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An Exposure and Dialogue Programme (EDP) in Cooperation with Watershed Organization Trust (WOTR) in Maharashtra/ India October 27th – November 5th, 2006
Table of Contents
1 Summarizing Introduction.....................................................................................................3 2 Introduction - October, 28th 2006..........................................................................................4 2.1 An Overview by Father Bacher on Integrated Watershed Development (IWD) ................4 2.2 Introductory Remarks to the Exposure and Dialogue Programme ‘Organizing for SelfGovernment’, Darewadi, October 28th by Ms. Dr. Stauder ..........................................5 2.3 The Participants and their Expectations............................................................................7 3 The Exposure Phase – October, 29th – November, 01st 2006..............................................8 4 Reflection – November, 01st 2006........................................................................................9 4.1 Individual Reflection und Reflection in Groups of two with guiding questions...................9 4.2 Medium Sized Group Reflection and exchange of key stories ..................................10 5 The Dialogue Phase in Pune – November, 2nd and 3rd 2006..............................................12 5.1 Personal Statements by EDP- Participants – Some Excerpts ........................................12 5.2 Presentations and Statements of Several Indian Actors in the Field of WD – Some Excerpts and Summaries ..........................................................................................15 5.2.1 Presentation by Mr. Dr. Karmakar, MD from the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) .................................................................................15 5.2.2 Presentation by Mr. Mahalle, Director of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management, Maharashtra State ..............................................................................17 5.2.3 Presentation by Mr. Deshpande, Joint Development Commissioner Rajiv Gandhi Mission, Bhopal .........................................................................................................18 5.2.4 Presentation by Ms. Dr. D’Souza, Executive Director Watershed Organisation Trust .19 5.2.5 Presentation by Mr. Vishwanathan, Programme Officer Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).......................................................................20
5.2.6 Speech by Mr. Thorat, Minister for Agriculture, Water Conservation and Saline Lands Maharashtra – Some Excerpts .......................................................................20 5.3 Some Questions, Answers, Comments and Statements Accompanying the Dialogue Phase ........................................................................................................................22 5.4 Three Working Groups and three Key Issues – Guiding Questions................................31 5.5 Recommendations for actors in Watershed Development Programmes ........................32 5.5.1 Ensuring Sustainability of Watershed Development Programmes ...............................32 5.5.2 Empowerment of Villagers through Watershed Development Programmes ................33 5.5.3 Enhancing Good Governance through Watershed Development Programmes...........34 6 Conclusion – Summary of Follow-up Steps – 04th November 2006 ...................................35 7 Annex .................................................................................................................................37 7.1 List of Abbreviations ........................................................................................................37 7.2 Glossary ..........................................................................................................................38 7.3 Programme During the Conference in Pune – November, 2nd – 4th 2006........................39 7.4 List of Participants Including Participants of the Dialogue Phase ...................................41
1 Summarizing Introduction Exposure and Dialogue Programmes are an approach to create awareness for poverty issues and possible solutions in developing countries. Therefore decision-makers, mainly from the German society are invited to participate in a so-called Exposure- and Dialogue Programme. Within the first phase of this EDP, the participants exposed themselves to the rural realities and living conditions within the villages of semi-arid Maharashtra. All visited villages are or have been part of the Indo-German Watershed Development Programme (IGWDP), implemented by the Watershed Organization Trust (WOTR). This phase gave the participants an opportunity to observe poverty and its fighting mechanisms in a village society and made them a part of the same social life by an extended stay for a reasonable period of time. After three days and nights of exposure to the village life a phase of reflection of the experiences gained began. This was followed by a dialogue phase between the EDP-delegation and Indian decision-makers. In the fourth phase conclusions were drawn in form of recommendations to all relevant actors in the field of watershed development. The 7 days of EDP were an eye-opener for the international participants, coming together from all over the world to experience the rural realities of life in the drought prone and semi-arid villages of Maharashtra, India, in the Ahmednagar district. The international participants came from all over the world (including Africa, USA, Europe, India), a majority of them representing the various development related agencies worldwide, along with a few members of the German Bundestag representing various political parties.
2 Introduction - October, 28th 2006
2.1 An Overview by Father Bacher on Integrated Watershed Development (IWD) The participants of the EDP had the opportunity of listening to Father Hermann Bacher who spoke about the idea of watershed development and shared his experiences collected over the last fifty years in India, especially in the Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra. Due to its location in the rain-shadow area, it receives a rainfall between 508-635 mm and is thus a semi-arid region prone to recurrent droughts. It was in this semi-arid, drought-prone and industrially backward region that Fr. Hermann Bacher decided to establish the Social Centre in 1966 with the objective of alleviating poverty and hardships of the small and marginal farmers through development of water resources and increased agricultural productivity. “We have a success story only when we have a problem. Unless there is a problem, there is no struggle and co-operation or any new innovations. The Indo-German Watershed Development Programme (IGWDP) was an answer to the soil erosion and water scarcity in the drought-prone areas of rural Maharashtra, now extended to two other states, for its exemplary execution of the Watershed Development Programmes (WDPs) through people’s involvement and participation in all phases of the project execution.” Beginning as an emergent ray of Social Centre, Watershed Organization Trust (WOTR) has grown to be a well-reputed agency in the field of implementing WDPs in Maharashtra. This organization has been the key agency through which both financial and technical expertise from the German government were extended towards implementation of the WDP commonly referred to as Indo-German WDP, from the year 1992-93 till now, to run-out in May 2007.
We have a success story only when we have a problem. Fr. Bacher, October 2006
This starts with bringing about basic awareness (Who destroyed the environment? – We ourselves’) and promoting new values and self-responsibility. I would like to thank you. Darewadi. attitudes and (self-) perceptions. is to share the daily life and to learn about the life story of the host family and to write it down. The EDP offers an opportunity to follow in the footsteps of a watershed family and to learn about. WOTR. Crispino Lobo and all the facilitators and staff of WOTR. Ecology. on his/her values. in 1994 our topic was ‘Environment – Engine of Development: Self-help. The most important point . the Village Watershed Committee (VWC) and the Forest 5 . On behalf of the Exposure and Dialogue Programme Association.the core element .2. Another characteristic feature of this learning process has to do with how the hosting watershed family is linked to the institutional environment. The passed 3 EDPs accompanied the process of re-orienting German development cooperation towards participatory poverty alleviation. the Selfhelp Group (SHG). Justice’ and in 2000 the focus was on development processes towards self-government. watershed villages and families.of every EDP is that the participants meet people: people who are affected by poverty and who have through active participation in the watershed development area improved their living conditions.2 Introductory Remarks to the Exposure and Dialogue Programme ‘Organizing for Self-Government’. Marcella d’Souza. which we recommend. an experienced and recognized partner organization in this field. its ups and downs. Dear friends and participants. for hosting our EDP. will help us to get a clear picture of this self-help process.g. e. Stauder Welcome to all of you. October 28th by Ms. Another integral part of EDPs has always been to find out how the persons concerned try to improve their situations and to overcome poverty by their own efforts. Our exposure and dialogue programme is designed as a person-to-person meeting. The success factors are rooted in their development approach. The life realities of the people we meet are the focus of our interest. The means of getting a ‘view from within’. at least to some extent. Dr. We want to explore the everyday lives of our hosts from their own perspectives. Father Bacher. this is the 4th EDP in our co-operation with WOTR. which primary focus on individuals. Thank you for joining this Exposure and Dialogue Programme on ‘Poverty Reduction and Self-Governing Watersheds’. The themes of the EDPs indicate in a way the stages and the progress of this process: In 1991 we talked about ‘Framework Conditions in Support of Self-help Activities’. failures and achievements.
which have been made with the cooperation of governmental actors and NGOs3 in the field of participatory watershed management already.g. What are possibilities to introduce and strengthen the use of renewable energies? Furthermore we want to look at the experiences. cooking) the pressure on the environment continues. would be a very enriching result of this EDP.best renewable energy for their needs (e. gram sabha functions as a forum for collective decision making 3 4 NGO: Abbreviation for Non-Governmental Organization MDG: Abbreviation for Millennium Development Goal 6 . it is extremely important to understand how the intermediary institutional setting is linked to the policy level. built up? How does the institutional structure work in practice? What is the dialogue phase of this EDP intended to bring about? In the reflection and dialogue we want to look closer at the impacts of the watershed programme in the visited village and what the main factors leading to success are. If the people do not get access to energy . How were the institutions. traditionally the gram panchayat consisted of five members 2 Gram sabha: Maharashtrian for village gathering. the gram panchayat1 and gram sabha2 etc. e. What are the mutual responsibilities and rights or benefits? To write down a kind of ‘institutional life story’. Which role does WOTR and the watershed development programme play for the socio-economic development of the family? What are the different economic impacts within the community in the village? What are the factors of the participatory watershed programme that lead to success? Which are the conditions for sustainability? In this context the question of access to energy/electrical light becomes important. the hosting Village Watershed Committee. Protection of natural resources is not possible without tackling the energy-issue.g. In addition to these linkages. whether it is at the state level of Maharashtra or at the national level.Protection Committee (FPC). which determine the relationships between a watershed family and its institutional environment. of a village watershed family for example. What are the strengths – weaknesses? Which elements of the NGOs are being used? How can the cooperation between NGOs and governmental actors be improved? Looking at the tremendous problems with shortage of freshwater and the ongoing climate change and having in mind the goal (MDG)4 to half the number 1 Gram panchayat: Maharashtrian for village council. I would like to invite the participants to try this out.
