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You are on page 1of 179

Mathematics

Higher

Practice, Reasoning and Problem-solving Book

Confidence Fluency Problem-solving Reasoning

ALW AY S L E A R N I NG i

1119 PROGRESSION

Mathematics

Higher

Practice, Reasoning and Problem-solving Book

Confidence Fluency Problem-solving Reasoning

ALW AY S L E A R N I NG i

Published by Pearson Education Limited, 80 Strand, London A note from the publisher

WC2R 0RL. In order to ensure that this resource offers high-quality

support for the associated Pearson qualification, it has

www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk

been through a review process by the awarding body.

Copies of official specifications for all Edexcel qualifications This process confirms that; this resource fully covers the

may be found on the website: www.edexcel.com teaching and learning content of the specification or part

of a specification at which it is aimed. It also confirms

Text Pearson Education Limited 2015

that it demonstrates an appropriate balance between the

Edited by ProjectOne Publishing Solutions, Scotland

development of subject skills, knowledge and understand-

Typeset and illustrated by Tech-Set, Gateshead

ing, in addition to preparation for assessment. Endorse-

Original illustrations Pearson Education Limited 2015

ment does not cover any guidance on assessment activities

The rights of Bola Abiloye, Gemma Batty, Phil Boor, Cath- or processes (e.g. practice questions or advice on how to

erine Murphy and Claire Powis to be identified as authors of answer assessment questions), included in the resource nor

this work have been asserted by them in accordance with does it prescribe any particular approach to the teaching

the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. or delivery of a related course. While the publishers have

made every attempt to ensure that advice on the qualifica-

First published 2015

tion and its assessment is accurate, the official specification

18 17 16 15 and associated assessment guidance materials are the only

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 authoritative source of information and should always be

referred to for definitive guidance. Pearson examiners have

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data not contributed to any sections in this resource relevant

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British to examination papers for which they have responsibility.

Library Examiners will not use endorsed resources as a source of

ISBN 9781292190242 material for any assessment set by Pearson. Endorsement

of a resource does not mean that the resource is required to

Copyright notice achieve this Pearson qualification, nor does it mean that it

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be repro- is the only suitable material available to support the quali-

duced in any form or by any means (including photocopy- fication, and any resource lists produced by the awarding

ing or storing it in any medium by electronic means and body shall include this and other appropriate resources.

whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use

of this publication) without the written permission of the

copyright owner, except in accordance with the provisions

of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the

terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency,

Saffron House, 610 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS (www.

cla.co.uk). Applications for the copyright owners written

permission should be addressed to the publisher.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Glyn Payne for his work on this book.

The publisher would like to thank the following for their

kind permission to reproduce their photographs:

Cover images: Front: Created by Fusako, Photography by

NanaAkua

Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders

of material reproduced in this book. Any omissions will be

rectified in subsequent printings if notice is given to the

publishers.

Contents

1.1 Number problems and reasoning 1 6.3 Graphing rates of change 47

1.2 Place value and estimating 1 6.4 Real-life graphs 49

1.3 HCF and LCM 2 6.5 Line segments 51

1.4 Calculating with powers (indices) 3 6.6 Quadratic graphs 52

1.5 Zero, negative and fractional indices 4 6.7 Cubic and reciprocal graphs 53

1.6 Powers of 10 and standard form 5 6.8 More graphs 54

1.7 Surds 6 Problem-solving 56

Problem-solving 7 7 Area and volume 58

2 Algebra 9 7.1 Perimeter and area 58

2.1 Algebraic indices 9 7.2 Units and accuracy 59

2.2 Expanding and factorising 9 7.3 Prisms 60

2.3 Equations 10 7.4 Circles 61

2.4 Formulae 11 7.5 Sectors of circles 63

2.5 Linear sequences 12 7.6 Cylinders and spheres 64

2.6 Non-linear sequences 13 7.7 Pyramids and cones 65

2.7 More expanding and factorising 15 Problem-solving 66

Problem-solving 15 8 Transformations and constructions 68

3 Interpreting and representing data 17 8.1 3D solids 68

3.1 Statistical diagrams 1 17 8.2 Reflection and rotation 68

3.2 Time series 19 8.3 Enlargement 70

3.3 Scatter graphs 20 8.4 Translations and combinations of

3.4 Line of best fit 21 transformations 72

3.5 Averages and range 23 8.5 Bearings and scale drawings 73

3.6 Statistical diagrams 2 25 8.6 Constructions 1 74

Problem-solving 26 8.7 Constructions 2 75

8.8 Loci 77

4 Fractions, ratio and percentages 29

Problem-solving 78

4.1 Fractions 29

4.2 Ratios 30 9 Equations and inequalities 80

4.3 Ratio and proportion 31 9.1 Solving quadratic equations 1 80

4.4 Percentages 32 9.2 Solving quadratic equations 2 81

4.5 Fractions, decimals and percentages 33 9.3 Completing the square 81

Problem-solving 34 9.4 Solving simple simultaneous equations 82

9.5 More simultaneous equations 83

5 Angles and trigonometry 35

9.6 Solving linear and quadratic

5.1 Angle properties of triangles and

simultaneous equations 84

quadrilaterals 35

9.7 Solving linear inequalities 85

5.2 Interior angles of a polygon 37

Problem-solving 86

5.3 Exterior angles of a polygon 38

5.4 Pythagoras theorem 1 39 10 Probability 88

5.5 Pythagoras theorem 2 40 10.1 Combined events 88

5.6 Trigonometry 1 41 10.2 Mutually exclusive events 89

5.7 Trigonometry 2 42 10.3 Experimental probability 90

Problem-solving 44 10.4 Independent events and tree diagrams 91

10.5 Conditional probability 92

6 Graphs 45

10.6 Venn diagrams and set notation 94

6.1 Linear graphs 45

Problem-solving 95

iii

11 Multiplicative reasoning 97 17 More algebra 148

11.1 Growth and decay 97 17.1 Rearranging formulae 148

11.2 Compound measures 98 17.2 Algebraic fractions 149

11.3 More compound measures 99 17.3 Simplifying algebraic fractions 149

11.4 Ratio and proportion 100 17.4 More algebraic fractions 150

Problem-solving 101 17.5 Surds 151

17.6 Solving algebraic fraction equations 152

12 Similarity and congruence 102

17.7 Functions 152

12.1 Congruence 102

17.8 Proof 153

12.2 Geometric proof and congruence 103

Problem-solving 154

12.3 Similarity 104

12.4 More similarity 106 18 Vectors and geometric proof 155

12.5 Similarity in 3D solids 107 18.1 Vectors and vector notation 155

Problem-solving 108 18.2 Vector arithmetic 155

18.3 More vector arithmetic 156

13 More trigonometry 110

18.4 Parallel vectors and collinear points 158

13.1 Accuracy 110

18.5 Solving geometric problems 159

13.2 Graph of the sine function 110

Problem-solving 160

13.3 Graph of the cosine function 112

13.4 The tangent function 113 19 Proportion and graphs 162

13.5 Calculating areas and the sine rule 115 19.1 Direct proportion 162

13.6 The cosine rule and 2D trigonometric 19.2 More direct proportion 162

problems 116 19.3 Inverse proportion 163

13.7 Solving problems in 3D 117 19.4 Exponential functions 165

13.8 Transforming trigonometric graphs 1 118 19.5 Non-linear graphs 166

13.9 Transforming trigonometric graphs 2 119 19.6 Translating graphs of functions 168

Problem-solving 121 19.7 Reflecting and stretching graphs of

functions 169

14 Further statistics 123

Problem-solving 171

14.1 Sampling 123

14.2 Cumulative frequency 124

14.3 Box plots 125

14.4 Drawing histograms 127

14.5 Interpreting histograms 127

14.6 Comparing and describing populations 129

Problem-solving 130

15 Equations and graphs 131

15.1 Solving simultaneous equations

graphically 131

15.2 Representing inequalities graphically 132

15.3 Graphs of quadratic functions 134

15.4 Solving quadratic equations

graphically 136

15.5 Graphs of cubic functions 137

Problem-solving 139

16 Circle theorems 141

16.1 Radii and chords 141

16.2 Tangents 142

16.3 Angles in circles 1 143

16.4 Angles in circles 2 144

16.5 Applying circle theorems 146

Problem-solving 147

iv

Welcome to Edexcel GCSE (9-1) Mathematics Higher

Practice, Reasoning and Problem-solving Book

This Practice Book is packed with extra practice on all the content of the Student Book

giving you more opportunities to practise answering simple questions as well as

problem-solving and reasoning ones.

questions show

their level of

difficulty. Questions

in this book will

range from 6 to

12 .

Exam-style

questions

are included

throughout to help

you prepare for

your GCSE exam.

The letters P

and R are used

to show where a

question requires

you to problem- There is a section

solve or reason relating to every

mathematically mastery lesson in

essential skills for the Student Book.

your GCSE.

examples from the Student Book

which will help you with the

question they are alongside.

v

Problem-solving section

These are strategies that you have A QR code is given in the problem-solving section

learned so far in the Student Book. They where you learn a new strategy in that unit in the

build up as you work through the book. Student Book. Scan it to see the worked example

Consider whether they could help you to and remind yourself of the strategy.

answer some of the following questions.

where you are required to reason

mathematically. Questions in this

section do not have the P symbol as

they are all problem-solving.

vi

1 NUMBER

a Write down the different orders in which

1.1 N

umber problems they can finish first, second, third and

and reasoning fourth.

b How many different ways can the prizes be

1 A T-shirt manufacturer offers a choice of three awarded if there are

different coloured shirts red, green or blue, i 5 people and 5 prizes

and two different patterns spots or stripes. ii 10 people and 10 prizes

a Write down all possible combinations of iii 12 people and 12 prizes?

colours and patterns. 4 P A shop alarm needs a 5-character code.

b How did you order your list to make sure a How many different codes can be created

that you didnt miss any combinations? using

The manufacturer decides to offer yellow i 5 numbers

T-shirts as well. ii 5 letters

c How many possible combinations are iii 4 letters followed by 1 number?

there now? The shop owners decide not to repeat a digit

d Copy and complete. or letter.

3 colours and 2 patterns: b How many ways are possible in parts i to

combinations iii now?

4 colours and 2 patterns:

combinations

n colours and m patterns: 1.2 P

lace value and

combinations estimating

Another T-shirt company offers 4 colours,

2patterns and 3 different sizes. 1 Work out

e How many possible combinations are a 56 12 b

28 24

there now? c 14 48 d

7 96

2 Exam-style question 2 5.4 7.39 = 39.906

A bank asks for a 3-character PIN code. Use this fact to work out the calculations

The first character is a letter. below.

The other two characters are digits between Check your answers using an approximate

0 and 9 inclusive. calculation.

a How many choices are possible for each a 54 7.39

character of the code? b 5.4 0.00739

b What is the total number of 3-character c 0.0054 0.739

PIN codes possible? d 39.906 7.39

Amy chooses a PIN code beginning with e 3990.6 73.9

the letter A.

f 399.06 739

c How many different PIN codes are

possible for Amy? (5 marks) 3 R 18.4 9.07 = 166.888

a Write down three more calculations that

Q2 hint Inclusive means that the end have the same answer.

numbers are also included. b Write down a division that has an answer

of 18.4.

3 Four people, Anne, Brian, Colin and Danni c Write down a division that has an answer

enter a competition. Between the four of of 0.907.

them, they win first, second, third and fourth d Prue says that 18.4 907 = 16888.08.

prizes. Explain why Prue must be wrong.

__ ___

4 a Write down the value of___ and

9 ___ ___

.

16 13 PTiles measure 15cm by 20cm.

b Estimate

___ the value of 10, 11, 12and

Each tile costs 1.09.

13. a Estimate the cost of tiles required for

Round each estimate to 1 decimal place. these rectangular spaces.

c Use a calculator to check your answers to i 90cm by 120cm

part b. ii 2m by 4m

iii 3.1m by 2.6m

Q4b hint Use a number line to help. b Use a calculator to work out each answer.

9 10 16 14 A spreadsheet is used to record the numbers

of books on 10 shelves in the library.

The numbers are in cells A1 to J1.

The mean number is in cell K1.

