 . . . Rxe3 28 fxe3 wins the g6
bonus point if you saw that pawn. 27 Nc3 (one point) is not as
22 . . . Qf4 23 Qxf4 Nxf4 24 Nd6 accurate, as Black has possibilities
would win a pawn. The threat of of . . . Nd3 in some lines. Two bonus
24 Qxg7 mate now forces Black to points if you planned to meet the
weaken his Kingside  23 . . . Rg8 better 26 . . . Kg7 by 27 Ng5 ! , e.g.
would fail to 24 Bxf7 . 27 . . . Rxe3 (27. . . hxg5 28 Rxe8) 28
23 ... g5 Rxe3 Nf6 29 Qxf4 ! Qxf4 30
24 hxg6 Ne6ch.
Two points. Deduct a point 27 ... Qc8
for 24 Nxg5? hxg5 25 Qxg5 28 Qxf4!
Ne2ch ! 26 Kh2 Nxg3 27 Qh6ch Two points. White wins a piece.
Kg8 28 Qg6ch when White has 28 Rxe8 is equally efficient and
only perpetual check. Black gains two points (28. . . Qxg4 29
threatened 24 . . . f5 so other moves Rxj8 ch Kg7 30 Rj7ch and 31 Re8
earn no credit. mate). Black now resigned, as
24 .. fxg6 28 . . . Rxf4 (28. . . Rxe3 29 Qxh6
25 Rel mate) 29 Rxe8ch is hopeless for
Three points, but only if you him.
realized that White threatens 26
Ng5 ! and if 26 . . . hxg5? 27 Rh3ch Now Total Up Your Points:
Nxh3ch 28 Qxh3ch Kg7 29 Re7ch Over 55 Grandmaster
mating. White also frees his Queen 5054 International Master
from guarding e2 . 4049 National Master
25 Qh4 is worth two points  303 9 Expert
Black could struggle on by 2329 Class A
25 . . . Ne2ch 26 Kh2 Kg7 or 26 . . . h5 1 723 Class B
(26. . . Nxg3 ? 2 7 Qxh6 mate). One 10 1 7 Class C
point for 25 d5 . 0 1 6 Need more study
25 .
.. Rde8
26 R3e3 Test No. 1 1
You have White, alongside
World Champion Anatoly Karpov,
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 55
in the 1 976 USSR Championship. 7 g5
Your opponent is Josif Dorfman, When Black does not
tournament leader after 7 rounds. prevent this move (6. . . h6),
Start your test after the first experience has shown it to be
diagram. Cover this page with a White's best choice. Two points if
sheet of notebook paper and lower you agreed. Also take two points
it line by line. Grade yourself by for the alternative 7 h4, and for 7
guessing White's moves. Whenever Rg l , which often transposes into
you have made a Black move, the 7 g5 and 7 h4 lines. One point
STOP ! and try to work out White's for 7 Bg2, which leads only to
reply. Keep track of your point equal play. No credit for other
awards and see how you grade at moves.
the end of the game. 7 ... Nfd7
8 h4
Moscow, 1976 Two points for this, and for
White: A. Karpov 8 Rg l . No credit for 8 Qg4, which
Black: J. Dorfman is a premature placement of the
Sicilian Defense lady, nor for other moves.
1 e4 c5 2 NO d6 3 d4 cxd4 4 8 ... Nc6
Nxd4 Nf6 5 Nc3 e6 9 Be3
Two points. The text is
superior to other moves, since the
Nd4 needs reinforcement, and
others gain no credit.
9 ... a6
10 Qe2
Two points for this, and for
10 Qd2, which also leads to a
White advantage.
10 ... Qc7
1 1 000
Two points for this, the
Start Your Test Now! strongest reply. Did White's last
6 g4 move tip you off to the intended
Two points. Karpov chooses long castling? One point for 1 1
the sharp Keres Attack. There is a Bg2, which is less flexible than the
large number of good choices for game move, and blocks the gfile
White. Take two points for 6 Be2, in the bargain.
6 Bc4, 6 Be3 , 6 Bg5, 6 g3 and 6 f4 . 1 1 ... b5
6 ... Be7 1 2 Nxc6
56 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Now that Black has removed 14 Nd5
pawn support of c6 and cannot Three points. One point only
recapture in such a way as to for the passive 14 Nb l . Nothing for
strengthen d5, White makes this 14 Bxg7 which loses simply to
exchange, which earns two points. 14 . . . Rg8 1 5 Nd5 Rxg7 . A bonus
A single point for 12 Bg2, for point if you realized that 1 3 . . . Bb7
reasons given above, and for 1 2 14 a3 and 1 3 . . . e5 14 Be3 followed
Bh3 . No credit fo r the passive 1 2 by Nd5 were good for White.
a3 , which gives Black a target for 14 ... exd5
his b5 pawn to hit, nor for other 15 Bxg7
moves. The simplest (five points). If
1 2 ... Qxc6 you played 1 5 exd5 intending
1 5 . . . Qxd5 16 Bxg7 deduct two
points, as this loses to 16 . . . Qxh l
1 7 Re l (1 7 Bxh8 gives Black too
much time to consolidate with the
extra piece) 17 . . . Ne5 18 Bxe5 dxe5
1 9 Qxe5 00 ! . If you played 1 5
exd5 intending 1 5 . . . Qxd5 1 6 Bf6 ! ?
score two points.
15 ... Rg8
16 exd5
One point. Karpov starts to
pick up pawns for his piece.
13 Bd4 16 ... Qc7
A hard move to find, 1 7 Bf6!
striking at g7 and earning three Five points. N o other move
points. If now 1 3 . . . e5, Black has deserves credit, but two bonus
weakened d5 and f5 and White points if you rejected 1 7 Re l Ne5
simply returns his Bishop to e3 . If 18 Bxe5 dxe5 19 Qxe5 as losing
1 3 . . . Bf8 or 1 3 . . . Rg8 or 1 3 . . . Kf8, for White, who must keep the
Black delays or forfeits Kingside Queens on the board to maintain
castling; White did a great deal the attack.
with 1 3 Bd4 ! For the less 1 7 ... Ne5
aggressive 1 3 Qg4, clearing e2 for 18 Bxe5
the Knight's retreat, score one Three points. No other move
point. A single point for 1 3 f3 , scores. If you played 1 8 f4? deduct
defending e 4 against the corning two points as 1 8 . . . Bg4 ! wins for
b5b4, and for 1 3 Bg2 to the same Black.
purpose. No credit for other moves.
18 ... dxe5
13 ... b4
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 57
1 9 f4 ! 22 . . . Qxc2 mate, deduct six points.
Five points, but only if you 22 ... Qc4 !
saw 19 . . . exf4? 20 d6. Nothing else 23 Rld3!
will do. Karpov must play actively Three points. Excellent
to exploit Black's difficulties in judgment from White. If the
development. Queens are exchanged, his King
19 ... Bf5 becomes much less critically
placed in the center. 23 R3d3 gains
no credit, allowing Black to win
two pawns by 23 . . . Qxh4 while 23
Qxc4 (two points) allows Black
good chances of saving the ending.
23 ... Qf4ch!
24 Kbl
One point. Nothing else
scores. Deduct six points if you
played a Rook to e3, allowing
24 . . . Bc5 . A bonus point if you saw
that 23 . . . Qxa2 failed to 24 d6,
20 Bh3 ! menacing 25 d7ch as well as 25
Five points. Accurate as dxe7.
ever, Karpov improves his position 24 ... Rc4 !
while reducing Black's pressure on 25 d6
the cfile. Score two points for 20 Two points. Nothing else
fxe5, but only if you were going to scores.
answer 20 . . . Rc8 with 2 1 Rh2 (21 25 ... , Re4!
Rd2? allows 21 . . b3! 22 axb3 Bb4!
.
26 Rhe3!
and suddenly White is in trouble) . Six points. And a bonus of
Deduct five points for 20 Qxe5? up to ten points (Honest, now) if
Qxc2 mate. you rejected 26 Rde3 due to 26 . . .
20 ... Bxh3 Rxg5 ! ! 2 7 hxg5 (2 7 Rxe4 Rglch)
21 Rxh3 27 . . . Bxg5 and suddenly the tables
One point. have turned (28 Rxe4 Qcl mate);
21 ... Rc8 ! but saw that now 26 . . . Rxg5 fails to
22 fxe5 27 hxg5 Bxg5 28 d7ch ! Kd8 29
Two points. At long last. Rd l ! ! Qxe3 30 Qxa6 Rd4 3 1
One point for 22 b3 . Nothing else Qc8ch Ke7 32 Qe8 mate ! 26 d7ch
scores, e.g. 22 R3d3 e4 ! , and, if and 26 Qd l gain a generous point.
you played 22 Qxa6?? allowing 26 ... Rxe3
27 Rxe3
58 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. I I
Two points. 2 7 Qxe3 allows dxe7?? loses six points because of
27 . . . Qxe3 , or Black could play first 29 . . . Qg l ch, mating.
27 . . . Qfl ch, either of which offer Black's problems are finding
good drawing chances in the a safe square for his Bishop,
ending. Again, a bonus of up to defending his P pawn, and, at the
five points if you saw 27 . . . Rxg5 28 same time, protecting himself
hxg5 Bxg5 20 d7ch ! Kd8 (29. . . Ke 7 against a possible e5e6.
30 d8 =Qch Kxd8 31 Rd3ch) 30 29 ... Qg2
Qxa6 ! ! Qxe3 3 1 Qc8ch Ke7 32 30 Qf5!
Qe8 mate. Four points. Not a hard
27 ... Qxh4 ! move to find from the previous
note. 30 Qd3 and 30 Qb3 are both
weaker and score one point;
nothing for anything else. A bonus
point if you intended after 30 . . . Bd8
3 1 e6 ! winning, and after 30 . . . Bh4
3 1 Qc8ch Bd8 3 2 e6 !
30 ... Rg6 !
31 Rfl !
Three points. Again more
accurate than 3 1 dxe7 (one point).
If now 3 1 . . .Rg7 3 3 dxe7 Kxe7 34
Qf6ch Ke8 3 5 e6 ! wins (35 Rdl
28 Qf3! Qd5!). Take three bonus points if
Six points. Black's idea is to you saw this. If you realized that
seek salvation in a Queens and after 3 l . . .Bh4 White wins easily
Rooks ending. 28 dxe7 ( two with 32 Qxf7ch Kd8 33 Qc7ch Ke8
points) 28 . . . Rxg5 gives him 34 d7ch Ke7 3 5 d8=Qch, take
excellent chances. If you planned another bonus point.
28 . . . Bxg5 29 e6 ! ! and 28 . . . Rxg5 29 31 ... Qd5
Qc6ch ! take four bonus points. 32 dxe7
28 ... Qxg5 ! Two points. No credit for
29 Rel anything else. Finally White re
Three points. The same for establishes material equality,
29 Qc6ch, e.g. 29 . . . Kf8 30 dxe7ch leaving Black's pawns weak and
Qxe7 3 1 Qh6ch Rg7 . Karpov is his King exposed.
improving his Queen and Rook 32 ... Kxe7
coordination before he attempts to 33 Qf4!
win the resulting ending. 29 Four points. The only move
that scores. 33 Qh5 is well met by
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 59
33 . . . Qc4 ! How did you plan to Five points. More active
meet 32 . . . a5? Three bonus points if than 38 Re l or 38 Qe l (one point
you spotted 33 Qh5 h6 34 e6 ! Rf6 each). This ending is lost for
(34. . . Qxe6 35 Qxa5) 3 5 exf7ch Black. His King can find no cover
Rxf7 (35. . . Kxe l 36 Rx/6; 35. . . and the White Rook is bound to
Qxj7 3 6 Qb5ch) 3 6 Qg6. penetrate.
33 ... a5 38 ... Qb7
34 Qh4ch 39 b3
Three points. One point for Two points. Karpov rules
34 b3 . out backrank mates. Black's last
34 ... Ke8 try is to free his Queen from
35 Qxh7 defending the Bishop's pawn.
Two points. 35 b3 is again 39 ... Re6
worth one point if you saw 40 Rgl !
35 . . . Qxe5? 36 Re l . Four points. Obvious and
35 ... Qf3 very strong. White sacrifices his e5
36 Qh8ch pawn while the Black King is sent
Three points Deduct six on a journey. One point for moves
points for 36 Rxf3 ?? Rg l ch. Two which simply defend the e5 pawn.
bonus points if you intended to 40 ... Rxe5
meet 36 . . . Kd7? by 37 e6ch ! 41 Rg8ch
36 ... Ke7 One point.
37 Qh4ch 41 ... Ke7
Two points. Nothing else 42 Qh4ch
scores, e.g. 37 Qh l Qxh l 38 Rxh l Two points, provided, that
Rg5 . you saw 42 . . . f6? 43 Rg7ch. Also 42
37 ... Ke8 Qd4 merits one point.
42 ... Kd7
43 Qf6 !
Four points. Black's Rook is
tied up. Two points for checks,
none of which achieves very much.
43 ... Re7
44 Qf5ch
Two points. A bonus point if
you saw that 43 . . . Re l ch 44 Kb2
Qd5 failed to 45 Rd8ch.
44 ... Kd6
45 Qxa5
38 Qc4 !
60 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Two points. Black's Queen Black's Queen after 50 . . . Kd6 5 1
is now tied down. 45 Rg l gains Rd8ch Ke7 52 Qc7ch so Black
one point. resigned.
45 ... Re5
46 Qd8ch Now total up your points:
Three points. One point for Over 1 57 World Champion
46 Rd8ch? ! when 46 . . . Ke7 ! 47 Caliber
Qxe5ch Kxd8 poses many 147 157 Grandmaster
difficulties. With the Black King 1 27 1 46 International Master
fully exposed, it's in White's 1 1 7 1 26 National Master
interest to keep both major pieces 97 1 16 Expert
on. 8096 Class A
46 ... Ke6 5079 Class B
47 Kb2 ! 3849 Class C
Five points. A difficult move 037 Need more study
to find, but now Black is in
Zugzwang. Two points for 4 7 Test No. 1 2
Re8ch when Black struggles on You have Black, in
with 47 . . . Kf5 . partnership with former World
47 ... f6 Champion Boris Spassky. Your
opponent is the Dutch Grand
48 Rf8!
master Jan Timman. The game
Two points. The only move
was played in round four of the
to score, seizing on the new
supertournament at Linares, Spain
weakness.
16th February, 1 983 .
48 . .. Qg7
Start your test after the first
49 Qc8ch diagram. Cover this page with a
Three points. No credit for sheet of notebook paper and lower
any other move, as this it line by line. Grade yourself by
continuation finishes Black off, guessing Black's moves. When
preventing 49. . . Kf5 . If you ever you have made a White move,
intended to play 50 Rxf6ch after STOP ! and try to work out Black's
49 . . . Qd7 take a bonus point, and if reply. Keep track of your point
you saw 49 . . . Kd6 was answered by awards and see how you grade at
50 Rd8ch Ke7 5 1 Qd7 mate take the end of the game.
another. One more for seeing
49 . . . Ke7 50 Rd8 !
Linares, 1 983
49 ... Kd5 White: J. Timman
50 Qc4ch Black: B. Spassky
Two points. No credit for
Ruy Lopez
anything else. This move wins
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 61
1 e4 e5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 Bb5 a6 4 The only logical followup
Ba4 d6 5 Bxc6ch bxc6 6 d4 (one point). Nothing else scores.
exd4 7 Qxd4 10 Bf4
10 . Ne7
Two points. From here the
Knight has the option of going to
c6 while maintaining a guard on
d5. Two points also for the active
10 . . . Rb8.
How did you intend to meet
10 Bg5? 10 . . f6 (deduct five points
.
for 10. . . Ne l? 1 1 Nd5 or J O. . . Nf6?
1 1 e5 Bf5 12 exf6 Bxd3 1 3 fxg7)
would be an admission of failure,
so a bonus point for 10 . . . Qd7 !
Start Your Test Now! 1 1 000
7 ... c5 11 ... 00
Two points. Black drives the Two points. Black has no
White Queen from her dominant reason to fear castling on opposite
post before deciding how best to wings as he has an open bfile and
continue development. One point a strong Bg7. l l . . . Rb8 also merits
for 7 . . . Bg4 (8 Nbd2l) or 7 .. .f6 two points. If you saw that 1 1 e5
(passive). Nothing for 7 . . . Nf6 or was weak after l l . . .Bf5 ! take a
7 . Qf6 inviting the strong reply 8
. .
bonus point.
c5. 12 Qd2
8 Qd3
8 ... g6
Three points. A new and
ambitious plan in this position.
Two points for the routine 8 . . . Ne7,
8 . . . Be7 or 8 . . . Bb7 when White has
fewer problems. Take a bonus
point if you intended to meet 8 Qc3
by 8 . . . Nf6  8 e5 is no longer so
dangerous when Black can gain a
tempo in reply  . . . Nd5 .
9 Nc3
9 ... Bg7 12 ... Re8!
62 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Four points. One point only 1 5 h5 by 1 5 . . . c6 ! menacing
for 1 2 . . . Bg4 or 1 2 . . . Rb8 when 1 3 16 . . . Qb6 and refuting 16 Na4 by
Bh6 gives White counterplay. 16 . . . Rb4 (this is the reason for
How would you have Timman's 15 a3). No credit, then,
responded to pressure down the for 15 . . . c6 when 16 Na4 holds
Queen's file by 1 2 e5? Black could Black up.
obtain good play by 1 2 . . . Bf5 1 3 16 Ng5
Qd2 (1 3 Qe2 d5) 1 3 . . . Nc6 ! 1 4 16 ... Qc8
exd6 cxd6 1 5 Bxd6 (15 Qxd6 Qa5 Two points, defending the
1 6 Qxc6 Bxc3 1 7 bxc3 Qxc3 with a Bishop and threatening 17 . . . Qb7
winning attack) 1 5 . . . Nd4 16 Bxf8 1 8 b3 Bxb3 . Take a bonus point if
( 1 6 Bxc5 Nxc2) 1 6 . . . Qxf8 1 7 Nxd4 this was your plan against 16 h5
cxd4 1 8 Ne2 Rc8. Take up to seven also. One point for 16 . . . d5 or
bonus points according to how 16 . . . Nc6.
much of this you had seen (Honest, 1 7 Nxe6
now ! ) . 17 ... Qxe6
13 Bh6 Two points. After 17 . . .fxe6
13 ... Bh8 ! (one point) White can defend by 1 8
Two points. The idea of his Na4.
1 2th move was to preserve the 18 Kbl
blacksquared Bishop from 18 ... Rb7
exchange, so nothing else gains Three points. Simple and
credit. Deduct a point for effective. 18 . . . Qc4 19 Rh3 and
1 3 . . . Bxh6? 14 Qxh6 threatening 1 5 18 . . . Rb6 19 Na4 merit one point
Ng5 . each. 18 . . . Nc6 gains two points.
14 h4 Deduct six points for 18 . . . Bxc3 ? 1 9
14 ..
. Rb8 Qxc3 Qxe4? 2 0 Qg7 mate.
Two points. Black must now 19 Kal
proceed with his attack as quickly
as possible. 14 . . . Be6 gains one
point, but nothing else scores.
14 . . . a5 is too slow, while 14 . . . Bg4
does not prevent 1 5 h5 with
dangerous threats.
1 5 a3
1 5 ... Be6
Three points. Black
activates his last piece, combining
attack and defense. 1 5 . . . Nc6 earns
one point. Take three bonus points
if you planned to meet the obvious
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 63
1 9 ... R8b8 25 . . . Nxc2 mate or 25 . . . Bxc3 26
Two points. Spassky brings Qxc3 Qa2 mate forced the
his last piece into the attack. response.
1 9 . . . Qc4 (one point) is still well White threatened 25 exf5 , so
met by 20 Rh3 . 24 . . . Qf6 and 24 . . . Qf7 (a point
20 Rbl each) are the only alternatives to
20 ... Nc6 score.
Two points. 25 axb4
Take a bonus point if you 25 ... axb4
saw 2 1 Qd5 could be met simply by One point. The open afile
2 1 . . . Bxc3 . decides. Deduct five points for
21 f4 anything else.
21 ... Bd4 ! 26 Na4
Five points. Black prevents 26 ... Ra7
obstruction of his Bishop by e5 and One point. 26 . . . Ra8 also
avoids 2 1 . . .Na5 (two points) 22 f5 ! merits one point. Take a bonus
Qe5 (22 . . . gxj5 23 Qg5ch) 23 Bf4 point if you saw 26 Na2 Ra7 (or
Qf6 24 Bg5 harassing the Black 26. . . Ra8) 27 Qb3 Qxb3 28 cxb3
Queen. Rxa2ch mating.
2 l . . .Nd4 and 2 l . . .f5 gain 27 Qb3
one point each. 27 c4
22 Qd3 One point. Deduct five
22 ... a5 points for other moves, e.g.
Two points. 22 . . . Na5 (two 27 . . . Kf7 28 exf5 !
points) intending 23 . . . Nc4 is 28 Qa2
equally good. 28 ... R8a8
A bonus point if you saw One point.
that 22 f5 Qe5 23 Bf4 fails to 29 exf5
23 . . . Bxc3 24 bxc3 Rxb l ch 25 Rxb l 29 ... Rxa4
Rxb l ch 26 Kxb l Qxe4. One point.
23 Qh3 Timman resigned.
23 ... f5 !
Two points, but only if you Now Total Up Your Points:
saw 24 exf5 gxf5 attacking the Over 65 Grandmaster
Bishop. Spassky keeps Queens on 5565 International Master
to maintain the attack. 4554 National Master
24 Rhel 3544 Expert
24 ... Nb4 ! 2534 Class A
Six points, but only if you
realized that the threat of
64 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
1 524 Class B 6 ... 00
5  1 4 Class C Two points. The Modem
04 Need more study Defense features a counterattack
against White's broad pawn center.
Test No. 13 Black must get his King into safety
You are Black, sitting beside before striking at the center. No
English Grandmaster Raymond credit for other moves.
Keene. Your opponent is 7 g4
International Master Jon Amason 7 ... e5
of Iceland. Two points. You may have
Start your test after the first been drawn to this move by the last
diagram. Cover this page with a note. Black must get some
sheet of notebook paper and lower breathing space in the center,
it line by line. Grade yourself by hence nothing else scores.
guessing Black's moves. When 8 dxe5
ever you have made a White move, dxe5
8 ...
STOP ! and try to work out Black's No credit for this obvious
reply. Keep track of your point
recapture.
awards and see how you grade at
9 f5
the end of the game.
9 ... gxf5
Two points. White menaced
London, 1 981
IO g5 Nh5 l l f6, overrunning the
White: J. Amason Black Kingside in blitzkrieg
Black: R. Keene fashion. One point for 9 . . . Qxd l ch.
Modern Defense After 1 1 Rxd l White still threatens
1 e4 g6 2 d4 Bg7 3 Nc3 d6 4 f4 12 g5, and with the Queens off
Nc6 5 Be3 Nf6 6 h3 Black's prospects of counterplay
are dim.
10 exf5
10 ... Nd4
Two points. White has
followed a variation pioneered by
Bobby Fischer in his game vs.
Udovcic, Zagreb 1 970, except for
I O exf5, an 'improvement' over
Fischer's IO gxf5 .
Again, I O Qxd l ch scores a
. . .
single point, for the reason given.
Deduct four points for IO . . . Qe7? 1 1
Start Your Test Now!
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 65
g5 Nh5 1 2 f6. No credit for other
moves.
1 1 Bg2
1 1 ... Qe7
Three points. This is more
active than the l l . . .Ne8 (one point)
of van der SterrenGoodman,
Phillips & Drew, 1 980. l l . . .c6
with . . . Nd5 to follow is a rec
ommendation of Botterill's; two
points if you chose this. One point
for 1 1 . . . c5, supporting the Knight
on d4. 1 3 ... h6
Two points. Black must now
1 2 Qd2
take steps against 14 g5 . No points
12 ... Rd8
for other moves. 1 3 . . . Qb4 would be
Two points. Black gains a
effectively met by 14 000 .
tempo for his development by
threatening to win White's Queen,
14 000
with the bonus of preventing 1 3 14 ... cs
000 because of 1 3 . . . Nb3 ch. One One point. Deduct a point if
point for 1 2 . . . c5 . White would then you overlooked White's threat to
continue 1 3 000, and if 1 3 . . . Rd8 win a pawn by 1 5 Bxd4 exd4 1 6
1 4 Kb l . Rxd4.
How did you intend to meet 15 Nge2
12 g5?. Two bonus points if you 15 ... a5!
saw that 1 2 . . . Bxf5 1 3 gxf6 Qxf6 Three points. Black must
would give Black a tremendous seek active , counterplay on the
attack for his piece. E.g. 14 Be4 Queenside. The alternative plan of
Bxe4 1 5 Nxe4 Qc6, or 14 Bxd4 1 5 . . . Rb8 (with . . b 7b5 to follow) 
.
exd4 1 5 Ne2 Qg6, or 14 Re l Rad8 two points  is a little slower. What
1 5 Qh5 Bxc2 16 Bxd4 exd4 1 7 did you plan had White played 1 5
Rxc2 dxc3 1 8 bxc3 Qb6. Qh4, threatening 1 6 Bxh6?. No
13 Qf2 points for either 1 5 . . . Kh7 or
(See next diagram) 1 5 . . . QfS. Both would be strongly
answered by 16 Ne4. More in the
spirit of the game would be
1 5 . . . Rd6 (two bonus points),
defending the third rank. If then 1 6
Ne4, 16 . . . R6a6 with good attacking
chances. Or if 16 Bxh6, Bxh6 1 7
Qxh6 Nxg4 wins.
66 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
16 Ng3 20 ... Rxd5!
16 ... a4 Three points. Also take
Two points. The logical three points if you chose this last
followup to his previous move. move. One point for 20 . . . Qd6.
One point for the slightly artificial White could reply 2 1 Nxf6ch Bxf6
1 6 . . . Ra6 intending to continue with 22 Ne4 Qa6 23 Nxf6ch Kg7
. . . b7b5 . (23 . . . KhB? 24 Qh4ch) 24 Bh6ch
1 7 g5 Kh8 25 Bg7ch Kxg7 26 Qg3ch
17 ... hxg5 Kxf6 27 Qh4ch Kg7 28 Qg5ch
One token point. with at least a draw.
18 Bxg5 21 Bxf6
18 ... a3 21 ... Qxf6
One point. Again the only Two points. By capturing
consistent move. No points for with the Queen, Black threatens to
other moves. swing it to a6. Nothing for
2 l . . .Bxf6. After 22 Bxd5 Qd6 23
1 9 Nd5
Ne4 would win for White. Two
19 ... axb2ch
points for seeing that 2 1 Bxd5
One point. Take a bonus
would be met by 2 1 . . .Qd6 and
point if you intended to meet 1 9 b3
. . . Qa6 with a strong attack. E.g. 22
by 1 9 . . . c4 ! breaking up White's
Bc4 b5 23 Bxb5 Qb6 24 Bc4 Ba6
castled position. Another bonus
25 Qfl Nd5 26 Ne4 Bxc4 27 Qxc4
point if you considered 1 9 Nh5 and
Nb5 ! winning.
found the rebuttal 1 9 . . . c4,
threatening 20 . . . Qb4. E.g. 20
22 Bxd5
Nxf6ch Bxf6 2 1 Bxf6 Qxf6 22 Be4 22 ... Qa6
Qb6 threatening mate, and to win One point, after the strong
White's Queen. hint last move.
20 Kbl 23 c3
23 ... c4
Two points. Forcing White's
reply. One point for 23 . . . Nb5 .
After 2 4 Qxb2 e4 25 Re l (25 Nxe4
Bxf5 is dangerous for White),
White is holding on.
24 Qxb2
24 ... Nxf5
One point. Black brings his
Bc8 to life.
25 Nxf5
25 ... Bxf5ch
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 67
One point. A bonus point if
you would have answered 25 Rdg l
with 25 . . . Ne3 26 Be4 Kh8
intending . . .j7.f5. Another bonus
point if you had the same idea in
mind in answer to 25 Nfl after
25 . . . Ne7 26 Be4.
26 Kal
26 ... e4
Two points. Black now
threatens 27 . . . Bxc3 winning at
once.
Two points. Black threatens
27 Rhgl
30 . . . e2. A bonus point if you
27 ... Bg6 realized that this cannot be
Two points. Two bonus
prevented by 30 Qe2? because of
points if you saw that 27 Bxb7 was
30 . . . Bxc3ch.
refuted by 27 . . . Qxa2ch ! 28 Qxa2
30 Qxb7
Bxc3ch 29 Kb l e3ch 30 Kc l (If 30
Qc2 Ra l mate) 30. . . Rxa2 and
30 ... e2
Two points. The most
White is in a mating net. Deduct
energetic.
one point for 27 . . . Kf8 which would
lose to 28 Rxg7 Kxg7 29 Bxb7. 31 Rel
28 Rg4 31 ... Qxc4 !
Four points. Award yourself
28 ... e3
one point if you chose this last
One point. Another point if
move, when it is not quite so
you saw that Black now threatens
incisive after 3 1 Bxc4 Bxc3ch 32
mate by 29. . . Qxa2ch 30 Qxa2
Qb2 e2 3 3 Bxe2 Bxb2ch 3 4 Kxb2
Bxc3 . Deduct two points for falling
into the trap 29 . . . Bxc3 ?? allowing Rxe2ch 3 5 Kb3 . One point for the
prosaic 3 1 . . .Qxb7 32 Bxb7 Bh6.
29 Rxg6 ch.
29 Rxc4 32 Bxc4
29 ... Re8 32 ... Bxc3ch
One point. Nothing for other
(See next diagram)
moves.
33 Qb2
33 ... Bxel !
Three points. Deduct two
points for 3 3 . . . Bxb2ch? 3 4 Kxb2
Bh5 35 Kc3 with a probable draw.
34 Bxe2
68 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
34 ... Bg3 A popular line of play, but
White resigns. He has no one which contains drawbacks that
answer to the threat of 3 5 . . . Be5 . horrified Tarrasch in his day.
