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Mechanical

Engineering

Power Plant
Engineering

Comprehensive Theory
with Solved Examples and Practice Questions

Publications
Publications

MADE EASY Publications


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Power Plant Engineering


Copyright, by MADE EASY Publications.
All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced
into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical,
photo-copying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the above
mentioned publisher of thisbook.

First Edition: 2015


Second Edition (Revised & Updated) : 2016

All rights reserved by MADE EASY PUBLICATIONS. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form without the
written permission from the publisher.
Preface
This book was motivated by the desire to further the evolution of a concise
book on Power Plant Engineering. Keeping in focus the importance of this
subject in GATE and ESE, we have done a proper study and thereafter
developed the content of the book accordingly. This edition has an
expanded discussion of all relevant topics in the subject.

Initially, we compiled the perceptions of our students on their problems


in GATE and ESE while dealing with the questions from this subject. We
identified their various problems like- lack of fundamentals of the subject,
difficulty in solving simple questions, shortage of a complete study package, etc. These
strengthened our determination to present a complete edition of Power Plant Engineering textbook.

The book addresses all the requirements of the students, i.e. comprehensive coverage of theory, fundamental
concepts, objective type problems and conventional problems, articulated in a lucid language. The concise
presentation will help the readers grasp the concepts with clarity and apply them with ease to solve problems
quickly. The book not only covers the entire syllabus of GATE and ESE, but also addresses the need of many
other competitive examinations. Topics like Steam Power Plant, Fuels and Combustion, Analysis of Steam Cycles,
Cogeneration and Combined Cycle, Steam Turbines, Gas Turbine, Jet Engines, Reciprocating Air Compressors,
Rotary Compressor, Compressible Fluid Flow & Nozzle and Nuclear Power Plants, are given full coverage in line
with our research on their importance in competitive examinations.

We have put in our sincere efforts to present elaborate solutions for various problems, different problem solving
methodology, some useful quick techniques to save time while attempting MCQs without compromising the accuracy
of answers. A summary of important points to remember is added at the end of each topic. For the convenience
of the readers, points to remember are specifically highlighted in the form of a note- both in theory as well as in
solved examples. At the end of each chapter, sets of practice question are given with their keys, that will allow the
readers to evaluate their understanding of the topics and sharpen their problem solving skills.

Our team has made their best efforts to remove all possible errors of any kind. Nonetheless, we would highly
appreciate and acknowledge if you find and share with us any printing, calculation and conceptual error.

It is impossible to thank all the individuals who helped us, but we would like to sincerely thank all the authors, editors
and reviewers for putting in their efforts to publish this book.

With Best Wishes

B. Singh
CMD, MADE EASY
Contents
Power Plant Engineering

Chapter 1 2.8 Draught (or Draft) System.........................................32


2.9 Fans...................................................................................35
Steam Power Plant................................... 1
Objective Brain Teasers...........................................36
1.1 Introduction..................................................................... 1
Students Assignments............................................38
1.2 Boiler................................................................................... 1
1.3 Classification of Boilers................................................ 2
Chapter 3
1.4 Fire Tube Boiler................................................................ 3
1.5 Water Tube Boilers......................................................... 3 Analysis of Steam Cycles........................39
1.6 Steam Drum..................................................................... 4 3.1 Introduction...................................................................39

1.7 Economisers..................................................................... 8 3.2 Carnot Cycle...................................................................39

1.8 Superheaters.................................................................... 9 3.3 Rankine Cycle................................................................41

1.9 Reheater..........................................................................10 3.4 Deviation of Actual Cycle from Theoretical

1.10 Electro-Static Precipitator (ESP)..............................10 Rankine Cycle................................................................44

1.11 Ash Handling System..................................................11 3.5 Improvement in Rankine Cycle...............................44

1.12 Feedwater Treatment..................................................11 3.6 Super Critical Pressure Cycle....................................52

1.13 High Pressure Boiler....................................................12 3.7 Various Efficiencies of Steam Power Plants.........52