5 Estimate the value to___

the nearest tenth.___

__ A B C D E F G H I J K

a ___

6 b ___

30 c ___

29 1 13 18 22 11 16 19 23 24 32 15 23.2

d 40 e 59 f 70

a Use estimates to show that the mean

6 P A logo contains 300 square pixels. shown in cell K1 is wrong.

The logo has a total area of 600mm2. b Work out the correct mean to the nearest

a Estimate the side length of a pixel. tenth.

b Use a calculator to check your answer.

7 a Write down the value of 92 and 102.

b Estimate the value of 9.22 and 9.72. Round 1.3 HCF and LCM

each estimate to the nearest whole number.

c Use a calculator to check your answers to 1 a Copy and complete this factor tree for 54.

part b. 54

8 Estimate to the nearest whole number.

a 4.12 b 5.22 c 2.62

d 9.6 e

2 3.4 f

2 10.32 27

to these.

i 12.5 48.416.27

9

ii 2.91 (12.4 2.87)2

2

31.4______

iii _____________

18.5+1.986

___________

15.432.91

b Write 54 as a product of its prime factors.

iv _____________

(3.42.091)2 54 = =

b Use your calculator to work out each

answer. Q1b hint Circle the prime factors in your

Give your answers correct to 1 decimal factor tree.

place.

2 Write 24 as a product of its prime factors.

10 The sum of these two values is 9.

____

14+121 3 Gail and Hermione are asked to find 90 as a

_________ 82

___ ______ __ product of its prime factors.

25

9

Gail begins by writing 90 = 9 10

Work out the missing number. Hermione begins by writing 90 = 3 30

11 PA cubic block has a side length of 12.3cm. a Work out a final answer for Gail.

Estimate the surface area of the block. b Work out a final answer for Hermione.

12 PThe area of a square is 120cm2. c Start the prime decomposition of 50 in

Estimatethe perimeter of the square. two different ways: 2 25 and 5 10.

4 Write each number as a product of its prime 15 a Daryl says the prime factors of 4 appear in

factors in index form. the prime factor decomposition of 3000,

a 35 b 20 c 33 so 3000 is divisible by 4.

d 48 e 56 f 100 Is 3000 divisible by 12, 75 or 21?

b Use prime factors to show that 945 is

5 180 can be written as a product of its prime divisible by 27.

factors in the form 2m n2 p.

c Is 945 divisible by 25?

Work out m, n and p. Explain your answer.

6 Find the HCF and LCM of Example d Is 945 divisible by 35?

a 12 and 20 b 15 and 40 Explain your answer.

c 18 and 24 d

7 and 12 16 In prime factor form, 360 = 23 32 5 and

e 30 and 42 f

9 and 60 2700 = 22 33 52

a What is the HCF of 360 and 2700?

7 P Two lighthouses flash their lights at Give your answer in prime factor form.

different intervals. One flashes every b What is the LCM of 360 and 2700?

6seconds, the other every 9 seconds. Give your answer in prime factor form.

They have both just flashed together. c Which of these are factors of 180 and

Howlong before they next flash together? 2700?

i 2 2 3 ii 25

8 PMiranda needs 144 paper cups for a party.

iii 9 iv 22 3 5

The cups come in packs of 15, 20 or 24.

d Which of these are multiples of 180 and

Which single-size packs should she buy to

2700?

ensure she has exactly the right number?

i 23 34 52

9 PThe HCF of two numbers is 3. ii 2 32 52

Write down three possible pairs of numbers. iii 23 32 53

10 PThe LCM of two numbers is 15.

One of the numbers is 15. 1.4 C

alculating with

a Write down all the possibilities for the powers (indices)

other number.

b Describe the set of numbers you have 1 Work__ out ___

created.

a 8 b 8

3 3

____ _____

c 125 d

216

3 3

11 54 = 2 33 and 36 = 22 32

Write down, as a product of its prime factors,

2 Work out these.

a the HCF of 54 and 36

Use _______

a calculator to check your answers.

___________

b the LCM of 54 and 36.

252+27

3

a 52+122

b

__ ___ ____ ___

c 83+25 d 27

3 3

12 Exam-style question __25+42

______________

___

84

3

_____

Given that A = 23 52 7 and e 27+

8+118 f ________

B = 2 53 72 ____ ___

(2)2

____

100 _____16 2752

3

write down, as a product of its prime factors, g _____

3 ___ h

3 ___ _________

3 _____

a the HCF of A and B 1 8 125

b the LCM of A and B. (2 marks)

Q2e hint The square root applies to the

whole calculation. Work out the calculation

13 Write 96 as a product of its prime factors. inside the square root first.

14 PThe prime factor decomposition of 3000 is

23 3 53 3 Work out

Write down the prime factor decomposition a [(18 22) 2]3

of b 54 [21 3 + (15 9___ 2)]

a 8 b 25 c 24 d 75 c [73 (3 42) + 5] 16

4 Work____out ____ b Keiko divides two powers of 7.

a __________ ________

4 4

256 b 625 7 7 = 75

c 100000000 0.00001

4 5

d What could the two powers be when

i both numbers are greater than 720

5 a Work out

ii one power is double the other power?

i 53 54 ii 57

iii 5 5

6 3 iv 59 13 Work out these.

b How can you work out the answers to Write each answer as a single power.

parta by using the indices of the powers a 35 38 32 b 94 92 97

you are multiplying? 237

3 7274

c ______

4 d

_______

3

c Check your rule works for 3 7

i 53 57 ii 56 5 14 The number of pixels on a computer screen is

iii 5 5

3 1

219. A company logo uses 212 pixels.

6 Write each product as a single power. a How many logos can be displayed on the

screen?

a 62 68 b 43 45 c 97 93

b Another company logo needs 215 pixels to

7 Find the value of n. display all its data.

a 3n 34 = 36 What fraction of the screen is blank?

b 94 9n = 92 15 Copy and complete.

c 72 7n = 27 a (53)6 = 53

8 Write these calculations as a single power. = 5

Give your answers in index form. b (22)4 = = 2

a 8 24 = 2 24 = 2 c (94)7 =

b 125 53 = 9

c 27 81

16 Write as a single power

d 2 32

a (52)4 b (93)4 c (41)5 d

(72)3

e 9 9 9

f 10 1000 100000 17 P Write each calculation as a single power.

3333333 48

___ 842

_____

9 R a i Work out ___________________

a 9 27 27 b c 3

333 16 2

by cancelling.

Write your answer as a power of 3.

ii Copy and complete. 37 33 = 3 1.5 Zero, negative and

b Copy and complete.

555555 fractional indices

56 52 = ________________

= 5

55

c Work out 89 83 1 Work out the value of n.

a 18 = 2 3n b 2n 2n = 210

10 Work out _

c 7 7 = 7 d

2n n 4 13 3n = 35

a 47 43 b

53 52 c

71 74

2 a Use a calculator to work out

11 Find the value of t.

i 31 ii 21 iii 1001 iv 41

a 75 72 = 7t

b Write your answers to part a as fractions.

b 59 5t = 53

c Use a calculator to work out

c 4t 44 = 48

i 32 ii 52 iii 1002 iv 62

12 Pa Ying multiplies three powers of 8 d Write your answers to part c as fractions.

together. e Work out

) ii ( __

i ( __ )

1

8 8 8 = 815 1 1 2

What could the three powers be when 4 3

i all three powers are different

ii all three powers are the same?

3 a Match the equivalent cards. 9 Work out _12

( 49)

_1

_

1

16

___

1 5 1 a 36 2 b

9 2 c

4 65 43

43 10 Work out

Example

a 1253

_2

2

1 1

b 1000005

_2

25 5 56 3

65 _

(___

)

16 2

c 92 d

_3

25

4 1 1 e 162 f

_3

10003

_2

29 5 92 56

11 Work out _1 1

_

( 25) ( 8)

b Write a matching card for the two cards _

1

_

2

16 2 __

___ 1 3

a 25 8 b

2

3

that are left over. _41 _5

c (

10000 )

( )

______ 1 1 2

____

c Copy and complete. 100

(__

) = __

1

(b)

3 a 1 12 Find the value of n.

so __

= __ _____

5 a 100 = 10n

n

b ___ 1000 =10

4 Work out these.

=(___ )

n

1 3 27 64

Write each answer as a single power. c __

= 2n d ___

8__ 64

___

27

7677 3532 3

a 45 44 42 b _______ _______

c

4

e 2 = 2

5 n

f ( 25 ) = 5n

3 4

7

3 3

13 P / R Dan says that 83 252= 10

_1 _1

5 P a Copy and complete. 53 53 = 5

b Write down 53 as a whole number. a Show that Dan is wrong.

c 53 53 = 125 = b What mistake did he make?

d Copy and complete using parts a and c.

14 P / R Match the expressions with indices to

53 53 = 5 =

their values.

e Repeat parts a to d for 25 25.

1 1

f Write down a rule for a0, where a is any 8

3 1

2

number. 1 000 000

27 16

6 Work out

1

a 51 b 32 c 105 25 2 3

4

d ( __

) e

(__

) f

2 1

(

2_12)

1 4 1

36 2

2 5

g ( ) h ( ) i

4 2

__ 1 3

___ (0.3)1

3

3

5 10 1 2 1 5

8

j (0.25)3 k (21)0 l (8 4)1 10 000 32

7 a Use a calculator to work out 1

_

iv ( __

)

1 2

i 42 ii 1002 iii 1442 2

_1 _1 _1

4 9 8

3 5

b Copy and complete. 4 27 6

a2is the same as the _________

_1

____________ of a.

c Work out 31

_

iii ( ) iv 83

1

___

1.6 Powers of 10 and

_1 _

1 _1

i 83 ii 643

27

d Copy and complete.

a3is the same as the _________

_1 standard form

____________ of a.

e Copy and complete. 1 Write these prefixes in size order, starting

_1

i 81 = 3 so 81 4 = with the smallest.

_1

ii 1024 = 5 so 1024 5 = pico, milli, nano, tera, kilo, deci, micro, giga,

centi, mega

8 Evaluate 21

_ 21

_

( ) d ( )

_

1

_

1

4

__ 25

___ 2 Convert

a 1002 b

83 c

9 _1 49 a 3Tg into grams b

8m into metres

31

_ 2 31

_

( ) g ( ) h (

1000 )

_

1

1

___ 4

__ 1

_____

e 273 f

c 3.5Gg into kg d 9000ps into seconds.

27 9

3 Write these measurements in grams. 10 P A space shuttle travels at 2.8 104km per

a 1 grain of rice weighs about 2mg. hour. The Earth is 3.844 105km from the

b An elephant weighs about 5.5Mg. Moon. How long would it take to travel the

c A bacterium weighs about 1.2pg. distance between the Earth and the Moon?

Give your answer in hours and minutes.

4 a Copy and complete. 39000000 = 3.9

11 P The mass of a carbon atom is

b 10000000 = 10

1.994 1023g.

c 39000000 = 3.9 10

How many atoms of carbon are there in a

5 Which of these numbers are in standard form? sample weighing 20g?

A 5.4 103 B 91 102 Give your answer in standard form to 2 d.p.

C 0.7 104 D 9.2 1013 12 a Write these numbers as ordinary numbers.

E 5.2nm F 8.6 10 i 5 103 ii 7 105

6 Write these numbers in standard form. b Work out (5 10 ) + (7 105), giving your

3

c 209000 d 0.000754 13 Work out these.

e 0.9015 f 0.0007 Give your answers in standard form.

a 4.8 103 + 2.1 102

Q6a hint Write the number between 1 and b 4.2 104 3.5 103

10 first. Multiply by a power of 10 to give c 9.5 102 + 6.8 101

540000.

d 1.2 103 9 102

7 Write these as ordinary numbers. 14 Exam-style question

a 5 102 b 7.1 105 (7 10x) + (8 10y) + (9 10z) = 9.00708

c 8.04 10 d

7 9.25 103 Write down a possible set of values

e 8.04 105 f 3.001 102 for x, y and z. (3 marks)

8 R a The average distance from the Sun to

Pluto is 5906000000000m. Exam hint

i Write this number in standard form. Dont just write down the possible values

ii Enter the ordinary number in your give your working to show how you

calculator and press the = key. worked out the values.