Black's weaknesses on d6 and d5
Now total up your points: are a big price to pay for the
Over 57 Grandmaster freedom of action of his pieces.
5057 International Master Nowadays, nobody as White
4449 National Master would take it as casually as
3643 Expert MalmgrenAlekhine in a 1 93 5
273 5 Class A game: 6 Nxc6? bxc6 7 Bg5 (better
2026 Class B 7 Bc4) 7 . . . Rb8 ! 8 Bxf6 Qxf6 9 Bc4
1 4 1 9 Class C Rxb2 10 Bb3 Bb4 ! with Black
0 1 3 Need more study already on the way to a win.
6 Ndb5
Test No. 14 The most logical, and by far
Your have White, sitting the most common, after many
beside the Soviet Grandmaster other moves have been tried. After
Eduard Gufeld. Your opponent is 6 Nb3, for instance, Black could
the Yugoslav Grandmaster Bozidar already weaken White's pressure
Ivanovic. This game is one of rare on his d5 by pinning the key White
depth. Knight with 6 . . . Bb4, threatening
Start your test after the first 7 . . . Nxe4  if 7 Bd3 then 7 . . . d5, and
diagram. Cover this page with a Black is already having fun.
sheet of notebook paper and lower 6 ... d6
it line by line. Grade yourself by 7 Nd5
guessing White's moves. When 7 Bg5, though often played,
ever you have made a Black move, is "another game".
STOP ! and try to work out White's 7 ... Nxd5
reply. Keep track of your point
awards and see how you grade at
the end of the game.
Sochi, 1980
White: E. Gufeld
Black: B. lvanovic
Sicilian Defense
LaskerPelikan Variation
1 e4 c5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 d4 cxd4
4 Nxd4 Nf6 5 Nc3 e5
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 69
Start Your Test Now! One point for 1 1 Be3 ; this bishop
8 exd5 move has more options and the
Two points. Nothing for 8 situation is not suitable for queen
Qxd5 because of the reply 8 . . Be6,
. side castling for White; he is more
furthering Black's development open on that wing.
and preparing . . d5. The attacked
. 1 1 ... g6?
Queen has no square of retreat on If Black intended to develop
which it would not hamper, sooner his bishop on g7, he should have
or later, one of his own Bishops or played this last move.
Rooks, whereas now, Black has to 1 2 00
make another move with his only Three points. This reserves
developed piece, so his devel the most options for White but
opment falls behind. On such little Black's last move justifies 12 Be3
gains can big gains be built. (one point if Qd2 was planned as a
8 .. Nb8 followup). Nothing for anything
Black has screened his d else.
pawn with a White pawn but is at a 12 ... Bg7
loss for a really good move here: 13 Ne4!
8 . . . Ne7 has been played but blocks Five points. A firstclass
both Black's Queen and KB. move starting a harassment of
9 c4 Black which persists the remainder
Three points. That this is of the game. No other move can be
White's followup explains Black's compared with it, but we'll give a
last move and his next. White grudging point for 1 3 b4 or 1 3 f4
consolidates his pawn on d5 after which are constructive.
which a future c4c5. securing a 13 ... Qe7
passed pawn, will always be in the
air. So Black gets his knight to d7
to cover c5. Two points for 9 Be2.
One point for 9 Be3 . Sound but
colorless developing moves.
9 ... a6
10 Nc3
Two points. Nothing for the
obviously inferior 10 Na3 .
10 ... Nd7
Black should have played
l 0 . Be7.
. .
1 1 Be2 14 Qa4
Three points. The most
elastic. Two points for 1 1 Bd3 .
70 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Five points. A superb move. 15 .. Qf8
Now Black cannot castle without The only square . . . so Black
getting into serious difficulties: still will not be able to castle.
14 . . . 00 1 5 Qb4, e.g. 1 5 . . . Nc5 16 16 f4!
Nxc5 dxc5 1 7 Qb6 threatening 18 Four points. Two more
d6 or 18 Be3 and 1 9 b4; if 1 8 . . . Rd8 points if you saw this when playing
1 9 Be3 Bf8 20 Bxc5 ! Take an extra 15 Bg5 . Two more points if you
one, two or three points accord foresaw all the subsequent moves
ingly if you saw some, most or all on each side when playing 14 Qa4.
of this (honest, now !  what did 16 .. h6
you see?) 1 7 Bh4
Take an extra two points if White
Three points.
you found 1 3 Ne4 last time and maintains all his threats. One point
decided that 1 3 . . . Qc7 would have
more if you foresaw that l 7 . . . g5
been even worse for Black than the
would now be useless because of 1 8
move he played because of 14 Qa4
fxg5 . Nothing for 1 7 fxe5, to
00 (14. . .f5 15 Ng5) 1 5 Qa3 Nc5
which Black could reply either
1 6 Nxc5 dxc5 (not 16. . . Qxc5 1 7 b4
17 . . . hxg5 1 8 Nxd6ch Kd8 (un
with Be3 and Rael on the way) 17
pinning his Knight! ) with a
Be3 with a winning advantage in
defensible game, or 1 7 . . . Bxe5 with
development and pawn power.
a comfortable one.
No points for anything else.
17 ... exf4
The game is at its most critical
If, in playing 1 6 f4, you
moment. Many interesting com
foresaw that . . . fxe4, either last
binations are to come, but none
move or now, would fail against
would have been possible without
fxe5 followed by e5e6, take two
this inspired action to keep Black's
more points.
King uncastled and his pieces
cramped.
18 Rxf4
Four points. Pinning the
14 .. f5
Black fpawn, so ruling out
1 5 Bg5 18 . . . fxe4. Two points more if you
Four points. Retreating the
saw the only good answer to
Knight would give Black time to
1 8 . . . g5 now would be 1 9 Rxf5 !
disentangle, castle, then free his
(not 19 Bh5ch Kd8 and if now 20
queenside pieces by . . . Nf6 or
Rxf5? Qxf5 21 Nxd6 would not
. . . Nc5 . For 1 5 Ng5 , one point, a
give check! ) .
kindly one, because after 1 5 . . . 00
18 Be5
1 6 Ne6 Rf7 (or 16 . . . Nc5) 17 Bg5
...
Two points more if you
Bf6 or 1 7 Nc7 Rb8 it would have
noticed that White was actually
had little more than nuisance
threatening 19 Rxf5 ! already (19. . .
value.
Qxf5 20 Nxd6ch or 19 . gxf5 20
. .
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 71
Bh5ch). By protecting his d6 pawn Four points. An extra two
and attacking the Rook at the same points if you intended this when
time, Black seems to have achieved choosing 20 Rxf5 last time. 2 1
as much as he could hope for. Bh5ch now would let Black off the
hook. He could answer 2 1 . . Kf8 .
and, after 22 Rxf5ch Kg8, there
seems to be nothing better for
White than 23 Rf7 which, by
23 . . . Qxf7 24 Bxf7ch Kxf7, leaves
White's attack exhausted. Gufeld
himself confesses that he could see
nothing better than 25 Qd l ,
leading with best play to a draw by
perpetual check.
Now 22 Bh5ch is really
threatened, and there is only one
way to prevent it.
19 Raft !
Four points. To lose the 21 ... h5
exchange, Rook for Bishop, would 22 c5!
be a small price for completing the Four points. Not 22 Bxh5ch
mobilization of his entire force, (deduct two points) 22 . . Rxh5 23
.
with Black's three queenside pieces Rxh5 because of 23 . . Bd4ch 24
.
still useless. Kh l (24 Bf2 Bxf2ch 25 Nxf2 Qxb2)
Nothing for anything else. 24 . . . Qg6.
19 ... Qg7 22 Rxh5 would secure a
On 1 9 . . . Bxf4, White would third pawn for the piece but give
of course have simply recaptured, Black definite chances, after, e.g.
with an enormous preponderance 22 . . . Rxh5 23 Bxh5ch Kf8 of ,
of force. scraping out of his troubles. His
The Yugoslav GM fights knight is unpinned; 24 Qd l Nf6 25
hard: this is another fine defensive Qf3 Ke7 is better than it looks. Of
move in a difficult situation. White's extra pawns, two are
sheltering his king, and he will
20 Rxf5 !
have to be careful over advancing
Five points. A two point
them.
bonus if you chose 19 Rafi and
We will not deduct any
planned this in answer to Black's
last. points for 22 Rxh5, but we shall
not award any.
20 ... gxf5
22 Ng5, planning Ne6, is
21 Rxf5 another nonstarter. It would be
good against 22 . . . b5, e.g. 23 Ne6
72 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
bxa4 24 Nc7 mate. But the reply
22 . . . Qe7 threatening 23 . . . Bd4ch, or
22 . . . Bd5ch 23 Kh l Qe7 would be
adequate for Black. No credit for
22 Ng5 .
22 ... Qh6!
23 Bg5
Three points. How much did
you see of the possible play after 22
c5? Did you plan to answer
22 . . . dxc5 by 23 Nf6ch Bxf6
(forced; if Black walks into a dis
covered check he is smashed) 24 24 Nxd6ch!
Bxf6 Qmoves 25 Qe4ch. . . ? If you Five points. Did you chose
saw all this, take two bonus points. this move last time? You deducted
No credit for 23 Nf6ch two points? Then cancel that
instead of the move White has penalty and take six more points,
chosen. After the forced 23 . . . Bxf6 for it would have won just a little
White has either: more clearly and expeditiously
1) 24 Bxf6 Qc lch 25 Bfl (or than 23 Bg5 . Had we revealed this
25 Rfl ? Qe3ch) 25 . . . Qe3ch 26 Kh l then, it would have handed you 24
Rf8 ; or Nxd6ch on a plate.
2) 24 Rxf6 Qc lch 25 Bfl Any move other than 24
Qxc5ch 26 Bf2 Qxd5 or 26 Kh l Nxd6ch earns a two point penalty,
Qe3 . for White's Rook is en prise and
In either line of play Black his Queen liable to find herself out
decoys valuable pieces back out of of play in some eventualities.
White's attack. 23 Bxh5ch (deduct Go back to White's 23rd
one point) is also poor ; 23 . . . Qxh5 move. The analysis after 23
24 Rxh5 Rxh5 and Black has three Nxd6ch Bxd6 24 Qe4ch would be :
pieces for a Queen who is running 1 ) 2 4 . . . Ne5 25 cxd6 Bxf5
out of partners. (25. . . Qclch 26 Rfl Qc5ch 2 7 Bf2
Deduct a point for 23 Rxh5, Qxd6 28 Bd4 and Black is
with similar play. Deduct two defenseless) 26 Qxe5ch Be6 27
points for anything else, as Black's Bg5 (27 Qxe6ch only draws, whilst
threats to cause trouble with his 27 dxe6 Qclch 28 Bfl 00! is less
Queen render less forcing moves clear) 27 . . . Qxg5 (27. . . Qg6 28 Bd3!
useless. Qxd3 29 Qxe6ch mates) 28 Qxg5
23 ... Qg6! and Black has no time to save the
Bishop because of the mating
threat;
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 73
2) 24 ... Be5 25 c6 ! (25 c6 bxc6 27 dxc6 Rf8 28 cxd7ch
Rxe5ch Nxe5 27 Qxe5ch Kj7 only (not 28 Rxe5ch Nxe5 29 Qxe5ch
draws) 25 . . . Qc l ch 26 Bfl Qc5ch Kj7! 30 Qe 7ch Kg8 31 Bc4ch Rj7
27 Kh l Qd6 28 cxd7ch Kxd7 and Black is saved) 28 . . . Kxd7 29
(28. . . Bxdl 29 Rxe5ch) 29 Rxe5 Qa4ch. A sample line is 29 . . . Kd6
Kc7 30 Re7ch and Black is soon 30 Qb4ch Ke6 3 1 Qe7ch ! Kxf5 3 2
mated. Bd3ch Kg4 3 3 h3ch Kg3 34
Help yourself to one, two or Qxe5ch, mating.
three extra bonus points if you saw Deduct two points if you
that 22 . . . Qg6 would lose by 23 rejected that because of 27 Qxe5ch
Nxd6ch Bxd6 24 Qe4ch. Another Kf7 28 Qxh8 Qxg5 29 Bxh5ch
if you saw 24 . . . Ne5 25 Rxe5ch Kf7 Ke7 30 Qe8ch Kf6 3 1 Qd8ch Kf5
26 Qf3ch Kg8 27 cxd6. 32 g4ch Kf4. Take only one extra
24 ... Bxd6 point if you saw most of it 
25 Qe4ch sensing that White is running out
Three points. Deduct two of steam without analyzing
points for 25 Bd3 (threatening 26 through to the end.
Re5ch) which would lose to Deduct three points for any
25 . . . Bxc5ch 26 Kh l Be7. Deduct other move.
two points for 25 Rf6 or anything 26 ... Qg7
else. More bonus points  one or
25 ... Be5 two according to how much you
White is now a Rook and a saw of a plausible alternative
Knight down, but what an attack ! defense: 26 . . . QxfS 27 Qxf5 Bd4ch
25 . . . NeS would have lost 28 Kh l Nxc5 29 Qg6ch Kd7 30
quickly by 26 Rxe5ch Kf7 (Black's Bf5ch Kc7 3 1 d6ch Kb8 32 d7 !
Queen needs protecting) 27 Qf4ch White gets there with not a
Kg7 28 cxd6. A bonus point if you lot to spare.
noticed this would have been 27 c6
decisive. Three points. Now, this
26 Bd3 wins. Deduct two points for 27 Bf6
Three points. For 26 c6 take which would leave White lost after
two points. Gufeld himself was 27 . . . Nxf6 28 Rxe5ch Kd8 or 28
tempted by the pretty variation Qxe5ch Kf7 .
26 . . . Rf8 27 cxd7ch Kxd7 28 Qxe5 27 ... bxc6
Re8 29 Qf4 Rxe2 30 Rf7ch Ke8 3 1 28 dxc6
Rf8ch and mate next move. Two points. Nothing for
A nother bonus point if you saw all anything else.
this, and reckoned that Black had 28 ... Nc5
nothing better after 26 . . . Rf8. Two 29 Rxe5ch
further bonus points if you saw 26
74 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Two points. Nothing for One point.
anything else. 33 ... Qe7
29 ... Ne6 An extra point if you saw
Black fights to the end. This the mate after 3 3 . . . Kf8 by 3 4
,
sets a little trap. Bh6ch.
30 Bc4 34 Qg6ch
Three points. 30 c7 (deduct Two points. Deduct two
one point) which looks a killer, points for anything else. Black
would allow Black to escape by Resigns.. Take an extra point if
30 . . . 00 ! you foresaw how Gufeld would
30 ... Qa7ch have answered 34 . . . Kf8 (by 35
Bh6ch) and 34 . . . Kd8 (by 35 Bg5).
Now Total up your points :
1 1 0 or more: Grandmaster strength
90 1 1 0 National Master
7089 A strong Expert
5069 Class A
3049 Class B
2029 Class C
0 1 9 Need more study
Test No. 1 5
31 Be3 You have Black. Your
partner is Woldzimierz Schmidt,
Three points. Nothing for 3 1
Poland's only GM. Your opponent
Kh l 00 with potential threats of
is the Danish GM Bent Larsen .
. . . Rfl mate. Deduct two points for
3 1 Qe3 ? or anything else. Start your test after the first
diagram. Cover this page with a
3 1 ... Qh7
sheet of notebook paper and lower
Black has usefully decoyed
it line by line. Grade yourself by
White's QB back from the attack.
guessing Black's moves. When
32 Rxe6ch! ever you have made a White move,
Three points. Nothing for 3 2 Bxe6,
STOP ! and try to work out Black's
which would seriously jeopardize
reply. Keep track of your point
the win after 32 . . . Qxe4 33 Bd7 dbl.
awards and see how you grade at
ch Kf7 34 Rxe4 Bxd7 35 cxd7
the end of the game.
Rhd8 36 Rd4 Ke6. Deduct two
points for anything else.
Sweden 1971
32 ... Bxe6
White: B. Larsen
33 Qxe6ch
Black: W. Schmidt
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 75
Bird's Opening not offer the exchange of Queens,
1 f4 Nf6 2 Nf3 g6 3 d3 d5 4 e3 reducing White's attacking
Bg7 5 Be2 00 6 00 c5 7 Qel potential.
Nc6 8 Qh4 b6 9 Nbd2 Ba6 10 1 1 c3
Rf2 1 1 ... e5
Two points. Two points also
for l 1 . . .Nd6, but only if you were
intending to follow up with 1 2 . . . e5 .
No points for other, more
passive moves.
12 Qxd8
12 ... Rxd8
One point. Deduct two
points for 1 2 . . . NxdS? which loses
the epawn. Award yourself an
extra point if you intended to meet
12 Qg3 with 12 . . . d4 !
13 fxe5
10 ... Ne8 13 ... Nxe5
Three points. By his 10th One point. No points for
move Larsen is trying to improve 13 . . . d4 which loses a pawn to 1 4
on his game with Benko at exd4 cxd4 1 5 cxd4 Nxd4 1 6 Nxd4
Rxd4 1 7 Nf3 followed by 1 8 d4 .
Portoroz in 1 958, where he had
played 1 0 Ne5 Nxe5 1 1 fxe5 Nd7 14 Nxe5
1 2 e6 with a roughly equal game. 14 ... Bxe5
White is preparing a kingside One point.
attack by g2g4 and Rg2 and Black 15 a4
must be ready to counter with a
thematic central thrust.
One point for 10 . . . Nd7. The
Knight would not be so well placed
on this square and White would
have the possibility of 1 1 c4 as
Black's dpawn would be un
defended. No points for 10 . . . d4?
White would have a tremendous
game after the simple 1 1 e4. One
point only for 10 . . . Qc7 which is
not as accurate as the move played
because a subsequent . . . e5 would 15 .. . Bb7
76 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Two points. Black removes
his a6 Bishop from a possible
attack by White's Ral , and
prepares . . . d4. If at once 1 5 . . . d4
(no points) 1 6 exd4 cxd4 1 7 Nf3
would lead to a better ending for
White.
Deduct four points for
1 5 . . . Nd6?? 1 6 d4 winning a piece.
One point for 1 5 . . . Bg7.
16 d4
1 6 ... Bb7
Two points. No points for 19 ... d4 !
other moves. Black prepares to Three points. Black cannot
pressurize White's backward e win a pawn by 1 9 . . . dxe4? (no
pawn, and at the same time points) because of 20 Be3 c4 2 1
maintains the pressure on d4. Nc5 when White recovers the
pawn with a better game (21. . . Bd5
1 7 dxc5
22 Nd7). Three points also for
1 7 ... bxc5
19 . . . Nd6. After 20 exd5 Bxd5 2 1
One point. An extra point if
Nd2 c4 Black stands well.
you planned to meet 17 a5 by
1 7 . . . Bh6 ! 1 8 Nf3 or 1 8 Nfl (18 20 cxd4
Nb3 c4) 1 8 . . . Nd6. 20 ... cxd4
1 8 Nb3 One point. Nothing for
20 . . . Bxd4, conceding the Bishop
18 ... Rc8
pair, nor for 20 . . . Bxe4 2 1 dxc5 (or
Two points. Deduct a point
21 Be3) 2 1 . . .Bd5 22 Ra3 when
if you chose 1 8 . . . c4. After 19 Nd4
White is out of the woods.
White's problems would be largely
solved. 21 Bg5 ! ?
1 9 e4 ! ? 21 ... Nd6 !
Six points. A fine positional
(See next diagram)
sacrifice of the exchange, bringing
all Black's pieces into the fray.
Two points for 2 1 . . .Bxe4 . It is not
clear that Black has sufficient
compensation for the exchange
after 22 Be7 d3 23 Bf3 .
One point only for 2 l . . .f6,
which has the drawback of leaving
the dpawn en prise after 22 Bf4.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 77
Two bonus points if you Award yourself two bonus
intended to meet 2 1 Bd3 by points if you had realized when
2 1 . . .Nd6, and if 22 Re2 Rfe8 23 playing 23 . . . Bxf8 that you were
Nd2 Bh6 winning a pawn (24 e5 setting a trap, and would have
Be3ch). answered 24 Nxd4? by 24 . . . Nxfl
22 Be7 25 Kxf2 Bc5 26 Rd l Rd8 27 Ke3
22 ... Nxe4 Re8ch winning a piece (28 Kf2
One point. No other moves Re4 29 Bj3 Rxd4).
score. 25 Rfdl
23 Bxtll 25 ... Belch
23 ... Bxtll Two points. The strongest
Two points. One point for continuation, holding onto the
23 . . . Kxf8. No points for 23 . . . Rxf8 passed dpawn. 25 . . . Rc2 (no
deactivating the Rook. Deduct four points) would throw away most of
points for 23 . . . Nxfl, which loses a Black's initiative. For example, 26
whole piece after 24 Bxg7. Nxd4 Be3ch 27 Kfl Nd2ch 28 Ke l
24 R2fl Rxb2 29 Nf3 Nxf3ch 30 gxf3
Bh6 would be unclear.
24 ...
26 Kfl
26 ... Rd8 !
Three points. Again the only
move to score. Deduct a point if
you still played 26 . . . Rc2 despite the
warning in the last note. Give
yourself an extra point if you saw
that 26 . . . Nf2 (no points) is refuted
by 27 Rxd4.
27 Na5
27 ... Bd5
Two points. Black cannot
Three points. Black's best allow 28 Nc4, which would follow
move, bringing his Bj8 to its best upon 27 . . . Ba8 (no points). Deduct
square, while also preventing two points for 27 . . . Nd2ch which
White from opposing Rooks on the fails to 28 Rxd2 .
cfile. 28 Bb5
Two points for the natural 28 ... Rc8 !
24 . . . Rc2. This has the drawback of Three points. Now that
allowing White to force off a pair White is no longer attacking the d
of Rooks by 25 Bd3 (25 Nxd4? pawn, Black threatens to bring his
Bc5) 25 . . . Rxb2 26 Rfb l . rook to the seventh rank. At the
78 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
same time he prevents 29 Bc6 32 ... Bxg2
which would lead to a reasonable Two points. Better than
game for White after 28 . . . a6 (no 32 . . . Bxd4 (one point). Black keeps
points) 29 Bc6 Bxc6 30 Nxc6 Rd6 White's King in prison, and also
3 1 Ne5 . picks up the hpawn. After
N o points fo r 28 . . . Nd2ch. 32 . . . Bxd4 3 3 Rxd4 Bxg2 34 Bxfl
After 29 Ke2 Black's Knight would Re i ch 3 5 Kd2 Rxfl 36 Rd7 the
have to retreat to e4. win would not be as easy as in the
29 Ra3 game
29 ... Nd2ch! 33 Rd8ch
Three points. The most 33 ... Kg7
direct line. Deduct four points for Forced  no points.
moves like 29 . . . Rc2? which 34 Be2
overlook White's threat of 30 Rxe3 .
One point only for the ingenious
29 . . . Bd2 which allows White to
wriggle out by 30 Nb3 Bb4 3 1
Rxd4 Bxa3 3 2 bxa3 Bxb3 3 3 Rxe4.
30 Kel
30 .. Rc2
Two points. Also two if you
planned to answer 30 Ke2 by
30 . . . Rc2 with the follow up 3 1
Rxe3 Nc4 dis. ch 32 Kd3 Nxe3 ,
maintaining Black's advantage, in
mind. Deduct four points for 34 ... Nxh2
30 . . . Bxg2 or other moves which
Two points, but only if you
ignore the threat of 3 1 Rxd2 .
noticed you were now threatening
3 1 Rd3 35 . . . Nf3ch 36 Bxf3 Bf2 mate.
31 . Nfl! ! Nothing for other moves.
Six points. Only two points 35 Rld3
for 3 l . . .Nc4 32 Bxc4 Bxc4 3 3
35 ... Bb6
Nxc4 Rxc4 34 b3 Rc2 3 5 R l d2
Two points. This wins the
when Black's winning chances are
exchange. Of course, 35 R8d3
slim. Deduct four points for
would have been answered by 3 5 . . .
3 l . . .Ne4 allowing 32 Rxe3 , and for
Nf3ch as i n the last note.
moves which allow 32 R(either)
36 b4
xd2 . A bonus point if you saw that
32 Kxfl ?? leads to mate by 32 . . . 36 ... Bxd8
Bxg2ch 3 3 Ke l Bf2. One generous point.
32 Rxd4 37 Rxd8
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 79
37 ... Bf3 You have Black. Your
One point. No points for partner is Boris Gulko, cowinner
37 . . . Ra2 38 Rd7 Rxa4 39 Bc4 of the 1 977 USSR Championship.
allowing White some swindling Your opponent is Gennady
chances. Timoschenko, a strong Soviet
38 Bc4 master.
38 ... Ng4 Start your test after the first
Two points, but only if you diagram. Cover this page with a
saw this menaces 3 9 . . . Rc l ch 40 sheet of notebook paper and lower
Kd2 Rd l ch. it line by line. Grade yourself by
guessing Black's moves.
39 Re8
Whenever you have made a
39 ... Kf6
White move, STOP ! and try to
This prevents 40 Re7
work out Black's reply. Keep track
winning a pawn.
of your point awards and see how
40 Bb3 you grade at the end of the game.
40 ... Rb2
A point for this accurate Baku 1977
move, keeping White's knight
White: G. Timoschenko
inactive.
Black: B. Gulko
41 b5
Ruy Lopez
41 ... h5
Two points. Award yourself
1 e4 e5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 Bb5 Nf6 4
two extra points if you planned to 00 Bc5 5 Nxe5 Nxe4 6 Qe2
meet 42 Rh8 by 42 . . . Re2ch 43 Kf1 Nxe5 7 Qxe4 Qe7 8 d4 Nc6 9
(43 Kdl Re8 dis. ch) 43 . . . Ne3ch 44 Qg4
Kg l Rg2ch 45 Kh l Nfl .
Larsen Resigned.
Now add up your points:
over 65  Grandmaster
5565  International Master
4554  National Master
3 544  Expert
2734  Class A
2026  Class B
1 5  1 9  Class C
0 1 4  Need more study
Start Your Test Now!
Test No. 16 9 ... h5 !
80 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Five points. This move has a 1 1 b4
history. In the 1 976 Soviet 11 ... Bb6
Championship at Moscow, Gulko One point. Again the only
played 9 . . . f5 against Dorfman here. move. Subtract three points from
He was trounced convincingly after your score for 1 1 . . .Nxb4 ?? which
1 0 Qh5ch g6 I I Qd l Nxd4 1 2 b4 ! would lose the Queen to 1 2 Re l .
Bb6 1 3 c4 Qe2?! (13 . . . 00 is 1 2 c4
slightly better) 1 4 c5 ! (not 14 Rel 12 .. 00!
Nj3ch!) 1 4 . . . Qxd l 1 5 Rxd l Nxb5 Four points. If you had
1 6 a4 Nd6 1 7 cxd6, leaving Black's played 12 . . . Qe2? (deduct two
queenside development in a points) 1 3 c5 ! would have put you
terrible mess. 9 . . . h5 ! is Gulko's straight back into the Dorfman
attempt to improve on this. It is game. 1 3 . . . Qxd l 1 4 Rxd l Nc2
based upon the point that 10 Qxg7 would not be an improvement here
Bxd4 1 1 Qg3 h4 12 Qg4 (12 because of 1 5 Bb2 Nxa l ( 1 5. . . c6
Qxc 7? Be5) would leave the White 16 Bd3) 16 Bxa l c6 1 7 cxb6 cxb5
Queen still exposed to attacks from 18 Bxg7 and if the attacked rook
the Black pieces. moves to g8 or h 7, then 1 9 Re i ch
If you played 9 .. .f5?! take a
and 20 Bf6 is mate . .
consolation point. You did at least Deduct two points also if
realize something had to be done you played 1 2 . . . Ne2ch? 1 3 Kh l
about the threat to Black's g7 Bd4. 1 4 Re l 00 1 5 Rxe2 Qf6 1 6
pawn. Bg5 ! would be crushing. Take two
Deduct two points, however, extra points, however, if you
for 9 . . . Nxd4 which ignores the considered this line and further
attack on g 7. After 10 Qxg7 Rf8
perceived that 1 3 . . . Ne2ch and
either 1 1 Bd3 or 1 1 b4 would put 14 . . . Bd4 would win comfortably if
White on top. Deduct four points White blundered now by 1 3 Qxh5?
for 9 . . . Bxd4 ?? which would lose a
13 c5
piece by 1 0 Bxc6 and 1 1 Qxd4.
13 Nxb5
Timoschenko now tries to
...
One point. The only move to
steer the game into the channels of
score. White threatens both 1 4
DorfmanGulko. Be on the lookout
cxb6 and 1 4 Qxd4.
for an appropriate moment to
diverge from that game ! 14 a4
Timoschenko is still copying
1 0 Qd1
Dorfman's ideas, but the positions
10 ... Nxd4
have diverged sufficiently for this
One point. 10 . . . Bxd4?? still
to fail.
loses a piece to 1 1 Bxc6 (deduct
four points). 1 1 Re l would now be
answered by l 1 . . .Ne6.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 81
One point. The pin on the
Rook ensures the safety of the
Knight. An extra point if you
would have answered 1 7 Qxh5 by
1 7 . . . Nd4 1 8 Bb2 c5. No points for
16 . . . Nc3 17 Nxc3 Qxc3 18 bxc7
Qxc7 19 Qxh5 . Black's poo r pawn
formation gives away a lot of his
previous advantage.
Because moves such as 1 7
Rd2 leave White with a terrible
position two pawns down,
14 ... Qf6 ! Timoschenko tries a plan based
Five points. Winning the upon forcing the Black Knight to
game. In his game against a 7.
Dorfman, Gulko would not have 1 7 Bb2
had this resource. Had he tried 17 ... Qg6
1 3 . . . 00 14 c5 Nxb5 1 5 a4 Qf6 Two points. Initiating a
there would have been 16 Qb3ch series of moves which prevent the
and 17 Bb2. Deduct a point for incarceration of the knight. Other
1 4 . . .Nd6 15 cxd6 Qxd6 16 Qxd6 queen moves do not score. For
cxd6 which leaves Black with an instance 17 . . . Qe6? would force the
extremely constricted position. Rook where it wants to go.