5 EDP e. curiosity about the everyday life-world of the village people. education. It is mainly but not only about exploring the life and work realities of families involved in the watershed development programme in rural India.2 billion people) the question is: How can the approach of participatory watershed management be applied and spread more widely? How can knowledge and experience of WOTR be used in different countries (especially in Africa).V: German abbreviation for Exposure.3 The Participants and their Expectations During a introduction round in which the WOTR facilitation team was included.V. replication issues especially for Africa. But I hope that this EDP and the reflection and dialogue especially with the Indian participants will produce at least some answers and will strengthen our joint efforts. the exchange of ideas and fresh impetus to the future dialogue process is what EDP e. sustainability issues to empowerment and governance. various issues were raised in terms of expectations and interest areas ranging from microfinance. impact measurement. participatory development.und Dialogprogramme e. (Association) 7 . together with the Indian participants in the dialogue. It also wants to make clear that the development of human beings by bringing about basic awareness and selfresponsibility is a central instrument for poverty reduction and that it needs sustainable organizations and institutions which are capable of doing this. the issues of inor exclusion within watershed development programmes. women’s health. Indo-European development cooperation.5 hopes to achieve with the exposure and dialogue programme in India.V. I wish all of you a good an enjoyable exposure experience.of people without access to clean freshwater by 2015 (1.” 2. with regard to training as well as support of different activities? The discussion of these core points. I am well aware how difficult it is to answer this kind of questions.
29th the participants left for their respective villages. The participants would also meet the different functionaries. the interviewee families were chosen from the poor sections only and those who have benefited from the WDP in one way or the other. possibly stopping on their way to look at an untreated area which allowed a comparison to the treated project villages.3 The Exposure Phase – October. which is called SMS7 and other village level governance bodies. eating the way they eat and sleeping the same way. The selection of the host and the interviewing family was done by the villagers. 29th – November. For the next 3 days. The participants were to remain in close communication with the WOTR facilitators working in the field. who were also available for conducting the village situations in its different settings. All eighteen participants were distributed into 9 villages within a radius of around 30 km in the Sangamner taluka6 of Ahmednagar district where they would spend the next three nights. the apex body of women’s SHGs. participating in their daily activities. 6 7 Taluka: Administrative unit within a district SMS: Maharashtrian abbreviation for samyukt mahila samaj (joint women’s committee) 8 . 01st 2006 On the morning of October. all delegation members were part of a village community. however.
November 3.1 Individual Reflection und Reflection in Groups of two with guiding questions What were the most emotional impressions? What was my personal key story? What did I learn? What do I understand better now? Has my opinion changed? Which learning experience was of particular importance? How does the EDP experience affect my professional career. my private life? What are the open questions that should be clarified in the plenary session? What are the relevant issues that should be discussed in the plenary session? Based on the guiding questions. Everyone was then invited to present his personal outcome in form of keywords to all participants. the participants had the opportunity to reflect in pairs upon their stay in the villages and identify key issues. 4. At a later stage (Friday. The participants were overwhelmed with the multitude of experiences in the last three days. which are given above. 01st 2006 The reflection phase started with the presentation of the unique item from the host villages and sharing an emotional or moving moment.4): Ensuring Sustainability of Watershed Development Programmes Empowerment of villagers through Watershed Development Programmes Enhancing Programmes Good Governance (GG) through Watershed Development 9 . Finally all keywords were categorized and three working groups elaborated the thematic issues and questions to be discussed with the Indian counterparts. 2006) the three working groups discussed these subjects with the task to formulate recommendations deriving from the following issues (see chapter 5.4 Reflection – November.
Every group was asked to select a striking story. Finally obtaining a piece of land after a battle for inheritance they could settle down and improve their living situation. which was about a meeting with a women SHG in his village. which could then be shared with the whole group at a later stage. She hoped her brother could somehow close the gap that opened up after her husband's death and be a father figure to her son. Kallenbach concluded that the widow also showed great engagement in fighting gender inequality. Impressed by her commitment Ms. Vonalt spoke on behalf of his group sharing his key story. Mr. In the end he emphasized the importance of family planning also within the scope of watershed development. Education was an important issue to the family and they hoped that their improved situation would allow at least one of their sons to receive a good education. Sterilization turned out to be an affordable option. which had already been practiced. She didn't possess any land and her family-in-law refused to give her a plot with which she could generate some income of her own.4. Furthermore they were aware of the danger of HIV infection.2 Medium Sized Group Reflection and exchange of key stories During the medium sized group reflection the delegation split up into four groups where they could exchange their personal key stories they had brought back from their stay in the villages. The widow was convinced that education was the key for any development and she showed great concern to enable a good education for both her sons. Mr. The only support came from her brother who was willing to take care of her younger son. Three groups selected one person to present his personal key story with everyone else while one group presented a collection of various quotes that were made within his group. He was told that the general wish amongst women was not to have more than two children. Ms. The widow was living with her parents-in-law where she had to burden most of the workload and responsibilities. Müller's key story described his experience staying with a formerly landless family of craftsmen that has experienced an ascent in recent times. Functioning as a secretary of a women self-help group she had taken the initiative by providing health training to other women and teaching them how sew. Kallenbach spoke about her experiences staying with a 36 year old widow that had two sons. He was surprised by their openness with which they would discuss the issue of family planning. 10 .
Mr.” “We have safe drinking water throughout the year. Müller was impressed by their optimism and their confidence towards their own handicraft abilities and touched by their great respect for nature. we can increase our income from dairy operations. 12th 2007) 11 .” “After working on the watershed project we have more self confidence and more opportunities. We now have more irrigated farmland. now we want fewer and see the need for family planning. equal approximately 208 € (January.” “The electricity fails so often in our village that we can't rely on the electricity pumps to irrigate our farms.Nevertheless it became visible that further outside help by WOTR was necessary to secure their livelihood.” 8 9 INR = Indian Rupee 12000 INRs. employment is available in the village for men.9. Yesterday we sold tomatoes in the market and received 12000 INRs8.” “Due to the Watershed activities.” “We could harvest one crop a year.” “The SMS Committee in our village provides training to women on how to start and manage their own business'.” “When there is sufficient fodder available. He was present at the birth of two goats and he was moved to see how their daily life evolved in such an event. because their size of land was not sufficient. women and youth and there is no need to travel long distances for jobs. Tunstall presented a collection of various quotes that had been made in his group: “The water now flows regularly. Mr. Now we can get three harvests a year.” “Years ago we would have eight or more children.
The empowerment is also evident in that the women could get credit and help the family with money also. “The programme addressed not only the water related problems of the villagers but also brought about a significant change in the women’s condition. which gave the money to VWC and thus they have no hidden political agenda. WDP benefits the people who have land. living with a family of 5 people. views and concerns with the Indian side in a personal statement. with an income of less than 1 € for these five people.1 Personal Statements by EDP. The distribution of finances is displayed in a public place of the village so that there is less corruption. several members of the delegation shared their exposure experience. 2nd and 3rd 2006 5. Höhn explored the reasons behind the successful implementation of the programme. It is really an extreme situation therefore it was important to see how they live and manage. From many different points of reference. This was actualised in gram sabha meetings. Höhn: “It has been a very enriching experience for all the participants. There are three main reasons why this programme is successful: Empowering women is an important aspect of the programme. corruption is a major 12 . SHGs provide the platform for the women to talk about the different issues. which was not the case earlier. But the family that I was staying with was a landless family with five.Participants – Some Excerpts The dialogue phase in Pune gave the EDP participants the opportunity to meet with Indian governmental and non-governmental decision-makers in the field of watershed development. this is found to be a successful programme.” Ms. The formation of SHGs has made the women economically stable and they feel more empowered. It was a deeply interesting trip. The programme is successful also because of its transparency policy. coming from the political perspective. The wife had joined the SMS and was more confident. Here are some excerpts. discussions and the interaction within working groups. The project was carried out through the NGO. This helps in times of illness or education or marriage in the family. Apart from the presentations. as everywhere else in the world. The women are now more active and confident. It makes a good example in the light of realization that in India. WOTR started with watershed development but did a lot more. Ms.5 The Dialogue Phase in Pune – November. which is achieved by the SHGs.