1.14 Super Critical Boiler (Once through or Objective Brain Teasers...........................................59


Monotube Boiler).........................................................14 Students Assignments............................................60
1.15 Boiler Mountings..........................................................15
1.16 Boiler Accessories.........................................................15 Chapter 4
1.17 Comparison between Fire Tube and Water Cogeneration and Combined Cycle.......61
Tube..........................................................................17 4.1 Introduction...................................................................61
1.18 Fluidized Bed Boiler.....................................................17 4.2 Back Pressure Turbine.................................................61
1.19 Steam Generator Control..........................................20 4.3 Pass-out Turbine...........................................................63
Objective Brain Teasers...........................................23 4.4 Combined Cycle Power Generation......................63
Students Assignments............................................25 4.5 Characteristics of Ideal Working Fluid for Vapour
Power Cycle....................................................................64

Chapter 2 4.6 Binary Vapour Cycles...................................................64


4.7 Combined Cycle Plants..............................................65
Fuels and Combustion............................26
Objective Brain Teasers...........................................71
2.1 Introduction...................................................................26
Students Assignments..............................................71

2.2 Coal...................................................................................26
2.3 Coal Analysis..................................................................27
Chapter 5
2.4 Coal Properties..............................................................28
2.5 Actual Air-Fuel Ratio....................................................29 Steam Turbines.......................................72
2.6 Cooling Limit of Exhaust Gas...................................30 5.1 Introduction...................................................................72

2.7 Control of Excess Air....................................................31 5.2 Classification of Steam turbine...............................72

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5.3 Simple Impulse Turbines...........................................73 7.3 Equation of Work (with Clearance Volume)..... 161
5.4 Compounding of Steam Turbines..........................73 7.4 Volumetric Efficiency (hvol)..................................... 162
5.5 Impulse Reaction Turbine.........................................76 7.5 Multistage Compression......................................... 164
5.6 Comparison of Impulse and Reaction Turbine...... 76 7.6 Effect of Clearance Volume.................................... 169
5.7 Impulse Turbine Analysis...........................................77 7.7 Actual P-V Diagram for Single-Stage
5.8 Reaction Turbine Analysis.........................................89 Compressor........................................................... 175
5.9 Parsons Turbine (50% reaction turbine)...............91 Objective Brain Teasers........................................ 178
5.10 Enthalpy Drop in Various Stages.......................... 100 Students Assignments......................................... 180
5.11 Losses in Steam Turbines........................................ 103
Objective Brain Teasers........................................ 108
Chapter 8
Students Assignments......................................... 111
Rotary Compressor...............................181
8.1 Introduction................................................................ 181
Chapter 6
8.2 Centrifugal Compressor.......................................... 181
Gas Turbine...........................................112
8.3 Axial Flow Compressors.......................................... 193
6.1 Introduction................................................................ 112
8.4 Comparison between the Centrifugal and
6.2 Open Cycle Arrangements..................................... 112
Axial Flow Compressor............................................ 199
6.3 Closed Cycle Arrangement.................................... 113
8.5 Roots Blower............................................................... 207
6.4 Requirements of the Working Medium............. 115
8.6 Vane Type Blower...................................................... 208
6.5 Advantages of Gas Turbines Over Reciprocating
Objective Brain Teasers........................................ 213
Engines......................................................................... 115
Students Assignments......................................... 216
6.6 Ideal Open Gas Turbine Cycle (OGTC)................ 115
6.7 Actual Cycle Analysis............................................... 118
6.8 Optimum Pressure Ratio......................................... 122 Chapter 9
6.9 OGTC with Regeneration or Heat Exchange Compressible Fluid Flow & Nozzle......218
Cycle....................................................................... 123 9.1 Introduction................................................................ 218
6.10 OGTC with Reheating.............................................. 125 9.2 Static Properties......................................................... 218
6.11 OGTC with Reheating and Regeneration......... 126 9.3 Stagnation Properties.............................................. 218
6.12 OGTC with Intercooling.......................................... 128 9.4 Velocity of Sound (Sonic Velocity)....................... 220
6.13 OGTC with Intercooling and Regeneration..... 129 9.5 One Dimensional Steady Isentropic Flow
6.14 OGTC with Intercooling and Reheating............ 130 (Effect of Area Variation)......................................... 222
6.15 OGTC with Intercooling, Reheating and 9.6 Nozzles.......................................................................... 224
Regeneration.............................................................. 131 9.7 Flow Through Nozzles............................................. 225
6.16 Comparison of Various Cycles............................... 141 9.8 Super Saturated Flow.............................................. 229
6.17 Performance Curves................................................. 142 9.9 Types of Nozzle.......................................................... 230
6.18 Polytropic Efficiency (hp)........................................ 144 9.10 Fanno and Rayleigh Lines...................................... 233
Objective Brain Teasers........................................ 153 Objective Brain Teasers........................................ 244
Students Assignments......................................... 156 Students Assignments......................................... 247