Nothing for 14 . . . Bxc5 1 5 18 Rat
bxc5 Qxc5 1 6 axb5 Qxb5. Black
18 ... Bh3!
would have four pawns for the
Three points. If you could
piece, but none of them are
see nothing better ,than 1 8 . . . Na7,
sufficiently advanced to be
take one point. It is not that 1 9 b5
dangerous. No points either for
would place Black in great
14 . . . d6. 1 5 cxb6 axb6 16 Bb2
difficulties, but rather that White is
allows the Black Knight to be
given ample time to justify the loss
forced back to a 7.
of two pawns.
15 Ra2 19 Qf3
15 ... d6 Bg4
19 ...
Two points. Also two for
Two points. The com
1 5 . . . Nc3 . Black should keep the
plement to Black's last. Where is
advantage after 16 Nxc3 Qxc3 1 7
the White queen to go? If you
cxb6 axb6 1 8 Qxh5 d6 (or even
considered 20 Qb3 and intended
18 . . . Qxb4).
20 . . . Bf5 (threat 20. . . Bc2) 2 1 axb5
16 cxb6 Bc2 ! 22 Qc3 Rxa l 23 Bxa l Bxb l
16 ... axb6 2 4 Qxc7 Bd3 25 Re l Be4, leaving
82 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
weak White squares on the Two points. The alternative
kingside, take two bonus points. is to defend the cpawn by
20 Qxb7 24 . . . Rbc8 (one point). It is true that
25 Rxc7? Rxc7 26 Qxc7 Rc8
would lose White a piece, but he
could improve by 25 Rb 1 , when he
is only a pawn down, albeit with an
inferior position.
25 Rxc7
25 ... Rbc8
One point. White's Knight is
in deadly danger through the threat
of 26 . . . Rxc7 and 27 . . . Rc8. Take a
bonus point if you would have
answered 26 Rxc8 Rxc8 27 Nd5?!
20 ... Qc2 ! by 27 ... Rxc7 28 Nxb4 Rc5,
Three points. Completing winning another pawn and the
the maneuver begun on move 17. game. Deduct three points for
Black intends either 2 1 . . .Qxb2 or 25 . . . Rfc8? A blunder! White would
2 1 . . .Rxa4 so White's reply is play 26 Nd5, intending 27 Ne7ch
forced. and 26 . . . Bxd5 fails to 27 Rxc8
with check.
21 axb5
21 .. Rab8 26 Rbl
One point. Deduct six points 26 ... Qa3
for 2 1 . . .Qxb2?? 22 Rxa8. Two points. One point for
26 . . . Qd4 which also maintains an
22 Qc6
attack on the White Knight. A
22 ... Qxb2
generous point for 26 . . . Qxb l ch ! ?
One point.
2 7 Nxb l Rxc7 2 8 Qxc7 Rc8 2 9
23 Nc3 Qxc8ch Bxc8. Black has good
23 ... Be6 chances in the ending, but the
Three points. Gulko middlegame is even better for him.
prevents any counterplay which After 26 . . . Qa3 , 27 Ne4 can
might result from the Knight be answered by 27 . . . Rxc7 28 Qxc7
reaching d5. One point for Rc8 and 29 . . . Rc l ch. 27 Ne2 would
23 . . . Qxb4 when 24 Nd5 Qc5 25 lose to 27 . . . Rxc7 28 Qxc7 Qd3 29
Nxc7 Rfc8 26 Ra7 is less clear Re l Rc8 30 Qb7 ! (30 Qxb6?
than the game. Qxe2l) 30 . . . Qxb5 (30. . . Qxe2? 3 1
24 Ra7 Qxc8chl) with Black two solid
24 ... Qxb4 pawns up. Take one point if you
saw the first variation, two if you
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 83
saw the second, three if you saw 2833  Expert
both. 2327  Class A
1 922  Class B
1 4 1 9  Class C
0 1 3  Need more study
Test No. 1 7
You are White. Your
partner is Anatoly Karpov, former
world champion. Your opponent is
Silvino Garcia, the Cuban grand
master.
Start your test after the first
diagram. Cover this page with a
27 Ndl sheet of notebook paper and lower
Rxc7 it line by line. Grade yourself by
27 ...
guessing White's moves.
One point.
Whenever you have made a Black
28 Qxc7
move, STOP ! and try to work out
28 ... Rc8 White's reply. Keep track of your
One point. This cuts off the
point awards and see how you
Queen's retreat down the cfile. grade at the end of the game.
Nothing else scores.
29 Qxb6 Portoroz 1 975
29 ... Qa2 ! White: A. Karpov
Three points. Much the
Black: S. Garcia
clearest win. The White Rook is
Sicilian Defense
forced off the back rank. 30 Rb2 or
30 Nc3 would be met by 1 e4 c5 2 NfJ Nc6 3 d4 cxd4 4
30 . . . Qxb2 ! or 30 . . . Qxb l ch! One Nxd4 g6 5 Nc3 Bg7 6 Be3 Nf6
point for 29 . . . Rc l .
I da
B.JLaw BB
w
30 Rb4
30 ... Qd2 ! t t t  t
..
. . . .... '.
t
.
Two points. Black threatens
. 
.
3 1 . . .Qe l mate, 3 1 . . .Qxd l mate and
3 1 . . . Qxb4 ! Black resigned.
" tc
tlJ

Now total up your points : " . 
!R

.e. fQ .e.
'.
over 4 7  Grandmaster fQ .e.
4046  International Master .u. .u. r .u.
3 43 9  National Master
. 
/\
'Y::t'
84 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
game move or long castling. No
Start Your Test Now!
points for other moves.
7 Bc4
1 1 ... Rfc8
Three points for this move,
1 2 000
and for the solid 7 Be2 as well.
Three points. A grudging
Two points for 7 f4, but deduct a
point if you chose 1 2 00 in spite of
point for 7 f3 ?, which favored
the last note. No credit for the
Black after 7 . . . 00 8 Nb3 a5 9 Bb5
premature 1 2 g4? ! , which allows
d5 1 0 exd5 Nb4 1 1 d6 Bf5 1 2 Re l
Black to begin immediate action
a4 1 3 Nd4 Qxd6 1 4 Nxf5 Qxd l 1 5
with 12 . . . Ne5, gaining the added
Rxd l gxf5 16 Bc5 Nc2ch 1 7 Kf2
impetus of attackingj3.
Rfc8 1 8 Bxe7 a3 in Rubel
Aronson, USSR 1 957. A single 1 2 ... Ne5
point for 7 Nxc6, which leads only 13 Kbl
to equal play after 7 . . . bxc6 8 e5 Two points for this, threat
Nd5 . ening Nd5 in some variations, and
7 .. 00 securing the castled position a bit.
8 Bb3 13 ... b5
Three points. Alternatives
are not as good, but a single point
each for 8 Nb3 (8 d6!), 8 f3 and 8
. . .
Qd2.
8 ... d6
9 f3
Three points for the text,
while 9 h3 is worth two points.
9 ... Bd7
10 Qd2
Two points. Also take two
points for 1 0 00.
1 0 ... Qa5 14 Ncxb5
Four points. Black's last
1 1 h4
move offered a pawn sacrifice to
Without stopping to castle
open lines on the queenside. In the
as yet, White immediately begins
initial game in this variation
storming the kingside. Three
(MatulovicKorchnoi, Sousse,
points for the text, but also three
1 967) White refused the pawn and
points for 1 1 000, which many
then got the advantage after 1 4
players would choose almost by
Bh6 Bxh6 1 5 Qxh6 Rxc3 1 6 bxc3
reflex. Two points for 1 1 00,
Qxc3 17 Ne2 Qc5 18 Nf4 Nc4 1 9
which offers less prospects than the
Nd5 . Subsequently it was
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 85
discovered that Black could play Nothing for 1 6 Bxc4 Qxc4
l 8 . . . a5 ! intending . . . a4 with which enables Black to begin an
equality at the very least. Another attack by . . . Rab8, and, if necessary,
idea for Black after 14 Bh6 is . . . a7a5 and . . . a4.
14 . . . Nc4 1 5 Bxc4 Bxh6 16 Qxh6 1 6 ... Rab8
bxc4, which gives him excellent 1 7 Bel !
counter chances down the bfile. Six points. Modestly retiring
Take two points each for 14 Bh6 pieces to the back rank is a
and 14 h5. Both are thematic specialty of Karpov. The point of
Dragon moves, but they do not this move is the prevention of
quite fill the bill in this position. 1 7 . . . Qb7, unpinning the Knight.
Take a couple of bonus This now fails to 1 8 Bxc4 
points if you considered the reply previously impossible because of
14 . . . Qxd2 and intended playing the 1 8 . . . Qxb2 mate. With the Queen
paradoxical 1 5 Bxd2 ! stuck fast on a6 Black finds it
14 ... Qa6 impossible to obtain counterplay by
15 Nc3 . . . a5a4. Moves such as 1 7 g4 or
Two points. The natural 1 7 h5, allowing 1 7 . . . Qb7 only gain
retreat for the attacked Knight. It is one point each.
true that 15 Na3 would prevent 17 ... Rb4
1 5 . . . Nc4, but then 1 5 . . . Qb7, Still striving to free his
intending . . . a 7a5 and . . . a4 is Queen, Garcia places his Rook on
difficult to meet. 15 a4 would a vulnerable square.
involve a drastic weakening of the 18 h5
queenside after 1 5 . . . Nc4 16 Bxc4 Two points. Thus far
Rxc4 17 b3 . No score for either of Karpov has avoided the routine
these two moves. attacking moves of the Sicilian
15 ... Nc4? Dragon. Having tied up the Black
16 Qd3! pieces on the queenside, he now
Three points. Now we can judges the time ripe for a transfer
see another reason why is was not of operations to the other side of
wise to prevent . . . Nc4 last move. the board. 1 8 . . . Nxh5 now loses
The pinning of the Knight against immediately to 19 Nd5 . Karpov
the Queen is extremely difficult to gives another variation which
escape from. 16 Qe2 with similar demonstrates the vulnerability of
intentions would not be so strong. the Rook on b4: 1 8 . . . Qb6? loses the
Positionally it is not good to take exchange after 1 9 hxg6 hxg6 20
away the important e2 square from a3 ! Nxa3ch 2 1 bxa3 Rxd4 22 Qxd4
the White Knight. Tactically Black Qxd4 23 Rxd4 Rxc3 when 24 Rc4 !
can annoy White by 16 . . . Nh5 ! leaves White with much the
superior ending. Take up to three
86 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
points accordingly to how much of 2 1 Nb3 . In this position White
the above variation you saw. threatens 22 Na5 or 22 Bg5
You may have been tempted planning 23 e5 ! Give yourself four
to play 1 8 a3 , trying to keep the points if you foresaw these two
Black Queen tied to the defense of variations, two points if you only
the Knight. One point for this considered one.
move. Black plays 1 8 . . . Rb7 19 h5 20 ... Bxh6
R7c7 intending 20 . . . Nxa3ch  after 21 Rxh6
2 1 bxa3 the c3 Knight is en prise. One point.
1 8 ... Qb7 21 ... Kg7
19 hxg6 22 Rdhl
One point. White's chances Two points. 22 R6h l is too
lie down the hfile. 1 9 a3 does not passive. After the game move there
merit a point. Black saves the is certainly no reason to be afraid
Knight on c4 by 1 9 . . . Ne5 . One of 22 . . . Nh5 . 23 R6xh5 gxh5 24
rather generous bonus point if you Nd5 ! gives White an excellent
noticed that 1 9 . . . fxg6? in answer to position.
the text would lose to 20 a3 . The 22 ... Qb6
Black Knight is pinned against the
23 Nde2!
King and can no longer go to e5.
Four points. Black's last few
19 ... hxg6 moves aimed to deflect the Rook
from defense of d4. It would be a
bad mistake therefore if you played
23 a3 ? Black simply plays
23 . . . Nxa3ch and 24 . . . R4xc3 .
Deduct two points for 23 a3 ?
Deduct three points if you sought
to bolster the Knight on d4 by 23
Nce2? 23 . . . e5 wins a piece !
The consequences of 23 Nd5
were far from clear. Black replies
23 . . . Nxd5 (not 23 . . . Qxd4? 24
Rh 7ch! Kj8 25 Rh8ch and either
20 Bh6 25. . . Kg7 26 Rlh 7ch Nxh 7 2 7
Two points. White's attack Qxd4ch or 25. . . Ng8 2 6 Rxg8ch
far outstrips his opponent's on the Kxg8 27 Nxe 7ch Kj8 28 Qxd4
other flank. After 20 . . . a5 2 1 Bxg7 Na3ch 29 bxa3 Rxd4 30 Nxc8
Kxg7 22 a3 ! Ne5 fails to 23 Qd2 Bxc8 31 Rh8ch wins for White) 24
threatening mate. On 20 . . . Bh8 Rh7ch Kg8 25 Rh8ch Kg7 26
Karpov intended 20 Bxc4 R4xc4 Rl h7ch Kf6 27 exd5 Ne5 ! and it is
dubious whether White can gain
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 87
sufficient compensation for the One point. Nothing for 27
piece. After 23 Nde2, 24 Nd5 is a Qd2 . It is important that the Queen
definite threat. should not be attacked after . . . Nxj3.
23 e6 27 Bxc8
24 g4 28 g5
Two points. White threatens Two points. This handy
25 g5 Nh5 26 R l xh5 gxh5 27 e5 ! little move either forces a Knight
Nxe5 28 Qh7ch. Deduct four retreat or move to the edge of the
points for 24 a3? Rxb3 25 cxb3 board. In both cases its utility is
Qxb3 . White must give up his considerably diminished.
Queen to stop mate: 26 Qc2 28 ... N6d7
Nxa3ch. 29 a3 !
24 .. Kt8 Three points. The point of
the combination begun by 25
Rh8ch; the Black Rook has no
escape. Take two points if you
played 28 a3 ! last move. Take a
further three points if you planned
a3 ! when playing 25 Rh8ch. Take
two points if you saw the
combination only after a little
prompting.
29 . Rxb3
30 cxb3
Black, down a pawn and the
25 Rh8ch exchange, now seeks to grab some
Two points. White begins a material back.
combination which eventually 30 NxfJ?
leads to the win of the exchange. If 31 Nf4
you missed the last move stop now Two points. Black's last was
and try to work out White's in fact a mistake. White threatens
continuation. 32 N(either)d5ch and 32 Qxf3 to
25 ... Ke7 which there is no good answer.
26 Rxc8 Nothing for other moves.
One point. Black's next is 31 Qf2
forced to save the Nc4. (See next diagram)
26 ... Ne5
27 Qdl
88 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
1 924  Class B
1418  Class C
0 1 3  Need more study
Test No. 18
You are White, sitting
beside Nona Gaprindashvili, at the
time the women's World Champ
ion. Your opponent is Nana
Alexandria, the strong Soviet
player. The game is the 1 1th of
their World Championship match
32 Nxg6ch! held at Tbilisi in 1 975 .
Three points. The cleanest Start your test after the first
way to win though, 32 N(either) diagram. Cover this page with a
d5ch exd5 33 Nxd5ch Ke6 34 Rh8 sheet of notebook paper and lower
is strong enough to deserve two it line by line. Grade yourself by
points. It would have been tragic if guessing White's moves. When
you had played 3 2 Rf1 ??  ever you have made a Black move,
3 2 . . . Nd2ch wins for Black. Deduct STOP ! and try to work out White's
four points for this. reply. Keep trui; . of your point
32 ... fxg6 awards and see how you grade at
33 Rh7ch the end of the game.
One point. 33 . . . KfS loses to
34 Qxd6ch Kg8 3 5 Qe7. Tbilisi, 1975
33 ... Kd8 White: N. Gaprindashvili
34 Qxd6 Black: N. Alexandria
One point. Threatens 3 5 Sicilian Defense
Rh8 mate. 1 e4 c5 2 NfJ e6 3 b3 Nc6 4
34 .. Qd4 Bb2 d6 5 g3 Nf6 6 d3 Be7 7
35 Qe7ch Bg2 00 8 00 Nd7 9 Rel Bf6
Two points, but only if you
(See next diagram)
saw 3 5 . . . Kc7 36 Nb5ch. Faced
with this, Black resigned.
Now Total Up Your Points:
over 67  Grandmaster
5766  International Master
4656  Master
3445  Expert
2533  Class A
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 89
two points also. 1 2 . . . Nxd4 could be
met by 1 3 e5 ! ? dxe5 1 4 Bxa8
winning the exchange  though
Black obviously has compensation.
12 . . . Bb7 is not very good either
after 1 3 Nb5 ! , so Alexandria would
probably have played 12 . . . Bxd4.
After 1 3 cxd4 White's position is
fully acceptable of course.
12 . .
. Ba6
13 Nc3
Start Your Test Now! One point. It was natural for
White to bring his last minor piece
1 0 c3 ! into play. 1 3 Nc3 is better than 1 3
Three points. White's most Nbd2  the former move inhibits
promising course is to build up a . . . e5 by threatening to place a
pawn center, avoiding the Knight on d5.
exchange of pieces which would White could have tried the
free Black's rather cramped speculative 1 3 e5?! here. Exact
position. 1 0 Bxf6 Qxf6 (no points) play is required to refute it. For
unnecessarily leaves White's instance after 1 3 e5? ! dxe5 1 4
queenside black squares rather Nxe5 Ndxe5 (14. . . Bxe5? 15 Bxc6)
weak. 10 d4 would be 1 5 dxe5 Qxd l ? 1 6 Rxd l Rad8 1 7
uncomfortable for White after Rxd8 Rxd8 1 8 Bxc6 Rd l ch 1 9 Kg2
1 0 . . . cxd4 1 1 Nxd4 Qb6, while 1 0 Bfl ch 20 Kf3 and wins.
Nc3 allows a n annoying pin The correct line is (after 15
10 . . . Qa5 . Nothing for either of dxe5) 1 5 . . . Nxe 16 Bxa8 ( 1 6 Bxe5
these alternatives. Bxe5 leaves the Ral en prise)
10 ... b6 16 . . . Nd3 ! Now there are three
1 1 d4 White pieces attacked. The game
One point. Obviously the could go 1 7 Bxf6 Qxf6 1 8 Nd2
idea behind White's last move. 1 1 Qxflch 1 9 Kb 1 Rxa8 20 Qf3 Qxf3
Nbd2 is worse. Black would reply 2 1 Nxf3 Nxe l 22 Rxe l and Black
l l . . . Ba6 and if 1 2 Nc4 continue has an extra 2 pawns sufficient
with 1 2 . . . b5 1 3 Ne3 b4, inaugur advantage to win the ending.
ating annoying pressure on c3. Take three bonus points if
1 1 ... cxd4 you considered 13 e5?! and
12 cxd4 rejected it because of 16 . . . Nd3 ! If
Two points. The conclusion you played 13 e5 expecting to win
of the plan begun by White's 1 0th material deduct a point  you were
move. However, 1 2 Nxd4 deserved rather unlucky.
90 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
1 3 ... Rc8 One point. Nothing for other
14 Qd2 moves. The one disadvantage of
this move is the possible weakness
of the e4 pawn. If you had not
considered this factor before, you
might care to do so now.
16 ... Nf6
1 7 d5
Four points. Two extra
points if you realized when playing
16 Ne3 that this move was
virtually forced after 16 . . . Nf6. Both
17 Nc4 and 17 Nc2 (no points)
would be met by 17 . . . Nxe4 and
Two points. A bonus point 17 . . . d5 respectively. 17 e5 does not
for seeing that this move, guarding score either. After 1 7 . . . dxe5 1 8
the Nc3 makes 14 . . . Nb4 impossible dxe5 Qxd2 1 9 Nxd2 Nd7 2 0 f4
because of 1 5 Ba3 Nd3 16 Re3 . Nb4 Black is certainly no worse.
One point for 14 a3 . Nothing for 1 7 ... Nxe4
1 4 Re l , which positively invites 18 Qc2
14 . . . Nb4 and the subsequent fork Two points. Attacks two
on d3. pieces and forces Black's reply.
14 ... Re8 Only one other Queen move merits
15 Ndl a score. 1 8 Qd l gains one point.
Two points. Again nothing 18 . . .Nb4? would then be met by 1 9
for 1 5 Rae l  1 5 . . . Nb4 is a Qd4 ! , so lines similar to the actual
nuisance. Take two points for the game would result.
natural 1 5 Rad l , bringing his last 18 ... exd5
piece into play. Deduct a point for 19 Nxd5
1 5 a3 , which would now be a waste
of time after 1 5 . . . Na5 . 1 5 Nd l
stops 1 5 . . . Nb4 for good and
prepares to redeploy the Knight
towards the kingside. For instance
1 5 . . . d5 would be answered by 16
exd5 exd5 1 7 Ne3 threatening both
1 8 Nxd5 and 1 8 Nf5 .
1 5 ... Be7
16 Ne3
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 91
bonus points if you planned 20 Bh3
One point. Nothing for
as an answer to 19 . . . Nc5 .
alternatives. The critical position
Black chose a fourth option.
of the game. Positionally White
has excellent compensation for the 19 ... f5
pawn. The Nd5 and Bb2 are 20 Qdl
superbly placed, while Black's Three points. As the Nc6
extra pawn on d6 is a hindrance threatens to discover a nasty attack
rather than a help. Apart from the on the White Queen, and dl is the
game move there were 3 squares to only square which looks reasonably
which Black could have retreated safe, you could almost have
the Ne4. 1 9 . . . Nf6 is an outright discovered this move by
blunder, as 20 Ng5 wins elimination. Nonetheless, the move
immediately, e.g. 20 . . . g6 2 1 Rxe7 is not without point. The
and 22 Nxf6ch. A bonus point if immediate threat is 2 1 Rae 1 , 22
you saw this line. 1 9 . . . Ng5 is not Rc6, 23 Nxe7ch and 2 5 Qd5ch,
much better. 20 Nxg5 Bxg5 2 1 winning a piece.
Rxe8ch Qxe8 22 Qf5 Qd8 On 20 . . . Bf8 (defending g 7
(22. . . Bd2 23 Be4!) 23 f4 Be7 24 and intending 21 . . . Ne5) 2 1 Nh4 !
Re l (threatens 25 Qg4) 24 . . . g6 25 Qd7 (21 . . . g6? 22 Bxe4 and 23
Nxe7ch Qxe7 (25. . . Nxe l 26 Qf6) Nf6ch or 21 . . . Qg5 22 f4!) 22 Bh3 !
26 Rxe7 gxf5 27 Bxc6 wins a wins the j5 pawn, 22 . . . g6 being
piece. Two bonus points for refuted by 23 Rxe4 and 24 Nf6ch
refuting 1 9 . . . Ng5 in this way. forking the King and Queen. Two
1 9 . . . Nc5 was Black's most resilient points if you had planned to refute
defense. You gain an extra point if 20 . . . Bf8 in this manner. Another
you planned simply 20 Rad 1 two points if you planned to
increasing the pressure. answer the immediate 20 . . . Ne5 by
Another good move was 20 2 1 Nd4 ! Nd3 22 Nxf5 ! Nxe l 23
Bh3 . If Black retreats the Rook to Bxe4 winning material.
b8 or a8, White can gain a good 20 ... Bf6
ending by 2 1 Qc3 Bf8 (21 . . .f6 21 Nxf6ch
looks anything but enticing) 22 Two points. The first move
Rxe8 Qxe8 23 Nf6ch ! gxf6 24 in a forcing sequence whereby
Qxf6 Ne5 25 Nxe5 Bg7 26 Ng4 White recovers the sacrificed
Bxf6 27 Nxf6ch Kf8 28 Nxh7ch ! pawn, remaining with much the
Kg8 (28. . . Ke l 29 Bf6 mate) 29 superior position. Deduct three
Nf6ch Kf8 30 Nxe8 Rxe8. In view points if you played 2 1 Bxf6 Nxf6
of this line, Black would have to 22 Nxf6ch Qxf6 23 Rxe8ch Rxe8
reply 20 . . . Ne6 or 20 . . . Nd7, though intending 24 Qd5ch and 25 Qxc6.
after 2 1 Qd2 Black's position is You forgot that your Ra 1 would be
still as restricted as ever. Take two en prise!.
92 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endg ame vol. II
21 ... Nxf6 26 Rel !
22 Rxe8ch Two points. The threat is 27
One point. A further point if Rxe8 and 28 Bxg7 mate. One point
you saw that 22 . . . Qxe8 leaves for 26 Rd l (intending 27 Ne5)
Black's kingside hopelessly com 26 . . . Nf6 27 Qxd6 Qxd6 28 Rxd6
promised after 23 Bxf6 gxf6 24 winning a pawn. White is justified
Qxd6 threatening 25 Re l or 25 in asking for more in this position.
Nh4 or even 25 Qxf6. 26 ... Nf6
22 ... Nxe8 27 Qxd8
23 Qd5ch One point. The only move to
One point. Nothing for other score.
moves. 27 ... Rxd8
23 ... Kh8 28 Ng5
24 Qxf5 Two points. Black has two
One point. You now defenses against 29 Nfl mate. She
threaten 25 Ng5 . Nothing for 24 can go for 28 . . . Rd7 ! when 29 Bh3
Qfl when Black can make it Re7 (29. . . Rc7 30 Ba3 d5 31 Bd6
difficult for White to regain the Rb 7 32 Bc8) 30 Rxe7 Nxe7 3 1
pawn with 24 . . . Nf6. Nflch Kg8 3 2 Nxd6 (two bonus
24 ... Ne7 points) gives a won ending. White
25 Qf8ch could vary successfully with 30
Two points. The most Be6 Nh6 31 Ba3 Ne8 3 2 Re4
straightforward. Nothing for 25 intending 33 Rf4. Two points for
Qh5, intending 26 Ng5 . Black can this line. Black in fact chose the
feed another piece to the kingside weaker:
by 25 . . . Bd3 26 Ng5 Bg6 27 Nflch 28 ... Nh6
Kg8 28 Nxd8 Bxh5 . 29 Re7
25 . Ng8 Two points. Nothing for 29
Re6. Black answers 29 . . . Nfg8.
After 29 Re7 White has two major
threats which cannot be
simultaneously parried. If Black
defends h 7 by 29 . . . Bd3 30 Ne6 !
Rg8 (30 . . . Re8 31 Bxf6 wins a
piece) 3 1 Rxg7 wins (one bonus
point).
29 ... Bb5
30 Bxf6!
Two points. 30 Ne6 no
longer works because after
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 93
30 . . . Re8 ! the Rook is defended by awards and see how you grade at
the Bb5. But Black's last move was the end of the game.
only a jump from the frying pan
into the fire. After 30 Bxf6 ! gxf6 USSR 1976
3 1 Rxh7ch Kg8 3 2 Bd5ch Kf8 3 3 White: E. Geller
Ne6ch wins a piece. No points if Black: K. Grigorian
you missed this decisive Sicilian Defense
combination. Take an extra point if
1 e4 c5 2 Nf3 d6 3 d4 cxd4 4
you realized last move that
29 . . . Rc8 could be met by 30 h3
Nxd4 Nf6 5 Nc3 a6
renewing the threat of Bxf6 . (30
Bx/6 is not so clear after 30. . .
Rel ch). Black resigned.
Now total up your points:
Over 50  Grandmaster
4449  International Master
3844  Master
3037  Expert
2329  Class A
1 822  Class B
1017  Class C
Below IO  need more study Start You r Test Now!
6 Be2
Test No. 19 Three points for this move.
You have White. You are Black's last, inagurating the
sitting alongside Efim Geller, the Najdorf Variation, allows White
Soviet Grandmaster. Your great latitude in response. Take
opponent is Karen Grigorian, a three points also for 6 Bc4, 6 Be3 ,
strong Soviet master. The game is 6 Bg5 and 6 f3 . Two points for the
taken from the 1 976 USSR less usual 6 g3, 6 f3, 6 a4 and 6 h3 .
Championship. Nothing for 6 Bd3 , which blocks
Start your test after the first the dfile and undefends the d4
diagram. Cover this page with a Knight.
sheet of notebook paper and lower 6 ... e6
it line by line. Grade yourself by 7 00
guessing White's moves. When Three points. Also take
ever you have made a Black move, three points for 7 Be3 and 7 Bg5 .
STOP ! and try to work out White's Other moves, like 7 f4 and 7 a4,
reply. Keep track of your point lack real significance. A point for
each of these; no credit for others.
94 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
7 ... Nc6
8 Be3
The game is developing in
the pattern of the Scheveningen
Variation rather than the Najdorf.
Two points for 8 Be3 , as well as
for 8 Bg5 . Nothing for 8 f4, which
is premature and allows Black to
create problems at once with the
pinning 8 . . . Qb6.
8 Be7
9 f4
12 Rdl
Now this is indicated, and it
Two points. The text is
merits two points, as does 9 Qd2 .
based upon a tactical point. If
A single point for the ultra
12 . . . b4 13 Na4 Nxe4 14 Bf3 f5
cautious 9 f3 and 9 Kh 1 . No credit
(14. . . d5? 15 Bxe4 dxe4 1 6 Bxg7)
for others.
1 5 Nb6 Rb8 16 Nxc8 Qxc8 1 7
9 00 Bxe4 fxe4 1 8 Qxe4, and White has
l O Qel strong pressure on the Black
The triedandtrue method central pawns. An extra two points
of attack in this position, earning if you foresaw this variation.
three points. White often intends to Two points for 12 a3 ,
continue with Qg3, pursuing his stopping . . b4 once and for all. One
.
chances on the kingside. The text point each for 12 Bf3 , 12 Bd3 and
also frees dl for the Ral . Take a 12 Qg3  all playable moves. No
single point for 1 0 Qd2, and 10 credit, however, for 1 2 e5 dxe5 1 3
Kh l , both of which are less Bxe5 which dissolves White's
aggressive than the text. pawn center.