But what else is necessary? What were the prerequisites that something happened in Maharashtra? There has to be people who want it bad along with the leaders with a vision and commitment.” Furthermore she pointed out several issues that were of concern to her: “How can we touch the life of the poorest of the poor in the village? How can the programme be made sustainable in terms of creating such structures that make it successful? Though technical inputs and finances are important. The project was not trusted to the gram panchayat as it may have political strings attached to the programme and it would not become a fully villager’s programme.” Ms. sometimes money. so does WDP. both by the Government of Maharashtra (GoM) and the NGOs. Darewadi was an area like this a few years ago. November 2006 Mr. something more needs to be done in the sense of mobilizing the people to take it up in a big way. expressing how emotional her experience in the village of Mahaswandi was: “We were very impressed by the energy of the people and their future views. Also.” She finalized her speech showing her please with amount of energy and interest diverted to watershed development in Maharashtra. So a motivated soul is the primary need. Woflgang Wodarg. the others see it and realize the new way of doing it which is more advantageous. where the poverty was maximal and the rains were low. Every good thing needs time. When someone does something right. Wodarg: “The project is like a miracle but how was this miracle made? It is always that people learn from other people by copying. This project has thus been able to address many different problems along with water for drinking and irrigation. So there has to be someone who does it well. The challenge here is that WDP is a time taking programme. His charismatic leadership was primary in making this programme work where the situation was the worst. There were incentives. There was no need 13 . there is a lack of structures to make the programme successful. Kofler gave a statement.obstacle to development. We need to devise methods to capitalize on the social capital of the village. And there was an old man in Darewadi. It must be realized that the ‘people’ are the focus of our interventions and not water.
they want the power to plan their families. There is a social cohesion and the village acts as a buffer during the times of need and all families share a village network that doubles up as a social security system. 14 . but also to be willing to learn from the villagers and to be open to new things and he believed that this programme had taught the administration and the decision-makers a lot. To mean. like education. Women in the villages are the ones who not only carry the responsibility of transporting water from the source to the household. not only to teach the villagers. The people must be on our side. Ms. money and making people aware that they can undertake their own development after the experts have left.to go out of the village migrating for work anymore. Kallenbach took up the opportunity to draw a comparison between the European Community and India.” As a member of the European Parliament. is the crucial part for the sustainability of the programme. Considering that both are currently the biggest democracies in the world. I would like to add that the growth of India as a powerful nation is a positive sign but the country should also think about the countless poor people in the world and together with Germany we can really help the poor of this world by our experience and technical know-how. along with technology. He continued by saying that empowerment or political enablement. Even though the living situation of most Europeans cannot be compared to the living situation within the villages.” […] “The people want to have an identity. empowered to undertake the work in the long term. They want to see some future for their children. she spoke as an advocate for a strong exchange in different fields. she believed that a solution to many problems existing on the micro-level and to some extent on the macro-level in Europe could be the approached in a similar way. Wodarg went on by pointing out the necessity. we go and work in the villages not because there is no water but because there are poor people and water is not the only need. How does it work with the villagers and their security system? They have a different way. they want to be proud of what they do. Her personal lesson learned on this EDP was that the idea of empowerment of the people on the grass-root level should also be considered within the European Community. health. “It must be realized that the ‘people’ are the focus of our interventions and not water. etc. Lastly.” Mr. but they are also responsible for the social well-being in the village.
Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). which you all have participated in. Gram sabha. This is not a top-bottom approach instead the people were involved in all stages. Karmakar from NABARD. MD from the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) Engaging Complementarities: Effective Public Sector & Civil Society Engagement for Large Scale Poverty Reduction – The Experience of IGWDP in Maharashtra – Some Excerpts “A warm welcome to all of you. These are the major intervention where we said that there is a need for community participation So the IGWDP with WOTR. Based on the slide shown. 10 11 RGM: Abbreviation for Rajiv Gandhi Mission SDC: Abbreviation for Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation 15 . What we have done is to institutionalise the programme and to add processes. Dr.2. Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) and NABARD was conceptualised. Later women’s development was also integrated into the programme. Rainfed areas are basically resource poor regions with a cycle of poverty leading to low income. It basically grew out of local initiatives.1 Presentation by Mr. Ms. Mr.” […] “I want to hear about our WDPs seen through your eyes. Mr. And that is the reason I am here. which were part of their performances may be obtained by the Exposure and Dialogue Programme Association in form of a compact disc. Mahalle from the GoM. was also responsible for the management of the project in its different phases of progress. Deshpande from the RGM10. Mr. Vishwanathan from SDC11 and Minister Thorat. WDPs are the way out. Karmakar. 5. it is clear that 80% of the land holdings in the rainfed areas do not produce any market surplus. D’Souza from WOTR.5. Dr.2 Presentations and Statements of Several Indian Actors in the Field of WD – Some Excerpts and Summaries The following chapters contain some excerpts and summaries taken from the presentation and speeches held on the 2nd and 3rd of November 2006 by Mr. Some of the power-point presentations. Full implementation phase was done only after the village community was willing to undertake the different conditions laid down by the programme guidelines.
” 12 13 200 000 000 INRs equal approximately 3 500 000 € (January. We have been able to work in the resource poor regions. better breed of cattle increasing the milk production and better opportunities for village women to get together and shatter some of the boundaries that the traditional social system imposes. agricultural innovation.16% of the total labour cost villagers had to bear. The programme has helped to reduce migration.” […] “Money for the programme comes from different sources. Following scientific principles the ridge to valley approach was used in the process.4 days of the voluntary labour. watershed development etc. We have understood what social mobilization is and how it can be used as an instrument of development in the rural areas with the help of these programmes especially from the 4 projects: Maharashtra Rural Credit Project funded by IFAD13 Technology Transfer for Sustainable Development in Five States funded by EU The Wadi Project funded by the KfW IGWDP funded by GTZ and KfW These projects helped a lot in developing various sustainable tools for social mobilization in India. i. increase in the number of wells. without which we will not go into the contour bunding and technical details of water planning phase. 54 are nearing the completion phase. Various stages were involved: I have told you that the first stage is the CBP (Capacity Building Phase). contributing 100 million INRs. tree felling and a ban on water intensive crop was one of the main commitments in the entire programme. A 200 million INRs12 fund has been set up. area development. and would like to contribute by offering its services for any development work in Africa or any other rural development programme. We have today the largest SHG network in the world and high social mobilization for the rural development projects. in which the work starts at the highest point of the watershed and in which the work then proceeds slowly downwards so that every drop of water is utilized . who made it possible. The ban on free grazing. jointly by the Government of India (GoI). contributing 100 million INRs and NABARD. Today NABARD has different types of funds for tribal development. 12th 2007) IFAD: Abbreviation for International Fund for Agricultural Development 16 . KfW and SDC. we have developed women’s credit programmes as so far we have been focusing on farmers and farmers are predominantly male in the age group of 22-55 years. NABARD expresses its gratitude to the donors GTZ. What we have done is 86 gardens of Eden are created.e.
Director of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management. and since then the programme has grown organically. the area has developed now due to this working together.” Total No. one crore equals 10 000 000. 130 crores INRs. train and evaluate the small NGOs. 52% of the state lies in the drought-prone area with 42% of the soil already degraded due to erosion and soil loss at the rate of 110 tonnes/hectare/year. still 156 lakhs18 hectares need to be approached.2. “Soil erosion and land degradation is a serious problem here. However. So far 85 lakhs16. 12th 2007) 17 . one lakh equals 100 000 85 lakhs ha equal 85 000 km² 156 lakhs ha equal 156 000 km² Crore is an Indian unit.2 Presentation by Mr.” He started by comparing the country’s situation to Maharashtra in terms of soil degradation due to water erosion noting that only 16% of the total area in Maharashtra is under irrigation. seeing the extent of arid villages in Maharashtra and the amount of total funding that the state receives.5. of Villages Rainfed Villages Villages Selected for WDPs Villages with On-Going Projects Villages with Completed Projects 42778 35717 17028 13074 9084 “The projects have never been a smooth sail and the government faced many challenges in the last 20 odd years of its involvement in the WDPs. the 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Mother NGO: NGO. equal approximately 22 500 000 € (January. Mahalle. deriving from the learning of the past to get incorporated in the present and future projects. Maharashtra State Engaging Complementarities: Effective Public Sector and Civil Society Engagement for large scale Poverty Reduction. which helps to identify.17 hectares have been ‘covered’. WDPs were first started in Maharashtra in 1983 in the form of soil and water conservation. it would take another 45 years to bring all the areas under treatment.20/year. the Experience of the ‘Mother NGO’14 Concept in the DPAP15 in Maharashtra – Some Excerpts […] “German cooperation has a long history in Maharashtra and especially in Sangamner. DPAP: Abbreviation for Drought Prone Area Programme Lakh is an Indian unit. Funds are made available by the GoM to the tune of around 130 crores INRs19. Presently.