Compare your calculator number with

the standard form number.

Explain how your calculator displays a

number in standard form. 1.7 Surds

b The diameter of a hair follicle is 0.00069m.

i Write this number in standard form. 1 Write to 2 decimal___places.

__ ___ ___

ii Enter the ordinary number in your a 6

b 11 c

28 d

37

calculator and press the = key.

Compare your calculator number with 2 a Work__out __ ___

the standard form number. i 2 5 ii 10

9 Work out these. b Work__out __ ___

Use a calculator to check your answers. i 3 7 ii 21

a (2 104) (3 108) c What do you notice about your answers to

Example

b (5 102) (7 103) parts a and b?

c (9 103) (4 105) d Fill in the missing __

numbers.

__ __

i 2 __

3=

d (8 103) (2 102) __ ___

e (12 105) (3 102) ii __

2 = 12

__ ___

f (3 102) (3 104) iii 7= 14

g (2 105)2 h (3 102)4

3 Find the value of the integer k to simplify 13 Rationalise the denominators. Example

these surds. Simplify your answers

___ __ __ __ __

a 72= 2=

k2 if possible.

____ __ __ __ 1__ 1 1

b 125= __ 5=

___

k5 a ___

b ___

__ c ____

___

2

8

12

c 48= k 3

1 3 4

d ____ ____ ____

___ __

d 63= k7 ___ e ___ f ___

30

18

13

4 Simplify these surds.___ 12 5

___ ___ g ____

___ h ___

__

a ____

18

b ___

75

___

c 98

16

5

3__

d 200 e 45

20

f 14 R / P Henry types ___ into his calculator.

__ 3

Q4 hint Find a factor that is also a square Hisdisplay shows 3.

__

number. 3

a Show that ___ __ =3

____

3

5 Use a calculator to work out 128 b Use your calculator to check your answers

a as a simplified surd from Q12.

b as a decimal.

__

15 The area of a rectangle

__ is 33cm2. The length

. What could the

6 a A surd simplifies to 43 cm.

of one side is 3

original surd be? Work out the length of the other side. Give

b How did you find the surd? your answer as a surd in its simplest form.

7 Simplify

__ __ ___

16 Work out the area of these shapes. Give your

5 ___ 5 17 answer as a surd in its simplest form.

a = __= b

__ ___

2 5 3

4

4

25 a b c

___ ___ ___

8 2 2

10 ___ 10 6

c ___

=____ ___

= d 1

64 64 16 6

5

2 3

8 Copy and complete the table using the 12

numbers below.

Rational Irrational 1 Problem-solving

___

5 _____ Solve problems using this Example

15

0.3120.01

__

strategy where appropriate:

___ 9

__

2

___

0.7100

____

9

3 Use pictures or lists.

25

9 Solve the equation x2 + 20 = 70, giving your 1 R Kevin cuts a 90cm length

answer as a surd in its simplest form. of wood into thirds by

estimating the places to cut.

10 Solve these equations, giving your answer as One piece is exactly a third of the total length.

a surd in its simplest form. The difference in length between the other

a 3x2 = 54 b _

13x2 = 225 two pieces is 5cm. How long is each piece?

c x2 5 = 75 d 2x2 + 2 = 42

Q1 hint Draw a picture of the three lengths.

11 The area of a square is 75cm2.

Find the length of one side of the square. 2 R 126314 tickets have been sold to a

Give your answer as a surd in its simplest concert in the park. On average, each ticket

form. holder throws away 942g of rubbish. The

rubbish will be taken away in trucks that

12 a Work out__ __ __ ___ must not carry more than 575kg each.

i 3__5 2__

3 ii 2__

7 3___

10 a Estimate the number of trucks that will be

iii 28 54 iv 62 711 needed.

b Use a calculator to check your answers to b Is this an under-estimate or an over-

parts i to iv. estimate? How can you tell?

3 R Here are some clues to fill in these boxes. 7 R Fill in the boxes to make all five

=6 expressions equivalent.

Both numbers have two digits.

They round to the same number when 3 3

rounded to 1 significant figure. 23 2 3

22

rounded to the nearest 100.

a Write a pair of numbers that fit the clues.

25 3 34

b Write the pair of numbers that fit which

have the lowest sum.

4 R At a charity quiz night, each team can

have 3, 4 or 5 people. 21 people take part. 3 3 18

a How many different possible

arrangements of teams are there?

Each team pays 8. The total raised is 40. 8 R On average, a grain of very coarse

b How many people could there be in each sand weighs 11mg and has a volume of

team? 0.00419cm3.

c What is the maximum amount of money a 1 litre = 1000cm3. How many cubic

that could be raised from this number of centimetres are in a 12 litre bucket?

people? _______________

b How many grains of very coarse sand will

2(39.8)2+7(2.14)3 fill a 12 litre bucket? Give your answer in

5 Rachel estimates that

_______________ standard form to 3 significant figures.

1.982

is about 8. The bucket will break if its contents weigh

a Without using a calculator, check if she is more than 15kg.

correct. c Can the bucket be lifted when it is half full

b Now use a calculator to arrive at the without breaking it? How can you tell?

correct answer.

c Comment on both your estimate and 9 Exam-style question

Rachels. One sheet of paper is 9 103cm thick.

6 The large gear has 24 teeth, the medium Mark wants to put 500 sheets of paper into

gears both have 20 teeth and the smallest the paper tray of his printer.

gear has 16 teeth. The paper tray is 4cm deep.

Is the paper tray deep enough for 500 sheets

16 of paper?

teeth You must explain your answer. (3 marks)

June 2013, Q15, 1MA0/1H

20 teeth 20 teeth

10 R This square has been split into four

sections. Section D has an area of 16.

24 teeth 3 2

2 2 A D

turns the small gear will have to make for

all the labels to be upright again? B C

b Every second, the small gear makes the

number of turns worked out in part a.

How many turns will the large gear make

a What is the area of the square?

i every second ii every minute?

b What is the ratio of area A:area C?

2 ALGEBRA

b x5 x6 = x = x

2.1 Algebraic indices xxxxx

x5 x6 = _________________

=__

xxxxxx

1 Simplify Therefore x = __

a y4 y2 b x3 x5 c b2 b c x2 x5 = x = x

d y3 y3 y3 e m

_1

2m 6 xx

x2 x5 = ______________ =__

xxxxx

2 Simplify

Therefore x = __

a 3b2 5b5 b 2a 3a2

c 5m3 10m4 d t6 2t2 10 Simplify

e 4s t 2st f

3 2 4 3a3b2 2ab3 4ab a a2 b m4 c

c1 d

r0

3 Simplify 11 Exam-style question

a10

a x3 x2 b a5 a3 c ___ a Simplify 12x3y2 3x2y4 (3 marks)

a4

y

3 p

7 b ab a3 = a

r6

d ___

y e __5 f ______ Work out b. (1 mark)

r pp3

4 Simplify

12 Simplify

12g4 9p3

a ____

b ____

a (y3)2 b (a4)3 c (m1)1 d (w4)0

2g

3 3p

13 Simplify

c 18x 6x d

4 2 16t10 8t5

a (a3b5)2 b (x3y3)3

5 Simplify

c (3mn2)1 d (____ 3)

2

5b6

a (x5)2 b

(y3)3 c

(t4)5 d

(r3)7

2a

6 Simplify 14 Simplify

(__

)

r3

3 ___ ___ ___ ______

a (3t2)3 b

(4m3)2 c a y10 b 4x4 c 9a6 d 16x8y2

2

7 The term in each brick in the wall is found 15 R Copy and complete

1 _ _ 1 _ _ 1 1

__ __ __ 4 __

aaaa=

4 4 4

bricks underneath.

_1

Copy and complete the wall. Therefore a4=

1 _ _ 1 _ _ 1 _ 1 1

b a5a5a5a5a5 = a =

24x8y __ __ __ __ 5 __

aaaaa=

5 5 5 5

_ 1

2x3y Therefore a5=

2x2 16 Simplify

_1

2x a (2x2q3)2 b ( 16b8)2

_1 _1

c ( 27x3y9)3 d

(16x12y16)4

Q7 hint To find the term in the yellow brick

you must work out 24x8y 2x3y

2.2 E

xpanding and

8 Simplify factorising

( 2xy5)

3 6 2

4x y

a (3x2y3)2 b (2x3y5)3 c (5x2y)4 d _____

x13

9 R Copy and complete 1 R a Write down

a x4 x4 = x = x an expression

x4 containing brackets

x4 x4 = ___

4= 7

x for the area of

Therefore x = the rectangle.

b Copy and complete this diagram to show 10 Factorise completely

the areas of the two small rectangles. a 12(a + 3)2 + 4(a + 3)

3 x b 6(m 1)2 12(m 1)

c 2(y + 7)2 4(y + 7)

d (x + 2y)2 3(x + 2y)

Area Area 5 7 e 7(a 2) + 14a(a 2)

5

f 3(x y)2 9(x y)

Example

c What do you notice about your answers to 11 R Show algebraically that the

parts a and b? product of five consecutive

numbers must be a multiple

2 R State whether each relation is an equation of 120.

or an identity.

Rewrite the identities using ;. 12 Exam-style question

a x + 1 = 1 + x b xy = yx

a Expand 2a(10b 3a) (1 mark)

2x

c 4x + 1 = 5x d ___

=0.5x b Factorise completely

4

12x2y + 18xy 2 (1 mark)

3 R By drawing rectangles show that ______

c Simplify 16x4y2 (2 marks)

a 2x(x + 1) = 2x2 + 2x

b a(2b + c) = 2ab + ac

c 2x(5 + 3x) = 10x + 6x2

4 a Expand

2.3 Equations

i2a(b + 3) ii3b(10 + 3a)

1 a Copy and complete to begin to solve the

b Use your answers to part a to expand and

equation.

simplify

4x 3 = 2x + 7

2a(b + 3) + 3b(10 + 3a)

4x 3 = 2x + 7

5 Expand and simplify x 3 =

a 3(x + 1) + 4x b 5y + 3(y + 2) b Solve the equation.

c 9(2x + 1) + 5x d 2(x + 5) + 4(x + 7)

e 4b + 3(b + 5) + 2b f 4(5x + 2) + 5(2 + 5x) 2 Solve

a 4x + 2 = 5x b 9x 5 = 7x + 1

6 Expand and simplify c x 4 = 2x 9 d 10x + 3 = 12x 5

a 2(x 4) b 3(x 5) + 8x

3 a Expand

c x(2x 4) d 2x(x + 1) x(x + 3)

i4(x 2) ii2(3x 2)

e 5x + 2x(10 x) f

5x(2 + 5x) 2(5x + 1)

b Use your answers to part a to solve

7 Find the HCF of 4(x 2) = 2(3x 2)

a 2a and 4ab b 7ab and 8b 4 a Expand and simplify 7(x 2) 3(x 3)

c 6ab and 3a d 15a2b2 and 5a b Use your answer to part a to solve

8 Factorise completely 7(x 2) 3(x 3) = 11

a 4x + 6 b 2xy + 8y 5 Solve these equations.

c 7xy + 2x d 3ab + 6ac a 3(2x 1) + 5(x + 2) = 40

e xyz + 2xy f a2 + 3a3 b 3(x + 1) (2x 5) = 12

g 10ab2 + 5ac h 4x2y2 + 6xz2

6 Solve

i 12n k 8n k j

3 2 2 15tm2 12mq3

a 3(2x + 1) + 2(x 7) = 20

9 a What is the HCF of 2(a + 3b)3 and 12(a + 3b)? b 9(2x 4) = 3(4x + 1)

b Copy and complete c 2(3x 4) = 5(10 2x)

2(a + 3b)2 12(a + 3b) d 10x 3(x + 7) = 12

= (a + 3b)[(a + 3b) ] e 9(2x 1) 2(3x + 4) = 15

= (a + 3b)(a + 3b ) f 6(10 2x) = 5(2 3x)

7 Simplify these expressions by cancelling. 13 R A scientist mixes the same mass of two

12x 7y 3a 10m fluids with different densities.

a ___

__

b

c __

d ___

6 21 12 2 The resulting mixture has a density of 9g/cm3.