Chapter 7 Chapter 10
Reciprocating Air Compressors...........158 Nuclear Power Plants...........................248
7.1 Introduction................................................................ 158 10.1 Introduction................................................................ 248
7.2 Work Input for Compression Process................. 159 10.2 Isotopes........................................................................ 249

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10.3 Nuclear Stability and Binding Energy................ 249 11.15 Liquid Propellant Rockets...................................... 296
10.4 Radioactive Decay and Half Life.......................... 250 Objective Brain Teasers........................................ 297
10.5 Nuclear Reactor & Essential Components........ 252 Students Assignments......................................... 300
10.6 Selection of Fuel and Moderator......................... 253
10.7 Types of Reactors...................................................... 254
Chapter 12
10.8 Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR)......................... 254
10.9 Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)................................. 256
Steam Condensers, Cooling Tower &
10.10 CANDU Reactor.......................................................... 258
Air Ejector..............................................301
Steam Condenser
10.11 Gas Cooled Reactor.................................................. 259
12.1 Introduction................................................................ 301
10.12 Breeder Reactors....................................................... 259
12.2 Vacuum......................................................................... 301
10.13 Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR)..... 260
12.3 Organs of a Steam condensing Plant................. 302
10.14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear
12.4 Classification of Condensers................................. 302
Power Plant........................................................... 263
12.5 Jet Condensers........................................................... 302
10.15 Nuclear Waste Disposal........................................... 264
Ejector Condenser
10.16 Nuclear Power Programme of India................... 264
12.6 Surface Condensers.................................................. 304
10.17 Location of Nuclear Power Plant......................... 265
12.7 Reasons for Inefficiency in Surface
Objective Brain Teasers........................................ 266
Condensers. . ....................................................307
Students Assignments......................................... 269
12.8 Comparison Between Jet and Surface
Condensers.................................................................. 307
Chapter 11 12.9 Selection of Condenser........................................... 308

Jet Engines............................................270 12.10 Sources of Air in Condensers................................ 308

11.1 Introduction................................................................ 270 12.11 Effects of Air Leakage in Condenser................... 308

11.2 Atmospheric Jet Engine or Air Breathing 12.12 Method for Obtaining Maximum Vacuum in

Engines.................................................................. 270 Condensers ................................................................. 309

11.3 Rocket Engine or non Air Breathing Engines.. 270 12.13 Vacuum Measurement............................................ 309

11.4 Reciprocating or Propeller Engines.................... 270 12.14 Vacuum Efficiency..................................................... 310

11.5 Gas Turbine Engines................................................. 271 12.15 Condenser Efficiency............................................... 310

11.6 Ramjet Engines.......................................................... 271 12.16 Determination of Mass of Cooling Water......... 310

11.7 Pulse Jet Engine......................................................... 273 12.17 Heat Transmission through Walls of Tubes of a

11.8 Turboprop Engine..................................................... 275 Surface condenser.................................................... 311

11.9 Turbojet Engine......................................................... 276 12.18 Methods of Cleaning Condenser Tubes............ 312

11.10 Parameters Affecting Performance.................... 290 12.19 Cooling Tower............................................................. 313

11.11 Advantages of Jet Propulsion over Other 12.20 Dry Cooling Towers.................................................. 316

System.................................................................... 291 Air Ejector

11.12 Comparison of Relative Performances of Various 12.22 Air Ejector Working................................................... 320

Propulsion Power...................................................... 292 12.23 Air Ejector Theory...................................................... 320

11.13 Rocket Engine............................................................. 292 12.24 Appliction of Air Ejectors........................................ 321

11.14 Solid Propellant Rockets......................................... 295


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