Joint Development Commissioner Rajiv Gandhi21 Mission. One could also explore the opportunities of livelihood that could be made available to the people.questions that remain for us are: How to make WDPs bankable? It has been experienced that many villagers are involved in the programme with a very short-term individual gain motives. One of the main characteristics of this ‘bottom to top’ approach. They lack the commitment that could turn this programme into a people’s movement. In India. irregular supply of funds is a major obstacle. Bhopal Building Bottom Upwards: Integrating People’s Perspectives and Needs into Development Programmes – A Summary Mr. Deshpande. so that the motives become long-term common expectations. while the rural communities are responsible for the selection of activities. If the programme has to be made sustainable. watershed is an integral component in the mainstream development. Also. Mangoes etc. with the intention to enforce a sustainable statewide watershed development. Maharashtra is on the frontline in agricultural inputs and such fruits as pomegranates. spanning 9540 villages in 6745 micro-watersheds. diversification into different types of crops and approaches would be required.3 Presentation by Mr. providing expertise and financial resources only to a limited extent. The RGM is a programme of the Government of MP. Deshpande from the Rajiv Gandhi Mission (RGM) shared the experiences made in the field of WD in the state of Madhya Pradesh (MP). the maintenance of assets and the budgeting related. RGM cooperates with many NGOs that would function as PIAs to the villages. the challenge is to make watershed ‘everyone’s business’. the creation and implementation of action plans. 21 22 Rajiv Gandhi: Former Prime Minister of India PIA: Abbreviation for Programme Implementing Agency 18 .” 5. The process can be accompanied by PIAs22 from the phase of community mobilization and capacity building in the beginning until the end of a project. which is the largest programme of it kind in the world operating in Maharashtra. covering more than 240 000 km2. In short.2. which has been linked to horticultural development and watershed: “In the new roadmap. protecting natural resources and improving the socio-economic situation in rural areas.” He also talked about the Employment Guarantee Scheme. monitoring. The programme is currently one of the largest in India. lies within the facilitating role of the government.
the risk of new deforestation still exists. regardless whether it is planning.2. Development and Change – A Summary This presentation tried to give an idea on how to tackle three different issues of importance within the field of WD. The solution Ms. ownership and accountability are amongst them as well as the instalment of a maintenance fund. 5. It was stated that several factors have a decisive impact. The numbers regarding SHGs constituted and the efforts regarding microfinance and savings by rural communities also indicate a considerable improvement. D’Souza. The other component to the solution is the so-called ‘Empowerment Pedagogy’. The apprehension CSA refers not only to target groups. The third issue dealt with the importance of sustainability in WD. to a significant decrease in ground water consumption and an improvement of ground water level in approximately 60% of the villages. which serves the necessity of involvement of a target group in every stage of a WDP. which enables women to strengthen their position within the village community and develop new sources of income through microcredits.4 Presentation by Ms. The first issue dealt with the question of how to engage civil society actors (CSA) in order to produce quality results. which allows women or marginalized groups to be presented on decision-making bodies. Transparency. Promotion of women SHGs and the apex body SMS. which complies with the idea of a ‘bottom to top’ approach and which implies the possibility of withdrawal if CSAs do not recognize their responsibilities and duties. The second issue was about the question of how to ensure equity and mainstreaming of marginalized groups. in food and fodder production. But most important would be a solution to energy needs. Dr. implementing. The answer highlighted two aspects: Deliberate institutional arrangements. Unless the problem of energy is not solved.The programme has lead to a significant increase in irrigated area. 23 CBO: Abbreviation for Community Based Organization 19 . D’ Souza argued would require a self-selection process. but also to NGOs and other actors involved. It means that the villagers participate at every step. maintenance or monitoring. Executive Director Watershed Organisation Trust Empowering and Catalyzing CBOs23 and Local Bodies for Poverty Reduction.
2.2.5. I have always been associated with IGWDP. which started in 2001. which mainly lie in the risk of instrumentalising the partner and in the problem of unnecessary administrative burdens. Vishwanathan.5 Presentation by Mr. Thorat. a minister from the area.” […] “We have all come here to support watershed development activities in our region. while outlining the advantages within the concept of ‘Institutionalised Partnership’. This so-called ‘Institutionalised Partnership’ (IP) gave both sides the opportunity to learn from each other and allowed SDC to have an insight look into participatory watershed development. a warm welcome to all of you. On behalf of the GoM I wish to thank you sincerely for the support and cooperation that you have extended. I have been elected as a representative of people from a watershed promoting area. In the case of the WOTR-SDC IP the key features were: “Partnership based on shared values WOTR as an independent organisation with its own identity and competence. 20 .6 Speech by Mr. of course with a wind of vulnerability Based on mutual learning and enriching each other Collaboration with WOTR as a WHOLE and not on a project or activity basis Discussions and review as a whole organisation Contributing to a part of WOTR’s whole budget Two major exchanges each year Enabling WOTR to develop their own strategic orientations and growth trajectory Thus contributing to flexibility and innovation at WOTR” 5. I am happy to note that you are coming from different parts of the world and the country to see our watersheds. which is in need of WDP. Subsequently he explained the disadvantages of project-based partnerships. Minister for Agriculture. Vishwanathan gave an overview regarding the two years partnership between the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and WOTR. Water Conservation and Saline Lands Maharashtra – Some Excerpts “Honourable delegates and participants. Programme Officer Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) Building Institutions and Enabling Partnerships for Policy Engagement and Sustainable Poverty Reduction – A Summary In the beginning Mr.
it is evident that undertaking watershed development in Maharashtra is a high priority. I told you I am a representative of the block of Sangamner. Bacher came to our taluka with the WDP. Of around 42. In this village the work began and people came together.” […] “However.778 villages in Maharashtra. In Maharashtra. and many villagers refused to undertake the WDP. Along with WOTR. And for me the main focus is definitely shortage of water. It cannot be done on large scale either and it is our attempt and struggle to make this a people’s movement. There is a component of voluntary labour. And I realized that WDP was the right answer to the drought prone areas. income generation and cultural development. it cannot be successful.000 are rainfed and 84% of the population is rain dependent for irrigation. both for drinking and irrigation. for me the problem was. For me. one village where drinking water was always supplied by tankers. We were guided by Fr. The village. How have we been dealing with the problem. because for us watershed development is a part of all in all development. If the farmers have to improve their life it has to focus around water generation and management. was ready for the programme. And then we went to the villages where there were no WDPs and campaigned among the villagers so that they undertake watershed programmes through IGWDP in their villages and reap the benefits that it promised along with environmental regeneration. of Agriculture and watershed development and water conservation.In 1985 I contested elections. That was a miracle made real by the WDP. how do I solve this shortage in drinking water and irrigation supply? And at that time Fr. and since 2004. After two years. it is my fifth term as a member of the legislative assembly of Maharashtra. In any other way. of these more than 35. like economic development. Bacher in 1994 with the Federal Order of Merit and we also felt really honoured as it was a medal on our behalf also. So to promote it we have both centrally and state funded programmes. which needed tankers to fulfil its water needs was now harvesting fish. social development. 21 . there are other good NGOs that are also supported in this programme but unless it becomes a movement of the people. a rainfed region. the villagers found that the water remained in the fields after the rainy season and the check dams were full. I would like to share with you: In regions where rainfall was 100 to 200 mm annually. got organized and undertook treatment under ridge to valley approach. Along with WD. it would take at-least 50 years to do any effective work or bring about visible change. Bacher in this journey and at that time the German federal minister honoured Fr. we also focus on all round development in the village. called Mendhwan. I am heading the Ministry for Dept. won.
the same villages elected me with full votes in the next election. As WDP involves ban on free grazing and alcohol. Kallenbach: “Is it correct that you would need 45 years for covering the programme? If it is so. Khande Rao thrashed his son in public and handed him over to the police. The government has supported this programme in all ways and if the donor support continues in this direction. the funds that come from all different sources . which is an alarming situation. we can really make it into a people’s movement for WD in Maharashtra.Anna Saheb Hazare24 has also played a major role in making this programme successful along with Fr. After some time. which is still widely accepted as a model for watershed development. Mahalle: “There are international standards for measuring the soil degradation in tropical countries. Comments and Statements Accompanying the Dialogue Phase Q by Ms.state. Bacher was able to convince him and he became the president of the VWC. even if it was apolitical in the beginning. I have collaborated with both. they went back to their different political camps. It was a mega challenge to bring people together. Answers. there was a very influential person called Khande Rao who opposed it. Now the loss in Maharashtra is to the tune of 110 tonnes/hectare/year.3 Some Questions. is considered to be one of the pioneers of modern watershed development. he developed a concept in the 1970s. It was though a big challenge for us to organize the people as they came together for the programme and as soon as the elections came around. Also.g. After that the village got on track and started working for the programme. an Indian social activist. For e. 24 Anna Saheb Hazare. Bacher. With the intention to improve the economical situation in his native village Ralegan Siddhi in the Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra. NGOs and state departments. it became political in its outcome. It was very clear that women have to play an important part in this as women are not only interested in the development of the family but are also less political. what could be done to speed it up and what are the obstacles?” A by Mr. In order to spread watershed development in my area. That is why we are involving the people at every stage as it has to be their programme. now many people where opposed by Khande Rao and made his son drunk and walk in the village. 22 . However. So. as a representative of the people and directly appealed to the people for a separation of WDP from politics. in Darewadi. Fr.” 5. Then the president Mr.