8 a Copy and complete to begin to solve the He uses 40cm3 of the first fluid and 5cm3 of

equation. the second fluid.

3x5

____ a Assume the mass of each fluid is xkg.

=8

2 Write down an expression for the density

3x5 of each fluid.

____ = 8

2 b Write down an expression for the density

3x 5 = of the mixture.

b Solve the equation. c Form and solve an equation to find the

9 a Copy and complete to begin to solve the value of x.

equation.

mass

___5 Q13a hint Density = _____

=2 volume

x+1

5

___ ( ) = 2 ( )

x+1

5 = x + 2.4 Formulae

b Solve the equation.

10 a By multiplying both sides of the equation 1 Write whether each of these is an expression,

3x+1 ___

____ x1 an equation, an identity or a formula.

= by 4, and cancelling,

2 4 a y = 2x + 5 b 2x 3 = 4x + 1

show that 2(3x + 1) = x 1. c 2x + 2y = 2(x + y) d 3xyz

Then solve the equation. e A = pr2 f s = u + at

b By multiplying both sides of the g m h

3 3(x + 1) 4 = 3x 1

x x 5 d

equation _ _=_by 6, and cancelling, i V = pr h

2 j s = _

2 3 6 t

show that 3x 2x = 5. 2x3

____

k (ab ) = a b l

3 2 2 6 =7x

Then solve the equation. 5

11 Solve these equations. 2 Use the formula y = x2 x3 to work out the

x+2 ______ 3x2 a a value of y when

a _____

= b ____=5 a x = 3 b x = 2

3 2 3 6

y+3 y+1 1 3

c _____ +_____

=__

d ______

=5 3 Use the formula c = (a + 1)3 b to work out

2 3 6 2x1 the value of c when

x+1 _____ x1 ___ x

e _____

+ + =2 a a = 1 and b = 75 b a = 4 and b = 50

3 5 15

12 P Find the size of the smallest angle in the 4 R The cost of posting a package is a fixed

kite. cost of 5 plus 2 per kg over 10kg.

a Work out the total cost for a 14kg

2x 1 9 package.

b Write a formula for the total cost (C) for a

package of weight pkg.

3x 2 10 3x 2 10 5 P a Write a formula, in terms of a and b, for

the perimeter, P, of the rectangle.

b

i P when a = 4 and b = 7

ii a when P = 30 and h = 7

6 A credit card company charges e% monthly 12 R The formula for converting between

interest on all debts. temperatures in Fahrenheit (F) and

After n months the debt (D) for an initial Celsius(C) is

loan of R is given by the formula 9C

F=___ +32

5

D=R(_____

100 )

n

100+e

It is recommended that paint is stored

between 59F and 80F.

Mr Bloomer borrows 500 at a monthly

Convert this range of temperatures to

interest rate of 12%.

degrees Celsius.

How much will he owe after 6 months?

Give your answer to the nearest penny.

calculated using the formula

v2 = u2 + 2as 1 Work out the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 10th and 100th

where v = final velocity, u = initial velocity, terms of the sequence with nth term

a = acceleration and s = distance. a un = 2n 5 b un = 24 3n c un = 5

A ball is released from the top of the Empire 2 For each arithmetic sequence, work out

State Building, at a height of 380m. the common difference and hence find the

It accelerates at 9.8m/s2. 3rdterm.

1

Work out the final velocity of the ball when it a 0.21, 0.23, b _, 1,

3

hits the ground if c 12, 1, d 0.101, 0.202, ...

a the ball is dropped (assume that the initial

velocity is 0m/s) 3 R Write down the common Example

b the ball is thrown vertically down with an difference for each sequence.

initial velocity of 15m/s. a nth term 4n 5

b un = 2n 3

8 Change the subject of each Example c nth term 10 0.5n

formula to the letter given

d un = 0.5 0.2n

in the brackets.

a y = mx + c [x] 4 Write down, in terms of n, expressions for the

b E = mc2 [m] nth term of these arithmetic sequences.

2b

__ a 2, 5, 8, 11, b 19, 25, 31, 37,

c a=c [a] d C = 2pr [r]

c 18, 15, 12, 9, d 12, 24, 36,

e A = _12bh [b] f v2 = u2 + 2as [s] e 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5,

8M 5 R Which of the values in the cloud are terms

9 The formula K = __ can be used to convert

5 in the sequence un = 3n + 2?

between miles (M) and kilometres (K).

a Convert 38 miles into kilometres. 12 2

35

b Make M the subject of the formula. 4 102

c Convert 108km into miles.

17 202

10 The formula for the surface area of a sphere

is A = 4pr2 6 Exam-style question

a Make r the subject of the formula.

The first three terms of an arithmetic

b Work out the radius of a circle with surface

sequenceare

area 100cm2. Give your answer to 1 d.p.

_2

3, 1_3, 2

1

11 Exam-style question

a Write an expression in terms of n for the

a Make t the subject of the formula nth term. (2 marks)

2s = 4(3rt + 2) (2 marks)

b Is 15 a term in the sequence?

b Find t when r = 2 and s = 52. (3 marks) Explain your answer. (2 marks)

7 R The nth term of the sequence 13 R When 5 is input into this function machine,

2, 15, 28, 41, ... is 13n 11. the output is 23.

a Solve 13n 11 = 200 When 1 is input into the function machine,

b Use your answer to part a to find how the output is 7.

many terms in the sequence are smaller

than 200. 3p 1q

8 R a Find the first term in the arithmetic a Work out the difference between the two

sequence 24, 31, 38, 45, which is greater inputs.

than 300. b Work out the difference between the two

b Find the first term in the arithmetic outputs.

sequence 400, 330, 260, which is less c Use your answers to parts a and b to find

than zero. the value of p in the function machine.

9 A baby girl gains 0.5lb in weight per week. d Work out the value of q.

a If the baby weighs 8.2lb at age 2 weeks, 14 R Find the values of p and q in this function

how much does she weigh when she is age machine when the inputs 1 and 12 produce

i 3 weeks outputs of 10 and 42 respectively.

ii 4 weeks

iii 5 weeks? 3p 1q

b How long will it be before she weighs more

than 2 stone?

1 Find the next three terms in each of these

10 Jen opens a new email account.

Fibonacci-like sequences.

In the first week she receives 12 junk emails.

a 1, 7, , , ,

Each week after that she receives 5 more junk

b 1, 1, , , ,

emails than the previous week.

c 2 , 4, , , ,

How long before she receives over 200 junk

emails a week? 2 Write down the first four terms of each

sequence.

11 R The nth term of an arithmetic sequence is n

un=3n 2 a un = __ 2 b un = 1n c un = 0.1n

n

a Write down the values of the first four

3 Write down the first five terms of these

terms, u1, u2, u3, u4.

geometric sequences.

b Write down the value of the common __

a first term = 22;

difference, d. __

term-to-term__rule is multiply by 2

c By substituting n = 0, work out the value

b first term = 3;

of the zero term, u0. 1

term-to-term rule is multiply by ___

__

12 a Find the outputs when the terms in each 3

of these arithmetic sequences are used as 4 P A paperboy is offered a payment of 1p for

inputs to the function machine. the first day, 2p for the second, 4p for the

third and so on.

42 15 How long before he is paid over 100 for the

paper round?

i 1, 5, 9, 13, 17,

ii 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 5 The surface area of bacteria in a Petri dish

b Compare the common difference for increases by 10% each day.

each input sequence with the common a If the area of bacteria is 2cm2 on day 1,

difference for the output sequence. what will the area be

How are these related to the operations i on day 2 ii on day 3?

used in the function machine? b How long before the area is over 10cm2?

6 A job has a starting salary of 22000. 12 R The triangular numbers can be found by

The company offers two different pay options. adding increasing integers.

Option 1: An increase of 5% of the current Term 1 Triangular number 1

salary each year. 2 1+2=3

Option 2: An increase of 1500 per year. 3 3+3=6

Which option would you choose? Explain why. 4 6 + 4 = 10

7 R a Write down the first six terms of the 5 10 + 5 = 15

sequence un = n2. a Copy and complete the table for the

b Work out a formula for the nth term of triangular numbers.

each sequence. Term 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

i 3, 6, 11, 18, 27,

ii 1, 2, 7, 14, 23, 34, ... Triangular

1 3

iii 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 72, ... number

b Work out a formula for the nth triangular

8 Copy and complete this diagram to work number.

outthe next term in the sequence

3, 12, 25, 42, 13 The sequence 4, 13, 26, 43, 64 has nth

sequence 3 12 25 42 term in the form un = an2 + bn + c

a Find the second differences and show that

1st differences 19 113 117 a = 2.

b Subtract the sequence 2n2 from the given

2nd differences 14 14 sequence.

4 13 26 43 64

9 Work out the next term of each sequence.

2 2 8 18 32 50

a 2, 3, 6, 11, 18, ...

b 5, 10, 20, 35, 55, ... 2 14

c 0, 2, 6, 12, 20, c Find the nth term of this linear sequence.

10 a Copy and complete to work out the first d Write the nth term of 4, 13, 26, 43, 64

and second differences for the sequence 2n2 + n

un = n2 1

14 Find the nth term of each sequence.

sequence 0 3 8 15 24

a 1, 6, 13, 22, 33,

1st differences 13 15 17

b 2, 5, 16, 31, 50,

c 7, 14, 27, 46, 71,

2nd differences 12 d 1.5, 1, 4.5, 9, 14.5, ...

b Copy and complete for the sequence Q14 hint Use the method in Q13.

vn = 2n2 + n 5

sequence 22 5 16 31 50 15 The nth term of a sequence is un = 2n.

Show that the product of the 5th, 6th and 7th

1st differences 17 111 terms is 218.

a Write down the first four terms in the

11 R Find a formula for the 1

Example sequence with nth term un=__n(2 marks)

nth term of each of these 2

quadratic sequences. b State the term-to-term rule. (1 mark)

a 5, 14, 29, 50, 77, c Use algebra to show that the product

of any two terms in the sequence is

b 1, 7, 17, 31, 49, 71,

also a term in the sequence. (2 marks)

c 12, 27, 52, 87, 132,

9 P / R The rectangle and triangle shown have

2.7 More expanding and the same area. Find x.

factorising x13

Example

a (x + 3)(x + 4)

2x

b (x + 3)(x 6)

c (x 2)(x + 4) 10 Copy and complete these factorisations.

d (x 2)(x 6) a 9x2 100 = (3x)2 2

= (3x )(3x + )

2 P Find the missing terms in these quadratic

b 4y2 25 = ( y)2 2

expansions.

= ( y )( y + )

a (x + )(x + 5 ) = x2 + x + 15

b (x )(x 3) = x2 8x + 11 Factorise

3 Expand and simplify a 100m2 1 b x2 y2

16c2 36 c

a (x + 1)2 b (x 1)2 12 Exam-style question

c (x + 7)2 d (x 5)2

a Factorise b2 5b + 6 (2 marks)

4 a Copy and complete to evaluate 352 152 b Expand (5r 2s)2 (2 marks)

without a calculator.

(35 15)(35 + 15) = 20 =

b Without using a calculator work out

i 552 352 2 Problem-solving

ii 1.52 0.52

Example

5 Expand and simplify Solve problems using these

a (x + 1)(x 1) b (x + 3)(x 3) strategies where appropriate:

6 Factorise

Use pictures or lists

a x2 16 b

y2 121 c

t2 64 Use smaller numbers.

7 Factorise 1 R Tom finds the original plan of his house

and sees that a rectangular extension has

a x2 + 5x + 6 b x2 + 5x + 4 Example

been built on the side. The rectangular area

c x + 6x + 5 d

2 x2 x 6

of the ground floor on the original plan is

e x2 + 2x 8 f x2 2x 3 10m long 8m wide. Theextension is the

g x + x 20 h

2 x2 + 9x + 14 full width of the house but Tom does not

i x2 3x 18 j x2 + 2x 15 know the length.

k x2 + 7x 30 l x2 + 20x + 100 a What is the area of the whole ground floor

if the unknown length is x?

8 P Charlie and James are given a mystery Expand your answer.

number.

Tom wants to widen his house by 3m.