10 . Nxd4 12 ... Bb7
1 1 Bxd4 13 BO
No credit for this forced Two points. Black's last
recapture. move really did threaten the e4
1 1 ... b5 pawn by 1 3 . . . Nxe4. Deduct a point
(See next diagram) if you missed this fact. Apart from
the game move, 1 3 Bd3 (one point)
deserves credit. The move is
slightly inferior to the game
continuation, as it blocks the action
of the Rdl on the dfile.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 95
The position after 13 Bf3 (Honest, now) according to how
had occurred before, in the 5th much of these difficult variations
game of the TaiAndersson match you intended. Nothing for 1 5 exf6
in 1 976. Here Andersson played Bxf6 (15. . . Bxdl ? 1 6 fxe 7 Qxe 7 1 7
l 3 . . . Qc7, but after 14 e5 ! soon got Nxdl) 1 6 Rxf3 Bxd4ch 1 7 Rxd4
the worst of it. Grigorian's next Qb6 ! with Black equalizing easily.
move is an attempt to improve. 15 ... dxe5
1 3 ... b4 16 fxe5
14 e5! One point. 16 Bxe5 (deduct
Three points. The sharpest a point) loses the initiative to
method of treating the position. If 16 . . . Qb6ch 1 7 Bd4 Bc5 1 8 Ne2
you had not considered this move Rad8. 16 . . . bxc3 loses rapidly to 1 7
before, stop now and try to fully exf6, of course.
work out its ramifications. There is 16 ... Nd5
a number of points to be gained in
the resulting variations. Two
points for 14 Na4, the other
possibility  14 Nb l is horribly
passive and 14 Ne2? simply loses
the e4 pawn. After 14 Na4 d5
(14. . . Bc6? 15 e5) 1 5 e5 Nd7 we
reach an interesting middlegame
with chances for both sides. 1 5
Nb6? would not be so good. Black
can play 1 5 . . . dxe4 ! 16 Nxa8 (16
Be2 Rb8) 1 6 . . . exf3 1 7 Nb6 (1 7
Bx/6 Bc5ch 18 Rf2 Qx/6) 1 7 . . . fxg2
17 Ne4
gaining excellent compensation for
Two points. In this position
the exchange.
the plans of campaign are clearly
14 ... Bxf3 laid out for both sides. Black would
15 Rxf3 like to increase pressure on the
One point. Black's best queenside, and if possible reach an
continuation now would be ending where the White pawns on
1 5 . . . bxc3 1 6 exf6 Bxf6 when c2 and e5 would be weak. White,
Geller intended to preserve a for his part, should avoid
minimal edge in the ending by 1 7 unnecessary exchanges and aim to
Qxc3 Rc8 1 8 Bxf6 ! Qxf6 transfer pieces to the kingside
(18. . . Rxc3 ? 19 Bxd8 Rxj3 20 Be 7 where he has an advantage in
Rx/4 21 Bxj8 Kxj8 22 Rxd6 is space. 17 Nxd5 Qxd5 would only
worse for Black) 1 9 Qxf6 gxf6 20 help Black (no points).
c3 d5 2 1 f5 ! Take up to four points
96 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
17 ... Qc7 23 Qg3ch) 22 Qg3 g6 23 Qf4
18 Qf2 intending 24 Qh6.
Two points. Clearly the best. Finally, 20 . . . Kh8, refusing
Geller defends his c2 pawn, attacks the Knight, is met by 2 1 Rh3 ! Bxf6
the j7 pawn, and strengthens his (21 . . . h6 22 Qd2 intending 23
control of the gla7 diagonal, all Rxh6ch) 22 exf6 g6 23 Rxh7ch
in one move. Kxh7 24 Qh4ch Kg8 25 Qh6.
1 8 Qg3 Qxc2 1 9 Re l is a At his last turn, Black was
speculative pawn sacrifice and threatening 20 . . . Nxc3 , simplifying.
deserves one point. Really, though, A move like 20 Qg3 therefore loses
there is no need for such measures after 20 . . . Nxc3 2 1 Nf6ch?? Bxf6
at this point. No points for 1 8 Qd2, 22 exf6 Ne2ch winning the Queen.
which would leave the Queen 20 .. Bxf6
exposed after a subsequent . . . Rad8, 2 1 exf6
nor 1 8 Qe2, which places the One point. Black's last move
Queen on a square where it does was the only method of prolonging
not coordinate with the other the game.
pieces. 21 . Rfe8 ! ?
18 ... Raes
19 c3
One point. A handy move
which further protects the White
Bishop. One point if you played 1 8
c 3 last move. Rd2 o n either of the
last two moves does not score. The
Rook should only be tied down to a
defensive role when absolutely
forced.
19 ... Qc6?
20 Nf6ch!
Four points. The only move 2 2 Qg3 !
to score. White must strike while Three points. White refuses
the iron is hot. After 20 . . . gxf6 to be diverted from the kingside
White wins by 2 1 Qg3ch Kh8 22 attack. Nothing if you played 22
exf6 (previously unplayable with fxg7  22 . . . e5 ! 23 Be3 bxc3 enables
the Black Queen on c7) 22 . . . Rg8 Black to confuse the issue. 22 Qg3 !
(22 . . . Nx/6 23 Rx/6.1) 23 fxe7dis. ch ensures that White establishes a
f6 24 Rxf6 ! powerful pawn on /6, with
20 . . . Nxf6 fails against 2 1 resultant threats on his opponents'
exf6 Bc5 (21 . . . Bx/6? 22 Rx/6 gx/6 weak Black squares.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 97
22 ... g6 Two points. White
23 Rel relentlessly pursues the main
Two points. A further theme of his attack  pressure on
precaution against . . . e5 . 23 Qg5 the black squares. Nothing for 28
(no points) leads nowhere after h4, which is adequately met by
23 . . . Qd6 ! 24 Qh6 Qf8. 28 . . . Kh7.
23 ... bxc3 28 ... h5
24 bxc3
One point. Two bonus
points if you now planned 25 Qh4 !
Qd6 26 Rh3 h5 27 Re5 ! intending
28 Rxh5 . In order to stave off this
threat, Black has to jettison
material. Deduct a point for 24
Bxc3, gratuitously giving up the
strong Bishop.
24 ... e5
25 Rxe5
One point. On 25 Bxe5
Qb6ch 26 Bd4 Qb2 the Black 29 Qg5
Queen might become a nuisance. One point. White threatens
25 ... Rxe5 to win immediately by 30 Qh6.
26 Qxe5 Black has two defenses. He could
One point. Again there is no try 29 . . . Qd6 when White should be
percentage in letting the Black satisfied with the won ending
Queen into the rear of the White which resul from 30 Qh6 Qf8 3 1
position by 26 Bxe5 Qb6ch 27 Bd4 Qxf8ch Kxf8 3 2 c4 Nc7 3 3 Bc5ch
Qb2 . Kg8 34 Be7. Two bonus points if
26 ... h6 you took this option.
If you chose to be "brilliant"
27 Qg3
by 30 Qxg6ch?! fxg6 3 1 f7ch Kf8
Two points. 27 Rh3 (deduct
32 Bg7ch! ? Ke7 ! 3 3 f8=Qch Kd7 !
two points) would land White in a
you get no credit. The Queen
mess after 27 . . . Re8 28 Qg3 Qb5 !
exchange is now much less
with the strong threat of
favorable than in the above
29 . . . Qb l ch 30 Kf2 Qe l ch 3 1 Kf3
variation while 34 Rf7ch? Ne7 !
Qe2 mate; 29 Qd3 is met by
only discovers a novel way of
29 . . . Nf4 !
incarcerating the White Queen.
27 ... Re8 Grigorian chooses the
28 Qh4 second defense, which only makes
matters worse.
98 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
29 ... Kh7 35 Kxe2
30 Rh3 One point.
Two points. The threat is 35 ... Qxg2ch
simply 3 1 Rxh5ch gxh5 32 Qg7 36 Kel
mate. A further point if back on One point. Two points if you
move 28 you planned to answer chose to avoid "spite" checks by 36
28 . . . Kh7 by 29 Rh3 h5 30 Qg5 Kd l Qfl ch 3 7 Kc2 Qf5ch 3 8 Kd2
reaching the same position. Ne4ch 39 Rxe4.
30 ... Kg8 36 ... Qhl ch
31 Rxh5 37 Kf2
One point. White has only One point. Here Black
to avoid gross blunders to score the resigned.
point. One such would be 3 1 Qh6?
Nxf6 32 Rxh5? Re lch 33 Kf2 Now total up your points:
Ng4ch (deduct four points). Over 62  Grandmaster
31 ... Nxf6 ! ? 556 1  International Master
3 2 Rh4 ! 4854  Master
Three points. There were 3 84 7  Expert
two chances to throw the win away 3 1 3 7  Class A
here. 3 2 Bxf6? Qb6ch 3 3 Bd4 (33 2430  Class B
Qc5 Qxf6 threatens 34. . . Re 1 mate 1 623  Class C
and 34 . . gxh5) 3 3 . . . Qb l ch 34 Kf2
. Less than 1 6  need more study
Qe l ch 3 5 Kf3 Qe2ch 36 Kg3
Qxh5 ; or 3 2 Rh8ch? Kxh8 3 3 Test No. 20
Bxf6ch Kg8 3 4 Qh4 Qb6ch 3 5 Kfl You have Black. You are
Qb l ch 36 Kf2 Qe l ch 37 Kf3 sitting beside the Rumanian
Re3ch 3 8 Kh4 Re4ch. Deduct three Grandmaster Ciocaltea. Your
points for each of these variations. opponent is the Soviet GM
32 ... Ret ch Lutikov. The game is from a
33 Kf2 tournament held in Bucharest in
One point. A further point if 1 975.
you would have answered 33 . . . Start your test after the first
Ne4ch by 3 4 Kx:e l ! Nxg5 3 5 Rh8 diagram. Cover this page with a
mate. sheet of notebook paper and lower
33 ... Re6 it line by line. Grade yourself by
34 Qh6 guessing Black's moves. When
One point. Mate is ever you have made a White move,
unavoidable. STOP! and try to work out Black's
reply. Keep track of your point
34 ... Re2ch
awards and see how you grade at
Never say die !
the end of the game.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 99
Bucharest, 1975 should ensure White fine
White: Lutikov prospects. If, for instance, after
Black: V. Ciocaltea 12 . . . Be7 1 3 000 Black attempts
queenside play by 1 3 . . . Qb8, White
Ruy Lopez
takes advantage of the weak white
1 e4 e5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 Bb5 a6 4
squares in Black's position by 1 4
Ba4 d6 5 Bxc6ch bxc6 6 d4 f6 Nf5 Bxf5 1 5 exf5 Qb4 1 6 Rd4 Qa5
7 Be3 Bd7 8 Nc3 Ne7 9 Qe2 17 f4 Ng4 18 Re4 threatening 1 9
Ng6 1 0 h4 Rxe7ch. Take a bonus point if you
intended to answer l 1 . . .Nxe5 with
1 2 Nd4 .
1 2 Ng5
12 ... Be7
One point. No points for
other moves. The White Knight is
far too threatening to be allowed to
remain at g5. At this juncture,
Black begins a maneuver, thematic
for this position, to enhance the
scope of his pieces. Even if you
missed Black's last move, stop now
Start Your Test Now!
and try to work out the best plan.
10 ... h5 13 Qc4
Two points. The threat of 1 1 13 ... Bxg5
h5 requires attention. After 1 0. . . One point. Deduct as many
Be7 1 1 h 5 Nf8 (1 l . . . N/4? 12 Bxf4 points as you think fit if you
exf4 13 Qd2 wins a pawn) 1 2 000 missed that White threatened 1 4
White has a considerable spatial Qfl mate. Deduct two points for
advantage. Deduct a point if you 1 3 . . Rf8 which allows 14 Ne6.
.
chose 1 0 . . . Be7. Other moves which 14 Bxg5
allow the Black Knight to be 14 ... Qb8
displaced also lose a point. Two points. A standard
1 1 dxe5 move in this line of the Steinitz
1 1 ... fxe5 Deferred. The fact that the White
Two points. Deduct two bpawn is attacked only increases
points for l l . . . dxe5? when White its strength. No points if you
replies 1 2 000 and after 12 . . . Bd6 played the Queen to c8  a square
1 3 Qc4 ! he prepares to occupy c5 with few prospects  or even worse
which l l . . .dxe5? so badly 14 . . . Ne7, an unnecessary selfpin.
weakened. l l . . .Nxe5 (no points) is 15 000
not quite so bad, though 12 Nd4 !
1 00 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. I I
15 . . . a5!
Three points. The cul
mination of Black's strategy begun
at move 1 2 . The threat of 16 . . . Qb4
causes White to weaken his King's
position. Take three extra points if
you foresaw this continuation at
move 1 2 , two points if you spotted
it at move 1 3 . 1 5 . . . cS with a
similar idea unfortunately allows
16 Nd5 (no points).
One point for 1 5 . . . Qb7
which threatens . . . Rb8 but does not 18 ... Nf8!
force White to waste a tempo Five points. The key move
defending against . . . Qb4. to improve further the activity of
Nothing for any other move the Black pieces. At a stroke Black
as there is far more to gain from threatens to drive away the White
enterprise on the Queen's wing Queen from her dominating
than anything else, for the position and redeploy the Knight
moment. more effectively at d7.
16 a3 Take four points if you
16 ... Qb7 played 17 . . . Nf8. It really must be
Two points. This move the only plan to score. After, say,
serves a threefold purpose. It 1 8 . . . Rf8 or 1 8 . . . Bg4 White could
prepares . . . Rb8, opens a veiled begin a kingside pawn crush by 1 9
attack on the White epawn, and, f4.
last but not least, guards the c 19 f4
pawn. 19 ... Be6
1 6 . . . Qb6 would not be quite One point. The only logical
so strong. 1 7 Be3 forces the Queen followup to Black's last move.
to b 7 and improves the position of 20 Qd3
the Bishop. One point only for this 20 ... Nd7
move. Nothing for others. The Knight is repositioned
1 7 g3 to recapture on e5 or  more
17 ... Rb8 important still  move to c5. In
One point. A useful move to particular take two bonus points if
force a further weakening of the you saw that 2 1 f5? would lose to
White pawn position. 2 1 . . .Nc5 22 Qe3 Bxb3 23 cxb3
18 b3 Qxb3 .
21 Na4
21 ... c5
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 101
Two points. Black prepares Nxa4 Nxe4 (threatening 26. . . c4)
c5c4 to break open the bfile. are equally bad for White.
Take only one point for 2 1 . . .Qb5 . 25 b4
Black can expect more than merely 25 . cxb4
the better ending at this point. One point.
Deduct a point for 2 1 . . .00. White 26 axb4
could obtain much needed 26 ... Qxb4
counterplay by 22 f5 Bf7 23 g4 ! ,
One point. A generous
prizing open lines on the kingside. bonus point if you noted that 27
22 f5 Kd2 now would lose to 27 . . . Bc4.
22 ... Bf7 27 Bg5
One point. Nothing for other 27 ... Bc4
moves. Two points. Two also for 27 . . . a3 ,
23 Be3 but nothing for 27 . . . Qb2ch 28 Kd2
23 ... Nf6 threatening 29 Rb l .
Three points. After White's 28 Qf3
weak last move (23 Rhe l was a3
28 ..
better) the epawn has become a One point. Black plays his trump
potential target. White has only card, the apawn. Other moves do
one method of defense. 24 . . . Qc6 win, of course, but none is so
threatening . . . c4 also deserves immediately effective.
credit (25 c4 N/6 wins a pawn).
29 Bxf6
Take two points for this move.
29 .. gxf6
24 Nc3
One point. Take two bonus points
if you noticed that Black is
threatening to win by 30 . . . Be2 ! If
3 1 Nxe2 a2 or 3 1 Qxe2 Qxc3 3 2
Qd3 Rb l ch !
30 Kd2
30 ... al
One point. Take two bonus
points if you intended to answer
passive defense by a central
breakthrough, e.g. 3 1 Ra l c6 3 2
Ke l d 5 3 3 Kf2 (to avoid the loss of
a piece by . . d4) 3 3 . . . Qc5ch 34 Kg2
.
24 ... a4 ! ! d4 35 Ne2 Bxe2 36 Qxe2 Rb2 3 7
Five points. The variations Rhc l (3 7 Rael a l (Q) !) and Black
2 5 bxa4 c4 26 Qe2 Nxe4 and 25 wins at leisure.
31 Rbl
1 02 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
31 ... axbl (Q) 1 d4 e6 2 c4 Bb5ch 3 Nc3 f5 4
One point, but only if you e3 Nf6 5 Bd3 00 6 Ne2 d6
envisioned the following the 7 00 c5
moves: 32 Rxb l Qxb l 3 3 Nxb l
Rxb l . Lutikov, perhaps in time
trouble, prolonged the game a few
more moves before resigning.
Now total up your points:
4550  Grandmaster
4044  International Master
3 5 3 9  Master
3034  Expert
2529  Class A
2024  Class B
1 0 1 9  Class C Start Your Test Now!
Below 1 0 : Need more study
8 b3
Three points. The White QB
Test No. 21
takes its best position on the long
You are sitting beside
black diagonal. One point only if
Miguel Najdorf, the Argentinean
you played 8 Bd2 where the
Grandmaster. Your opponent is
Bishop's prospects are minimal.
Paul Keres, the late Soviet GM.
8 a3 virtually forces 8 . . .
The game is taken from the
Bxc3 , gaining the advantage of the
Piatigorsky Cup Tournament, held
two Bishops; if 8 . . Ba5 9 Na4 .
in Los Angeles in 1 963.
forces the Black pieces into
Start your test after the first
uncomfortable positions defending
diagram. Cover this page with a
the c5 pawn (9 . . cxd4 allows the
.
sheet of notebook paper and lower
eventual b2b4 by White who then
it line by line. Grade yourself by
obtains an overwhelming spatial
guessing Black's moves. When
advantage on the queenside).
ever you have made a White move,
Another excellent possibility after
STOP ! and try to work out Black's
8 . . Ba5 is 9 Na2 ! (9. . Nc6 J O Rb l).
. .
reply. Keep track of your point
Take one point for 8 a3 and a
awards and see how you grade at
bonus point for either of the
the end of the game.
continuations you saw.
One point for 8 Qc2 . Deduct
Los Angeles, 1963 two points for 8 e4?  distinctly
White: M. Najdorf premature, for 8 . cxd4 9 Nxd4
. .
Black: P. Keres
FrancoIndian Defense
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 03
B xc3 1 0 bxc3 fxe4 would win a Four points. A move which,
pawn with the much better game. if at all possible, must be played.
8 ... Nc6 Black's King Bishop is now
9 Bb2 completely misplaced. Specifically
One point. Logical after l l . . .Nxd5 loses to 12 cxd5 Qxd5??
White's last. Deduct two points if 13 Bc4.
you missed that Black threatened If last move you played 1 0
to win a pawn by 9 . . . Bxc3 10 Nxc3 Nd5 unfortunately you do not gain
cxd4. No points for 9 d5 with the a point. After 10 . . . cxd4 1 1 exd4
likely continuation 9 . . . Bxc3 1 0 Nxd5 1 2 cxd5 Nxd4 1 3 Nxd4 (13
Nxc3 exd5 1 1 cxd5 Ne5 . I t i s i n Bxd4 exd4 1 4 Nxd4? Bc3)
White's interest to keep the center 13 . . . exd4 14 Bxd4 White has little,
fluid hoping to expand the power if any, advantage.
of his bishops. To resolve the 1 1 ... Be6
tension, at the same time accepting
a slightly weak pawn at d5, does
not deserve credit.
9 ... e5
10 dxe5
Two points. Black is
compelled to recapture with the
pawn. If 1 0 . . . Nxe5 1 1 Bc2 prepares
N/4 and eventual pressure on the
backward dpawn. One point for
10 dxc5 . Black could reply
10 . . . Bxc5 1 1 Bc2 Be6, keeping his
disadvantage to manageable 1 2 Ng3 !
proportions. No points at all for 10 Five points. White must take
d5 Bxc3 1 1 Bxc3 Ne7. The blocked note of 12 . . . Nxd5 1 3 cxd5 Bxd5 .
center has relieved Black of his 12 Ng3 attacks the fpawn and
most pressing difficulties; he may makes 14 Bxf5 possible in the
begin to think in tenns of a above variations. 1 3 . . . Qxd5? for
kingside attack, . . . g5 and . . Ng6.
. Black still loses to 14 Bc4. Take
One point for 1 0 Bc2 . After another point if you saw that
1 0 . . . cxd4 1 1 exd4 Bxc3 1 1 Bxc3 f4 12 . . . e4 1 3 Nxf6ch gxf6 14 Bc2
Black has gained control of some would present Black with some
important central squares and difficulties defending /6. No points
should equalize. for 12 Nxf6ch Qxf6 13 f4 Qh6 !
10 ... dxe5 with a potential threat to the e3
1 1 Nd5 ! pawn. Deduct two points for 1 2
1 04 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Nxb4?, exchanging off Black's One point, but only if you
worst piece. saw that 14 . . . Qxd5 1 5 Bc4 wins a
1 2 ... g6 piece.
13 f4 14 ... Bxd5
Four points. No points for 15 fxe5
1 3 Nxf6ch? Rxf6 14 f4. Black Two points. An extra point
replies 14 . . . Rf7 followed by . . Rd7
. is yours if you now planned the
with a good game. As Black has variation 16 Nxf5 ! gxf5 1 7 Bxf5
just weakened himself on the long with crushing threats (18 Qg4ch).
black diagonal, 1 3 f4 comes at One point for 1 5 e4 fxe4 1 6 Nxe4.
once into consideration. If now 1 6 . . . exf4 White has 1 7 Qg4.
How had you planned to No points for anything else.
answer 1 3 . . . e4? If you planned 1 4 15 ... Be6
Nxf6ch Rxf6 1 5 Bxf6? Qxf6 16 16 Ne2 !
Be2 Rd8 1 7 Qc2 Bd2 ! deduct two Four points. An excellent
points. Black would have achieved maneuver which prepares the
a winning position ! removal of Black's lightsquared
The correct move in this Bishop from its blockading post.
line is 1 5 Bxe4 ! Rf7 (15 .. .fxe4 1 6 16 e4 is no longer feasible.
Qxd8 Rxd8 I 7 Bxf6) 1 6 Bd5 Bxd5 By 16 . . . f4 Black would block the
17 cxd5 Rd7 1 8 e4 with Black action of the two White Bishops.
hamstrung by his weakness on the One point for 16 Qe2 followed by
alh8 diagonal. If 1 8 . . . fxe4 1 9 1 7 Rad 1  the routine method of
Nxe4 Rxd5 2 0 Qxd5ch ! , or exploiting White's advantage.
1 8 . . . Nd4 1 9 a3 ! Ba5 20 b4. Take 16 ... Qe7
up to three bonus points according
17 Nf4
to how much of this you saw.
One point. White threatens
Take another bonus point if
18 Nxe6 Qxe6 1 9 Bc4. This would
you were going to answer l 3 . . . exf4
still be the reply to 1 7 . . . Rad8.
with 1 4 Nxf6ch Rxf6 1 5 Bxf6 Qxf6
Black's next is forced.
1 6 exf4 Rd8 1 7 Ne2 ! preventing
17 ... Nd8
1 7 . . . Qd4ch. In this line 16 . . . Qd4ch
1 7 Kh l Rd8 is met by 1 8 Qe2 . 18 Qf3
Again you had to be Two points. White continues
decisive. If you overlooked the his development, hinders 1 8 . . . a6
threat of 1 3 . . . Nxd5 1 4 cxd5 Bxd5 and 1 9 . . . b5, and increases control
deduct one point. over d5.
13 ... Nxd5 18 ... Rc8
14 cxd5 19 Radl
Two points. Take one point
if you chose 1 9 Qg3 with the
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 05
intention of either 20 h4 and 2 1 h5 Three points. Opening the
or 20 Nxe6 Nxe6 2 1 Bxf5 winning long Black diagonal is the most
a pawn. incisive. Two points for 22 Nd5
The Rook move, preparing Qe6 23 Nf6ch Kg7 24 Qxb7 which
to contest the dfile and bringing is less forcing. One point for 22
White's last piece into play is, we Rd5 Ng5 23 Qe2 Rfd8 24 Rfd l
feel, stronger. Ne4 allowing Black to organize a
19 ... a6 defense.
22 ... Ng5
23 Qd5
One point. The Queen aims
at e5, achieving complete control
over the alh8 diagonal. One point
for seeing the variation 23 . . . Ne4 24
Qe5 Nf6 25 Rd7 !
23 . .
. Rc6
24 Qe5
One point. We gave you a
strong hint last move !
24 ... Nxe6
20 Bc4!
Three points. Just before
Black can play . . . b 7b5. Four
points for the better 20 Nxe6 Nxe6
2 1 Bc4 b5 22 Bxe6ch Qxe6 23 Rd6
Qe7 24 Qd5ch Qf7 25 e6 with 26
Qe5 or 26 Rd7 assuring an
immediate win.
Take an extra point if you
saw 20 . . . b5 2 1 Bxe6ch Nxe6 22
Nxe6 Qxe6 23 Rd6 winning easily.
20 ..
. Bxc4
21 bxc4 25 Qh8ch
One point. A generous Three points. This move
bonus point if you planned 22 Rd6 leaves White with a clear material
in answer to 2 1 . . . Ne6. The threat and positional advantage. Three
of 23 Qd5 is irresistible. points also for 25 Nd5 . Black may
21 ... Nf7 reply 25 . . . Qh4 (25. . . Qgl 26 Nf6ch
22 e6 Kh8 2 7 Rdl) 26 Rf4 ! Qh5
1 06 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
(26. . Nx/4 allows mate) 27 Qh8ch
. One point. Black will lose
Kf7 28 Qf6ch forces mate. his last queenside pawn. Black
No points for 25 Nxe6 Rxe6 resigns.
26 Qh8ch Kf7 27 Qxh7ch Ke8
which loses the chance of a clear Now Total Up Your Points:
win. We now go through move 29 over 55  Grandmaster
without awarding any points; but 4 1 55  Master
with move 30 start thinking hard. 3440  Expert
25 ... Kfi 243 3  Class A
26 Qxh7ch Ke8 1 823  Class B
27 Qxe7ch Kxe7 1 1  1 7  Class C
28 Nxg6ch Ke8 Below 1 1  need more study
29 Nxf8 Nxf8
Test No. 22
30 R:xf5
You have White, sitting
Three points if you saw the
beside Lev Polugaevsky, a leading
whole of this forced sequence.
Soviet Grandmaster. Your
White is the exchange and two
opponent is L. Espig, an East
pawns up. Nothing for other
German International Master.
moves.
Start your test after the first
30 ... b5 diagram. Cover this page with a
31 cxb5 sheet of notebook paper and lower
One point. Not 3 1 Re 1 ? it line by line. Grade yourself by
pointlessly confusing the issue: guessing White's moves. When
3 1 . . .Bd2 3 2 Re5ch Re6. ever you have made a Black move,
31 ... axb5 STOP ! and try to work out White's
32 h4 reply. Keep track of your point
One point. White plays his awards and see how you grade at
trump card, the passed hpawn. the end of the game.
32 ... Ra6
33 a3! Budapest, 1975
Two points. Simple and White: L. Polugaevsky
good. White liquidates even Black: Espig
further. Other moves may win, but Old Indian Defense
none is quite so precise.
1 NfJ Nf6 2 g3 d6 3 d4 Nbd7 4
33 ... Bxa3
c4 e5 5 Nc3 Be7 6 Bg2 00 7
34 Bxa3
00 c6 8 e4 Qc7 9 b3 a6 1 0 Bb2
One point. A point also for
34 Rb l b4 3 5 Rxc5.
b5
34 . (See next diagram)
.. R:xa3
35 R:xc5
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 07
now plan to answer 1 3 . . . Ba6 by 1 4
exf6 Bxc4 1 5 fxe7 Rfb 8 1 6
e8=Qch! Rxe8 1 7 bxc4 gaining
fine compensation for the Queen.
Deduct five points for moves
which simply lose material, e.g. 1 3
Qa4 Nb6 1 4 Qa3 d5. Deduct two
points for 1 3 Qd3 and 1 3 Qe2
which lose the exchange after
1 3 . . . Ba6.
13 ... dxe5
14 Rfcl
Three points. The
1 1 Qe2 completion of the maneuver begun
Two points. Black would on move 1 2 . White responds to
have liked to play l l . . .bxc4 and 14 . . . Ba6 by 1 5 Nd5 ! Nxd5 1 6
after 12 bxc4 contest the bfile by Qxd5 . I f you chose Rfc 1 last move
. . . Rb8. Combined with . . . a5 and you are unlucky. After 1 3 Rfc l Ba6
. . . Ba6 attacking the cpawn Black 14 Nd5 Nxd5 1 5 Qxd5 Black has
should then obtain sufficient 1 5 . . . Rfc8 ! winning at least a Rook
pressure to equalize. Take no because White's Queen is trapped.
points if you allowed this plan. Deduct three points for any
No points for 1 1 dxe5 dxe5. other move by the Rfl . Both 1 4
This exchange is rarely good where Rfe l and 14 Rfd l are answered by
a Black pawn guards d5 but 14 . . . Ba6 1 5 Qa4 Nc5 1 6 Qa3 Nd3 .
White's pawn formation prevents a Take two bonus points if you
similar defense to d4. saw up to move 14 when playing
1 1 ... bxc4 1 1 Qe2 .
12 Qxc4 14 ... Nc5
One point. If, despite
various warnings, you played 1 2
bxc4, deduct a point. White's last
two moves envisaged a slight
tactical embarrassment to his
Queen in return for the strategic
advantage of pressure on the Black
a and cpawns.
12 ... a5
13 dxe5 !
Five points, but only if you
foresaw White's next move. You
1 08 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
1 5 Na4! be en prise after the threatened 1 9
Three points. Black threat Rxc5. 1 8 . . . Nfxe4 does not solve
ened 1 5 . . . Ba6, winning material. If this problem as 1 9 Nxc5 Nxc5 20
you missed this, deduct four points. Rxc5 wins two pieces for a Rook.