23 . because it is not only difficult to achieve but also depends upon the preparedness of the community. I stood firm on the point that the CBP must be spread over a period of two years and not 6 months as at present. the receptivity of the villagers.” How does it differ from the other watershed Comment by Mr. in the last 10 years the average total amount has been around 130-135 crores INRs25 [per year]. I advised the government to undertake this programme. One has to be really flexible in carrying out such programmes because the communities react differently to such programmes and it may 25 26 130 – 135 crores INRs. The GTZ component. donors or grants for the WDPs. which has a distinct Capacity Building Phase and then a Full Implementation Phase.” Q by Ms. With this amount of money and the given land area. Parthasarathy: “In our report26 we have put the time for CBP as 2 years. is the initial CBP of 6 -12 months. which would now last 7-8 years for completion. a report of the “Technical Committee on Watershed Programmes in India”. 12th 2007) Mr. People debate a lot of issues and we also add in the report that even if the community is not ready to undertake the programme. equal approximately 22 500 000 – 23 400 000 € (January. there must be a way to write it off as a part of an evaluation mechanism. supported by the GTZ and KfW. van de Sand: “What are the different approaches in watershed that has been talked about? The villagers decided for WOTR because of the different phases and apparent transparency of the programme. it would take 45 years time. The funds are routed through WOTR and then the other phases follow based on the response of the people. sometimes the projects are routed directly through the gram sabha without creating a separate VWC. But the governments are typically in a hurry and do not want to invest in the programmes that last more than 5 years. their scepticism about the new programme after 40 years of nonplanning in the Indian villages. Mitra: “The first model that has been referred to is the IGWDP. we take help form the reputed NGOs like in Vidharbha and its 4 districts. the time of a election term. NGOs have an advantage here as they do not have to work in this time limit nor worry about getting elected. In other projects also. development approaches?” A by Mr. Parthasarathy refers to a report named ‘From Hariyali to Neeranchal’. This report was released in January of 2006 by the Ministry of Rural Development.centre.
Tunstall: “In one of the slides it was shown that 2800 villages have been fully developed. Mahalle: “Basically WDPs were implemented solely by the government agencies till 1993 but in 1993. which were enacted in 1992. are a milestone in the process of establishing democratic decentralized administration through local bodies and taking administration to the doorsteps of the people to ensure economic and social justice. equal approximately 17 300 000 € (January. cattle development and so on. Ackermann: “In one of your slides you showed that there are some districts in Maharashtra. no tree-cutting. Time however has shown the administrative inability or difficulty of implementing measures deriving from the amendments nationwide. I am talking about soil erosion and we have also heard that you are putting 100 crores INRs28 to develop this area. From a medical perspective.” Q by Mr. The government policy after the 73rd and 74th amendment27 is to empower the gram panchayat and devolve power to the grass-roots also helped in governing the WDPs. which are highly vulnerable and depleted. nasbandi (family planning). What do you mean by fully developed? How do you get down to measuring it?” A by Mr. 28 100 crores INRs. which are not yet depleted?” 27 The 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution of India. centre and donor aided programmes. no free-grazing. The problem with different agencies getting into the picture is that there is a lack of flexibility and we must guard against that. 12th 2007) 24 . it was realized that the government alone was not being able to make a big impact on the life of the village people. we started an ‘Ideal Village Development Programme’ in Maharashtra based on 5 indicators and inspiration from Anna Saheb Hazare: Nashabandi (ban on alcoholism). shramdaan (voluntary labour) were imposed. school education. where prevention is always better than cure. Mahalle: “We have a policy that the villages which have been taken up for the watershed programme are also taken up for other developmental activities like microfinance.” Q by Mr. Further areas and avenues are being developed in the villages. More than 500 NGOs are working in Maharashtra in the filed of Watershed on various state. I would like to know from you if there are any projects or programmes to save those areas. General clarifications by Mr.not help if we are not flexible. which have the WDP. Immediately after that the GoI policy changed and the NGOs could be involved to a large extent.
Wodarg: “A lot of Indian capacity in power is derived from water. We are putting in some resources to harness the people’s energy and this can sustain. Rural Infrastructure Development Programme has been started and lot of 25 . But then there is a solution also: decentralized power-plants. making the people full of hope and better future but we may need also side programmes. Karmakar: “There is a system of Exposure visits where people are taken to successful villages and shown how to undertake the programme.” Q by Mr. Parthasarathy: “There is a whole department of non-conventional energy resources. Mahalle: “There are 35 000 rainfed villages and in them there is a classification about the different statuses and accordingly programmes are prioritised. which has sufficient sunshine?” A by Mr.” Q by Ms. There is a gap between the resources we have and the development demanded on the ground.” Response by Mr. My experiences in Kohane was that the village community was convinced very fast when they saw the other successful villages. what about the sustainability of the programme? What does the future of the next generation look like from here? What about education in rural areas? What additional measure can one take to make the programme sustainable?” A by Mr. Is the government doing anything to look into the advantages of solar energy for a country like India. Kallenbach: “The results in the IGWDP have been received over a short time. we according focus on those areas. There is a socio-economic index and rainfed areas are the main criteria. Poor people want food first. I am sure we can save a lot of time if we convince the people by taking them to villages accompanied by civil servants and show them the WDP with the people. and the rich want power. if there is high degree degradation or acute drinking water shortage. We are aware that there are shortcomings in the programme but our interest is to find out what would be your suggestion to improve the programme?” Response by Mr. For the WDP we have a maintenance fund so that the programme continues and the structures are repaired as and when needed. Ackermann: “I would like to answer your question. Karmakar: “The WDP is a hope for the future and we are showing the way out but this handholding will not go on forever.A by Mr. So there is a conflict here in the society.
30 31 BPL: Abbreviation for Below-Poverty-Line see footnote 26 26 . which only looks after watershed issues. They only respond to looming crisis and we did state this problem as a looming crisis. a classification was made and the selected poor groups were identified and issued cards to get benefits from the government. Parthasarathy: […] “In the report31 it has been said. in a normal process. So there is need for a different system of classification to locate the really poor and try to bring them to the level where the other poor are. we need 15 years to cover all the WDPs with some investment. Mitra: “In India we have a definition of the BPL30. there is a big food problem waiting for us if we do not respond to the situation in the rainfed areas. There have been attempts to address this problem. Education as the root for all development and women’s education especially is increasing but still low. About BPL: Landless etc.” Comment by Mr. But the governments do not wake up to the arguments like that. It was also suggested in the report that we should combine all the funds for WDP and create a central committee. Funds are not a problem right now. Migration from the villages is a common problem now leading to urban poverty rather than becoming prosperous in the village. depending on the resources and the skill base.” Q by Ms. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan29 has been started by the GoI to look into this problem. it would take 70 years to do it.” 29 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Hindi for “Education for all“) is an effort of the GoI to universalize elementary education for every child aged between 6 and14. Otherwise. which was not the case earlier. What is the basis of classification? Is it only economic?” A by Mr. what we need here is a political will to undertake these programmes. It is more important to motivate the politicians than the village people. When 40% of the additional food production in the next 15 years is going to come from the rain-fed areas. Höhn: “The problem is that we have to classify between the poor and the poor. have started to purchase land and cultivate the leased land of other farmers.money is being spent on it.
Bihar.” Additional comment by Mr. Solar cooking has been experimented with and found to be not so economical. especially in the underdeveloped eastern states of India 33 Naxalite: Communistic terrorist underground movement in India. In these underdeveloped areas there is a need for better governance and to have more developmental programme to adjust to their needs also.” […] “There is a need to sanction special programmes for the tribal villages as the condition there is really bad. Wind power has also been tried. 10% of our funds are now allocated for research on bio-fuels. named after the village Naxalbari in the state of West Bengal. there are a large number of schemes operating in the rural areas. November 2006 Q by Mr. Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand. Second one is: Adivasi32 areas where there is a problem of Naxalites33. Various areas and other renewable energy sources need to be pursued. Chhattisgarh. are mainly located in the rural areas. It takes about three to eight years for the different bio-fuel plants. Parthasarathy. The yield from these plants right now is not so economically viable. We have the possibility of strengthening the local 32 Adivasi: Literally “original inhabitants”. following the Chinese pattern because cow-dung has better use as fertilizer. this movement has grown very strong in the eastern states like Orissa. Lack of will is also a major issue. Karmakar: “At any time. Ethanol production has also been suggested. the tribal people of India that comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the total population. Vishawanathan: “There is a need for contribution of the civil society to make the global ideas of governance come to the people. Now we have introduced the cultivation of Bamboo for the first time. Mr. It has to be a bottom-up approach. As. We have to adjust to their problems and I think there have been areas where they have taken up developmental activity. where the Adivasis are particularly numerous 27 .It is more important to motivate the politicians than the village people. left extremist activity. A National Bio-Fuels Board has also been set up. Vonalt: “What role can solar cooking systems play in these areas in order to reduce the burning of fuel-wood and high pollution? What roles can plants like Bongamia and Jatropha (used for bio-fuel) play in reducing the use of cow-dung cakes and in the development of wastelands. to increase the income of the people from a fallow land? Is the government support enough in the tribal areas? Does the money meant for rural population really reach them?” A by Mr.