Charlie squares the number.

b What would be the new total area of the

a Write down an algebraic expression to ground floor?

represent Charlies number. Expand and simplify your answer.

James adds 2 to the number and then After his extension is built, Tom decides to lay

squares then result. flooring on the whole of the ground floor but

b Write down an algebraic expression to not in the kitchen.

represent Jamess number. He knows that the kitchen is 4m wide but he

Jamess number is 32 larger than Charlies. does not know the length y.

c What was the original number? c What is the total area of floor to be covered?

Q8a hint Let x represent the mystery number. Q1 hint Draw a picture.

2 There are x cakes in a packet, x packets in a 7 R Oliver is designing a rug with a

box, x boxes in a case, y cases in a single load Fibonacci-like sequence. He starts with two

and six loads to fill a truck. squares of side length 2cm and then adds a

a Write the total number of cakes in a load square of side length 4cm along the side of

as an algebraic expression in its simplest the first two squares.

form. a What are the sizes of the next three

Three trucks deliver equal numbers of cases squares of the rug?

to x2 stores. b Oliver wants to make the rug with

b How many cakes are delivered to each 10squares.

store? Write the total as a simplified What is the size of the tenth square?

algebraic expression. c Oliver has arranged the 10 squares in

aspiral.

3 The surface area s of a cuboid box is What is the size of the whole rug?

6200cm2.

The length is 30cm and the height is 20cm. 8 R Joshua and Charlie both expand and

What is the width? simplify (x + 2)(2x 3).

Show your working. Joshua says that the answer is 2x2 + x 6

Charlie says that the answer is 2x2 + 4x + 6

4 Exam-style question

Who is correct?

Here are the first five terms of an arithmetic Give reasons for your answer.

sequence:

5, 8, 11, 14, 17 9 Look at these simultaneous equations:

a What is the next number in this 2x + 2y = 8 and x 2y = 1.

sequence? (1 mark) Solve to find the values for x and y.

b Find an expression, in terms of n, for 10 Suki measured the distances a group of

the nth term of this sequence. (1 mark) animals travelled in one hour to find out their

c Johann says that 52 is in this sequence. average speed. She measured the distances

Is Johann correct? in millimetres.

Explain your answer. (2 marks)

Animal Distance (mm)

snail 540

5 The term-to-term rule of a sequence is

multiply by 3. The second term is 24. worm 12

Write the first five terms of the sequence. slug 22

ladybird 980

6 Find the missing terms in these quadratic

expressions. spider 110

a (x + 5)(x + ) = x2 + x + 20 a Convert each of the distances into

b (x + 8)(x ) = x2 + x 24 kilometres.

1 millimetre = 0.000001 kilometres

c (x )(x 4) = x2 + x + 8

b Write each of your answers to part a in

standard form.

3 INTERPRETING AND

REPRESENTING DATA

c What is the range?

3.1 Statistical diagrams 1 d What is the median?

e Calculate the mean age of the people in

1 The pie charts show the sizes of jeans sold in the restaurant.

a shop on a Friday and Saturday.

n+1

60 pairs of jeans were sold on Friday and Q2d hint The median is the _____

th value,

2

120pairs on Saturday. where n is the total number of values.

Friday

Key

3 P The ages of participants Example

Size 10 in two different exercise

classes were recorded.

Size 12

The back-to-back stem and

Size 14 leaf diagram shows the results.

Compare the distribution of

Size 16

ages in the two classes.

Yoga Body pump

Saturday

Key 1 8 9

Size 10 8 8 7 2 3 4 4 6 6 9

Size 12 8 3 2 2 0 3 2 4 4 6

Size 14 8 7 5 0 0 4 1 9

Size 16 5 1 5 0

7|2 2|3

a How many pairs of size 10 jeans were sold represents represents

on Saturday? 27 years 23 years

b Which pie chart has the larger sector for

size 14 jeans? 4 P The masses (in g, to the nearest gram) of

c Show that the same number of pairs of chicks were measured at two different farms.

size 14 jeans were sold on both days. Farm A: 23, 24, 24, 24, 25, 32, 33, 33, 34, 34,

35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 41, 42, 42, 42

2 R The stem and leaf diagram shows the ages Farm B: 29, 36, 36, 37, 38, 40, 44, 44, 45, 46,

of customers in a restaurant. 46, 46, 49, 51, 52, 54, 54, 54, 55, 56

a Draw a back-to-back stem and leaf

1 2 5 7 Key diagram for this data.

2 | 4 means 24 years

2 4 9 b Use the shape of your diagram to compare

3 8 8 9 9 the distribution of the masses of chicks at

the two different farms.

4 0 2

b What is the age of the oldest person in the

restaurant?

5 Exam-style question 7 The frequency table shows the lengths of

time, t (in minutes), some people spend

The numbers of digital songs downloaded

watching TV each day.

by 20 customers in a month were recorded.

Time, t (min) Frequency

0 9

0 , t < 30 35

1 2 3 3 5

30 , t < 60 51

2 0 6 8 8 8 9 60 , t < 90 78

3 1 2 3 3 4 90 , t < 120 28

4 0 5 5 120 , t < 150 8

b What percentage watched TV for more

Key than 1 hour?

1 | 2 represents 12 downloads c Estimate the range.

a Write down the number of customers d Copy and complete the frequency polygon.

who downloaded 45 songs. TV watching times

b Work out the range.

c What is the modal number of downloads? 80

d Work out the median. (4 marks)

60

Frequency

40

Price, P (000s) Frequency

0 , P < 100 0

20

100 , P < 200 12

200 , P < 300 19 0

300 , P < 400 27 0 30 60 90 120 150

Time (min)

400 , P < 500 32

500 , P < 600 89 8 R The heights of 30 seedlings at two

600 , P < 700 11 different nurseries were measured.

The results are displayed on the frequency

a Copy and complete the frequency

polygons.

diagram.

House prices B

Frequency

A

100

80

Frequency

60 Height (cm)

b Would you expect the median of data

20 setA to be greater than, less than or about

the same as the median of data set B?

0 c Which data set do you think shows

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 seedlings that were planted earlier?

Price (000s)

b Draw a frequency polygon on the same

diagram.

c She also thinks that the number of viewers

3.2 Time series of programme A is rising at an increasing

rate. Is she correct?

1 R A leisure centre recorded the number of d Predict the viewing figures for both

swimmers in the pool at 2-hour intervals programmes in 2016.

during a 12-hour period.

4 P The tables show the Example

Time 0900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 numbers of hits (in thousands)

Number of on a tourist information

35 9 12 2 35 41 28

swimmers website during each quarter

a How many swimmers were in the pool at over the last 3 years.

1300? 2012

b What is the smallest number of swimmers Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

in the pool at any one time? 12 54 35 48

c Work out the average number of

swimmers in the pool. Give your answer to 2013

the nearest whole number. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

d Represent this time series on a line graph. 9 57 40 46

Comment on the variation in the number

2014

of swimmers.

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

2 Mr Jayshuk catches the train to work.

12 61 40 49

Herecords the number of minutes the train

is late over a 2-week period. a How many hits were there in the first

Day 1 2 3 4 5 quarter of 2014?

b In which quarter were there the most hits?

Number of minutes late 2 5 3 8 2

c Draw a time series graph for this data.

Day 6 7 8 9 10 d Describe the variation in numbers of hits

Number of minutes late 4 5 7 8 6 during the 3-year period and comment on

the overall trend.

Draw a time series graph for this data.

Comment on how the lateness of the train Q4a hint The numbers of hits are in

varies over the 2-week period. thousands.

3 R The time series graph shows the viewing

figures for two TV programmes, A and B. 5 P The tables show the population (in

Viewing figures millions) of the UK over a 10-year period.

Viewing figures (000s)

300

250 Programme B Population

59.4 59.7 60.1 60.4 ?

(in millions)

200

150 Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

100 Programme A Population

61.2 61.6 62 63.3 63.7

50 (in millions)

0 The data for 2007 has been lost.

20 8

20 0

20 2

20 4

20 6

20 8

20 0

20 2

20 4

16

9

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

19

a What were the viewing figures for c Estimate what the population might have

Programme A in 2004? been in 2007.

b The director of Programme A says that d Use your graph to predict the population

the viewing figures for Programme A in 2013.

have risen more than the figures for

programme B have fallen. Is she correct?

6 Exam-style question

70

In a grandfather clock a pendulum swings

Weight (kg)

from side to side.

60

The pendulum starts in a vertical position

and begins to swing.

50

Height (cm)

b Use the scatter graph to copy and

complete the sentence.

In general, patients who are taller weigh

. and patients who are

shorter weigh .

2 The height and age of a number of trees are

recorded, together with the average annual

bob rainfall in the area each tree is growing.

These scatter diagrams are plotted from

The tables show the horizontal distance of thedata.

the bob of the pendulum from the vertical a

during 1 second.

Time (s) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Distance (cm) 0 1 1.8 2.4 2.8 3 Height

Time (s) 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (cm) 2.8 2.4 1.8 1 0

a Draw a time series graph to show the data. Age

b At what time will the bob be 3cm from b

the vertical again?

c Predict the distance of the bob from the

vertical 2.5 seconds after it starts to swing.

Height

d For how long is the bob more than

1.8cm from the vertical during

1 second? (7 marks)

Annual rainfall

c

3.3 Scatter graphs

Average

1 A hospital recorded the heights and weights rainfall

of 8 patients.

The measurements are shown in the table.

Patient A B C D E F G H

Age

Height (cm) 160 145 171 165 167 162 155 149

For each graph state whether there is

Weight (kg) 60 53 66 62 65 62 59 57

positive, negative or no correlation and

a Copy and complete the scatter graph. describe in words what this means.

Patient A was 160cm tall and weighed

60kg so draw a cross at (160, 60). Q2a hint To describe what the correlation

For patient B, draw a cross at (145, 53). means in words, you could say, As age

Complete the scatter graph with crosses increases, height ....

for all the patients.

3 A farmer records the ages of some chickens b State the type of correlation between

in years and the number of eggs they each weight and length of spring extension for

produce in a week. weights between 1N and 6N.

Age (years) 4 6 1 2 8 5 7 3 c Describe in words what happens to the

spring when the weight exceeds 6N.

Number of

6 4 6 6 1 4 3 5

eggs 8 Exam-style question

a Draw a scatter graph for this data. Some students sit two English tests.

b Describe any relationship between these Their results are shown on the scatter graph.

two variables.

Results of English tests

4 A newsagent records how many of a

100%

particular type of chocolate bar are sold per

day as she gradually reduces the price.

The table shows her results. 80%

Price (p) 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38

60%

Test B

Number sold 12 13 15 14 8 12 4 12

Draw a scatter graph and describe any 40%

relationship between the price of the

chocolate bars and the number of bars sold. 20%

Suggest a possible reason for this

relationship.

0

0 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

5 R The manager of a coffee shop records the

daily temperature and the number of hot Test A

chocolates sold in one week. a What type of correlation does the

Day Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat scattergraph show?

Interpret your answer. (1 mark)

Temperature (C) 9 8 5 4 7 6

b What was the highest mark in

Number of hot Test B? (1 mark)

5 6 5 7 9 15

chocolates sold

c What was the range of marks for

a Draw a scatter graph and comment on any Test A? (2 marks)

relationship between the two variables.

b The manager says that the colder it is the

more hot chocolates are sold.

Does the scatter graph provide statistical 3.4 Line of best fit

evidence to support the managers view?

1 Which line, A, B or C, is the best line of best

6 What sort of correlation would you expect to

fit for the data points on the scatter graph?

find between

a a students mark in a maths test and in a B

science test A

b the speed of a train and the time taken to

travel 100 miles

c the number of magazines a student buys

and their weight? C

attached to a spring (in newtons, N) and the

length of the springs extension are recorded.

Weight (N) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Length of

1.2 2.4 3.6 4.8 6.0 7.2 7.4 7.5

spring (cm)

a Plot these points on a scatter graph.

2 The table shows the percentage marks of Sample A

8students in two maths tests.