1 5 Na4 ! clears an escape route for One point for seeing this variation.
the White Queen and increases Two further points if you planned
pressure down the cfile. Take two to refute 18 . . . Bxe4 by 19 Bxf6 gxf6
bonus points if you planned to (19. . . Bx/6 20 Rxc5) 20 Nd4 !
answer 1 5 . . . Nfd7 by 1 6 Nxe5 ! Ba6 attacking c6 and /5, the two
( 1 6. . . Nxa4 1 7 Nxc6!) 1 7 Qd4 Nxa4 weakest points in Black's camp.
1 8 Nxc6 Bf6 1 9 Qxa4 . The final No points for 1 8 Qb2
threat of a Knight check on e 7 allowing 1 8 . . . Bxe4, or for 1 8 Qc3
discovering a Rook attack on or 18 Qd2 allowing 18 . . . Nfxe4 .
Black's Queen is very unpleasant 18 ... Rfd8
in these lines of play. 19 Bd4!
1 5 ... Ba6 Four points. By this move
1 6 Bxe5 White covers his Queen from a
Two points. It would be discovered attack by the Black
ungracious to refuse the gain of a Rook, and increases the pressure
pawn and a tempo. Black would still further upon the Nc5. No
now have to spend further time points for 1 9 Nxc5 Bxc5 20 Bxf6
securing the safety of his pieces if Bxf2ch 2 1 Kh 1 gxf6 22 Nh4 Bxe4
he tried 16 . . . Bxc4 1 7 Bxc7 or with a discovered attack on White's
16 . . . Qxe5 1 7 Nxe5 Bxc4 18 Nxc6 ! Queen, or 19 Bxf6 Bxf6 20 Rxc5
One point each for 16 Qc3 (20 Nxc5 Bxe4 21 Qel Bxj3 22
and 16 Qc2 . Bxj3 Bxal ) 20 . . . Bb5 ! when both
1 6... Qa7 White Rooks and White's Queen
1 7 Qc2 are threatened.
One point. No points for 1 7 19 ... Nfxe4
Qc3 which allows 1 7 . . . Nfxe4
attacking the Queen. Take a bonus
point if you planned to answer
1 7 . . . Nd3 by 1 8 Rd l Nb4 1 9 Qb l
maintaining an extra pawn.
1 7 ... Bd3
18 Qdl
Three points. The beginning
of a splendid maneuver to take
advantage of the vulnerable
position of the Black minor pieces.
At present, the Bishop on d3 would
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 109
20 Qel ! when playing 20 Qe l ! . White
Three points. The threat of threatens 25 Nxb5 and 26 Bxa8.
2 1 Qe3 forces Black's reply. Three Two further points if you
points also for 2 1 Nxc5 Nxc5 planned to refute 24 . . . Rd8 by 2 5
(forced, since 21. . . Bxc5 22 Qxd3 Nf5 ! (superior to 2 5 Nxc6  one
Nx.f2 23 Bxc5 Nxd3 24 Bxa 7 Nxcl point) 25 . . . Ne6 (25. . .f6 26 Qe3) 26
25 Rxcl Rxa 7 26 Rxc6 gives White a4 Ba6 27 Qxa5 .
the better ending) 22 Qe l ! Rd5 23 24 ... Nd3
Qe3 (threat of 24 Ne!) 23 . . . Rad8
24 Rc3 followed by 25 Rae l . x
20 ... Bb5
d
 t . ' t
d z
t
21 Nxc5
Two points. 2 1 Nc3 Nxc3
(21. . . N/6 22 Qe3) 22 Qxc3 Ne4 23 l
ii!.li. ,.m:.d
& d
Qe3 c5 24 Bxg7 Kxg7 23 Qxe4 .
d "
.
d .
"'Al
:n: d  d
merits two points. Nothing for 2 1
Qe3 which allows 2 1 . . . Bxa4 easing d . 
" . ...
. . . .at.
z
the pressure on the pinned Knight.
ft
Take a bonus point if you intended
to answer 2 1 . . .Nxc5 by 22 Qe3 .
9
. .
2 1 ... Bxc5 25 Qe3
22 Rxc5 ! One point. 25 . . . Rd8 loses a
Four points. White gains a piece to 26 Nxb5 Qxe3 27 fxe3
winning advantage from this cxb5 28 Rd l Rd7 29 Bc6 ! Rd8 30
simplifying combination. 22 Qxe4 Bxb5 . A bonus point for this line.
Bxd4 23 Nxd4 Rxd4 losing the 25 ... a4
initiative, does not deserve credit. 26 Rdl
22 ... Nxc5 Two points. Polugaevsky
23 Qe5 chooses the safest method of
Two points. One point only winning. If you preferred 26 Nxb5
for 23 Qe3 . Black replies 23 . . . Re8 Qxe3 27 fxe3 axb3 28 Nc3 b2 29
24 Bxc5 (24 Qc3 Ne4) 24 . . . Rxe3 Rb l Ra3 30 Nd l Rxa2 3 1 Be4 !
25 Bxa7 Rxf3 26 Bxf3 Rxa7 27 take two points also.
Rd l Kf8 28 a4 Ba6 29 Bxc6 Rc7 26 ... axb3
and White's edge is small. 27 axb3
23 ... Rxd4 One point. Deduct two
24 Nxd4 points for 27 Nxb5 Qxe3 28 fxe3
One point. Three bonus bxa2 29 Ra l Nb4 30 Nc3 Ra3
points if you saw up to this point regaining the piece.
27 ... Nb2
1 10 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
28 Rel Now Total Up Your Points:
One point. The double Over 60  Grandmaster
threat of 29 Qe8ch and 29 Nxb5 5059  National Master
forces Black's reply. 4049  Expert
28 ... Rf8 3039  Class A
29 Qd2 ! 2029  Class B
Three points. The only move 10 1 9  Class C
to score. The Black Knight is Below IO  Need more study
trapped. 29 Qc3 would not achieve
the same object because of 29 . . . Test No. 23
Nd3 . You have the White pieces,
29 ... Qa2 sitting beside the Dane, Bent
Larsen, for many years the second
30 Nxb5
strongest player in the free world.
One point. A necessary
Your opponent is Ulf Andersson,
preparation for White's next.
the Swedish grandmaster. The
30 ... cxb5
game is the fifth of their match in
31 Qc2 1 975.
One point. White threatens Start your test after the first
32 Rb l . diagram. Cover this page with a
3 1 ... Rd8 sheet of notebook paper and lower
32 Bfl ! it line by line. Grade yourself by
Two points. It is stiff not too guessing White's moves.
late to bungle everything. Deduct Whenever you have made a
four points for 32 Rb l ? which Black move, STOP ! and try to
throws away the win after 32 . . . work out White's reply. Keep track
Qxb l ch 3 3 Qxb l Rd l ch. of your point awards and see how
32 ... Qa5 you grade at the end of the game.
33 Re2
One point. If 33 . . . Nd3 or Match, 1975
3 3 . . . Nd l then 34 Qxd3 ! (or 34 White: Bent Larsen
QxdI I) wins. Black: Ulf Andersson
33 ... h5 NimzoIndian Defense
34 Qxb2 1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 e6 3 Nc3 Bb4
One point. 4 e3 c5
34 ... Rdl ? (See next diagram)
35 Re8ch
One point. 35 . . . Kh7 36
Qc2ch picks up the Black Rook.
Black resigned.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 111
9 Qd3
Two points. There are other
reasonable moves here, too. Take
two points if you chose 9 Qe2,
intending to play d4d5. (Deduct
two points for the immediate 9 d5?
 for 9 . . Nb6 wins at least a pawn).
.
Two points also for 9 Qb3 , ( 9 Bd3
or 9 a3 . The 9 a3 move could lead
to 9 . . cxd4 IO exd4 Be7, a similar
.
line to the game. Take two bonus
Start Your Test Now! points if you realized that Black's
5 Bd3 main idea in this variation is to
This is the closest thing to a exchange pawns on d4 and set up
'main move' at this tum for White play against the isolated dpawn.
and it earns three points. Tak Any moves which overlooked this 
three points also for 5 ND , 5 Ne2 9 Na4 or 9 Bd2 for instance  do
and 5 a3 . Take two points if you not merit any points.
chose 5 g3 . Only one point for the Deduct two points for 9
passive 5 Qc2 or 5 Be2 . Other dxc5 ; after 9 . Bxc3 IO bxc3 Qa5
. .
moves fail to score. and l l . . . Nxc5 Black has a winning
positional plus.
5 ... 00
On d3 the Queen is ideally
6 Nf3
placed to defend the dpawn and
Two points. The same two
attack the enemy kingside.
for 6 Ne2 . Only one point for 6
9 ... cxd4
Qc2, 6 Bd2, 6 a3 or 6 Qe2, none of
which are outright bad, but neither 10 exd4
do they advance White's prospects One point. Both IO Nxd4
much. and IO Qxd4 lock in the Bel and
give Black access to crucial central
6 .
.. d5
squares, e.g. IO Nxd4? Ne5 more
7 00 than equalizes. No points for these
Two points. Again, there are
moves.
other moves, like 7 a3, 7 Bd2 or 7
10 . .. b6
Qc2 (a point each), but the text
remains White's best try. (See next diagram)
7 ... dxc4
8 Bxc4
No credit for this obvious
recapture.
8 ... Nbd7
112 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
One point for 1 2 Rfe 1 or 1 2
Rad l or 1 2 Rfd l .
1 2 ... a6!
13 a3
Two points. Black's
excellent last move snuffed out
hopes of any play White planned
through 13 Nb5 or 13 Ba6. More
important, 13 . . . a6 contains a drop
of poison. If you overlooked that
Black threatens 1 3 . . . b5 14 Bb3
Nc5 ! gaining the two Bishops and
1 1 Bf4 ruining White's pawn formation,
Three points. The problem deduct a point. 1 3 a3  optional
of the correct placement of this before  take two points if you
Bishop is one of the major chose it on move 1 1 or 1 2  is
problems in White's isolated d compulsory now. It also provides a
pawn position. No points for 1 1 handy retreat square for the bishop
Be3 , for then l l . . .Bb7 threatens on a2. One point for 1 3 Rfd l , the
1 1 . . .BxD , inflicting a weakness on only other move to score.
White's kingside. No points for the 13 ... Be7
passive 1 1 Bd2 . One point for 1 1
14 Rfel
Bg5, which would be the strongest
Two points. White
move if Black had placed his
completes his development by
Queen knight on c6 instead of d7.
pacing his Rook on an active post 
In the present position the effect of
the semiopen file. One point for
1 1 Bg5 is lessened by the fact that
the passive 1 4 Rfd 1 . Deduct two
the Nf6 is already guarded by his
points for 1 4 d5?, which still fails
colleague on d7. 1 1 Re l or 1 1 Rd l
to 14 . . . Nc5 .
gain only one point. It is not yet
clear where White's King Rook 1 4 ... Re8
belongs. 15 Ba2
Deduct a point for 1 1 d5 Two points. White deploys
with loses a pawn after 1 1 . . . Nc5 . his pieces to maximum effect. If
1 1 ... Bb7 you chose this move last time,
intending 15 Rfe 1, take the full
12 Rael !
two points. 15 Ba2 takes the
Two points. Take another
Bishop away from a potentially
point if you also noted that
vulnerable square (after 15 . RcB)
. .
1 2 . . . Rc8 could be nicely met by 1 3
and prepares the possibility of Bb 1
Nb5 ! threatening both 14 Nxa7
with pressure on h 7. 1 5 Bb3 ?
and 14 Nd6.
(deduct three points) is an outright
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 13
blunder after 1 5 . . . Nc5 16 Qc2 position. The text stops the
Nxb3 1 7 Qxb3 Bxf3 etc . . occupation of d5 by the Black
Take a bonus point if you Knight and prepares 1 9 Rcd l and
saw this and realized that 1 5 . . . Nc5 20 d5 . One point for 1 8 Bb 1
now fails against 16 Qe2 Bxf3 1 7 forcing 1 8 . . . g6.
Q xf3 Qxd4 1 8 Rcd l winning 18 ... g6
material. 19 h4
15 ... Rc8 Two points. The obvious
16 NeS method for taking advantage of
Three points. One point if Black's last weakening pawn move.
you chose it on the last two moves. Other moves are all rather slow.
The primitive 16 Ng5? ! (intending 19 ..
. bS
1 7 Bxe6) fails to 16 . . . Nf8 (no 20 Qh3
points). One point for 16 Re2 or 1 6 The ingenious Larsen
Rc2 . intends 2 1 h5 Nxh5 22 d5. Two
bonus points if you noticed this
threat. Even stronger is 20 Qf4 !
Nd5 (20. . . Kg7 21 h5 or 20. . . Nh5
21 Qg4 intending 22 d5) 2 1 Bxd5 !
Bxd5 22 Bf6 ! (22. . . Bx/6 23 Qx/6
Qd8 24 Q/4 with considerable
black square pressure) threatening
23 h5 or even the immediate 22 h5
as 22 . . .f6 fails against 23 hxg6
hxg6 (23. . .fxe5 24 QJ7ch) 24 Qh6 !
Take three points if you
chose 20 Qf4, and one to three
1 6 ... Nxe5  bonus points according to how
1 7 BxeS much of the analysis you saw.
One point, but deduct ten if 20 ... Red8
you recaptured with the pawn. A 21 Re3
Queen is a Queen! Those who Two points. Black's last
chose 1 7 Rxe5 deduct five points. move protects his Queen and
They would lose the exchange after makes 2 1 h5? unwise because of
1 7 . . . Bd6. 2 1 . . .Nxh5 22 d5?? exd5 . Deduct
1 7 ... Qd7 two points if you chose this line.
1 8 Qg3 No points for the seemingly
Three points. White must crushing 2 1 Bxf6 Bxf6 22 Rxe6?!
tack around and try to force It is easily repulsed by 22 . . . Kg7 23
weaknesses in the solid Black Re3 Qxh3 24 Rxh3 Rxd4 and
1 14 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
White cannot claim one iota of Nxe6? leaving Black with two
advantage. Bishops for a Rook after 26 . . . Rxa2
2 1 ... a5 27 Nxd8 Qxh3 28 Rxh3 Bxd8.
22 Reel 26 ... Nd5
One point. The only move to 27 h5!
score. The Rook now increases Four points. 27 . . . Nxe3
pressure on the e6 pawn while would now lose to 28 hxg6
avoiding the exchanges after 22 . . . (28. . .fxg6 29 Bxe6ch) . Moreover,
b4. Black must attend to the immediate
22 ... b4 threat of 28 hxg6 fxg6 29 Nxg6
23 axb4 when the White rook is transferred
Two points, but only if you to g3 in many variations. A bonus
saw why the immediate 23 Ne2 point for seeing either of these
was not good. After 23 . . . Rc2 24 threats  two points for seeing both.
Bb3 Rxb2 25 axb4 a4 ! the White Black's best chance was
Bishop has no safe square. probably 27 . . . Nxf4 28 Bxf4 Bf6 !
23 ... axb4 2 9 Be5 Bxe5 though even here
White has considerable counter
24 Ne2
play on the dark squares after 30
One point. Other retreats
hxg6 hxg6 31 dxe5 Qe7 3 2 Qh6
either lose material or leave the
Qf8 33 Qg5 Bd5 34 Rd l Rd7 3 5
Knight with poor prospects.
Bxd5 Rxd5 36 Rxd5 exd5 3 7 Rh3
24 . . . Rc2
and Black is helpless before the
25 Nf4 threat of 38 Qf6 Qg7 39 Qd8ch
Two points. By a clever
Qf8 40 Rh8ch.
Knight maneuver, White has
Take one to five bonus
increased pressure on e6 and
points according to how much or
prepared h4h5.
how little of this you envisioned.
Defense of the bpawn is
hopelessly passive and should not
even enter your head.
25 ... Rxb2
26 Bb3
Two points. The alternative
was 26 Bb l , no points (26 R3e2 or
26 R l e2 merely weakens White's
attack). The text gives more scope
for combinations  usually based on
e6. Now 26 . . . h5 (to stop 26 h5)
fails against 27 Nxg6 ! Rxb3 27
Nxe7ch. Deduct three points for 26
27 ... g5?!
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 15
28 Bxd5 points according to how deeply you
Three points, but only if you delved into this variation.
were planning White's next. After 29 ... gxf4
28 . . . gxf4? White wins material by Under intense, pressure,
29 Qg4ch Kf8 30 Qg7ch Ke8 3 1 Andersson not surprisingly cracks.
Qg8ch Bf8 3 2 Bg7 or 3 2 Bd6 ! . No 30 Qg4ch
points for 28 Nxd5 Bxd5 threat One point.
ening further exchanges, while 28 30 ... Kf8
Rg3 ? (deduct two points) loses 31 Qxf4 !
material to 28 . . . Nxf4 29 Bxf4 Four points. Again the only
Rxb3 ! move to score. White can still go
28 ... Bxd5 wrong by rushing with 3 1 Qg7ch
29 Rel ! Ke8 32 Qg8ch Bf8 33 Rc7 fxe3 ! or
The culmination of Larsen's 33 Bg7 Qe7. Deduct two points for
tactical ingenuity. The threat of 30 3 1 Qg7ch.
Rc7 Qe8 3 1 h6 intending Nh5 and 31 ... Rc8
Nf6ch (31 . . .gx/4 32 Qg4ch) forces 32 Rg3
a blunder from his opponent. In
this finely balanced position 29
Re l is the only move to score. 29
Nxd5 or 29 Nd3 are insufficiently
sharp; they can be easily meet by
29 . . . Qxd5 and 29 . . . Rb3 respect
ively. In addition, White has to
find an answer to the threat of
29 . . . gxf4. Take three bonus points
if you analyzed 29 . . . Rc8, realizing
that by 30 Rxc8ch Qxc8 3 1 Nxd5
Qc l ch 32 Kh2 exd5 33 Qd7 ! Rb l
34 Kh3 ! Qh l ch 35 Bh2 Bf6
Four points. The last
(35 . . . Bj8 36 Rj3) 36 RD or 36 h6
difficult move of the game. You
wins.
saw of course that 32 . . . Ke8 lost to
Larsen himself thought of a
3 3 Rxc8ch Qxc8 34 Rg8ch Bf8 3 5
remarkably clever defense for
Bd6. The threat of 3 3 Qh6ch forces
Black in 29 . . . b3 ! 30 Rc7 Rb l ch 3 1
Black to jettison material .
Kh2 b2 ! 3 2 Rxd7 Rh lch! 3 3 Kxh l
b l (Q)ch 34 Kh2 Rxd7. Even here 32 ... Rxcl ch
though, it seems that White 33 Qxcl
maintains a strong initiative after No points.
3 5 Rc3 ! intending 36 Rc8ch Rd8 33 ... Qc6
37 Nxd5 ! . Take up to five bonus 34 Qxb2
1 16 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Again no points. White's Now Total Up Your Points:
mating attack has netted an Over 87  Grandmaster
exchange plus. 7486  International master
34 ... f6 6 1 73  National master
35 Bf4 4860  Expert
One point. 3 5 Bb8 is 3 5 47  Class A
scarcely an attractive square. No 2834  Class B
points for it. 2027  Class C
35 ... Qc4 Below 20  need more study
36 Qbl !
Three points. The Test No. 24
immediate threat is 37 Qxh7. One You have White, sitting
point for 36 h6, intending 37 Rg7 beside Yuri Balashov, one of the
and 3 8 Rxh7. Soviet Union's best young players
f5 at the time. Your opponent is Ivo
36 ...
Nei, whose strength approached
37 Qal
that of his fellow Estonian Keres.
Two points. The idea is to
Start your test after the first
draw the enemy Queen away from
diagram. Cover this page with a
the dpawn by the threat of 38 Qa7
sheet of notebook paper and lower
threatening 39 Qb8ch. A bonus
it line by line. Grade yourself by
point if you saw that 37 . . . b3 fails
guessing White's moves.
against 38 Qa7 Qb5 39 Bh6ch Kf7
Whenever you have made a
40 Rg7ch.
Black move, STOP ! and try to
37 ... Qa2 work out White's reply. Keep track
38 Qel ! of your point awards and see how
Two points. White gains you grade at the end of the game.
access to e5 and the weak dark
squares. If now 3 8 . . . Bf6 3 9
U.S.S.R. 1 973
Qxb4ch.
White: Y. Balashov
38 ... b3
Black: I. Nei
39 Qe5
English Opening
One point, but only if you
made White's last move with this
1 c4 c6 2 e4 e5 3 Nf3 Qc7 4
in mind. Nc3 Nf6 5 g3 Bb4 6 Bg2 d6 7
39 ... b2 00 Bg4
40 Qh8ch (See next diagram)
One point. A point also for
40 Qb8ch which will mate just as
well. Black resigned.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 117
9 ... Nbd7
10 a3
Three points. Two points
also for 10 Ne2, e.g. 10 . . . d5? ! 1 1
cxd5 cxd5 1 2 exd5 and White wins
a pawn. One point for 10 Re 1 or 1 0
Rd 1 though the best square for this
Rook is far from obvious as yet. 1 0
b 3 does not score because i t i s
equally unclear which diagonal
will best suit White's Bel .
10 .. . BcS
1 1 b4
8 h3
Two points. 1 1 d3 is hardly
Three points. Simple, yet
worth a point here.
forceful, securing the slight
11 Bd4
advantage of the Bishop pair. An ...
extra point if you had a look at d4 12 Rbl
and decided that the absence of any Because this is so strong,
Black counterplay against it made three points, and a fourth if, when
the exchange of the Nj3 less you chose White's 1 0th move, you
important. 8 d4 would allow Black envisaged his 1 1th and 1 2th as
to grab a pawn and weaken White's well, for they represent far and
pawn skeleton by 8 . . . Bxc3 9 bxc3 away the best plan at this juncture.
Nxe4 but only at the expense of 12 Bb2, intending 1 3 Rae l , though
dangerous counterplay based on slow, earns a point.
Black's uncastled King: 10 Qd3 12 .. Nf8
Bxf3 1 1 Bxf3 Nf6 12 dxe5 dxe5 1 3 13 Ne2
Ba3 would set Black problems.
Two points for 8 d4, but only if you
saw the continuation. Two points
also for the solid and sound 8 d3 .
Nothing else scores. Deduct a point
for 8 a3, 8 Qb3 or 8 Qa4, which
lose the epawn after 8 . . Bxc3 . 8
.
Qc2 (no points) allows Black to
double the cpawns.
8 ... Bxf3
9 Qxf3
Two points. One point for 9
BxD ; nothing else scores.
118 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Three points. Completely Three points. Nothing for 1 7
thematic. Until the Bishop is bxa5 Rxa5 with helpful counter
exchanged, b4b5 might only play along the afile. Deduct a
enlarge its scope. 1 3 Bb2 does not point for 1 7 b5, blocking the
quite earn a point, though the idea Queen's wing.
of following it up with 14 Ne2 1 7 ... dxc5
Bxb2 1 5 Rxb2 followed by 16 d4 18 Bxd4
has certain attractions; but in a Four points. This had to be
position that can easily be opened, played at once. Two extra points if
the text, visualizing two Bishops you realized that Black loses a
against two Knights, is obviously pawn after either 1 8 . . . Rd8 or
White's most promising course. 18 . . 000 by 1 9 Bxe5 !
.
Ergo, nothing for 1 3 Re 1 or 1 3 18 ... cxd4
Rd l .
19 f4!
1 3 ... Ne6 The key to White's strategy.
14 Nxd4 Four points. His idea was to allow
Two points for this simple Black to set up the outpost on d4,
and direct move. No points for 14 only to undermine it by f2f4; if a
h4 intending 1 5 Bh3 , which is too plan like this entered your head on
committal before Black has castled. move 14 take three extra points.
14 d3 is perhaps worth a point 19 ... Nd7
even now.
20 fxe5
14 ... Nxd4 Two points. Nothing for
15 Qd3 anything else.
Two points. Deduct six 20 ... Nxe5
points for 1 5 Qc3 when 15 . . . Ne2
21 Qxd4
wins. Nothing for others.
One point. Nothing for
15 ... c5 anything else.
16 Bb2 21 ... Rd8
Two points. Deduct two
(See next diagram)
points for 1 6 bxc5? which after
1 6 . . . dxc5 leaves the dfile open for
exploitation by Black. No other
move is directly linked to White's
longterm plan.
16 ... a5?
Not a good move. Black had
to castle without further delay.
1 7 bxc5 !
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 19
No points ! Balashov allows
Nei the chance of a draw. Correct
was 25 Rd5 ! with positions similar
to the game. Black's best
continuation would then be 25 . . .
Rxd2 (25. . . Rd8 26 Rel i s worse)
26 Re l Rxg2ch 27 Kxg2 Ne3ch 28
Kf3 Nxd5 29 exd5 Rd8 30 a4 !
followed by 3 1 Rc5 when White
either wins the apawn or forces
the Black rook into a passive
position. Take four points for 2 5
22 Rxb7! Rd5 and three bonus points i f you
Five points if you saw this found the subsequent analysis.
magnificent move. 22 Qb2 Qc5ch 25 .. Nxd2
23 Kh2 00 is not so clear. If 22 26 Rd5
Qb6 Qxb6 23 Rxb6 Nxc4 24 Rxb7 No points. With 26 . . . Rc4 !
00 and White cannot hold his Black could now have forced a
extra pawn. One point for 22 Qb2; draw.
no credit for anything else. Rxd5?
26 ...
22 .
. . Rxd4 27 exd5
22 . . . Qxb7 can hardly be Score a gift point!
considered in view of 23 Qxe5ch
27 ... f5
Qe7 24 Qxg7 or 23 . Kf8 24 Qxa5
. .
securing' a third pawn for the
28 Rc5
Three points for this with its
exchange and depriving Black of
neat combination of a simple pawn
the right to castle.
gain by 29 Rxa5 and the fearsome
23 Rxc7 concealed menace of 29 d6
A token one point for this.
followed by 30 Rd5.
23 . 00 Rb8
. .
28 ...
At last!
29 d6
24 Rc5 Three points. Nothing for 29
Three points. Again, how
Rxa5, for which Black was no
can anything else qualify for credit
doubt hoping; he can reply
when this one pure forcing move
29 . . . Rb lch, e.g. 30 Kf2 Rb2
leaves Black no option but to
confronting White with trouble
. . . well, take another point if you
some problems. For example, 3 1
have already foreseen Black's reply
d6? Nc4 dis. ch and 32 . . . Nxa5 . Or
and White's follow up.
3 1 Ke3 ?? Nc4ch. Or 3 1 Ra8ch Kf7
24 ... Nxc4 32 Ke3 Nc4ch 33 Kd4 Rxg2 34
25 Rel ?
1 20 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Kxc4 Rxg3 is not much better for Two points. White does best
White, either. 30 Kh2 Rb2 would to preserve the "distant" pawn.
also be troublesome, e.g. 3 1 h4 Nothing for 34 Kh2 or 34 Rd5 ;
Nf3ch 3 2 Kh l Rb lch 33 Bfl Rb2 ! even though they would n o doubt
(33 . . . Rxflch 34 Kg2 is more risky allow White to win in the long run,
for Black) drawing by repetition. either makes his task more
difficult.
34 . Rxg3
35 Rd5
Two points. Obtaining a
passed apawn. The only move to
score.
35 . f4
36 Kf2
Two points. Deduct four
points for 36 Rxa5? (36. . .j3!).
36 ... g5
37 Rxa5
29 Kf7 One point.
30 d7! 37 ... h5
Three points. The most 38 h4!
forceful continuation. If now Three points. The most
30 . . . Rd8 3 1 Rxf5ch wins easily. 30 efficient way of terminating the
Rxf5ch is slowest and only game. 38 . . . g4 is met by 39 Rxh5
deserves one point. Ra3 40 Bc6. Other moves such as
30 ... Ke7 38 Ra8 and 38 Ra6 are slower and
31 Re5ch score only a point.
Three points. But only if you 38 .. gxh4
saw that 3 l . . .Kd8 loses to 32 39 Bf3
Re8ch and 3 l . . .Kf8 fails after 3 2 Three points. Now the Black
Bc6. N o points fo r anything else. Rook is cut off from the rear of the
3 1 ... Kxd7 apawn, e.g. 39 . . . Rh3 40 Rxh5
32 Rd5ch Rh2ch 41 Bg2 . Black resigns.
One point.
32 Ke7 Now Total Up Your Points:
33 Rxd2 Over 75  Grandmaster
One point. 6075  Master
33 ... Rb3 5059  Expert
34 a4 4049  Class A
3039  Class B
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 121
2029  Class C
Below 20  need more study
9 ... b5
Three points. Natural and strong.
Black gains space on the queenside
Test No. 25
and prepares to fianchetto his Bc8.
You have the Black pieces,
It was important for you to
sitting beside Lev Polugaevsky, one
consider 10 a4  a common
of the players to reach the
reaction to Black 9th move. If you
Candidates' matches multiple
intended 10 . . . b4 1 1 Nd5 Nxd5 1 2
times. Your opponent is Yuri
Qxd5 Rb8 followed by . . . 00,
Balashov.
. . . Bb l and . . . N/6 take a bonus
Start your test after the first
point. One point for 9 . . . 00 or
diagram. Cover this page with a
9 . . . b6 which allow 10 a4 !
sheet of notebook paper and lower
it line by line. Grade yourself by
10 h3
guessing Black's moves. 10 . Bb7
Whenever you have made a Two points. The logical
White move, STOP ! and try to follow up to Black's last move '
work out Black's reply. Keep track increasing pressure on White's e4
of your point awards and see how pawn and d5. 10 . . . 00 gains only
you grade at the end of the game. one point, as does 10 . . . b4.
1 1 g4
Tallin, 1 973 1 1 ... b4 !
White: Y. Balashov Four points. The most
forceful continuation. Moves like
Black: L. Polugaevsky
1 1 . . .00, l l . . .Rc8 and l 1 . . .Qc7
Sicilian Defense
score no points as they allow White
1 e4 c5 2 Nf3 d6 3 d4 cxd4 4 to take the initiative with 12 g5,
Nxd4 Nf6 5 Nc3 a6 6 g3 e5 e.g. 1 1 . . .00 12 g5 Ne8 (12 . . . Nh5
7 Nde2 Nbd7 8 Bg2 Be7 9 00 13 Bj3!) 1 3 h4. 1 2 Ng3 would also
.1:
& da
d.JLlifiW"
.