How could civil society contribute in making these bodies more efficient and demand for power from the bottom in terms of local governance structures? Even WOTR is trying to strengthen the local panchayat. National level discussion is on concerning the GMOs and the government is looking at the issue conservatively in the food grain sector. we are promoting research with GMOs in the non-edible seeds like cotton. I would like to respond to the governance issue: even the Government of India agrees there are issues related to governance. There are states like Kerala where the governance has really improved and there is no reason to believe that the other states cannot do the same.not like China.” Statement by Mr. governance has really improved. 73rd and 74th amendment to the constitution related to local governance and other local bodies now is a strong tool. especially in this case of IGWDP and similar watershed interventions in other parts of India.” Q by Mr. There has been two policy guidelines that are now acting as reference points: Phasing out inorganic food in India. Some states like Kerala and Karnataka have advanced in evolution of functionaries. after the 73rd and 74th amendment. Some states are really slow in terms of devolution of function and functionaries at local level. We are promoting organic farming on a large scale. That is one way of addressing the governance issue. 34 GMO: Abbreviation for Genetically Modified Organism 28 . Shreeniwassan: “You have seen from the field that people are quite backward. Mahalle: “Organic farming and Watershed go hand in hand and I am also handling the organic farming department of Maharashtra. However. Höhn: “What is your opinion on the use of GMOs34 in Maharashtra? It is obvious that the dependency of the farmers would grow when they would like to have GMOs for their fields. for the kind of interventions that are being made possible by the joint cooperation of India and Germany. We are taking the issue conservatively. Promote organic farming. One way of going about in terms of governance related issues is how the seat of governance can be as close as possible to the people.” A by Mr.panchayat.
The people need guidance initially and then they come in a position to help themselves. people’s project. Through a more appropriate wage policy we can alleviate poverty more effectively than many other programmes.While it has been quite helpful in increasing productivity and also improving quality of access. can you in some way influence the policies of your government a little bit more in favour of the poor?” Comment by Mr. gradually. one of the major issues they face is of the markets. We need someone who knows the path through this jungle. schools are also our responsibility. I would leave this part to you all. can we stop subsidizing oilseeds. A small market surplus becomes a life-sustaining fund if the prices are standard. Quite a few of you are in apposition to influence the policies in your country. Wodarg referring to Mr. watershed development is also focused on social development. It has been a good project. Thorat: “We do encourage other activities along with WDP” […].” Q by Ms.” 29 . but replication is of-course difficult as the projects like this grows out of the people. can we stop intervening in the domestic markets in the dairy sector? If we do. Can we have systems where people out here could get realistic prices through fairer trade mechanisms and more appropriate rates? Can you in some way convince your government to design your polices in favour of the poor. can we stop subsidizing sugar and cotton. “however there is no direct component in the WDP for education but as a part of the government. Thorat’s speech: “I feel that the project is in very good hands of an able minister like you. May I ask if education also is a part of the social development programme within WDP?” A by Mr. Petry: “As you mentioned. physical access now available to the people. the farmers can sustain themselves without any other help. what we do by this intervention will be 100% more effective in combating poverty than many watershed programmes. its accessibility and the prices they get.
education. Thorat: “After Rajiv Gandhi. Definitely. For e. Thorat: “The area that they are talking about is in Vidharbha. why are people committing suicide?” A by Mr. How can we make it sustainable is the main issue. How to put this project within the work culture of the villagers is the main challenge. They were able to convince the villagers. this would be her first preference rather than politics. it would be inappropriate to say that women are not interested in politics as they are also voters and citizens and what they do in the SHGs is also quite political. 12th 2007) 30 .” Q by Mr. We are trying to increase it to 50%. 33% seats are reserved for the women. Thorat: “We have funds from the state as well as donor funds. has less rain and is still able to grow three crops in a year. the bottom-up process is more successful. and there are some campaigns focused in this area. We should look at making the project sustainable by focusing on health. roads and also wastewater treatment.g. 35 130 – 135 crores INRs. If she gets an opportunity to solve this problem. Fr. Sangamner. Remppis: “Referring to the ‘Frontline’ article on ‘Hunger in Maharashtra’. The sewage water management is a neglected issue as the sanitation facilities are not there. Kallenbach: “We always need charismatic people to show the way. there has been a reservation made for the women in the government and panchayat.” Response by Mr. where the soil is good and the rain is enough but our area in Marathwada. equal approximately 22 500 000 – 23 400 000 € (January. Sanitation is another issue. Even in the parliament and the state Assembly. Not money but leadership is the key for a successful implementation. Bacher and similar charismatic leaders have played a key role in all these successful programmes. It is to the order of 130-135 crores INRs35 per annum for Maharashtra. Adler: “What is the budget line for WDPs?” A by Mr. government departments and NGOs that this programme was necessary.” Q by Mr. In this case ‘politics’ comes with a negative connotation.Statement by Ms. To solve this problem is their main attention and not the politics. You must have seen women working very hard to secure water for the family. Anna Hazare. Also.
WTO36 and market economy. Thus the fair trade issues are also relevant in this case. In the process of identifying recommendations. And unless the price issue is addressed many developmental efforts would end up increasing the crop productivity but no markets to sell them. WTO gave a verdict but nothing happened. the prices cannot improve. following guiding questions were used by the working groups: Ensuring Sustainability of Watershed Development Programmes How can we established best practice indicators. The farmers get less in their hands due to heavy subsidy offered by the developed countries to their farmers. so till situation improves in cotton market internationally.The issue of suicide was highlighting only one aspect of the problem. It appears that the increase in prices of the equipment to the seeds to fertilizers has had no effect or rather such an effect that the prices for the farmers are really suicidal. one study says. which can be adopted by other watershed development programmes? How can access to energy in watershed areas be ensured in such a way that a deforestation of the rehabitated areas is avoided? What role can renewables play in this process? How can this be designed. the working groups were formed during the dialogue phase in Pune with the intention to discuss the key issues that were identified at an earlier stage and to make recommendations to all relevant actors in the field of WD.1. The cotton price in 1994 was 81 US-cents per pound and now its 57 US-cents per pound in 2005. which is cotton.” 5. it is due to globalisation. 50% of the cultivable land in this area is under only one crop. organized and financed? What framework conditions are necessary to strengthen ownership at the political level in order to ensure the sustainability of watershed development programmes? How can this successful watershed development approach be used in national and international Development programmes? Who could be the responsible actors? 36 WTO: Abbreviation for World Trade Organization 31 .4 Three Working Groups and three Key Issues – Guiding Questions As described in chapter 4. and it has become a crisis crop for the last 10 years.
create bottom up demand for watershed activities by villagers.1 Ensuring Sustainability of Watershed Development Programmes Indicators to measure successful performance such as empowerment of the gram panchayat. operations. which can fund NGOs and private sector firms to engage in social marketing. and the establishment of Mother NGOs. training. and villagers. health status). number of jobs. land values) and environmental (vegetative cover. Through the network ‘centres of excellence’ or lead NGOs can be identified for capacity building. etc. The formation of an NGO network should be supported by governments. and most importantly. identify village problems.5 Recommendations for actors in Watershed Development Programmes 5. economic (change in incomes and wages. SHGs and their resources. water withdrawals). are needed by NGOs. The goal is to initiate farmers clubs. governments. and villagers. biodiversity) are needed by NGOs. governments. social (years of school. credit. begin to set priorities. Establishment of a separate fund.5. 32 .Empowerment of villagers through Watershed Development Programmes What skills do we need today to safeguard the future of the next generations with respect to o o o o education? social insurance? social and cultural change processes? gender issues? How can watershed programmes beyond technical aspects contribute to or initiate these processes? Enhancing Good Governance through Watershed Development Programmes How can watershed programmes contribute to the promotion of good governance through o o o o participation of all villagers including landless and women? ensuring more transparency of public service delivery? dealing with land rights and land tenure issues? other issues of good governance? How can governmental programmes/schemes reach the poor? 5. Indicators to monitor and assess outcomes such as: physical (water flows. water levels. managed by a joint NGO and a government commission.
Non-farm activities for increasing the income of the people by providing them with vocational training. especially for the landless and the poorest of the poor is to be recommended. Afforestation and reforestation should be linked with watershed management. Democratic virtues should be developed in this given cultural background. 37 OECD: Abbreviation for Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development 33 . In this context it would be recommended to participate in the ‘German-Indian Renewable Energy Conference’ in December 2006. Create opportunities for India and Africa to join with OECD donors in regional markets. A dialogue with governments is necessary to create a more reliable energy mix especially for the rural sector. Creating awareness among the villagers through the WDPs. The decision-making body should be constituted in a way that all classes of the village population are included. expos) where best practices are presented. The so-called ‘Watershed Plus Programme’ was suggested which would use the watershed activities as a platform to address the entire social fabric of the village and bring about positive change. Initiate international market places (trade fairs. house heating and others. including the landless and the women. Policies should be readjusted to make sure that no one is excluded from the programme.Renewable energy can be instrumental in watershed development through a number of approaches. Combine energy efficient techniques for cooking. The programmes can link the villagers to bank credit. sanitation. conferences. To explore donor coordination and investment opportunities through the OECD37 would be one approach to promote successful watershed development at national and international levels.5.2 Empowerment of Villagers through Watershed Development Programmes Empowerment should be politically enabling in the sense that village people must be able to organize the village life democratically. displayed and promoted. Reservations must be made in these bodies in accordance with the percentage of population of each class. 5.