8

Test A

73 45 84 91 63 53 67 76 7

(%)

Growth (cm)

6

Test B

64 39 74 80 55 50 60 66 5

(%)

4

a Draw a scatter graph for Example 3

this data. 2

b Draw a line of best fit on 1

your graph. 0

c Use your line of best fit to 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

estimate the score in test B Rainfall (mm)

of a student who scores 80% in test A. Sample B

d Estimate the score in test A of a student

who scores 50% in test B. 6

Growth (cm)

5

3 A lorry driver records the distance travelled

4

and the number of litres of fuel used on each

3

of 6 journeys.

2

Distance 1

105 124 78 125 102 91

(miles)

0

Fuel 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

158 195 110 185 160 140 Rainfall (mm)

(litres)

a Draw a line of best fit on a scatter graph a Use the given lines of best fit to work out

and use the line to estimate the number two estimates for the growth of the crops

of litres of fuel used for a 110-mile journey. if the rainfall is 4.5mm.

The fuel tank on the lorry holds 1500 litres. b Which of the estimates is likely to be more

b Estimate how far the lorry can go between reliable? Give two reasons for your answer.

refuellings. 6 R The heights (to the nearest metre) and

trunk circumferences of 6 trees are recorded.

4 R The table shows the outside temperature

The table shows the height, h (in metres) and

and the daily heating costs of a house.

circumference, C (in cm) of the trees.

Temperature

10 6 7 3 0 4 h (m) 2 3 4 5 6 7

(C)

Heating cost C (cm) 30 82 93 101 112 120

12 16 14 20 24 18

() a Draw a scatter graph for this data.

a Draw a line of best fit on a scatter graph b Why is the first point classified as an

and use it to estimate outlier? Suggest a possible reason for this.

i the daily heating cost if the outside c Draw a line of best fit passing close to the

temperature is 8C remaining five points.

ii the outside temperature if the heating d Use the line to estimate the circumference

cost is 15 of a tree which is 3.5m in height.

iii the daily heating cost if the outside e Estimate the height of a tree with

temperature is 15C. circumference 125cm.

b Which of these estimates do you think is

the least reliable? 7 The table shows the age, x (in years) and

Give a reason for your answer. shoe size, y, of a sample of 9 boys.

Age, x 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

5 R Two surveys are carried out on crop

Shoe size, y 1 3 5 6 7 8 8.5 8.5 9

growth.

The results are shown on the scatter graphs. a Draw a scatter graph of this data.

b Assuming that shoe size can be modelled 2 R The sizes of jeans sold in a shop one

using a line of best fit dayare

i estimate the shoe size of a 16-year-old 8, 8, 10, 10, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 14, 14, 14,

ii estimate the shoe size of an 11-year-old. 16, 16, 18, 20, 20, 22, 22

c Which of the answers in part b is likely to a Work out the mean, median and mode of

be the more reliable? the sizes.

d By drawing a smooth curve close to the b The shop owner wants to order some more

data points, make new estimates of the jeans but can only order one size.

shoe sizes in part b. Which size should he order?

e Which of the two models is the more Give reasons for your answer.

accurate? Give a reason for your answer.

3 The numbers of passengers using a train

8 Exam-style question service one week are recorded in the table.

The tables show the distance, d (in km), Day Number of passengers

cars with different engine sizes, E, can travel Monday 230

on one litre of petrol.

Tuesday 180

Engine size,

1 1.4 1.6 2 Wednesday 170

E (litres)

Thursday 180

Distance,

16 14.4 13.5 12.2 Friday 210

d (km)

Engine size, a Work out the mean, median and mode of

2 3 3.5 4 the number of passengers.

E (litres)

Distance, b The train company wishes to work out the

11.8 9.4 8.4 7.1 average daily profit.

d (km)

a Plot the points on a scatter Which average should be used to calculate

graph. (2 marks) an accurate figure?

Give reasons for your answer.

b Describe the relationship between engine

size and the distance a car can travel on 4 R State whether it is best to use the mean,

one litre of petrol. (1 mark) median or mode for these data sets.

Another car has an engine size of 2.5 litres. Give reasons for your answers.

c Estimate the distance this car can travel a Colour of tablet case:

on one litre of petrol. (2 marks) red, blue, green, orange, blue

b Number of customers in a shop:

Exam hint 12, 12, 13, 17, 19

Always draw lines on your diagram for any 5 Identify the outliers of the data sets and find

readings from your graph. If you get the

the range of each.

answer wrong, you may still get marks for

using the correct method. a The heights of players in a netball team:

155cm, 145cm, 160cm, 21cm, 148cm,

150cm, 163cm

3.5 Averages and range b The monthly fuel bills of a home:

130, 125, 143, 192, 135, 33

1 The annual numbers of burglaries reported

ina town over the past 5 years are Q5 hint Think about whether you should

45, 33, 47, 47, 93 include the outlier in your calculations.

a Work out the mean, median and mode of Q5a hint Is it possible for someone in the

the number of burglaries. team to be 21cm tall?

b An insurance company bases how much

it charges on the average number of

burglaries.

Which of the averages would be the most

appropriate? Give reasons for your answer.

6 Identify the outliers of the data sets. 9 P The table shows the times taken, t (in

Calculate a sensible value of the range. seconds), for two different groups of athletes

Give a reason why the outlier has been to run a 100m race.

included or excluded in your calculation. Time, t (s) Group A Group B

a The average daily temperatures (C)

9.5 < t , 10 3 6

during a week in June in the UK:

19, 21, 14, 2, 18, 17, 16 10 < t , 10.5 5 9

b The heights of 10 sunflowers: 10.5 < t , 11 10 3

1.2m, 1.8m, 0.9m, 1.12m, 1.0m, 0.2m, 11 < t , 11.5 2 2

1.3m, 1.45m, 1.66m, 1.44m a How many athletes were in each group?

7 The grouped frequency table shows the b Explain why the median time for each

distance, D, students in a class travel to group will be between the 10th and 11th

school. values.

c In which class interval is Group As median

Distance, Frequency, Midpoint,

xf time?

D (miles) f x

d Work out which class interval contains

0<D,2 12 1 1 12 = 12 Group Bs median time.

2<D,4 11 e On average, which group has the shorter

4<D,6 7 time?

6<D,8 3 f State the modal class for each group.

8 < D , 10 2 g At an athletics competition, both groups

must compete against the current

Total

champions, Group C, who have a mean

a Copy and complete the Example time of 10.4s. Which group stands the

table to estimate the mean better chance ofbeating them?

distance the students travel Explain your answer.

to school.

10 Exam-style question

b Another student joins the

class. Bob asked each of 40 friends how many

If they travel 9 miles to school, will the minutes they took to get to work.

mean increase, decrease or stay the same? The results are shown in the frequency

polygon.

8 R The times, T (in minutes), a group of

Journey time

students spent watching TV one night are

shown in the table. 12

Time, T (min) Frequency, f 10

Frequency

0 < T , 20 2 8

20 < T , 40 19 6

40 < T , 60 14 4

2

60 < T , 80 2

0

a How many students spent less than 0 10 20 30 40 50

20minutes watching TV? Time (min)

b How many students altogether spent less

a How many people travelled for more

than 40 minutes watching TV?

than 20 minutes? (1 mark)

c How many students altogether spent less

b If the average time spent travelling

than 60 minutes watching TV?

to workis more than 30 minutes, the

d State the modal class. company will consider allowing its

e Explain why the median is the 19th value. employees to work from home.

f Use your answers to parts a to d to work out Should the company consider allowing

which class interval contains the median. employees to work from home?(4 marks)

4 The time series graph shows the increase in

3.6 Statistical diagrams 2 asupermarkets profits.

Increase in profits

1 A fixed menu at a caf offers two main course

options followed by two pudding choices. 6

One lunchtime there were 50 customers.

The table shows some information about

Profit ( millions)

their choices.

Chicken Vegetarian Total

Cheese 15 23 5

Ice cream 5

Total 50

Copy and complete the table. 4

2 R A school offers three language options 0

0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

and two humanities options at GCSE. Year

Students must choose one language and one

humanities option. The supermarket chain says that this shows

that the profit has increased by over 50% in

French German Mandarin Total the 4 years between 2010 and 2014.

History 57 18 126 a Explain why this graph is misleading.

Geography 12 b Draw a correct version.

Total 35 200 Comment on what this shows about the

actual increase in percentage profit.

a Copy and complete the table.

b What percentage of the students study Q4a hint Look closely at the vertical scale.

Mandarin?

c Which humanities option was more 5 A soft drinks supplier produces a bar chart

popular? showing sales of their soft drinks and uses

Give reasons for your answer. it to support the claim that sales of cola are

more than twice those of the other drinks.

3 R A survey was carried out in a town to find

Give two reasons why the diagram is

out if more parking spaces were needed.

misleading.

Of 60 men surveyed, 23 thought there were

not enough spaces. Sales of drinks

Of 60 women surveyed, 30% thought there

were enough spaces. 500

The town has equal numbers of men and

women.

Cans sold (millions)

table.

b The town council will provide more parking 400

spaces if more than 60% of residents want Cola

more parking.

Will this happen?

Lemonade

Still drinks

300

0

Type of soft drink

6 R A hospital patients temperature is taken 8 The times taken (in minutes) for employees

every hour. The time series graph is plotted of two companies to travel to work are

from the measurements. recorded.

Patients temperature Company A: 35, 42, 39, 30, 23, 43, 47, 39, 38, 42

Company B: 18, 22, 19, 12, 14, 17, 32, 39, 42, 25

42 a Explain why you would display this data

in a back-to-back stem and leaf diagram

41 instead of in a dual bar chart.

b Draw a back-to-back stem and leaf

Temperature (C)

c Find the median times to compare the

39

travel times for the employees of the two

companies.

38 9 Exam-style question

A company wants to compare the salaries

37 of its employees.

The table shows their current salaries.

0 Salary, S, () Frequency

01 0

02 0

03 0

04 0

05 0

06 0

07 0

08 0

09 0

0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

00

03:00? 16000 < S , 18000 22

b A temperature of over 39.4C is considered 18000 < S , 20000 11

dangerous. At what time did the patients a Choose one of the following statistical

temperature drop below this? diagrams to display the data.

c Between which times was the drop in stem and leaf scatter graph

temperature the greatest? frequency polygon time series graph

7 R A librarian records the items borrowed by b Give reasons for your choice. (4 marks)

the over-50s and the under-50s, using four

categories: modern fiction (MF), classic fiction

(CF), non-fiction (NF) and other (O). Q9 hint Imagine trying to draw each

diagram. You should also think about what

During one hour the items borrowed are as

the diagram is going to be used for.

follows:

Over-50s: CF, MF, CF, NF, O, NF, NF, O, NF, NF,

CF, MF, O, MF, CF, NF, O, NF, NF, O

Under-50s: MF, MF, NF, NF, O, O, O, MF, MF, MF, 3 Problem-solving

O, O, MF, MF, MF, CF, O, O, MF, O

a Explain why it is not possible to display Solve problems using these strategies where

this data as a frequency polygon. appropriate:

b The librarian decides to display the data Use pictures or lists

in either a pie chart or a bar chart. Which

should she use if she is most interested in

Use smaller numbers.

i the proportions of items borrowed by 1 Sequences A and B are Fibonacci-like

over-50s and under-50s combined sequences. Work out the difference between

ii comparing the numbers of the different the 6thterm in sequence A and the 7th term

items borrowed by each age group? in sequence B.

c The librarian is going to buy 400 more Sequence A: 4, 7, 11, 18,

books for the library. How many modern Sequence B: 5, 8, 13, 21,

fiction titles should she buy?

2 R Two teams are competing in a trampoline 4 Loughborough University and Birmingham

competition. Their scores are displayed in University are about 43 miles apart.

the back-to-back stem and leaf diagram. Gayleand Luke both travelled from one

Thecoach needs to decide which team to university to the other for interviews.

take to the championships. Gayle went one way and got there in

Team A Team B 57minutes. Luke went the other way and

travelled at an average speed of 50mph.

9 6 5 1 8 D

a Use the formula S=__to find how many

9 7 6 4 4 2 5 7 9 T

minutes it took Luke to travel between

6 3 1 3 1 4 5 5 7

the universities. Round your answer to the

1 4 3 9 9 nearest whole number.

b Who travelled faster?

Key Team A Team B

5|1 1|8 Marcie travelled between the universities

represents represents ona different day.