Wi

be strong for White in this
variation. But 1 1 . . .Nc5 deserves
m
... . .... . ... . ...
.a. U w m .a. m .J .&. three points. After 12 Ng3 b4 1 3
t . 
m
.
Nd5 Nxd5 1 4 exd5 a position akin
" ,
to the game is reached.
. . . 1 2 Nd5
:rt 12 . .. Nxd5
D . " D m  .
Three points. Take an extra
.e. f:1l % .e.  /."\. 07, "" 07,
l!e.J. point if you saw this move when
..B. .B.  .ala playing l l . . .b4, realizing White's

W F8"i
d ..!:j., . 1 2th move was forced to protect
the epawn. 12 . . . Bxd5 was not as
Start Your Test Now!
J 22 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
good  Black wants to improve the Two points. Controls more
scope of his blacksquared Bishop area on the queenside and prepares
and prevent g4g5  but it still . . . Ba6. 1 5 . . . Bg5 merits one point.
rnerits a point. Other moves such 16 Rel
:is 1 2 . . 00 allow 1 3 Nxe7ch
.
16 ... Nc5
followed by pressure against the Two points. An extra point
weakly defended d6 pawn. if you saw that 1 5 . . . a5, a necessary
13 exd5 preparation for this move, prevents
13 ... 00 17 b4 . 16 . . . Ba6 and 16 . . . Bg5 both
This necessary preliminary score one point. Deduct three
to any further action by Black points if you chose 16 . . . Rc8 1 7 Be3
gains two points. 13 . . . h5 is too Nb6? 18 Qb3 !
dangerous after 14 Ng3 . 1 7 Be3
14 c4 1 7 ... Rc8
14 ... bxc3 Three points. Necessary to
A difficult juncture in the prevent the splitting of Black's
game. Black has to decide how to pawns after 18 Bxc5 . 17 . . . Qc7 with
increase his small advantage the same object in view would be
(pressure on the d5 pawn and the less accurate. After 1 8 Re l the
weak black squares on the Black Queen is vulnerable visavis
kingside). The text scores two the Rook.
points as it isolates the d5 pawn. 18 Na4!
Two points also for a plan which 18 ... Nxa4
involves moves like . . Nc5, . . Bg5,
. .
One point. A retreat would
. . . Bc8, and the gradual preparation be an admission that 16 . . . Nc5 was
for . . .j7f5. a waste of time, and to allow 1 9
15 Nxc3 Nxc5 and the resulting weak
pawns is out of the question.
19 Qxa4
15 ... a5
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 23
Two points. Aiming at j2.
1 9 ... Ra8!
23 . . . Bg5 loses a pawn after 24
Four points. Balashov's
Bxg5 Qxg5 25 Qxd6.
active defense is almost on the
24 Be4
point of equalizing, and Black has
to play accurately to keep a small 24 ... Qf6
edge. Now on 20 Qb5 Ba6 ! 2 1 Qb6 Two points. This would also
have been the answer to 24 Bb6.
Qxb6 22 Bxb6 Rfb8 23 Bxa5 Rxb2
No other moves deserve to score.
and Black has the superior ending
 better pawn and more active 25 Qc2
pieces. Moves which underestimate 25 ... g6
the strength of 20 Qb5 score no One point. Black nullifies
points, e.g. 1 9 . . . Bg5? 20 Qb5 Bxe3 the threat against h 7 and prevents
(20. . . Rb8 21 Bal) 2 1 Rxe3 and Bf5 . No points for 25 . . . Rac8. After
White is better. On the immediate 26 Qd2 it is difficult to see how
1 9 . . . Ba6, 20 Bd2 ! causes diffi Black can make progress.
culties for Black. 26 Kg2
20 Rael 26 .. Rab8 !
20 ... f5!
Three points. The time has
come to attack White's kingside
weaknesses. Other moves are too
slow in the face of White's
queenside pressure.
21 Qb5
21 ... Ba6
One point only. A broad
hint has already been given about
the strength of this move.
22 Qc6
22 ... fxg4 Three points, but only if you
Two points. 22 . . . f4 allows saw that 27 a3 fails against 27 . . . a4
23 Bb6. Now 23 Bb6 is met by intending 28 . . . Rb3 (28 Qxa4 Bxj2
23 . . . Qb8 24 hxg4 Bg5 ! 25 Be3 (25 wins).
R c2 Rc8 ! ) 25 . . . Bxe3 26 fxe3 Qxb2 27 Rhl
27 Rc2 (27 Qxd6 Qflch 28 Kh l or
27 ... Rb4
28 Kh2 R/6) 27 . . . Qb4 ! Two bonus Two points. An extra point
points if you saw these variations.
if you saw that 28 a3 brings White
23 hxg4 into difficulties after 28 . . . Rc4 29
23 ... Bh4 Qb l Rxc l 30 Qxc l Bxf2 !
28 Rh3
1 24 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
28 ... Bg5 Six points if you spotted it. Only
Three points. Planning to one point for 3 1 . . .QDch? ! 32 Kg l
eliminate White's blacksquared Bd3 3 3 Re3 ! Qxg4ch 34 Rg3
Bishop. 28 . . . Rc4 is less strong Qxg3ch 35 fxg3 Bxc2 36 Rxc2 Rf3
now: 29 Qb l Rxc l 30 Qxc l Be2? 37 Rc8ch ! and 3 8 Ra8 gives good
3 1 g5 ! or 30 . . . Bxf2 3 1 Bg5 ! Qf7 3 2 drawing chances for White.
Rf3 . The game now reaches a 32 Qxd3
critical point. 32 ... Qxf2ch
29 b3 One point. The only move to
29 ... Bxe3 consider.
One point. The logical 33 Khl
continuation after Black's last 33 ... RO
move. White threatens 30 a3 . One point. Again there is
30 Rxe3 little alternative. Take a bonus
30 ... Rxe4 ! point if you saw that 34 Re2 Qh4ch
Five points. Take two extra 35 Rh2 Qxh2ch 36 Kxh2 Rxd3
points of you visualized this when followed by . . Rxd5 wins easily.
.
playing 28 . . . Bg5 . White could not 34 Rc8ch
of course play 30 fxe3 because of 34 ... Kg7
3 0 . . . Rxe4 ! 3 1 Qxe4 Bflch 3 2 Rxfl One point; the same for
Qxfl ch 3 3 Kh2 (33 Kg3 Qf2 mate) 34 . . Kf7.
.
3 3 . . . Qe2ch ! and wins. A further 35 Rc7ch
point if you saw that 3 1 Qxe4 lost 35 ... Kf6
to 3 1 . . .Qxf2ch 32 Kh l Rf4. Two points. Deduct three
31 Rxe4 points for 3 5 . . Kf8 36 Rc8ch Ke7?
.
37 Rxe5ch! dxe5 38 d6ch ! with at
least a draw for White.
36 g5ch! ?
3 6 ... Kxg5
One point. Not 36 . . . Kf5??
3 7 Re2 dis. ch.
37 Rc2
37 ... Qg3
Two points. White's clever
defense took away h4 from the
Black Queen, but this move is
sufficient to win. One point if you
31 ... Bd3 ! ! saw that 38 Qe2 loses to
This beautiful move i s the 38 . . . Qh3ch 39 Kg l (39 Qh2 Rfl
point of the whole combination.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 25
mate) 3 9 . . . Rg3ch winning the Whenever you have made a
Queen. Black move, STOP ! and try to
38 Qd2ch work out White's reply. Keep track
38 ... Kf5 of your point awards and see how
Two points. The only move you grade at the end of the game.
to score.
39 Qg2 Madrid, 1974
39 Kxe4 White: A. Karpov
One point. An extra point if Black: U. Andersson
you saw 39 Re l Qh4ch ! Deduct Queen's Indian Defense
five points for losing a Rook with 1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 e6 3 Nf3 b6 4 g3
39 . . . Qxg2ch? 40 Kxg2 Kxe4 4 1 Bb4ch 5 Nbd2 Bb7 6 Bg2 00 7
Rc4ch. 00 c5
40 Rc4ch
40 ... Kxd5
One point. 40 . . . Kf5 also
wins, so a point for it. Deduct four
points for 40 . . . Kd3 ?? 4 1 Qc2ch
Ke3 42 Re4 mate. White resigned.
Now Total Up Your Points:
over 7 5  Grandmaster
607 5  Master
5059  Expert
4049  Class A
303 9  Class B Start Your Test Now!
2029  Class C
8 a3
Below 20  need more study
Two points. Gaining a slight
advantage of two Bishops against
Test No. 26 Bishop and Knight (8. . . Ba5 9 Nb3
You have White. Your is strong). Other moves are less
partner is Anatoly Karpov, the forcing and allow Black a
former World Champion. Your
comfortable game, e.g. 8 Nb3 cxd4
opponent is Ulf Andersson, the 9 Nbxd4 d5 or 9 . . . Nc6, equalizing.
Swedish grandmaster.
No points for any of these moves. 8
Start your test after the first b3 ? would be a bad error, allowing
diagram. Cover this page with a 8 . Bc3 and 9 . . cxd4. Deduct two
. . .
sheet of notebook paper and lower points for this.
it line by line. Grade yourself by
8 .. Bxd2
guessing White's moves.
9 Bxd2
1 26 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Two points. No points for 9 12 Qxd4
Qxd2 . After 9 . . . cxd4 1 0 Nxd4 ( J O One point. The only move
Qxd4 Nc6 followed by 1 J. . . d5) that comes into consideration;
10 . . . Bxg2 1 1 Kxg2 d5 again gives White must preserve his hold on
easy equality. 9 Nxd2 is met by d6. Deduct three points for 1 2
9 . . . Bxg2 10 Kxg2 cxd4 1 1 Nf3 d5 Nxd4 which loses a piece by
when Black has little to fear. No l2 . . . Nxd6. Deduct one point for 1 2
points. It was important for you to Bb4 e5 ; no point for 1 2 Bf4 d5 .
consider 9 . . . d5 at this point. If you 12 ... Na6
intended 1 0 cxd5 Qxd5  other 13 b4
moves also allow the isolation of Three points. Expanding his
Black's cpawn  1 1 dxc5 bxc5 spatial advantage while restricting
( 1 1 . . . Qxc5 1 2 Bb4) take a bonus the Black Knights. If now
point. 1 3 . . . Nxd6 14 Qxd6 Qc7 1 5 Rfd l
9 .. cxd4 Qxc4 16 Ne5 wins the exchange;
10 Bb4 ! 16 . . . Qc8 17 Rae l Qb8 (1 7. . . Bc6 1 8
White takes preventive b5) 1 8 Qxb8 R(either)xb8 1 9
action against Black's . . . d5. No Nxd7. Two bonus points i f you saw
points for 10 Nxd4 as after this. 1 3 Rad 1 moves the wrong
1 0 . . . Bxg2 1 1 Kxg2 d5 Black has Rook; 13 Rfd l allows 1 3 . . . Nac5
an even game. If Black replies (threatening . . . Nb3). No credit for
10 . . . d6, White plays 1 1 Qxd4 Ne8 either of these moves. 1 3 Ne5 Nac5
1 2 Ne5 ! (not 1 2 Rfdl ? Nc6) is unclear. White cannot win a
1 2 . . . Bxg2 1 3 Kxg2 Qf6 14 Qe4 ! pawn by 14 Bxc5 Nxc5 1 5 Bxb7
with many threats. Two bonus Nxb7 16 Qxd7 (16 Rfdl d6)
points if you analyzed this. But 1 6 . . . Qxd7 1 7 Nxd7 because 1 7 . . . f6
deduct two points if you intended traps the Knight.
1 4 Bxd6? which is weak: 13 ... Rc8
1 4 . . . Nxd6 1 5 Qxd6 Rd8 16 Qc7 14 Rael
Na6 1 7 Qb7 Nc5 1 8 Qc7 Rac8 and
Black wins. Deduct a point for 10
Bf4? d6 ! and White cannot
recapture on d4 because of . . e5.
.
10 ... Re8
1 1 Bd6
Two points. No points if
despite all the warnings you played
1 1 Nxd4 or 1 1 Qxd4 allowing the
early . . d5. No other moves deserve
.
credit.
11 ... Ne4
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 27
Three points. A difficult
Two points. A necessary
stage in the game. White has to
precaution to the c4 pawn, which
decide how to convert his spatial
Black threatens to win after
advantage into something more
1 4 . . . Nxd6. Deduct two points for
tangible. 17 Ne5 scores only one
1 4 c5 which loses a pawn out of
point. After l7 . . . Bxg2 18 Kxg2
hand. 1 4 Ne5 Nxd6 1 5 Qxd6 Bxg2
Ne8 ! 1 9 Qd3 (19 Nc6 Nxd6 20
16 Kxg2 f6 17 Nxd7 Rxc4 is
Nxd8 Nxc4) 19 . . . Nf6 Black's
unclear, though White is probably
position is much easier. The game
on top after 1 8 Rfd l . One point for
move threatens both 18 Ne5 and 
this idea. After 14 Nd2 Nxd6 1 5
more importantly  1 8 Ng5 Bxg2
Qxd6 Bxg2 1 6 Kxg2 Black's
19 Qxh7ch Kf8 20 Qh8 mate. If
defense has been considerably
Black tries to emancipate himself
eased. After 1 6 . . . Rc6 1 7 Qd4 Nc7
by 17 . . . d5 18 cxd5 exd5 (18. . . Nxd5
1 8 b5 e5 1 9 Qe4 Rce6 Black is
19 e4) 1 9 Ng5 g6 20 e4 wins at
ready for 20 . . . d5 . 1 4 b5 deserves
least a pawn. Two extra points if
no credit; Black defends easily by
you saw these variations. 1 7 Rd2,
1 4 . . . Nac5. Nor does 14 Rfc l , since
intending to double Rooks on the
this Rook is better on the dfile.
dfile, is a mistake: l 7 . . . Nb5 1 8
Qd3 d 5 and Black can defen .
14 ... Nxd6
15 Qxd6 Deduct a point for 1 7 Rd2. Agam
One point. no points for 1 7 c5. 1 7 b5 leaves
15 ... Nc7 the c4 pawn weak: no points.
16 Rfdl 1 7 ... Bxf3
Two points. Bringing the 18 Bxf3
last White piece into action, and One point. Nothing for other
threatening to win a pawn. recaptures. The scope of the White
Nothing else is quite so strong. 16 Bishop is now enhanced and 18 . . .
c5 is worth a point; 16 . . . Nb5 17 d5 is prevented: 1 9 cxd5 exd5 20
Qd3 Nc7 1 8 cxb6 would suit White e4.
well, but 1 6 . . . bxc5 1 7 Rxc5 Nd5 is 18 ... Ne8
better for Black; any exchanges
(See next diagram)
ease his position. 16 Ne5 is not
decisive. Black has 16 . . . Bxg2 1 7
Kxg2 Re7 1 8 Rfd l Ne8 extricating
himself. No points. No points
either for 16 a4 which is too slow,
giving Black time for . . . Qe 7.
16 ... Re7
1 7 Qd3
1 28 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Black's position. 2 1 c5 allows
2 1 . . .d5, so no points. Also no
points for 2 1 Bb5 Rd6 with freeing
exchanges.
2 1 ... Qb8
22 Qa4
Two points. Threatening to
win a pawn by 23 Rxd7 and
improving the position of his
Queen. Deduct a point for 22 c5
which loses a pawn, while 22 e4
allows counterplay via 22 . . . Qe5 .
1 9 Bb7! No points for 22 b5  a
Five points. The move positional error. However 22 Rd4,
played switches the Bishop to the although slow, earns a point.
queenside, where White controls 22 ... Rc7
more squares, and disrupts the
23 Qb5
harmony of the enemy pieces. 1 9
Two points. The Queen has
e 4 is less flexible, but deserves two
finally arrived at its most
points. 1 9 Rd2 d6 20 R l d l has the
aggressive position. Take two
demerit of leaving White's c4 pawn
bonus points if you visualized this
weak. No points for 1 9 c5 bxc5 20
position when playing your 2 1 st
bxc5 intending c5c6, which is too
move. 23 e4 just gains one point.
committal.
23 ... Nf6
19 ... Rc7
24 f3
20 Ba6
One point. Karpov intends
One point. The completion
to restrict the Black pieces still
of the maneuver outlined in the
more by 25 e4. However 25 c5,
previous note. No other move
three points, was stronger, when
scores.
the White queenside pawns would
20 ... Rc6 begin an advance.
21 Qb3 24 ... dS
Three points. Preventing
25 cS
2 1 . . . d5 and improving the position
Two points. Still the most
of the Queen, e.g. 2 l . . .d5 22 Qa4
inc1s1ve continuation is this
Rd6 (22. . . R 7c 7 23 Bb5 wins) 23
exploitation of the queenside
cxd5 Rxd5 24 Rxd5 followed by 25
majority. After 25 cxd5, no points,
Rc8 wins. Now 2 l . . .Nc7? would
Black plays 25 . . . Nxd5 threatening
lose the exchange to 22 Bb7.
26 . . . Nc3 .
Two points for 2 1 e4, which
also increases the pressure on
25 ... h5
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 29
26 a4
Three points. White wishes
to intensify the pressure on the b6
pawn. 26 c6, blocking the position,
scores no points; after 26 . . . e5
Black has time to organize
counterplay on the kingside.
26 ... Re8
27 cxb6
Two points. White aims to
secure a distant passed pawn, or
else win the b6 pawn. Take a
bonus point if you saw that after
30 Qxb6
27 . . . Rxc l 28 Rxc l Qxb6ch 29 One point. The first slight
Qxb6 axb6 30 Rc8 Rxc8 3 1 Bxc8 material gain after White's
Black must lose a piece to stop the excellent positional play. Deduct as
apawn, e.g. 3 l . . .Ne8 32 a5 bxa5 many points as you think you
33 bxa5 Nd6 34 Bd7 ! Nc4 35 a6 should (Honest, now!) for 3 0
Nb6 37 a7. The immediate 27 a5, axb6?? Qe3ch.
allowing 27 . . . bxa5, prolonging the 30 ... d4
game, is inferior. 31 Khl
27 ... axb6 One point. Only a point for
28 a5 3 1 Kg2  why? The reason is
Karpov's wish to avoid a Knight
One point only  we gave
check (fork) on e3, e.g. 3 1 Kg2
you enough clues last move, but
Nd5 32 Qc5 Rb8 33 Bb5? Rxb5 3 4
take an extra point if you planned
Qxb5 Ne3ch winning the Queen.
this on move 26.
Deduct six points for any move
28 ... Rxcl
that misses the threat of 3 1 . . . Qe3ch
29 Rxcl winning a Rook.
One point.
31 ... Qe3
29 ... Qe5
32 Rfl
(See next diagram) Two points. Preventing 32 . . .
Qfl . Moves like 3 2 Rc5 denuding
the White king do not merit credit
and 32 Rc8? is a mistake  32 . . .
Rxc8 3 3 Bxc8 Qxe2 .
32 ... e5
33 Bd3
Two points. Necessary to
prevent 33 . . . e4 . Now White replies
1 30 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
to this move by 34 fxe4 Nxe4 35 6070  Grandmaster
Qc6 Nf6 (35. . . Re6 36 Qc8ch Kh 7 5459  Master
3 7 Rj3) 3 8 Rf3 winning easily. 4653  Expert
Other moves allow 33 . . . e4 with 3845  Class A
unnecessary complications  no 2637  Class B
points. 1 225  Class C
33 ... h4 Below 1 2  need more study
34 gxh4
Three points. There is Test No. 27
nothing to fear in the acceptance of You have the Black pieces,
the pawn. One point for 34 a6, sitting beside Jan Timman, the
though by 34 . . . hxg3 35 a7 Qh6 strong Dutch grandmaster. Your
Black causes difficulties. 35 hxg3 opponent is Boris Rytov, the
e4 36 fxe4 Qxg3 is also U. S. S.R. master.
bothersome. Start your test after the first
34 ... Qf4 diagram. Cover this page with a
35 Rgl sheet of notebook paper and lower
Two points. Again after 3 5 it line by line. Grade yourself by
a6 (no points) Black might play guessing Black's moves.
36 . . . Ng4. Now 3 5 . . . e4 is refuted by Whenever you have made a
36 Qxd4. White move, STOP ! and try to
35 ... Qxh4 work out Black's reply. Keep track
of your point awards and see how
36 a6
you grade at the end of the game.
Two points. The pawn now
decides. Nothing else scores.
Tallin, 1973
36 ... g6
White: B. Rytov
37 a7
One point. Black: J. Timman
37 ... Kg7 NimzoIndian Defense
38 Bxg6 1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 e6 3 Nc3 Bb4 4
Three points. An effective e3 b6 5 N ge2 Ba6 6 a3 Bxc3ch
finish. 3 8 . . . fxg6 39 Qb7ch 7 Nxc3 d5 8 b3 00 9 Be2
followed by 40 a8(Q) wins. Here, (See next diagram)
however, all roads lead to Rome.
3 8 Qb7 Rh8 3 9 Rxg6ch (three
points) wins, as would 38 Qb8 Rh8
3 9 Qxe5 (two points). Black
resigned.
Now Total Up Your Points:
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 31
points if you visualized this when
playing IO . . . Bxc4 . You now
threaten simply 1 3 . . . a6. Moves
which allow 1 3 Qxc4 without a
fight even give White a good
game, e.g. 12 . . . a5 1 3 b5 Ne7 1 4
Qxc4. But 1 2 . . . e 5 gains two points.
After 13 Qxc4 exd4 14 Qxc6 dxc3
15 Qxc3 Black has an equal game 
but no more.
13 Nxb5
Start Your Test Now! 13 ... Qd5
Two points. Even if you
9
... Nc6 missed Black's 1 2th, this should be
Three points. Black the only move you considered.
develops his last minor piece, at Moves like 1 3 . . . a6 or 1 3 . . . a5
the same time threatening to merely give White a winning
increase pressure on White's c4 position after 14 Qxc4 !
pawn by . . . Na5. Three points also 14 Nxc7
for 9 . . . dxc4 intending after IO bxc4
14 .. Qxg2
Nc6 . Two points each for 9 . . . Nbd7
One point. An extra point if
and 9 . . . c5 which though not bad
you noticed that after 15 Rfl Rac8
allow White a comfortable game by
16 Na6 or 16 Nb5, 16 . . . e5 !
IO 00 and 1 1 Bb2.
smashes open the position in
1 0 b4? Black's favor.
10 ... Bxc4 15 Qfl
Two points. Black must take
immediate action against the threat
of 1 1 b5 . Deduct five points for
IO . . . dxc4?? which loses a piece to
1 1 b5, and two points for I O . . . Bb7?
which allows White a colossal
space advantage after 1 1 c5.
11 Bxc4
11 . .
. dxc4
One point.
12 Qe2
1 2 ... b5!
Four points. This incisive 15 ... Qf3!
continuation is the only one to gain
an advantage. Take an extra two
132 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Five points. No points if Two points. Now if 18 Kd l
after the previous sharp play you Qxd4ch 1 9 Kc2 Qxa l with many
chose the pedestrian 1 5 . . . Qxflch threats, the main one being
when 16 Rxfl Rac8 17 Nb5 Rfd8 20 . . . Qa2ch.
1 8 Bd2 gives White an easy game. 18 Ke2
Two points for 1 5 . . . Qe4 which is 18 ... Qxal
less exact. After 16 f3 Qc2 1 7 One point. Two extra points
Nxa8 Qc3ch (1 7. . . Rxa8 18 Bd2 c3 if you realized that 1 9 Nc7 fails
1 9 Bel is worse for Black) 1 8 Kf2 against 19 . . . Qxd4 20 Be3 Qb2ch !
Qxa 1 1 9 Nc7 and there is no 2 1 Kf3 (21 Kel c3 and the pawn
decisive continuation. marches through) 2 1 . . .Qe5 22 Na6
After 1 5 . . . Qf3 it was Qh5ch followed by mate.
important to consider 16 Rg l , 19 Qg2
which i s i n fact White's best
defense. If you chose 16 . . . Nxd4
deduct two points. White replies 1 7
Qxc4 (not 1 7 exd4? Qc3ch)
1 7 . . . Ne4 1 8 Ra2 ! and defends
easily. The correct move was the
simple 16 . . . Rac8 1 7 Nb5 (1 7 Na6
Nxd4!) 1 7 . . . a6 1 8 Nd6 Nxd4 ! 1 9
Nxc8 Nc2ch 2 0 Kd2 Nxa l winning
easily. Take two bonus points if
you saw this.
1 6 Nxa8
16 .. Nxd4
19 Qa2ch!
Three points now if you took
Four points. The most exact.
the hints last move. Deduct three
Now 20 Kf3 or 20 Bd2 lose back
points for 1 6 . . . Rxa8 or any other
the piece to 20 . . . Rxa8 or 20 . . . c3
move which allows White to
and after 20 Ke3 White receives
consolidate by 1 7 Bf2 . If White
short shrift by 20 . . . Qb3ch 2 1 Ke2
now replied 1 7 Ra2 Black would
(21 K/4 Nd5ch and 22. . . RxaB)
have a profusion of good moves.
2 1 . . .Qd3ch 2 1 Ke l Ne4.
Two more points if you intended
1 7 . . . Nb3 or 1 7 . . . Qe4 or 1 7 . . . Rd8 20 Kel
with the first named perhaps being 20 ... Qbl
the best, e.g. 1 7 . . . Nb3 1 8 Bd2 Rd8 Two points. Again a forcing
1 9 Rg l c3 ! 20 Rg3 Qd5 or move. 2 1 Qg5 Qe4ch and 2 1 Ke2
20 . . . Qe5 . Qd3ch are both unpleasant, so . . .
1 7 exd4 21 Kd2
17 . Qc3ch 2 1 ... Ne4ch
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 33
Two points. One point for of your point awards and see how
2 1 . . . Rd8 which wins also. you grade at the end of the game.
22 Ke3
22 ... Qd3ch Kapfenberg, 1 970
One point. White: D. Velimirovic
23 Kf4 Black: L. Stein
23 ... g5ch Sicilian Defense
One point. 1 e4 c5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 d4 cxd4 4
24 Ke5 Nxd4 Nf6 5 Nc3 d6
24 ... Rd8
Two points. Also two for
24 . . . f6ch 25 Kxe6 Qxd4 which is
j ust as good. Now after 25 Qxe4
Rd5ch 26 Qxd5 Qf5ch wins easily.
White resigns.
Now Total Up Your Points:
3 5 40  International Master
2834  Master
2 1 27  Expert
1 420  Class A
7 1 3  Class B Start Your Test Now!
Below 7  need more study 6 Bc4
Three points. White has a
variety of choices here, and also
Test No. 28 worth three are 6 Be2 and 6 Bg5 .
You have White. Your Though less used, 6 Bb5 also earns
consultation partner is the three points. 6 Be3 and 6 g3 are
Yugoslav grandmaster Drashko considered less strong, and earn
Velimirovic, and your opponent is two points each. Others, like 6
the late Soviet grandmaster Leonid Nxc6, tend to dissipate White's
Stein. opening edge, and merit no points.
Start your test after the first 6 ... e6
diagram. Cover this page with a 7 Be3
sheet of notebook paper and lower Two points. Often used is
it line by line. Grade yourself by the sharp 7 Bb3 , which earns three
guessing White's moves.
points. The quieter 7 00 and 7 a3
Whenever you have made a merit a point each. Nothing for
Black move, STOP ! and try to others.
work out White's reply. Keep track
7 ... Qc7
1 34 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
8 Bb3 1 1 ... b5
Only two points because of
the strong hint last move, and
because Black's last contains a
masked threat against the Bc4. 8
Qe2 can be met by 8 . . . Na5, and
does not score, nor does 8 Bd3 ,
clogging up the dfile. Moving
either Knight to b5 only helps
Black (after 8. . . Qb8) get in a later
a 7a6 with tempo, and does not
. . .
score. No credit for others.
8 a6
9 Qe2 1 2 f3
Two points. White enters a Two points. The epawn is
system of play which later became under threat (. . . b4) and if you
associated with the name of the made a move which allows Black
player of the White pieces. The to win it, deduct two points. 1 2 g5
Velimirovic is a certain piece and (no points) 12 . . . hxg5 13 Bxg5 is
pawn set up for White, the outlines the wrong idea because if White
of which will become clear (we ever plays g5 he wants to recapture
can't tell you the set up yet without with the hpawn. 12 a3 (no points)
giving moves away ! ) . The prosaic is also unthematic, and in this
9 00 earns two points, while other instance it is answered easily with
moves do not score. 12 . . . Nxb3ch 1 3 Nxb3 d5 14 exd5
9... Na5 Bxa3 15 dxe6 Bxe6 and if 16 Nd5
10 g4 ! Nxd5 17 Rxd5 Bxb2ch 18 Kxb2
Three points. This move is Bxd5 .
the key to White's kingside attack, 1 2 ... b4
and should be played either now or 13 Na4
following 000 (which also earns One point.
three points) . Preparing IO g4 with Nd7
13 ...
I O Rg l (one point) is much less
14 Kbl
accurate, partly because g4 is a safe
Two points for this or for 1 4
square for White's pawn and partly
h4. Black cannot now play
because the Rh 1 may be needed
14 . . . Nc5 because of 1 5 Nxc5 dxc5
l ater on another file.
16 Ba4ch !
1 0 ... h6
14 . .. Be7
1 1 000 15 h4
Two points.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 135
Two points. The logical points) is even worse than in the
method of proceeding with the earlier note because White now
attack. 1 5 Bxe6 (no points) is gets only two pawns for the piece.
usually playable in this sort of 1 7 ... bxc3
position, but here it just fails 18 Rel
because the slightly artificial Two points. 1 8 Nxc3 (no
placing of White's pieces allows points) 18 . . . Nc5 favors Black.
Black a tactical resource: 15 . . .fxe6 18 ... Nc5
16 Nxe6 Qc4 ! (attacking the 19 Rxc3
undefended Queen) 17 Nxg7ch
One point.
Kf7 1 8 Qxc4 Nxc4 (a second point
19 ... Bd7
 attacking the undefended Bishop)
19 Bd4 Bf6 20 Bxf6 Nxf6, and
20 e5!