3 Enhancing Good Governance through Watershed Development Programmes The main key to good governance is transparency. This is a vital instrument in fighting corruption.5. At the same time the role of literacy needs to be emphasized. Specific guidelines have to be defined for the usage of these funds. Transparency also requires clear purposes and clear plans.5. So education should be considered as crucial factor. for example. Therefore operation and maintenance funds should not be used for other purposes. roles and responsibilities. The decision-makers should have a clear idea about their duties. Resulting from that all records should be accessible to the public. because transparency does not function in an illiterate environment. all relevant numbers regarding the watershed development status were displayed publicly. In the villages visited. This knowledge should enable them to take better decisions. 34 . Good Governance efforts should also include the NGO and the state level and not only the grass-root level. Every villager should have the right to know about the decisions made and the roles played by each decision-maker.
Adler. Ms. Rempiss) Linking WOTR to partners of ‘World Resource Institute Washington’ (WRI) in the USA. Wodarg. Tunstall) 35 . review possibility of further funding. by addressing the quality aspect of watershed development. This would imply the necessity for the German side to identify indicators or criteria in terms of quality standards and measurement and accompany the efforts undertaken within the scope of the ‘Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness’. linkages to other aspects of poverty reduction. (Mr. it is about education. first in regard to watershed development and later in extension to other fields of development cooperation.6 Conclusion – Summary of Follow-up Steps – 04th November 2006 On the last day all EDP participants discussed follow-up steps deriving from this EDP experiences. (Mr. (Ms. Müller) Sensitising German decision-makers in the field of development cooperation to (re-) focus on education. Adler) Linking WOTR to partners of ‘Bread of the World’ in India Africa and in Germany. (Mr. Mr. Especially in Africa where a donor coordination deficit is clearly visible. Statements of different people regarding similar issues have been summarized: Including the EDP experiences in bilateral negotiations between Germany and India. Organizing an EDP on WD issues in Tanzania is already in planning. (Ms. Höhn) Introducing a triangle cooperation involving German. Höhn) Focussing more specifically on energy (efficiency)/renewables. which is the basis for any development. “Watershed development is more than just resource management. WDP results in climate change. Kofler. Mr. Indian and African partners. Ms. (Mr.e. (Mr. BMZ and KfW and WOTR could build a partnership in order to fund and ensure the quality of WD projects.” (Mr Müller. Höhn) Encouraging donors to cooperate (maybe by taking up the model of ‘Institutional Partnerships’ developed by the ‘Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation’). GTZ. (Mr. using WOTR’s assistance on writing a WRI-report. i. Adler) Ensuring quality of WDP work when replicating approach to other countries. Quambalo) Assistance of WOTR in WD in African countries should be used.
Van de Sand) Anand Sehgal. (Ms. D’Souza) Emphasizing the importance of integrating wastewater into the concept of WD. Furthermore. Ackermann) Giving further support to the ‘WOTR Freundeskreis’ (‘Friends Circle of WOTR’). Ms.e. (Ms. (Ms. a stronger focus on WD in the media would enhance accountability of government representators. Therefore an EDP for (local) journalists should be taken into consideration. Neeraj Mishra January 2007 36 . Kallenbach) Linking the German experience and expertise in the field of decentralized renewable energies to the efforts undertaken by the Indian side and increasing the effort to create new technologies that can be used by the poor. (Mr. a German concept that is currently under development and which is supposed to bring different projects in the same field (i. The feasibility has to be evaluated for each country (WOTR-team.Giving more importance to ‘programme-based approaches’ and linking WOTR to the ‘umbrella concept’. Wodarg) Involving the local press as a multiplicator for the idea of watershed development with the intention of turning WD into an up scaled and up speeded (Maharashtra-wide) movement. Petry) Including the European Community as a donor or partner in the field of watershed development. (Mr. Extending the efforts to (sub-)urban areas. Wodarg. Kallenbach) Linking WOTR’s expertise with other dimensions of development that reach beyond the actual issue of water. (Ms. water) together. Mr.
7 Annex 7.V GG GMO GoI GoM GTZ IFAD IGWDP INR IP IWD KfW MDG MP NABARD NGO OECD PIA RGM SDC SHG SMS VWC WD WOTR WRI WTO Below Poverty-Line Community Based Organization Capacity Building Phase Civil Society Actors Drought Prone Area Programme Exposure and Dialogue Programme Exposure.1 List of Abbreviations BPL CBO CBP CSA DPAP EDP EDP e.und Dialogprogramme e.V Good Governance Genetically Modified Organism Government of India Government of Maharashtra Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit International Fund for Agricultural Development Indo-German Watershed Development Programme Indian Rupee Institutionalised Partnership Integrated Watershed Development Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau Millenium Development Goal Madhya Pradesh National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Non-Governmental Organization Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Programme Implementing Agency Rajiv Gandhi Mission Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation Self-Help Group Samyukt Mahila Samaj (Joint Women’s Committee) Village Watershed Committee Watershed Development Watershed Organization Trust World Resource Institute Washington World Trade Organization 37 .
2 Glossary Adivasi Crore Gram Panchayat Gram Sabha Lakh Nashabandi Nasbandi Naxalite Shramdaan Indigenous people of India 10 000 000 Village Council Village Gathering 100 000 Ban on Alcoholism Family Planning Communistic Terrorist Underground Movement in India Voluntary Labour 38 .7.
Mumbai Date & Time 2nd Nov 4. Maharashtra State 6. 4. Bärbel Kofler Member of Parliament Balasaheb Thorat Minister for Water. Name of the person and organisation Mr. Director of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management. 3nd Nov 10. 4.00 p.m. Name of the person and organisation Mr. 3. Marcella de Souza 3nd Nov 9.15 a. Statement EDP Experiences Statement EDP Experiences Statement 5.7.00 a. Joint Development Commissioner Rajiv Gandhi Mission. Crispino Lobo Managing Trustee Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) Dr. November 3rd 2006 Sr.05 a. .3 Programme During the Conference in Pune – November. Karmarkar Managing Directior NABARD.m. No.m. 3nd Nov 9. 1.m. No. 3.m.25 a.25 a. November 2nd 2006 Sr. K. 3nd Nov 9.m.55 a. 2nd Nov Discussion Friday.G. 2nd – 4th 2006 Thursday. 6. 3nd Nov 9. Conservation and Employment Generation Maharashtra Date & Time 3nd Nov 9. Mr. 1. Topic of presentation Welcome Introduction 2. 2nd Nov 2nd Nov 2nd Nov Overview of EDP Input EDP Experiences “Engaging Complementarities: Effective Public Sector & Civil Society Engagement for Large Scale Poverty Reduction – The Experience of IGWDP in Maharashtra” “Engaging Complementarities: Effective Public Sector and Civil Society Engagement for large scale Poverty Reduction.m. C B Deshpande. Crispino Lobo Managing Trustee Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) Bärbel Höhn Member of German Parliament Dr. 3nd Nov Discussion “Building Bottom Upwards: Integrating People’s Perspectives and Needs into Development Programmes” “Empowering and Catalyzing CBOs and Local Bodies for Poverty 39 7. Mr. Mahalle. the Experience of the ‘Mother NGO’ Concept in the DPAP in Maharashtra” 5. Bhopal Dr. Angelika Stauder Exposure and Dialogue Programme Association Marcella D’Souza Executive Director WOTR Bernward Müller Member of German Parliament Dr. Topic of presentation Welcome Introduction 2.
Reduction.1. Development and Change” “Building Institutions and Enabling Partnerships for Policy Engagement and Sustainable Poverty Reduction” Discussion 9.00 p.00 p. 3nd Nov 3. Executive Director Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) Mr. R.m. Working group II: Good Governance (Presentation 10 min.m.00 a. K. 3nd Nov 10.m. 3nd Nov 2. November 4th 2006 1.00a.35 a. 40 . Discussion 15 min) 3nd Nov 11. Break (20 min) 10. Working groups Lunch Presentation of results in the plenary Working group I: Sustainability (Presentation 10 min.m. 11.30 p. Vishwanathan Program Officer Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation 10.m.15 p. Discussion 15 min) Working group III: Empowerment (Presentation 10 min.8. 14. Discussion 15 min) 13. Breakfast at Yashada First results and subsequent Steps Short evaluation EDP 8. 3nd Nov 10.m. 12. Saturday.45 a.m. 9.m.25 a.00 p. 2.m.m. 3nd Nov 1.55 a. Summary of proceedings Closing session 3nd Nov 3.m.