15 marks 18 marks She travelled at a speed of 72km/h.

a What are the ranges for the two teams? c Did Marcie take more or less time than Gayle?

b What is the median score for each team? 5 R A museum increased its ticket prices every

c Use the range, the median and the shape of year for 8 years.

the diagram to compare the distribution of The museum manager wants to see if this

scores of both teams. has affected the number of tickets sold.

Which team should the coach take to the The table shows the average number of tickets

championships? sold per week at the different ticket prices.

3 R Tina is working on a weather project. Ticket

1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.75 4.25

Shehas found the average high temperature price ()

and the average low temperature for four Number

different cities around the world at three of tickets 250 246 262 235 228 236 182 135

different times of the year. sold

The table shows her data. In it, the average a Draw a scatter graph to show the data in

high and average low temperatures are the table.

displayed together like this: 9 / 5. b Is there a relationship between the two

Temperature (C) variables? Explain your answer.

City c The cost of running the museum increases

January April July

each year. Is raising the price of tickets the

London 9/5 15 / 7 23 / 15

best way to cover the increase in running

Chicago 1 / 11 15 / 4 29 / 17 costs? Explain your reasoning.

Sharm el-Sheikh 22 / 13 30 / 20 38 / 27

6 R The tables show the profits of a small

Sydney 26 / 19 23 / 15 17 / 8 publishing company over a 10-year period.

a What type of statistical diagram would be Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

a good way for Tina to display this data?

Profit () 110 575 1500 3400 3620 4340

b Draw a statistical diagram to display the

data. Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

c Which city has the widest range of Profit () 6120 9435 12350 18500 23900

temperatures throughout the year?

a Use the tables to draw a time series graph of

d London is in the Northern Hemisphere. the profits made by the publishing company.

Bylooking at your diagram, how can

b What does the graph show you?

you tell which city is in the Southern

c Predict the profit for 2015.

Hemisphere?

d A large publishing company is looking to buy

smaller companies. Would this be a good

company to buy? Explain your reasoning.

7 Exam-style question 9 The frequency table shows the heights of

sunflowers grown by a Brownie pack.

The frequency table gives information

about the times it took some office workers Height, h (cm) Frequency

to get tothe office one day.

150 < h , 180 2

Time, t (minutes) Frequency

180 < h , 210 4

0 , t < 10 4

210 < h , 240 7

10 , t < 20 8

240 < h , 270 8

20 , t < 30 14

30 , t < 40 16 270 < h , 300 11

40 , t < 50 6 300 < h , 330 3

50 , t < 60 2 330 < h , 360 1

a Copy the axes below and draw a a How many sunflowers were grown?

frequency polygon for this information.

b Which is the modal group?

c Estimate the range.

25

d Draw a frequency polygon for the data.

Frequency

20

e Was the number of sunflowers 240cm or

15

taller greater or less than the number that

10 were shorter than 240cm?

5 Explain how you know from looking at

0 thegraph.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Time (minutes) (2 marks) 10 Stacey, Paula and Mark are looking at the

b Write down the modal class same scatter graph. They each draw a line of

interval. (1 mark) best fit.

One of the office workers is picked at random.

c Work out the probability that this Mark

worker took more than 40 minutes to get

to the office. (2 marks)

November 2012, Q12, 1MA0/2H

Stacey

sequence 4, 11, 18, 25 , will you eventually Paula

write 500?

Explain with reference to the nth term. a Who has drawn the line of best fit?

b Is there a correlation between the two

variables? If so, what type of correlation is

it and what does it mean?

best fit?

4 FRACTIONS, RATIO AND

PERCENTAGES

4.1 Fractions 10 Exam-style question

Sally has ordered a wedding cake.

She has asked that the cake be between

1 Simon and Cathy each buy an identical pizza.

8_2inches and 9 inches high.

1

Simon eats _25of his pizza and Cathy eats _38of The baker makes these three layers.

her pizza.

How much pizza is left? 1

34 3 7

28

Give your answer as a mixed number.

All measurements are in inches.

2 Find the reciprocal of each number.

When the layers are placed on top of one

a 5 b 0.125 c 2.25 d _56 another, will they make a cake that is

Use a calculator to check your answers. between 8_2and 9inches high?

1

3 Find the reciprocal of

a _14 b _35 c

__

11

4_56

8 d

Exam hint

4 Giving your answer as a mixed number where Explain your answer by showing your calculations.

appropriate, work out Write a sentence, The cake will/will not be

a 2_15 _34 b

1_38 _45 between 8_21and 9inches high because

c 3_47 1_25 d

3__

7 _5

10 26 11 Work out these subtractions. Example

5 Work out a 5_34 2_16 b

6_78 1_35

a 3_14 8 b

10 _59 c 2_45 3__

3

2_16 5__

10 d

7

12

appropriate, work out

12 P Brenda earns a fixed amount each month.

a 1_18 _29 b 4_37 1_13

She spends _38of this amount on her mortgage.

c 2_56 __ 3

3_56 5__

10 d

1

12 Out of the remaining amount, she saves __ 5

12.

7 Samir says, Multiplying a fraction by its She spends the rest on supermarket shopping.

reciprocal always results in an answer of 1. Brenda spends 350 per month on

Is he correct? supermarket shopping.

Show some working to explain your answer. How much does she spend on her mortgage

each month?

8 Copy and complete the calculation.

2_78+ 4__

5 13 P Tom sorted out bags of donated clothing

16

at a homeless shelter.

7 5

= __ + ___ Out of 6 bags, 2_14were suitable for men,

8 16

5 1_13were suitable for women and the rest were

= + ___

___

16 16 for children.

= ___

a How many bags of clothes were for children?

16 Tom spent 3_12hours sorting out clothes and

= __

2_13hours working in the kitchen at the shelter.

He also took two 10-minute breaks and had

9 Work out _34hour for lunch.

a 2__

7 _1 3_23+ 4__

12+ 16 b

11

12 b How many hours did he spend in total at

_

2 _4

c 37+ 25 d _ 5 _

28+ 356 the homeless shelter?

8 A scale model of a boat is 37cm long.

4.2 Ratios Thereal boat is 7.4m long.

a Work out the scale of the model.

1 Write each ratio in the form 1:n. Write it as the ratio of real length to

a 5:30 b 32:16 modellength.

c _14:3 d _

85:_35 The boat is 3.2m wide in real life.

2 Write each ratio in the form n:1. b How wide is the model?

a 16:4 b 15:60 9 The ratio of DVDs to CDs in Sams collection

c 4:_18 d

_

25:_49 is1:_58.

Sam has 135 CDs.

3 Write these ratios in the form 1:n. How many DVDs does Sam have?

a 2:80p

b 2kg:400g 10 Jana splits 350 between her two nieces in

c 3 hours:20 minutes the ratio of their ages.

d 15cm:6.6m Carlotta is 16 and Hannah is 12.

a What fraction does Carlotta get?

4 R On Saturday at 12pm, there were 45 staff

members and 375 customers in a department b What fraction does Hannah get?

store. c How much money does each niece get?

a Write the customer:staff ratio in the form Example

n:1. 11 Share 342 sweets between

Another department store had 70 staff Finn and Rosie in the ratio 5:4.

members and 637 customers at the same How many sweets does each

time. child get?

b Which store had more customers per staff

member? 12 Sahira needs to cut a length of wood into

twopieces in the ratio 5:7.

5 P Cheryl and Jon both make hair dye by

The wood is 3600mm long.

mixing hair colourant with peroxide.

How long will each piece be?

Cheryl uses 750ml of colourant and 450ml of

peroxide. 13 Share each quantity in the given ratio.

Jon uses 850ml of colourant and 650ml of a 451 in the ratio 4:5:2

peroxide.

b 52.60 in the ratio 4:1:3

Who has the greater concentration of

peroxide in their hair dye? c 930mm in the ratio 2:3:5

d 885kg in the ratio 8:2:2

6 R Jackie and Alan share the profits of their

business in the ratio of the amounts they 14 Exam-style question

invested.

Jamal makes a batch of scones.

Jackie invested 170 and Alan invested 150.

He needs to mix butter, sugar and flour in

Alan gets 18000.

the ratio 3:2:15 by weight.

How much money does Jackie get? Jamal wants to make a scone mix weighing

7 To make concrete, Ali mixes 2 parts of cement 500g in total.

with 5 parts of sand. He has

a Write down the ratio of sand to cement. 85g of butter

b To lay the foundation for an extension, 45g of sugar

Aliuses 60kg of sand. How many 400g of flour.

kilograms of cement does she use? Does Jamal have enough butter, sugar and

c On another project, Ali used 75kg of flour to make the scone mix? (4 marks)

cement. How much sand did she use?

15 Write each ratio as a whole number ratio in 5 P Stuart is a plumber and is paid the same

its simplest form. hourly rate for any work he does.

a 40:22.5 b 83.25:11 For one job he is paid 712.50 for 15 hours

c 14.4:73.5 d 60.2:2.56 work.

a What fraction of this amount is Stuart paid

Q15a hint Multiply first by powers of 10 for 8 hours work?

to make both sides of the ratios whole

b Work out how much he is paid for 8 hours

numbers, then simplify.

work.

40 : 22.5 Karen also works as a plumber.

310 310

400 : 225 She gets 577.50 for doing 11 hours work.

4 4

16 : c Which plumber gets the better hourly

rate?

16 R Jude wants to make lilac paint. 6 A pattern is made from black squares, b, and

She is going to mix red paint, blue paint and white squares, w, in the ratio 2:5.

white paint in the ratio 0.8:1.5:5.7. Copy and complete.

Copy and complete the table to show how w = b = b

much of each colour Jude needs to make the

b = w = w

paint quantities shown.

Size Blue Red White 7 R Brian makes Mexican snacks by filling

tortillas with a mixture of spiced meat and

1 litre

cheese. For every 4 tablespoons of meat,

2.5 litres Brian uses 3 tablespoons of cheese.

a Write a formula for c, the number of

4.3 Ratio and proportion tablespoons of grated cheese used with

m tablespoons of spiced meat.

b Brian has 10 tablespoons of spiced meat.

1 The exchange rate between pounds and How many tablespoons of grated cheese

euros () is 1 = 1.28. does he need?

a Convert 500 to euros. Brian wants to make the mixture twice

b Convert 576 to pounds. as cheesy, so he doubles the number of

2 P Cassie buys a smartphone in the UK for tablespoons of cheese.

449. She sees the same smartphone on sale c Write a formula for the new recipe.

in NewYork for US$499.

8 Are these pairs of quantities in direct

The exchange rate is 1 = US$1.53. proportion?

By how much is the smartphone cheaper in a 12 hotdogs cost 21.60, 15 hotdogs cost

New York? 27.00

3 R Bron and Jill are both training to run a b 5 apples cost 1.60, 9 apples cost 2.97

marathon. In one week Bron runs 83 miles c Tom took 45 minutes to run 10km,

and Jill runs 122km. 5 miles = 8km. Rictook 1 hour 2 minutes to run 14km

a Write the ratio of kilometres to miles in

the form 1:n. 9 In a science experiment, the speed of a steel

ball bearing is measured at different times

b Work out who has run further in the week

after it is dropped.

and by how much.

The table shows the results.

4 R Hal makes a fruit punch for a party by

Time,

mixing orange juice with raspberry juice in 1 2 3 4 5

t (s)

the ratio 7:3. Lyn also makes a fruit punch

by mixing raspberry juice and orange juice in Speed,

9.8 19.6 29.4 39.2 49

the ratio 10:21. s (m/s)

Will the two fruit punches taste exactly the Are time and speed in direct proportion?

same? Explain your answer. Explain your answer.

10 The table gives readings A and B in a science 2 Exam-style question

experiment.

Monica booked a trip to Disneyland for

A 4 9 13 herself and her family.

B 10 22.5 32.5 The total cost of the trip was 5800 plus

VAT at 20%.

a Are A and B in direct proportion?

Monica paid 1300 of the total cost when

Explain.

she booked her holiday.

b Write a formula for B in terms of A. She paid the rest of the total cost in 6 equal

c Write the ratio A:B in its simplest form. monthly payments.