Three points. The only
with Black's King in safety his
move. If now 20 . . . dxe5? 2 1 Nxc5
piece is worth more than White's
Bxc5 22 Nf5 ! , etc. 20 Rhc l (no
three pawns. Had you considered
points) 20 . . . Qb7 leaves White
1 5 Bxe6 and rejected it because
without a good move.
you had seen this variation, take
two bonus points. 20 ... Naxb3
15 ... g6 21 axb3
One point for this or for 2 1
1 6 h5
Nxb3 , which is also good for White
Two points. Blocking the
after 2 l . . .Bxa4 22 exd6 Bxd6 23
kingside in this manner is much
Nxc5 Bxc5 24 Bxc5 .
better than by 16 g5 (no points)
16 . . . h5 because then White could 21 ... Qb8
never break through and Black 22 exd6
could probably even castle One point.
kingside. On 16 f4 (no points) Nc5 22 ... Nxa4
1 7 Nxc5 dxc5 1 8 Ba4ch Kf8 and 23 bxa4
.. . c4 Black has an excellent game. One point.
16 ... g5 23 Bxd6
1 7 c3 ! (See next diagram)
Four points. Having
clarified the kingside situation in
such a way as to inhibit . . . 00,
White is now ready to open up the
position and take advantage of
Black's King being stuck in the
center. 1 7 f4 (deduct two points)
17 . . . gxf4 18 Bxf4 e5 costs White a
piece, while 1 7 Bxe6 (deduct two
1 36 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
No points for this obvious
move.
28 ... Bb5
29 Bd4ch
Again no points. The only
move to consider.
29 ... Kg8
30 Qe l
Two points. Preventing . . . e5
and at the same time preparing for
a possible Qc3.
30 ... Rh7
24 Rb3
Three points. An intelligent 31 Bf6!
way to keep the initiative. 24 Rhc l
(two points) is also strong and
Black cannot reply 24 . . . Bxa4
because of 25 Rc8ch Qxc8 26
Rxc8ch Rxc8 27 Qxa6. After the
text Black cannot play 24 . . . Qd8
because of 25 Nf5 exf5 26 Bd4 dis.
ch.
24 ... Bb4
25 Nf5!
Three points. 25 Bd2
(deduct a point) 25 . . . a5 26 Nb5 (26
Na2? Bxa4) 26 . . . Bxb5 27 axb5 Three points. Now Black i s
Bxd2 28 Qxd2 a4 probably wins i n very serious trouble. 3 1 Be5
for Black. (one point) followed by 3 2 f4 is an
25 ... Bxa4 alternative plan which would
probably also be successful, but the
26 Ng7ch
text weaves the start of a mating
Two points.
net.
26 ... Kf8
31 ... e5
27 Bc5ch
Two points. Not 27 Nxe6ch
32 Bxe5
Again, an obvious move.
Kg8 ! If now 27 . . . Bxc5 then 28
Rxb8ch Rxb8 29 Qe5 wins. 32 ... Qe8
27 ... Kxg7 33 Bf6
Two points. Black cannot
28 Rxb4
possibly accept the exchange of
Queens without leaving himself
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 137
effectively a Rook down in the You have Black. Your
ending. consultation partner is the Soviet
33 ... Qe6 master and theoretician
34 Qc3 Radchenko. Your opponent is
One point. Gendlek.
34 ... Rc8 Start your test after the first
diagram. Cover this page with a
35 Qd4
sheet of notebook paper and lower
One point.
it line by line. Grade yourself by
35 ... Be2
guessing Black's moves.
36 Rb6 Whenever you have made a
Two points for this. White move, STOP ! and try to
36 ... Qe8 work out Black's reply. Keep track
37 Rel ! of your point awards and see how
Three points. The quickest you grade at the end of the game.
way to finish the game because it
takes advantage of Black's back U.S.S.R., 1970
rank weakness. 37 Re l ? (deduct
White: Gendlek
two points) allows 37 . . . Bd3ch.
Black: Radchenko
37 ... Rxclch
Queen's Fianchetto Defense
38 Kxcl
1 e4 b6 2 d4 Bb7 3 Bd3
No points.
38 ... Bxf3
39 Rd6
Two points.
39 ... Qel ch
40 Kc2
No points.
40 ... Qe2ch
41 Kb3 Resigns
Now Total Up Your Points:
6064  Grandmaster
5559  Master
5054  Expert Start Your Test Now!
4249  Class A 3 ... f5
3 5 4 1  Class B Five points. Black's first two
2534  Class C moves made enough concessions in
Below 25  need more study the center to call for this somewhat
outlandish flanking stroke. Against
Test No. 29 the sequence I d4 Nf6 2 c4 b6 3
138 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Nc3 Bb7 it is well known that
White can effectively build up the
center with f2f3 and e2e4. In this
game f2f3 would also be good for
White if he were permitted to play
it. Alternatives that deserves some
consideration are: 3 . . . d5 and 3 . . . g6
(two points) and 3 . . . d6 and 3 . . . e6
(one point).
4 exf5
4 Bxg2
One point. 4 . . . Nf6 (deduct
Four points. Black has a
two) prevents White's next move,
small but important material
but leaves Black with an utterly
advantage, but he cannot hold onto
hopeless game after 5 Nf3 (or 5 j3
it. The threat of h4h5h6 can
followed by g4).
hardly be parried, but by careful
5 Qh5ch
play Black can ensure that while
5 ... g6 White puts this laborious plan into
No credit; forced.
action his own development is
6 fxg6 being completed in readiness for
6 ... Bg7 the next phase of the game.
Two points. 6 . . . Nf6 (deduct 10 . . . QeS (no points) 1 1 Bg6 Qf8
four points) allows 7 gxh7ch dis. would be a disaster. Two points for
ch Nxh5 8 Bg6 mate. 10 . . . Bd5 if you saw at least as far
7 gxh7 dis. ch as 1 1 h5 Be6 ! 12 Qg2 Rxh5 1 3
7 .. Kf8 Qxa8 Bd5, when Black's counter
No credit. play may be adequate: Schmit
8 hxg8(Q)ch Vitolinsh, Latvian Championship,
8 ... Kxg8 1 969, was eventually drawn after
Again no credit. 14 Qxa7 Nc6 1 5 Qa4 Rh l 1 6 Kfl
9 Qg4 Nxd4 17 Bc4, but 1 7 Nd2 has been
suggested as stronger.
9 Bxhl
No credit for this obvious 1 1 h5
move. 1 1 ... Qf6
10 h4 Two points. The only way to
Qf8 minimize the impending loss of
10 ...
material.
(See next diagram)
12 h6
12 ... Rxh6
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 139
Three points. 1 2 . . . Qxd4
(one point) 1 3 Qxg7ch Qxg7 14
hxg7 Kxg7 produces a position in
which the heterogenous material
balance traditionally favors the two
minor pieces. The text leaves Black
with his active Bishop pair and the
disappearance of his Rook is not
really of much consequence.
Had Black played 10 . . . Qe8
1 1 Bg6 Qf8 1 2 h5 Qf6 13 Be3
would have tied him up in knots.
13 Bxh6 Two points. Completing his
development with a gain of tempo
13 ... Qxh6
by threatening the Nj3, which is en
No points; obvious.
prise because of the pin on the
14 Nd2
Nd2. Other moves lose the
14 ... Bd5 initiative because of the dangerous
Three points. Other retreats
1 7 Rg l , and do not score.
of this Bishop put it on a less
1 7 Nh4?
useful diagonal than a2g8 and
either prevent the development of
17 ... Be6
Three points. In attempting
Black's Knight (14. . . Bc6) or
to deploy his Knight to a less
discourage it because of the then
vulnerable square White has
reduced scope of the Bishop
achieved the opposite. He should
(14. . . Bb l). l 4 . . . Nc6 (one point) is
have played 17 Kb l and if 1 7 . . . Rf4
less accurate, because after 15 c3
1 8 Qg3 Nxd4 1 9 Nxd4 Rxd4 20
Black would need to attend to the
Qxc7 gives an unclear position.
safety of his dpawn.
17 . . . Rf4? (deduct one point)
15 000
and 17 . . . Rxf2 (no points) both
15 ... Nc6! allow 18 Qxd7 threatening Nf5.
Three points. The invitation
18 Qg3
to 1 6 Qxd7 should not be accepted,
18 ... Rf4
because 1 6 . . . Rd8 gives Black
One point.
considerable play for the pawn ( 1 7
Qxc 7 Bxd4). Two points for 19 Nhf3
1 5 . . . Be6. 19 ... Bg4
16 Ngf3 One point.
16 ... Rf8 20 Be2
(See next diagram) 20 ... Bxf3
One point.
21 Bxf3
1 40 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
2 1 ... Nxd4 1 c4 g6 2 Nf3 Bg7 3 d4 Nf6 4
One point. Nc3 00 5 e4 d6 6 Bel e5 7 00
22 Kbl Nc6 8 d5 Ne7 9 b4
22 ... Nxf3
One point. White resigns
since on 23 Nxf3 Black's 23 . . . Qf6
threatens mate on b 2 as well as the
Knight. Give yourself a bonus
point if you had noticed this final
coup.
Now Total Up Your Points:
3 1 34  Master
2630  Expert
2025  Class A
1 5  1 9  Class B
1 0 1 4  Class C
9 ... Nh5
Below 10  need more study
Three points. Active play on
the kingside is the order of the day
Test No. 30 when the center is closed and
You have Black. Your White has a spatial advantage on
consultation partner is the the queenside. Only one point for
Yugoslav grandmaster Svetozar the passive 9 . . . Ne8, which still
Gligoric. Your opponent is ex prepares the thematic break .. .j7
world champion Tigran Petrosian. j5, but which leaves Black's pieces
Start your test after the first rather congested. Two points for
diagram. Cover this page with a 9 . . . a5 ! ? after which play might
sheet of notebook paper and lower continue 10 bxa5 ( 1 0 Ba3 axb4 1 1
it line by line. Grade yourself by Bxb4 Nd7 1 2 a4 Nc5 is unclear)
guessing White's moves. 10 . . . Rxa5 1 1 Nd2 c5 12 Nb5 Ra6
Whenever you have made a 13 Bb2 Nd7 with a roughly even
Black move, STOP ! and try to position.
work out White's reply. Keep track
10 Nd2
of your point awards and see how
10 ... Nf4
you grade at the end of the game'. ,
One point.
1 1 a4
Zagreb, 1970
1 1 ... f5
White: T. Petrosian
Two points. The logical
Black: S. Gligoric thrust without which the King's
King's Indian Defense Indian is rarely at ease. Attempting
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 141
t o hold back White's advancing 1 4 . . . Nh3ch (deduct a point)
pawns only succeeds in producing is bad on account of 1 5 Kg2
holes in the queenside, e.g. l l . . .b6 (15. . . Nd4 16 Bg4) and 14 . . . Nd3
(no points) 1 2 c5 ! bxc5 1 3 bxc5 (two points) is only good enough
dxc5 1 4 Ba3 with a terrific bind. for equality after 1 5 N2e4.
1 2 Bf3 1 5 gxf4
12 ... g5! 15 ... Nxf3ch
Three points. Since White Three points for this move
has been obliging enough to supply which emphasizes the weakness of
a target for Black's advancing the light squares near the enemy
pawns, you should have no King. White cannot play 1 6 Nxf3
compunction about taking because of 16 . . . g4 1 7 Nd2 exf4
immediate advantage of the with a very strong attack. Two
situation by threatening 1 3 . . . g4. points for 1 5 . . . exf4 which
1 2 . . . Kh8 (one point) will come in maintains the tension but gives
useful later on, but when one has White the option of playing 1 6
the initiative one should hold onto Bb l , after which his chances of
it rather than play a move which is survival would be better than in the
not yet necessary. 1 2 . . .fxe4 (deduct game, but deduct two points for
a point) is a gross positional error 1 5 . . . gxf4 which allows White to
because it gives White a strong consolidate his material advantage
central square for use by his minor in a variety of ways, and leaves
pieces. Black without the dangerous
13 exf5 weapon which the gpawn has
1 3 ... Nxf5 become.
Three points. Capturing 16 Qxf3
with the Knight is the most
incisive way to continue the attack.
If you played the meek 1 3 . . . Bxf5
( 14 N2e4!) you deserve no credit.
14 g3
14 ... Nd4 ! !
A beautiful and profound
sacrifice which earns eight points.
The threat is 15 . . . Nxf3ch 16 Nxf3
Nh3ch followed by 1 7 . . . Bg4. If
White now plays 1 5 Bg2 Nh3ch 16
Bxh3 Bxh3 1 7 Re l his kingside is
a ' sieve, and 1 5 Be4 is bad on 16 ... g4 !
account of 1 5 . . . Nh3ch 16 Kg2 g4
followed by . . Ng5.
.
142 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Three points. Immediately 19 ... fJ !
setting White problems concerning Four points. I n contrast to
the future of his Queen. If now 1 7 the last note, this move succeeds
Qd3 exf4 1 8 f3 (otherwise 18. . .j3 when White's King Rook is on e 1
followed by . . . Qh4 and . . . Qh3 is instead of fl (so that the fpawn is
killing) 1 8 . . . Bf5 1 9 N2e4 gxf3 not protected) and Black has a
(threatening both Knights) 20 Rxf3 Bishop on f5 (. . . Bd3ch is in the
Bxc3 2 1 Qxc3 Bxe4 22 Rxf4 works) because on 20 h3 Qh4 2 1
Qg5ch 23 Qg3 Qxg3ch 24 hxg3 Nd l Bxb2 22 Nxb2 g3 ! i s deadly.
Rxf4 25 Bxf4 a5 26 bxa5 Rxa5 27 If now 20 Nxf3 gxf3 2 1 Qxf3 ,
Re l Bg6 28 Re7 Rc5 and Black 2 1 . . .Qh4 ! is very strong. Other
should win the ending. moves tend to permit 20 Nd l ,
1 7 Qhl exchanging off the Bishops,
17 ... exf4 whereas after the text, 20 Nd l
One point. allows 20 . . . Bxb2 2 1 Nxb2 Qf6 22
18 Bb2 Ra2 Rae8 and White can hardly
18 ... Bf5 move.
Three points. Black's 20 N2e4
greatest asset is the fact that his 20 ... Qh4
advanced pawns at g4 and f4 exert Two points. By threatening
considerable restraint on White's 2 1 . . .Qh3 , which would leave White
kingside. With White so tied up, completely sewn up, Gligoric
the most logical strategy is to forces a reply which further
slowly build up the pressure exposes White's King.
without allowing White any 21 h3
opportunity to free himself. The 21 ... Be5
text serves this aim, developing a Three points. Continuing to
piece while keeping a watchful eye mount pressure. 22 hxg4 is now
on e4, and the chance of a later completely out the question
. . . Bd3ch if White's King is ever because of 22 . . . Qxg4ch 23 Kfl (if
driven to fl . 1 8 . . . Qh4 (two points) 23 Ng3 Bxg3 24 fxg3 Qxg3ch 25
is also a step in the right direction, Kfl Bd3ch) 23 . . . Bxc3 24 Bxc3 (24
though it is less accurate than the Nxc3 Bd3ch) 24 . . . Bxe4 winning.
text because there is some doubt as 2 1 . . .gxh3 (no points) allows 22
to the best square for the Queen, Qxf3 , cutting open the straight
but there can be no doubt about the jacket, and 2 1 . . .Rae8 (no points)
best square for the lightsquared helps White to consolidate by 22
Bishop. 1 8 . . f3 (no points) allows
. Ng3 .
1 9 h3 Qh4 20 Nd l Bxb2 2 1 Nxb2 22 Re3
and Black's game starts to crumble.
19 Rfel
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 43
having sacrificed material one
should play with direct threats
whenever possible. The text
threatens 26 . . . Bf3ch and White's
next move is thereby forced.
26 Nd2
26 ... Bd4
Two points for this or
26 . . . Rae8. The text cannot be
answered by 27 Qxh2 because of
27 . . . Rxflch ! nor 27 Rae l because
of 27 . . . Qh4 !
22 ... gxh3! 27 Qel
Four points. This is the start
27 ... Rae8
of a sequence that regains Black's
sacrificed material . 22 . . . Bf4 (two
points) keeps White tied up, but it
is not as purposeful as the text. The
same can be said of 22 . . . Rae8 (two
points). White cannot now play 23
Rxf3 because of 23 . . . h2ch 24 Kf1
(24 Kg2 Bxe4) 24 . . . Bxe4 25 Rxf8
ch Rxf8 26 Qxe4 h l (Q)ch.
23 Qxf3
23 ... Bg4
Two points for this, but
deduct two for 23 . . . Bxe4 because
Three points. This is
after 24 Rxe4 Rxf3 25 Rxh4 Bxc3
stronger than 27 . . . Bxe3 (one point)
26 Bxc3 Rxc3 27 Kh2 ! Black has
which would let White's Queen
the worst of the double Rook and
into the game. Now 28 N2e4 is
pawn ending. Nothing for
answered by 28 . . . Bxc3 ! 29 Bxc3
23 . . . h2ch because after 24 Kh l
Rxe4 30 Rxe4 h l (Q)ch ! 3 1 Qxh l
Bg4 White can play 25 Qg2.
Bf3ch, and 28 Rxe8 simply by
24 Qhl 28 . . . Rxe8 and 29 . . . Rf8 .
24 ... h2ch
28 N3e4
Two points.
28 ... Bxb2
25 Kg2
One point.
25 ... Qh5
29 Rg3
Three points. 25 . . . Rae8 (two
29 Be5
points) also keeps up the pressure,
but it is a good principle that
144 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Three points. 29 . . . Bxa l (no 3043  Class B
points) exchanges a valuable 1 529  Class C
attacking piece for an undeveloped Below 1 5  need more study
Rook, and the Bishop still has
work to do on the kingside. Other Test No. 31
moves allow 30 f3, which is not Your have Black. Your
possible after the text due to 30 . . . consultation partner is the
h l (Q)ch 3 1 Qxh l Qxh l ch 32 Rxh l Hungarian master Polgar. Your
Bxg3 and Black has a won ending. opponent is the Icelandic student
30 Rla3 Angantysson.
30 .. Kh8 Start your test after the first
Three points. 30 . . . Bxg3 (one diagram. Cover this page with a
point) releases too much of the sheet of notebook paper and lower
tension. it line by line. Grade yourself by
31 Khl guessing Black's moves.
31 ... Rg8 Whenever you have made a
Three points. Black's last White move, STOP ! and try to
move should have provided you work out Black's reply. Keep track
with enough of a clue to make this of your point awards and see how
one easy, but 3 l . . .Bxg3 still earns a you grade at the end of the game.
point.
32 Qfl Dresden, 1969
32 ... Bxg3 White: Angantysson
Two points. Black: Polgar
33 Rxg3 Four Knights Game
33 ... Rxe4 1 e4 e5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 Nc3 Nf6 4
Two points for this final d4 Bb4 5 Nxe5 Nxe4 6 Qg4
blow, and a bonus point if you had Nxc3 7 Qg7 Rm 8 a3
intended to play this (in reply to 3 3
Rxg3) when making your last
move. White resigned in view of
3 4 Nxe4 Bf3ch 3 5 Rxf3 Rg l ch 36
Qxg l hxg l (Q)ch 37 Kxg l Qxf3 .
Now Total Up Your Points:
6569  Grandmaster
6064  International Master
5459  National Master
4953  Expert
4448  Class A
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 45
Start Your Test Now! Four points. The first short
8 ... Nxd4! skirmish is over, and we can see
Five points. This move was that Black has two advantages,
at one time thought to be inferior namely his material and the
due to some analysis by Krause, exposed nature of White's King. In
but as well shall see the tactics to contrast, the Black knight on a I is
which it leads are very favorable to in permanent danger of capture,
the second player. Two points for and Black's development is so bad
the more usual move 8 . . . Ba5, that his King is shortly going to be
which leads to equality after 9 faced with threats from all of
Nxc6 dxc6 IO Qe5ch Qe7 l l White's pieces which can be
Qxe7ch Kxe7 1 2 Bd2 Bf5 1 3 Bxc3 developed with gain of tempo.
Bxc3ch 14 bxc3 Bxc2 15 Kd2 Bg6. Black must therefore keep the
Deduct three points for any move initiative at all costs. The text
other than these two, and be satisfies this aim as does l l . . .c5
warned this is a cut and thrust (two points) to a lesser extent, but
game where Black's initiative will l l . . .d6 or l l . . .d5 (deduct two
be the main key to success. You points) allows 1 2 Bb5ch c6 1 3
will often be penalized for insipid Nxc6 bxc6 1 4 Bxc6ch Bd7 1 5
moves which allow White to Re 1 ch , winning.
consolidate. 12 Bc4
9 axb4 12 . axb4ch
9 ... Nxc2ch Two points. 12 . . . Qe7
Two points. The idea is not (deduct two) loses to 1 3 bxa5 when
only to win back material but to Black is helpless against the threat
strand White's king in the center. of 14 Nxf7 Rxf7 1 5 Bxf7ch Qxf7
Other moves allow White to 16 Re l ch.
consolidate with IO Bd3, e.g. 13 Kd3
9 . . Qe7 IO Bd3 ! d6 1 1 00 soon
. 13 ... d5
results in Black's King being in Two points for this move if
serious trouble in the center. you chose it last move instead of
Deduct two points therefore if you 12 . . . axb4ch. You also earn two
chose any move other than the text. points because the order of playing
1 0 Kd2 these two moves is unimportant.
10 . Nxal No alternative does anything but
You get a generous point for lose because of the weakness of
this obvious capture, but in future Black's f7 square, so deduct three
there will be no credit for moves points if you failed to find the
which are forced. correct move.
1 1 Kxc3 14 Bb5ch
1 1 ... a5 ! 14 ... c6
146 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
No points. Ke 1 or 20 Ke2 Qxa8; if 20 Kxc2
15 Nxc6 Qc8ch 2 1 Kd l ( 21 Kd3 Qc4ch etc.,
15 ... Bf5ch or 2 I Kb I Qf5ch 22 Ka2
One point for finding this Rxa8ch, etc. ) 2 1 . . .Qxc l ch 22 Ke2
move, but a bonus of three points if Qd2ch 23 Kf3 Nd4ch and White
you looked ahead and after 16 Ke2 soon loses his queen.
bxc6 17 Bxc6ch Bd7 1 8 Bxa8 you 19 Qg5ch
intended to play the killing 19 ... Ke6!
1 8 . . . Qe7ch ! rather than 1 8 . . . Qxa8? Three points. Courageously
(19 Bh6). using the King in defense so that
16 Kd2 the extra few moves that it will
16 ... bxc6 take White to restore material
One point. equilibrium can be used by Black
17 Bxc6ch to regroup his pieces for the
continuance of the attack against
17 ... Ke7
the enemy King. 1 9 . . . Kd6 (no
No points.
points) 20 Qxf5 Nb3ch 2 1 Kd l
18 Bxa8
Nxc l allows White to draw by
18 ... Qxa8 perpetual check, e.g. 22 Qf4ch Kd7
23 Qf5ch Kd8 24 Qf6ch.
20 Ret ch
20 ... Be4
One point.
21 f3
21 ... Rg8 !
Two points for this move
which recaptures the initiative that
Black gave up a few moves ago in
the interest of material gain.
2 1 . . .Qa4 (deduct a point) just
chases the King into safety after 22
One point for this move,
fxe4 Qc2ch 23 Ke3 d4ch 24 Kf3,
which is not the strongest. Deduct
as does 2 1 . . .Nb3ch (deduct one) 22
a point for 1 8 . . . Nb3ch if you meant
Kd l Qa4 23 fxe4 ! Nd4 dis. ch
to reply to 1 9 Kd l with 1 9 . . . Nxc l ?
(24. . . Nc5 dis. ch 24 Ke2 Nxe4 25
which loses to 2 0 Qg5ch, e.g. 2 0 . . .
Kfl ) 24 Kd2 Qc2ch 25 Ke3 .
f6 2 1 Qxf5 Qxa8 2 2 Re i ch etc. ; or
20 . . . Ke8 2 1 Bc6ch Bd7 22 Re i ch.
22 Qh6ch
However, award yourself four 22 ... Rg6
bonus points if you saw 19 Kd l One point.
Bc2ch ! ! winning a piece after 20 23 Qh3ch
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 147
23 ... f5 ch). Four more bonus points if you
Two points. Black uses the played instead 26 . . . Kf6 ! which is
move that nullifies the check to soon decisive; after 27 Rd l Rxg2ch
support the e4 square, so that after 28 Kfl e3, White is defenseless
24 fxe4 dxe4 his Queen will be free when he runs out of checks; Queen
to roam the board. 23 . . . Kd6 and moves lose the exchange, while 27
23 . . . Ke7 both leave Black's king in Kf2 e3ch ! and 27 Kfl Qa6ch 28
the lurch, but 23 . . . Kf6 (one point) Kf2 Nxe l are also hopeless.
is not a bad idea because with a 27 Qxd5ch
haven on g7 Black's King can sit 27 ... Kxd5
and laugh at his opposite number No points.
being chased around. 28 Rdl ch
24 Ke2 28 ... Ke5
24 ... Nc2
Three points. We have
already mentioned the importance
of the initiative, so this move
should come as no surprise. By
recentralizing his Knight with gain
of tempo, Black prevents 25 Kf2
and thus leaves White's King in the
soup. 24 . . . Bc2 (deduct two points)
will have appealed to the
materialists, but then Black's King
must endure 25 Kf2 dis. ch
followed by 26 Qxh7. 24 . . . Qa6ch
Two points. The King
(deduct a point) 25 Kf2 Kf6 26
belongs on his own side because
fxe4 dxe4 27 b3 is clearly good for
that is where Black's pawn
White.
majority lies and 28 . . . Ke6 (one
25 fxe4 point) is therefore better than
25 ... dxe4 moving to the Queen's wing,
One point. None of you I'm although it is not so good as the
sure will have chosen 25 . . . Nxe l ?? text, which forces White's next
(26 exf5ch) so there is no need to move (in order to prevent 29. . .f4)
state a substantial penalty for that and thereby prevents White from
move. playing h3 when his hpawn is
26 Qb3ch attacked by Black's Knight.
26 ... Qd5 29 g3
Two points. Forcing the 29 ... Nd4ch
exchange of Queens into a
favorable ending (27 Qxc2? Rxg2
1 48 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Two points. If you wanted to Three points. Black is going
exchange Rooks and did not notice to tie down White's King before
that 29 . . . Rd6 loses at once to 30 advancing the passed epawn, and
Bf4ch, you should play through the the text puts some nasty 2nd and
rest of this game for enjoyment 1 st rank threats in the air. The
only! reason that 34 . . . Ng4ch is inferior
30 Kf2 to the text is that after 34 Ke2 Rc6
30 ... Nf3 35 Kd2, Black has great difficulty
Three points. Black must making headway.
take precautions against 3 1 Bf4ch 35 Rb7
Kd5 32 Be3 , and the text is the 35 ... Ng4ch
most forceful way of doing this. One point for this or 35 . . .
Deduct three points if you played Rc2ch.
anything that allowed this pellucid 3 6 Kel
win, but if you played 30 . . . Ne6 36 ... e3
(threatening nothing) you do not Two points. the Rook's
lose points despite the fact that it pawn is of no significance, and if
allows 3 1 Rd7 which could make you stopped to save it by 36 . . . h6
life difficult. you should deduct two points
31 Bf4ch because 37 Rd7ch would have cut
31 ... Ke6 off Black's King from the kingside.
This is no better or worse Here White lost on time, but his
than the alternative, and there is no game is lost after 37 Rxh7 Ke4 .
credit for either of these moves.
The ending is quite difficult for Now Total Up Your Points:
Black to win after 32 Rd6ch Ke7 5560  Grandmaster
3 3 Rd5 Nxh3 34 Rxf5, but with 5054  Master
best play it would still be possible. 4549  Expert
32 Rd8? 3844  Class A
32 ... Nxh3 3037  Class B
Two points. 2029  Class C
33 Rb8 Below 20  need more study
33 ... Kd5!
Three points. 33 . . . Ng4ch Test No. 32
(one point) is not so strong for a You have White. Your
reason which will soon become consultation partner is Efim Geller,
apparent. a world title contender for many
34 Rxb4 years. Your opponent is Hans Ree,
at the time champion of Holland.
34 ... Rc6
Start your test after the first
diagram. Cover this page with a
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 149
sheet of notebook paper and lower system for White against this
it line by line. Grade yourself by defense. The grandmaster aims,
guessing White's moves. first of all, at setting up a granite
Whenever you have made a wall against the Bg7. White thus
Black move, STOP! and try to reverses the roles in the opening;
work out White's reply. Keep track he is going to wait until Black
of your point awards and see how makes a committal move in
you grade at the end of the game. development before deciding his
own piece layout. Of course, some
Beverwijk, 1969 other moves are perfectly good for
White: E. Geller White here. Two points each for 4
Black: H. Ree Nc3 and 4 Bc4, and a point each
for 4 Be3 4 Be2, 4 Bg5 4 Bf4 and 4
Pirc Defense
Nbd2 . All the single point moves
1 NfJ g6 2 e4 Bg7 3 d4 d6
commit minor pieces to inflexible
I m.t.11 &
formations a little too early for this
opening.
t
. .
t t 4 ... c6
. 'm z
'm
!M
t m
5 Nbd2
Two points. A move earlier,
Black could have replied to this
m
. ft
z
m
m move with the counterattacking
. . 5 . . . c5, but now this would cost a
ft frd
Sf
ft 
.a
<lo
tempo. No credit for 5 Be3 Nf6
m
when White is already confronted
,I."\
"LJ W .W. " 'YY with an awkward problem: if 6
Start Your Test Now! Nbd2 Ng4 harasses the Bishop, 6
Qc2 commits the Queen too early,
4 c3 and 6 Bd3 Nbd7 followed by . . . e 7
Three points. Black has e5 enables Black to equalize in the
chosen the PircRobatsch Defen center. No credit for 5 Bf4 or 5
sive formation which appears more Bg5 . One idea of Black's 4 . . . c6 is
and more frequently in modern to develop the Queen at b6 if
tournaments. His strategy is to set White is in too much of a hurry to
up a flexible position, committed get his Bel into play. No credit for
only to the fianchetto of his king 5 Bc4 since Black can gain a useful
bishop, and deploy his pieces temIJO with . . . b 7b5 or . . . d6d5.
according to how White replies. 5 .. . Nf6
The theoretical interest of this
6 Be2
game is that Geller's forth move
Two points. Two points also
introduces a comparatively new
if you chose this last move instead
1 50 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
of 5 Nbd2 . No credit for 6 e5, Two points. Once again
which is a type of move often made White has a move which improves
by inexperienced players against his position whatever strategy
this Black set up. After 6 e5 dxe5 7 Black chooses to adopt. The e
dxe5 Ng4, White is already in a pawn now has extra protection so
spot. He has to protect his attacked that the Nd2 can go to either c4 or
epawn awkwardly with the Queen, b3.
since 8 Nc4? would lose to 8 . . . 9... es
Qxd l ch 9 Kxd l Nxf2ch and 10 . . .