Bhopal Tel no: +91 0755-2578994.de Rajiv Gandhi Mission for Wathershed Management IInd Floor. de Souza. Ratnakar Member Board of Governors & Director General YASHADA 6. Bärbel Member of German Parliament Committee on Consumer Protection. Defence Colony New Delhi 110024. 2553171 Email: email@example.com Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration (YASHADA) Rajbhavan Complex Baner Road Pune – 411 007/ India Tel: +91-20-25608000 Fax: +91-20-25659135 Email: yashada@vsnl. India Phone: (91) 241 2450188. Food and Agriculture 8.info KfW Bankengruppe Palmengartenstraße 5-9 60325 Frankfurt am Main Tel. Executive Director Marcella Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) 5.ackermann@bundestag. Deshpande.. Committee on Consumer Protection Managing Director 9.org. Vindhychal Bhavan Bhopal – 462 004 Madhya Pradesh.de Deutscher Bundestag Platz der Republik 1 11011 Berlin Tel. Adler.: +49 30-227-74519 Fax: +49 30-227-76651 eMail: baerbel.4 List of Participants Including Participants of the Dialogue Phase Name 1. Matthias KFW Development Bank Country Team SSA 3. CB Joint Development Commissioner Rajiv Gandhi Mission for Wathershed Management 4. Behind Market Yard Ahmednagar .eu. India Tel: +91 11 24 334832 Hohe Straße 58 04107 Leipzig Tel.de C408. Dr.wotr. Leipzig:+49 341/ 23083927 Fax: +49 341/ 23083928 eMail: gkallenbach@europarl. Glück. 2451460 Fax: (91) 241 2451134 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 001 Maharashtra.de www. JungerSharma. Gaikwad.email@example.com NABARD Bandra-Kurla Complex 41 2. Dr. 102) Fax: +91 -11-24101720 Email: Michael.com Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) "Paryavaran". Jens Position Member of German Parliament Petitions Committee Deutscher Bundestag Platz der Republik 1 11011 Berlin Tel: +49 (030) 227-71 493 Fax:+49 (030) 227-76 154 Jens. Karmakar.Adler@kfw.hoehn@bundestag. New Delhi 110 021 Tel: +91 11 24676223/24 (Ext. Gisela Economist Translator Member of European Parliament Committee on Regional Development. 10. Höhn. K G. Heike Kallenbach.com German Development Cooperation (GTZ) Natural Resource Management Programme D-108. Michael Programme Co-ordinatior Natural Resource Management Programme /German Development Cooperation (GTZ) 7. www.7. Ackermann.jens-ackermann.: +49 069/7431-2941 Matthias. . Anand Niketan.
Lavekar. firstname.lastname@example.org 14. Website: www. Willy Development Department. Crispino Managing Trustee Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) "Paryavaran". Petry.: +91 40-23555398 Tac: 23544007 Email: spartha@indimmune. 2451460 Fax: (91) 241 2451134 Email: info@wotr. 44.: +49 228 / 73-1971. Neeraj Center for Development Research (ZEF) Walter-Flex-Straße-3 53113. Lobo.de Diocese of Mbulu Development Department PO Box 179 Mbulu/Manyara Tansania Tel. India Phone: (91) 241 2450188. Pune Tel: +91 20-25538095 Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5 65760 Eschborn Tel. Mishra. Advisor S.:+49 06196/79-1272 Fax: +49 6190/79-1366 Hedwig. Behind Market Yard Ahmednagar . Qambalo. Helath. 73-1794 eMail: neeraj. Dr. K Commissioner Agriculture Government of Maharashtra Agriculture Government of Maharashtra Pune email@example.com 11. 00255-272533110 42 17. Tanzania .de Mother’s Diary Food Ltd.org.de neejsay@yahoo. Kofler. I.: +49 30/227-75304 baerbel. Bernward Member of German Parliament Committee on Economic Cooperation and Development Deutscher Bundestag Platz der Republik 1 11011 Berlin Tel. Bonn Junior Researcher Tel. Diocese Mbulu. Mahalle. Member of German Parliament Deutscher Bundestag Bärbel Platz der Republik 1 Committee on Economic Cooperation 11011 Berlin and Development Tel. Mother’s Diary Food Ltd. Horticulture 19. A Wing Bandra (E) Mumbai – 400 051 Tel: +91 022-26530131 Email: dpd.in 15. Müller.mueller@bundestag. P Director Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Soil Conservation and WS Management Government of Maharashtra Central Building Pune – 1 Tel: +91 020-26127892. J. Retired. Hedwig GTZ (German Technical Cooperation Association) Department Head Education.de firstname.lastname@example.org 001 Maharashtra. V D Director. c/o Indian Immonological Ltd Road No.: +49 30/227-71228 Fax: +49 30/227-70228 eMail: bernward. Social Security 20.com 16. 26125652 Email: agridsc@mah. Parthasarathy. Dr.Name Position NABARD Plot No.S.nic. Dr. C-24. Jubilee hill Hyderabad – 33 Tel.com Horticulture Behind Agriculture College Ganesh Khind Road Shivaji Nagar.wotr.A.fs@nabard. Patil.
Sehgal.de Minister for Water.: 069/7431-4187 marcus.2439532 email@example.com NABARD 54.V.gov. Dr. 76 70184 Tübingen Tel. NABARD 28.stewen@kfw.V. World Resource Institute (WRI) Brot für die Welt Stafflenbergstr. Kaiser-Friedrich-Str. Dr. European Division 30.in Water and Sanitation Management Organisation 3rd Floor.org Principal Secretary to Chief Minister Mantralaya Mumbai Tel: +91 22-22021850/22020500 Fax: +91 22-22821237 Email: ucsarangi@maharashtra. Tunstall.2439532 stauder@exposure-dialog. & Fax: 022-22024592 10 G.de KfW Bankengruppe Palmengartenstraße 5-9 60325 Frankfurt am Main Tel.remppis@brot-fuer-die-welt.: 0228-103 328 Fax: 0228. 9 53113 Bonn Tel. Martin Brot für die Welt (Bread for the World) Country Expert Asia 22. wasmo. Sama. 9 53113 Bonn Tel. Kaiser-Friedrich-Str.com Exposure. Sarangi. Stauder. Remppis. Schürholz. Angelika EDP Programme Coordination 29.org Exposure. Conservation and Employment Generation Maharashtra 31. Marcus KfW Development Bank Project Manager. Wellesly Road Shivajinagar Pune Tel: 020 25511439 Email: nabpun@dataone.: +49 711-2159-298 Fax: +49 711-21598298 m.com 21. Street NE.: +91 79-2324717071 Fax: +91 79-23247485 Email: wasmo@wasmo. Suite 800 43 . M. Conservation and Employment Generation Mantralaya Mumbai – 400 032 Tel. +49 241-9962735 Email: sehgalanand@gmx. Judith EDP Programme Assistance 26. Dr. Stewen. U C Principal Secretary to Chief Minister 23. Jalsewa Bhawan Sector 10-A Gandhinagar – 382010 Tel.in Agricultur & Horticulture Mantralaya. Saharia. 26 52064 Aachen Tel.: +49 228-103 337 Fax: +49 228. R K Project Director Water and Sanitation Management Organisation 25.in.net. nabpun@vsnl. Mumbai Tel: +91 22-22025349 Fax:+91 22-22029132 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Shreeniwassa Gerneral Manager n.und Dialogprogramme e. Anand University Aachen Research Student 27. Thorat.de Matthiashofstraße 51 App. Balasaheb Minister for Water.und Dialogprogramme e.Name Position eMail: dmddmbulu@yahoo. Jageshwar Principal Secretary Agricultur & Horticulture 24.
: 001-202-7297788 Fax: 001-202-7297775 eMail: dan@wri.: 01888/5353424 Bernd.wodarg. de 32.net KfW Bankengruppe Palmengartenstraße 5-9 60325 Frankfurt am Main Tel.bund.de BMZ Adenauerallee 139-141 53113 Bonn Tel. Vishwanathan.org Milchpützweg 2 53343 Wachtberg-Pech Tel. Wolfgang Member of German Parliament Committee on Economic Cooperation and Development 44 .viswanathan@sdc. Gabi Friends of WOTR Board of Directors 33. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation 34. Dr. D.Wirtzfeld@bmz. R.ma02@bundestag. K. Team Leader Dr. van de Sand.de Deutscher Bundestag Unter den Linden 50 10117 Berlin Tel.vonalt@kfw. Dr. Asia Division 35.: 030/22751134 Fax: 030-22776333 eMail: wolfgang.Name Daniel Position Washington Director Information Program Washington.: 069/7431-3942 Joachim. Joachim KfW Development Bank Project Manager.C. 20002 USA Tel. Wodarg. Vonalt.: 0228/3298700 Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation Chandragupta Marg Chanakyapuri New Delhi 110 021 India Tel: +91 11 26877819 Fax: +91 11 26873631 Email: kr. Bernd German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development 36. Wirtzfeld.
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