Nxh l . Moreover, 6 e5 dxe5 7 Nxe5
Nbd7 would also be ineffective,
since the White Knight cannot be
maintained on its central outpost
(playing j2f4 gives White too
many pawns on dark squares).
Take two bonus points if you
rejected 6 e5 for the reasons given
above. Take one bonus point if you
saw the tactical reason why 6 e5
dxe5 7 dxe5 is weak, but weren't
sure whether 7 Nxe5 was a good
10 a4
plan. No credit still for 6 Bd3 . The
Three points. Though it's
Bishop is unprotected here, and
not absolutely clear that Black
would make it easy for Black to
intends queenside operations (as
free himself by . . . e 7e5 in a few
would be the case if Black had
moves.
played . . . Rb8 or . . . a6) White
6 ... 00
restrains . . . b 7b5 and strengthens
7 00 the ground for his own Nc4. a2a4
One point. This is natural was playable on either of White's
and best, so no credit for other two previous moves; award
moves. yourself a point if you selected it in
7 .. . Nbd7 place of 8 Re 1 or 9 Bb 1 . One point
8 Rel for 10 Nc4. The plan is right, but it
Two points. White still aims allows a small combination by
to be fairly noncommittal until it which Black can free his game:
is clear whether Black is going to 10 . . . Nxe4 1 1 Rxe4 (if 1 1 dxe5 d5
counter in the center with . . . c6c5 or I I Ncxe5 Nxj2) l l . . .d5 1 2 Re l
or . . . e 7e5 or whether he'll opt for dxc4 1 3 Bxc4 exd4 14 cxd4 Nb6
a queenside push with . . . b 7b5. followed by . . Bg4, and Black has
.
.8.. Q c7 an equal game, or very close to it.
9 Bfl Award yourself a bonus point if
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 151
you saw the possibility of I O Nc4 answer to 12 . . . exd4 before playing
Nxe4, and give yourself three 12 Nc4. If you saw this before 1 1
bonus points if you analyzed the a5, you rate very highly as a
above variation or something tactician and earn four more bonus
similar to it. points.
10 ... Re8 One point here for 12 Qc2,
1 1 as 1 2 dxe5 or 1 2 b4, all passable, but
Three points. No credit now secondrate moves. No credit for
for 1 1 Nc4 since Black can simply 12 a6, when Black can either open
reply l l . . .exd4 12 cxd4 N(or R)xe4 up the bfile for counterplay, or
or if 1 2 Bc4 Ne5 . One point here, start a pawn advance with 12 . . . b5.
or on the previous move, for 1 1 1 2 ... bS
dxe5, which is rather spineless, but 13 axb6
playable. Black replies l l . . .Nxe5 Two points. Any other move
(1 l. . . dxe5 is also playable) and if would be illogical in the light of
12 Nd4 a6 and . . . c6c5 or if 1 2 White's previous move. However,
Nxe5 dxe5 with no further score one point for ingenuity if you
development problems. Two points chose 1 3 dxe5 bxc4 14 exf6 Nxf6
for 1 1 b4, which has the drawback 1 5 Bxc4 Nxe4, even though the
that White is left with a very wide result of White's combination was
pawn front; however, it is not clear to free Black's game.
how Black could undermine it, 13 ... axb6
since the routine l l . . .a5 is met by 14 dxeS
1 2 bxa5 Rxa5 1 3 Nc4. Three points. Circumstances
11 . .. Rb8 have altered, and this exchange,
1 2 Nc4 harmless at an earlier stage, is now
Two points. The subtle the best method to exploit White's
reason behind Geller's last move active position. No credit for other
was to entice Black's Ra8 onto a moves, since if Black is allowed to
square where it looks well placed play . . . b6b5 he will force the Nc4
to support . . b 7b5 but actually
. to retreat to d2 and will then have
allows White to bring his Nd2 to a good game.
its best square. The tactical 14 ... dxeS
justification is 12 . . . exd4 1 3 Bf4 15 Qd6
Ne5 14 Nxd6 ! Qxd6 1 5 cxd4 Three points. White's
Nxf3ch 16 Qxf3 and after Black's argument for offering the exchange
attacked Queen moves, White can of Queens is that his main asset is
play 1 7 Bxb8. White's temporary the superior scope of his Rooks and
piece sacrifice was unsound with minor pieces compared to Black's.
Black's Rook still on a8. Two If the Queens are off the board, the
bonus points if you saw the tactical importance of these advantages
1 52 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
will be increased. Thus, if now positional blunder. White's Knight
1 5 . . . Qxd6 1 6 Nxd6 Re6 1 7 Nxc8 is a very strong piece at d6. In
Rxc8 1 8 Ra7, and Black's passive contrast, Black's Bishop is feeble
position is difficult to defend. Two and there is no reason to exchange
points for 1 5 Nxd6 Re6 16 Nxc8 it.
Rxc8. This is not a bad plan, but it 18 .. b5
may give Black chances of
counterplay with his Rooks along
the dfile. No credit for 1 5 Be3
Nxe4, one point for 1 5 Bg5, with
the intention of following up with
Bh4g3.
15 Qb7
1 6 Qa3
Three points. A forcing
move which threatens Nd6 forking
the Black Queen and Rook, and
also strengthens White's grip on
the afile. A bonus point if you saw 19 Bxf7ch
that White could now meet Five points for this powerful
1 6 . . . Bf8 by 1 7 Nd6 (the simple 1 7 sacrifice which Black can hardly
Qa 7 is also strong) l 7 . . . Qc7 1 8 accept. If 1 9 . . Rxf7 20 Nxf7 Kxf7
.
Nxe8 attacking the Black Queen. 2 1 Ng5ch Ke8 (2l. . . Kg8 22
Deduct a point for 16 Nfxe5? Re6 Qb3ch) 22 Ne6 Qb6 23 Nxg7ch
1 7 Qd4 c5 and Black wins a piece  Kf7 24 Bh6 Ng4 25 Qb3ch and
but award yourself a bonus point if wins. Award yourself four bonus
you considered 1 6 Nfxe5 (or 16 points if you saw the whole of this
Ncxe5) and noticed the refutation. difficult variation before your 1 9th
No credit for other moves. move, or two points if you saw at
16 ... Qc7 least as far as 23 Nxg7ch. Geller,
1 7 Nd6 in his notes, later showed that
Two points for this thematic White could also have sacrificed a
follow up to White's last move. No move earlier with 1 8 Nxf7. Award
credit for 1 7 Qa7 Rb7 which makes yourself three points if you chose
no progress. that move, which would transpose
17 ... Rt8 into the variation above by
1 8 Bc4 1 8 . . . Rxf7 1 9 Bc4 b5 . If Black had
Three points. Black's j7 is a answered 18 Nxf7 by 1 8 . Kxf7 . .
weakness and White concentrates then 1 9 Ng5ch Kg8 20 Bc4ch Kh8
his pieces against it. Deduct a 2 1 Qe7 with the winning threat of
point for 1 8 Nxc8? which is a 22 Ne6. Award yourself two bonus
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 153
points if you considered this advantage) 24 . . . Bxf8 and White is
variation before making your 1 8th in some trouble because of the
move. Deduct two points if you pinned Knight: if 25 Bg5 Ne8.
retreated the Bishop after 1 8 . . . b5, With 23 Be3 White is ready to
for then 19 . . . b4 ! 20 cxb4 Qxd6 support his Knight outpost by Bc5
wins a piece for Black. if need be.
19 ... Kh8 23 ... b4
20 Nxc8 24 Bxb6
Two points. The exchange is Two points. No credit for 24
now necessary (Black still Qxb4 Nc8 ! when White's Queen
threatened . . b4) and also good,
. and Knight are both attacked. One
since if 20 . . . Rbxc8 2 1 Ng5 with the point for 24 Qa7 with the idea of
threat 22 Ne6. 24 . . . Qxd6 25 Bxb6. A bonus point
20 ... Rxf7 if you noticed that after 24 Bxb6
21 Ng5 Rxb6 White saves his Knight with
Two points. Two also for 2 1 a winning advantage by 25 Qa7
Nd6. Deduct a point for the and if 25 . . . Qxd6 26 Qxb6.
blunder 2 1 Ne7? Bf8. No credit for 24 ... Qxb6
2 1 Na7, since the Knight is then 25 Ndf7ch
badly placed. Two points. Also two for 25
21 ... Rf8 Ngf7ch, or for 25 Qb3 .
22 Nd6 25 ... Kg8
One point. The commentary 26 Qb3
to the last move hinted that Nd6 One point. A bonus point if
would come next  but give you knew that White is now
yourself a bonus point if you threatening a smothered mate with
observed that 22 . . . b4 would now be 27 Nh6 dbl. ch Kh8 28 Qg8ch
well answered by 23 Ndf7ch. Nxg8 29 N(either)f7ch Rxf7 30
Deduct a point for 22 Ne6? Qxc8 Nxf7 mate. There is no reasonable
23 Nxf8 Qxf8 which is weak; with defense to this threat, and so Black
two Knights for a Rook, Black resigned.
would win.
22 .. Nb6 Now Total Up Your Points:
23 Be3 ! Over 70  Grandmaster
Three points. No credit for 6069  International Master
the obvious 23 Ne6  but two bonus 5059  Master
points if you noticed the trap in 4049  Expert
Black's last move. If 23 Ne6 Qd7 3039  Class A
24 Nxf8 (24 Nxg7 is correct but 2029  Class B
then White has lost some of his 10 1 9  Class C
Below 10  need more study
1 54 Tes t Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Test No. 33 chess nomenclature, named after
You have White. Your him since.
partner is Dr. Hans Lehmann from 6 00
Berlin. Black is grandmaster Jan Four points. The same for 6
H. Donner. d4 with the possible outcome
Start your test after the first 6 . . . exd4 7 Qxd4 Nxb3 8 axb3 Ne7
diagram. Cover this page with a 9 00 (or 9 Bg5 or 9 Nc3).
sheet of notebook paper and lower One point for 6 c3 or 6
it line by line. Grade yourself by Nxe5 or 6 d3 , which, though
guessing White's moves. inferior to the text, are not without
Whenever you have made a point. Nothing for 6 Bxf7ch Kxf7 7
Black move, STOP ! and try to Nxe5ch Ke7  this last is a move by
work out White's reply. Keep track which Taimanov surprised every
of your point awards and see how body by establishing as playable a
you grade at the end of the game. variation thought to "kill" the
4 . . . b5, 5 . . . Na5 line. Nothing for
Beverwijk, 1965 anything else.
White: Dr. H. Lehmann 6 ... d6
Black: Jan H. Donner 7 d4
Ruy Lopez Three points. Again, one
1 e4 e5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 Bb5 a6 4 point for 7 c3 or 7 d3 or 7 Re l . A
Ba4 b5 5 Bb3 Na5 grudging point for 7 Qe2 but only
if you planned to follow up with
Rdl . No other move is worth
credit.
7 ... exd4
8 Nxd4
Three points. Three also for
8 Qxd4; and a bonus point if you
chose 8 Nxd4 but noted that 8
Qxd4 was perfectly playable. On
the face of it, 8 Qxd4 would be
falling into the "Noah's Ark" trap:
8 . . . c5 9 Q moves c4 winning
Start Your Test Now! White's Bishop. But White has 8
Qxd4 c5 9 Bxf7ch Kxf7 (or 9. . . Ke 7
Black's last was an old
J O Bg5ch, or 9. . . Kd7 J O Qd5) 1 0
move, long discredited; revived a
Qd5ch Be6 (obviously best) 1 1
few years ago by Taimanov and,
Ng5ch. So 8 Qxd4 would have to
with a justice not always found in
be answered by 8 . . . Be7, with just
about the same amount of
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 55
advantage for White as in the Commonly played if White
game. has captured on d4 with his Queen,
8 ... Nxb3 because a subsequent . . . Nc6 gains
A bonus point if you noticed a tempo, this is bad here.
that 8 . . c5 could be met by 9 Bd5 .
. 1 1 Nc3
You had to take account of this, as Three points. One point for
othenvise 8 . c5 would cost White
. . 1 1 Qd3 or 1 1 Bf4; developing
a piece. moves, although colorless. Nothing
9 axb3 for 1 1 e5, which enables Black to
Two points for this, block the game by l l .d5 or for
. . ,
obviously best as it opens up anything else.
White's Ral . Nothing for 9 cxb3 , 1 1 ..
. Qd7
nor for 9 Nxb3, retreating a well Again not good. l l . . . g6 or
placed piece. Deduct three points l l . . . h6 would have been better.
for anything else. 12 Nd5
9 ... Bb7 Three points. Again one
point for 1 1 Qd3 or 1 1 Bf4, but no
credit for anything else.
12 ... c5
13 Nb6 !
Four points, but only if you
foresaw Black's next move and
White's reply.
13 . .. Qd8
l O Rel
Three points. Three points
also for 10 Nc3 , as 10 . . . b4 1 1 Nd5
would only loosen Black's own
position. One point for 1 0 Qd3 or
1 0 Bf4. Nothing for any other
move, and deduct two points for 10
Be3 , which makes 1 0 ... Bxe4
playable by robbing 1 1 Re l of its 14 Nf5 ! !
power to pin. Seven points. Deduct two
10 Ne7? points for 14 Nxa8; l 4 . . . cxd4 and
White's other Knight is trapped.
1 56 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Note: no credit for any other 1 3th 2 1 30  Class A
or 1 4th move by White; moving 1 5 20  Class B
the attacked Knight, even 1014  Class C
aggressively to f5 would have Below 10  need more study
retained a slight positional
advantage but missed a clearcut Test No. 34
chance to win the game. Two You have Black, and your
bonus points if you chose 14 Nf5 partner is L. Kavalek, then of
and planned to answer 14 . . . Qxb6 Czechoslovakia, while White is
by 1 5 Nxd6ch Kd8 1 6 Nc4 dis. ch Fernandez of Columbia, in this
winning the Queen. One bonus game from the Chess Olympiad.
point if you missed 14 Nf5 but saw Cover this page with a sheet
this variation now. of notebook paper and lower it line
14 ... Nxf5 by line. Grade yourself by guessing
The threat of 1 5 Nxd6ch Black's moves.
compels him to part with the Whenever you have made a
exchange. White move, STOP ! and try to
15 exf5 dis. ch work out Black's reply. Keep track
One point. Deduct two of your point awards and see how
points for anything else. you grade at the end of the game.
15 ... Be7
16 Nxa8 Tel Aviv, 1964
One point. Deduct two White: Fernandez
points for anything else. Black: L. Kavalek
16 ... Qxa8 English Opening
A bonus point if you saw 1 c4 Nf6 2 Nc3 g6 3 g3 Bg7 4
that Black must lose another pawn Bg2 00 5 d3 c5 6 e3 N c6 7
anyway, since 1 6 . . . Bxa8 would Nge2 d6 8 00 Bd7 9 Rbl Qc8
abandon the apawn.
lO Rel
1 7 Qxd6 (See next diagram)
Two points. No credit for
anything else.
17 ... Resigns
A testing game. Marking
must be hard and may seem unfair.
If you saw 14 Nf5, the rest of the
game played itself.
Now Total Up Your Points:
3640  Master
3 1 3 5  Expert
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 157
with a Knight. 1 2 . . . a5 also fails to
score since the temporary fore
stalling of b2b4 would not be
worth the weaknesses it would
cause at b6 and b5.
13 b4
13 ... h4
Four points. The consistent
follow up, for now White probably
did not even consider 1 4 gxh4 in
view of the . . . Qg4ch possibility. No
Start Your Test Now! credit for l 3 . . . cxb4, for after 1 4
axb4 White's central pawn
10 ... Bh3 preponderance would prove too
Three points. Without this strong.
Black's last move would have been 14 b5?
meaningless. His chances are on A grave strategic error that
the kingside and the first objective blocks the queenside, leaving
is to secure the exchange of Black free to concentrate on the
White's chief defender, the Bg2, or other wing. Correct was 14 bxc5
at least force it to an inferior dxc5 1 5 Nd5 or at once 14 Nd5 ,
square. when the chances would remain
1 1 Bhl well balanced.
11 ... e5! 14 ... Ne7
Four points. Although Black Three points. From here the
now has a "hole" at d5 and a Knight keeps an eye on the d5
backward dpawn, l l . . .e5 was square. In view of this important
necessary here, in order to stake a point, nothing for 14 . . . Nd8 or
claim in the center and to prevent 14 . . . Nb8, while deduct two points
1 2 Nf4. Other moves thus gain no for the decentralizing 14 . . . Na5? 
credit. This includes l l . . .g5? we are playing a kingside attack !
which prevents 1 2 Nf4 but 1 5 e4
unnecessarily weakens Black's
15 ... Nh7!
kingside and l l . . .Nh5?, if only
Five points. A nice multi
because of 12 Nd5 .
purpose move the immediate point
1 2 a3 of which is to prevent 1 5 Bg5 .
1 2 ... h5 Because this was threatened, other
Four points. No credit for moves do not score.
moving the N/6, planning to 16 Be3
continue . . .j7.f5, for then White
16 ..
. f5
could advantageously occupy d5
1 58 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
Better was 21 Bg2  a hard
decision after his 10th and 1 1 th
moves.
21 ... Ng4
Three points. Although
clearly weaker than the move
played, 2 l . . .Bh6 perhaps merits
one point. Comparatively best for
White now was 22 Bf2.
22 Ncl
22 ... exf4 !
Four points. Now that the
Three points. It is a sure
White knight has wandered this is
sign that all is well when a natural
very effective. White's last move
continuation such as this can
was based on a small trap into
contain a venomous threat like
which you have fallen if your
1 7 . . . f4.
selection was 22 . . . Nxe3 ? (deduct
1 7 exf5 three points) because of 23 Qh5ch.
1 7 ... gxf5 23 Bxf4
Four points. The capture
23 ... Bd4ch
towards the center is by far the
Two points.
best. Black retains control over e4,
opens the gfile and retains the
24 Be3
threat of . . .j5f4. One point for
1 7 . . . Nxf5 .
1 8 Nd5
18 ... Nxd5
Two points for this, the only
move to score.
19 Bxd5ch
19 ... Kh8
One point.
20 f4
20 ... Nf6
Three points. Apart from its 24 ... f4 !
strategical defects, 20 . . . exf4??
Five points. Deduct two
(deduct five points) would be a
points for 24 . . . Nxe3 ? in view of 2 5
colossal tactical blunder, i.e. 2 1
Qh5ch Kg7 2 6 Qg5ch Kf7 27 Rxe3
Nxf4 Bg4 2 2 Ng6 mate !
when the threat of 28 Bd5ch gives
21 Bhl White good counter chances.
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 59
24 . . . Bxe3ch gains one point, but 30 Bxg2
you lose this and should deduct 30 ... Rxg2ch
another two points if you intended One point.
to answer 25 Rxe3 with 25 . . . Nxe3 ? 31 Kf3
25 Bxd4ch 31 ... Re8 !
25 ... cxd4 Five points. This "quiet"
One point. move gives the combination its
26 gxf4 appeal. Instructively, all of Black's
26 ... Rg8 ! pieces are placed to their
Four points. Even if you see maximum efficiency. Now the
a good move it often pays to look threat of 2 1 . . .Bg4 mate forces
for a better one. Three points for Black's reply.
26 . . . Rxf4 which looks strong too. 32 f5
27 Qd2 32 ... Bg4ch
27 ... Ne3 dis. ch Two points.
Two points. 33 Kf4
28 Kf2 33 ... Rf2ch
28 ... Qg4 Two points.
Four points. Two points for 34 Kg5
28 . . . Qf5 . Nothing for 28 . . . Bg2 34 ... Rg8ch!
which is well answered by 29 Four points. The neat point
Qb2 ! , nor for the moverepeating is that now 35 Kxh4 is answered
28 . . . Ng4ch. by 35 . . . Nxf5 mate. On the other
29 Ne2 hand 34 . . . Rxf5ch? 3 5 Kxh4 allows
29 ... Qg2ch ! ! White to escape.
Six points. A Queen 35 Kf6
sacrifice which ranks with Kotov's 35 ... Rxf5ch
against Averbach in the 1 953 Two points.
Candidates tournament. Award 36 Ke7
yourself a maximum of six bonus Rg7ch
36 ...
points according to how much of Two points.
the sequel you foresaw when
37 Kxd6
selecting this. However, also after
29 . . . Bg2 (four points) Black would 37 ... R5g5 !
Five points. Now not even
have won, albeit in more prosaic
38 Qxe3 prevents 3 8 . . . Rd7 mate.
fashion, since 30 Nxd4 would
surely lose after 30 . . . Qxf4ch. If 37 . . . Rh5 (five points) achieves the
29 . . . Raf8 (one point) threatening same elegant result. White
30 . . . Rxf4ch, White has swindling resigns.
chances with 30 Nxd4.
Now Total Up Your Points:
1 60 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
8596  Master
7084  Expert
5069  Class A
3 249  Class B
1 53 1 Class C

Below 1 5  need more study
Test No. 3S
You have Black and your
opponent is Niemela of Finland,
while your partner is Helmut
Pfleger of West Germany, then 2 1
years old. The game won the prize
for best performance on board four 9 ... Nf4 !
in the Chess Olympiad. Four points. A typical pawn
Cover this page with a sheet sacrifice in this type of situation.
of notebook paper and lower it line You gain no credit if you selected
by line. Grade yourself by guessing 9 . . N5f6, for after 10 Ng3 followed
.
Black's moves. by 1 1 h4 White has all the play.
Whenever you have made a 10 Nxf4
White move, STOP ! and try to 10 ... exf4
work out Black's reply. Keep track One point.
of your point awards and see how 1 1 Bxf4
you grade at the end of the game. 1 1 ... NeS
Three points. In return for
Tel Aviv, 196S his pawn Black has gained this
White: Niemela fine square for his Knight, the long
Black: Pfleger black diagonal for his Bg7 and the
Benoni Defense halfopen efile. Deduct a point if
1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 cS 3 dS eS 4 Nc3 you chose a move that would
d6 S e4 g6 6 f3 NhS 7 Be3 Bg7 permit White to capture the d6
pawn. One point each for l 1 . . .Qa5
8 Nge2 Nd7 9 g4
or l l . . .Be5 ! ? but nothing for
(See next diagram) l 1 . . .Qf6 or l 1 . . .Qb6 blocking
future lines of attack.
12 Be2
12 ... h5!
Four points. Black must
break down White's formidable
looking kingside pawn chain.
However, if immediately 12 . . . f5
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 161
(one point) 1 3 gxf5 gxf5 1 4 Rg l or Three points. Award
if 1 2 . . . 00 (two points) intending yourself two bonus points if you
. . .f5, White's pressure on the gfile now took into account the reply 1 6
would be embarrassing. The subtle Bg l , threatening to win the knight,
1 2 . . . h5 ! with its positional threat of and planned then 16 . . . Qa5 17 Qd2
1 3 . . . hxg4 induces White to close (if 1 7 Qc2 then 1 7. . . Bd4!, etc.)
the file. 1 2 . . . Qa5 (one point) l 7 . . . fxe4 1 8 h3 e3, etc. White can
encourages White to play the vary this slightly, but Black seems
sound developing move 1 3 Qd2 (if to have adequate resources.
13 . . . Qb4 then 14 Nb5, etc.). One No credit if you retreated the
point for the "routine" 1 2 . . . a6. knight (even if you rejected
13 g5 15 . . . Ng4 because of 1 6 Bgl) for
1 3 ... 00 15 . . . Nd7? allows 16 exf5 Rxf5 1 7
Three points. It is wise to Bd3 , etc. while the knight clearly
castle first, though 1 3 . . .f5 (two has no future atj7.
points) and 1 3 . . . f6 (one point) were 16 Bxg4
playable. A point for 1 3 . . . a6. 16 ... hxg4
14 Be3 Three points. 16 . . . fxg4 (no
14 .. f5 ! credit) leaves White too much
scope in the center. White now
embarks on an ambitious but faulty
plan. He should have contented
himself with 17 Qd2, e.g. 1 7 . . . fxe4
1 8 000, etc.
17 e5?
17 ... dxe5
Three points. Quite correct
for now 1 8 Bxc5 Re8 would favor
Black. One point each for l 7 . . . Re8
or 17 . . . a6, both of which allow 1 8
e6, while the pawn offer l 7 . . . b5
Three points. Black (no credit) seems unsound.
correctly strikes at e4, but 14 . . . f6 18 d6
also merits a point, for after all 18 ... exf4 !
White could have played 15 gxf6. Four points. Instructive
One point here and last move for play, opening the center against
14 . . . Bh3 . Nothing for 14 . . . a6  too White's uncastled king. On the
slow in view of White's next move. other hand, to block the lines with
15 f4 l 8 . . . e4 (no credit) would cause
15 ... Ng4 ! White much less difficulty. The
developing move l 3 . . . Be6 earns
162 Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II
one point. Note that the answer 22 . . . Bd7 (only one point) then 23
then to 1 9 Nd5 would be h3 more or less forces 23 ... g3 .
1 9 . . . exf4 ! ? and not 1 9 . . . Qxd6? 23 Qd3
because of 20 Nf6ch. 23 ... Qb4
19 Qd5ch Three points. White is given
19 ... Kh7 no respite  now he must weaken
Two points. Nothing for the support of his knight. 23 . . . Qc6
1 9 . . . Kh8, since the pawn at g6 (no credit) is well answered by 24
might need protection, nor for the Nd5 .
selfpin 1 9 . . . Rf7. 24 b3
20 Bxf4 24 ... b5!
20 ... Re8ch A well deserved five points
Three points. White must if you selected this and add a bonus
not be allowed to castle. Nothing point if you took White's next
for alternatives, e.g. 20 . . . Bxc3ch. move Into account. 24 . . . a6, though
20 . . . Qa5 or 20 . . . Qb6, nor for the it pales by comparison, still merits
"flashy" 20 . . . Be6, for then, after 2 1 two points. Not quite sound was
Qd3 , White can castle next move. 24 . . . Bxc4? (no credit) because of
2 1 Kd2 25 bxc4 (if 25 Qxc4 then
25. . . Bxc3ch 26 Qxc3 Qxf4ch,etc.)
25 . . . Bxc3ch 26 Qxc3 Re2ch 27
Kd3 ! etc. This variation should
give alert readers some ideas.
25 a3
25 ... Qxa3
Two points. Nothing for
25 . . . bxc4? or 25 . . . Qa5 .
26 Nxb5
26 ... Qa2ch!
Four points. Neatly forcing
the White queen to an inferior
square. Just one point each for
2 1 ... Qb6 26 . . . Qa5ch and 26 . . . Qb4ch.
Three points. One point for 27 Qc2
2 1 . . .Be6 which seems a little less 27 ... Qa5ch
accurate.
Two points. Naturally Black
22 Rahl needs his queen for the final
22 ... Be6 attack.
Three points. Every move 28 Nc3
must count. For example, if
Test Your Opening, Middlegame and Endgame vol. II 1 63
to 3 l . . .Re2ch 32 Kd3 Qe4 mate.
One point for 30 . . . Re4 ! ?
31 Kdl
31 ... Re4
Three points. This is
decidedly stronger than 3 l . . .Qd4ch
(no credit).
32 h3
32 ... Rd4ch
Three points. The end is
near for now 3 3 Kc l allows
33 . . . Qa3ch with mate to follow.
28 ... BdS ! !
One point each for 32 . . . Rae8 and
Seven points. The
32 . . . Qd4ch. Deduct a point if you
magnificent sequel to Black's last
chose 32 . . . Rxf4? in view of 3 3
few moves. Award yourself a bonus
Rxf4 Qxf4 34 hxg4ch Kg8 36
point if you foresaw thaT now 29
Qxc3 etc.
b4 would fail to 29 . . . cxb4 30
Nxd5? b3 dis. ch winning the
33 Ke2
queen. 33 ... Re8ch
It seemed better not to Three points for this and
mention it at the time, but 24 . . . Bd5 two points for 33 . . . Qb5ch. On
was also playable. Although it was principle the move that brings the
less convincing then, in view of 25 final piece into action gains an
Qxd5 ! ? , such imagination deserves extra point.
five points. Still unsound was 34 Be3
28 . . . Bxc4 (no credit for this or any 34 ... Rd2ch
other move). If now 29 Rhe l then Three points. Perhaps the
29 . . . Be4,etc. neatest way though other methods
29 cxdS also clearly win. Two points each
29 ... Qb4 ! for 34 . . . f4, 34 . . . Bd2 and 34 . . .
Six points. Only now does Rxe3ch. White resigned.
Black's last move make sense. I
wonder how many readers fell for Now Total Up Your Points :
29 . . . Bxc3ch (no credit) 30 Qxc3 8 1 90  Master
Re2ch which would fail to 3 1 Kd3 ! 6880  Expert
5 1 67  Class A
30 Rbfl
3 3 50  Class B
30 ... Bxc3ch
1 432  Class C
Three points. Regaining the
Below 14  need more study
piece, for 3 1 . . . Qxc3 ? loses, at last,
ISBN 0  87568  2 43  X
51 550
ISBN: 087568243X
9 780875 682433
$1 5.50