11 The values of X and Y are in direct proportion. Work out the amount of each monthly

Work out the missing values of p, q, r and s. payment. (5 marks)

Value of X p 20 45 r 108

3 A train ticket normally costs 182.

Value of Y 10 q 24 54 s

Georgegets a 30% discount.

12 The cost of wood is directly proportional How much does George pay for the train ticket?

toits length.

A 3000mm piece of wood costs 58.50. 4 R Dan has 2500 invested for 2 years.

Work out the cost of 10000mm of this wood. Theinvestment increases by 5% each year.

Work out the value of the investment after

13 P The weight of a metal rod is directly a 1 year b 2 years.

proportional to its volume.

A metal rod weighs 350g and has a volume of 5 a Work out the amount of simple interest

15.71cm3. earned in one year for each of these

Work out the volume of another rod made investments.

from the same metal that weighs 475g. i 450 at 3% per year

Write your answer to 2 d.p. ii 6000 at 7.5% per year

b Gary invests 23750 for 3 years at 4.25%

14 Exam-style question simple interest.

Bob is on holiday in Spain. How much is his investment worth at the

He pays 51.98 for 45 litres of petrol. end of the 3 years?

When Bob returns to the UK, he pays

44.03 for 37 litres of petrol. 6 P Income tax is paid on any money you earn

The exchange rate is 1 = 1.28 over your personal tax allowance.

In which country is it cheaper to buy In 201415, the personal tax allowance was

petrol? (4 marks) 10000.

Above this amount, tax is paid at different

rates, depending on how much you earn.

Q14 hint You only need to convert one of The table shows the tax rates you paid in

the prices into the other currency, not both, each band in 201415.

before you look at the amount of petrol.

Tax rate Taxable income

Personal allowance 0% Up to 10000

Higher rate 40%

10000 to 41865

41865 to 150000

1 Tariq gets an electricity bill. Work out the amount of income tax each of

The cost of the electricity used before the these people paid in the 201415 tax year.

VATis added is 493.80. a Harry earns 18900 per annum.

VAT is charged at 5% on domestic fuel bills. b Sheila earns 27950 p.a.

What is the cost of the electricity bill, c Claire earns 57560 p.a.

including VAT? d Aylish earns 85735 p.a.

7 Maddy saves 4500 in an account. 14 P In 2013 Sue bought a car. In 2014 the car

At the end of one year, the balance of her depreciated by 15%. In 2015 it depreciated by

account is 4680. 6%. The value of the car in 2015 was 7990.

a What is the actual increase? a What was the total percentage decrease?

b Work out the percentage increase. Do not round your answer.

b Work out the value of the car in 2013.

8 In 2014, a local council recycled 14.28 million

tonnes of refuse. 15 R a Show that applying a 10% decrease

In 2004, they recycled 6.53 million tonnes of followed by a 10% increase is the same as

refuse. a 1% decrease overall.

What was the percentage increase over the b Will applying a decrease by a fixed amount

decade? and then an increase by the same fixed

amount always result in a decrease overall?

9 Cerys bought an electric guitar for 380.

Twoyears later she sold it for 209.

What was her percentage loss? 4.5 F

ractions, decimals

10 Sean spent 91.35 buying ingredients to and percentages

cooka charity dinner.

He sold tickets for the dinner for a total of 1 R Georgia bought 36 boxes of chocolates

134.61. from the cash and carry.

a How much profit did Sean make? Each box of chocolates cost her 1.50.

b What was Seans percentage profit? She sold _23of the boxes of chocolates for

7.50 each and another 7 boxes for 5 each.

11 R In 2009 Mike earned an annual salary of

She gave the rest away.

11400.

a How much profit did she make?

In 2015 Mikes salary had increased by 300%.

b Express this profit as a percentage of the

Mike says his salary in 2015 is 3 times the

total cost price.

amount it was in 2009.

His boss says his salary in 2015 is 4 times the 2 Exam-style question

amount it was in 2009.

60 students took a maths test.

Who is correct?

20% of the students scored 70 or more.

_3

12 Will pays 66.78 for a portable Example 4of the students scored between 55 and 69.

hard drive. The rest scored less than 55.

This price includes VAT at 20%. Work out the number of students who

What was the cost of the hard scored less than 55. (4 marks)

drive before VAT was added?

3 Exam-style question

13 Jake invested an amount of money

2 years ago. Tom works out he spends 0.75 hours out of

every 3 hours he is awake playing computer

In the first year the amount increased

games.

by 5%.

He also works out that, out of the time he

In the second year, the amount decreased

plays computer games, he spends _5of the

3

by8%.

time playing a war game.

Copy and complete the calculation to work Tom is awake for _3of the day.

2

out the overall percentage decrease over

What percentage of each day does Tom

these 2 years.

spend playing the war game? (3 marks)

x 31.05 30.92

4 Exam-style question

Which is closer to 65%,_3or __

2 9

14?

3

You must show your working. (3 marks)

5 P Sally runs a hairdressing business.

The table shows the amount of profit she 4 Problem-solving

made in 2013 and 2014 for three different

services she offers. Solve problems using these Example

strategies where appropriate:

Service 2013 2014

Cut and blow dry 4800 6400

Use pictures or lists

Colour and highlights 7500 5800 Use smaller numbers

Use bar models.

Wedding hair styles 3200 8500

Write three sentences comparing the profits 1 R Malcolm finds the times (rounded to

in the two years. the nearest minute) that 10 people take to

Use fractions, decimals, percentages, ratio or complete a half-marathon.

proportion. 97, 108, 10, 77, 104, 107, 110, 106, 113, 89

a The outlier was recorded wrongly.

6 P Work out _25of 0.45 of 96% of 200. Suggest what it might have been.

Show all your working out. b Work out the range and the median time

taking into account the corrected value.

7 R Work out

9(__

1 ___

1

+ ___

10+ 100

1

+ )

1000 2 The standard rate of value added tax (VAT) in

as an integer to 1 s.f. (where indicates that the UK is 20%. VAT is reduced to 5% on some

the sequence goes on forever). items, such as childrens car seats.

Explain your answer. If a childs car seat costs 48 before VAT is

added, how much more would it cost if the

8 R Two variables v and t are connected by standard VAT rate were charged instead of

theformula the reduced rate?

v = 10t

a Are v and t in direct proportion? Q2 hint A bar model might help.

Explain.

b Write t as a fraction of v. 3 The official width-to-length ratio of the flag

c Write the ratio t:v. of Portugal is 2:3.

The official width-to-length ratio of the flag

9 Write these recurring decimals Example of Iceland is 18:25.

as exact fractions. A gift shop sells official flags of both

Write each fraction in its Portugaland Iceland.

simplest form. Each flag has a width of 54cm.

a 0.2

0.5

b a Which flag is longer?

c 0.45

d

0.27272727... b How many cm longer?

e 0.85

2

0.171

f

4 Exam-style question

Q9 hint Multiply by a power of ten. A company surveyed 380 people.

If 1 decimal place recurs, multiply by 10. _3

5of the people surveyed were aged between

If 2 decimal places recur, multiply by 100. 18 and 65 years.

If 3 decimal places recur, multiply by 1000. 10% of the people surveyed were aged

under 18 years.

10 Which of these fractions are equivalent to How many of the people surveyed were

recurring decimals? aged over 65 years? (2 marks)

Show your working out.

a __

3

20 b _37 c __

31

40 d __

4

19

5 Mirka is shopping online. She has 80. 8 R Lionel draws three scatter graphs.

Sheis deciding whether to order an item GraphA has a positive correlation, graph B

from Australia or from Germany. has a negative correlation and graph C has no

From Australia, the item she wants costs correlation.

115Australian dollars (A$115) plus A$20 One of Lionels graphs shows the relationship

delivery. From Germany, the item she wants between age (1835 years) and income.

costs 80 plus 11 delivery. Which of the three graphs is this likely to be?

The exchange rates are 1 = A$1.8 and Explain your choice.

1 = 1.3.

9 R Shola and Paul are factorising 8pq3 + 12p2q.

a How much money will Mirka have left if

she orders the item from Australia? Shola says that the highest common factor of

the terms is 4p. Paul says it is 4q.

b How much money will Mirka have left if

she orders the item from Germany? a From just looking at the expression, is

either of them correct? Explain your reason.

6 One week Eoin paid 74.92 for his weekly b What is the factorised answer?

groceries.

10 Mike spends 450 hours working on a

The next week he paid 61.32.

construction project. He spends some time

What is the percentage decrease in Eoins

on the construction site and some time in

grocery bill?

the office. When Mike calculates the fraction

7 These rectangles have the same area. of the time he spent working on site as a

Find x. decimal, he gets 0.666666666

a What fraction of the total time did Mike

x 1 10

spend working on site?

x12 x

b How many hours did Mike spend working

x14 on site?

5A

NGLES AND TRIGONOMETRY

2 R ABCD is a parallelogram.

5.1 Angle properties B C

of triangles and

quadrilaterals

75

A D

1 ABC and CDE are straight lines.

AE is parallel to BD. a Copy the parallelogram and extend each

side as shown below.

E

B C

D

81

75

68 A D

A

C B

b Work out the other angles in the

Work out the size of parallelogram.

a AB b

D D

AE c What do you notice about the opposite

c BD d

C E

AC angles?

d Repeat with different parallelograms.

Is your observation in part c still true?

3 Triangle BCF is shown. AD is parallel to EG. b S

B C

A D

R 114

y

x z

E G

F

a What is the value of x + y + z?

Give a reason for your answer.

b Write the size of each of these angles in

terms of x, y and z.

i angle FBC ii angle FCB 63 z

Q P

Give reasons for your answers.

c Use your answer to part a to derive the V

c

sum of the angles in a triangle.

4 Exam-style question

28

B

A C

x

x

111 S

D F T U

E

d H

ABC and DEF are straight lines.

AC is parallel to DF. BE = BF.

Calculate the size of the angle marked x.

You must give reasons for your answer.

(4 marks)

w G

5 R In this diagram a diagonal divides the F

quadrilateral into two triangles. v

f D E

d

b 7 R ABCD is a parallelogram. Example

CDE is an isosceles triangle.

ADEF is a straight line.

a

c e

Angle BAD = 64.

B C

Use the diagram to prove that the angle sum

of a quadrilateral is 360.

6 Work out the size of each angle marked with

a letter. 64

a B A D E F

36

Give reasons for your working.

71 y

A D

C

8 R Work out the size of angle ABD. 3 A regular polygon has 16 sides.

Give reasons for your working. a Work out the sum of the interior angles of

D the polygon.

b Work out the size of each interior angle.

72

Q3a hint Substitute into (n 2) 180.

156

F C

E

4 R Work out the size of each interior angle of

a a regular hexagon

b a regular nonagon

x c a regular decagon

A B

d a regular polygon with 18 sides.

9 Work out the size of angle ADE.

5 R Work out the size of each unknown

Give reasons for your working. interior angle.

A a

106

125 116

E

x

D

a 98

x 1 10

b x

B 2x

4x

C 2x 2 20 2x x

Q9 hint Use the fact that the angles in a 6 The sum of the interior angles Example

quadrilateral add up to 360 to write an of a polygon is 1980.

equation. How many sides does the

polygon have?

apolygon 8isosceles triangles.

interior angles of a pentagon.

y

x

z

Number Number of Sum of

Polygon of sides triangles interior

(n) formed angles

Work out the size of

a angle x b angle y c

angle z.

Triangle 3 1 180

Quadrilateral 4 8 R Q7 shows an octagon made from isosceles

Pentagon 5 triangles.

Hexagon 6 4 720

What polygon can you make from equilateral

triangles?

Heptagon 7

9 Exam-style question 2 Work out the size of an exterior angle of a

regular octagon.

The diagram shows a regular pentagon and

a square. 3 Work out the sizes of the angles marked with

letters.

a

63

48

77

32

x a

82

b

You must show all your working. (4 marks)

apolygon 86

104

a

130

e

70 b

120 Q3a hint a + 32 + 48 + 63 + 77 + 82 = 360

Q3b hint To find angle b, first work out the

exterior angle not marked with a letter.

d 130

c 4 R The sizes of five of the exterior angles of a

hexagon are 35, 79, 21, 95 and 54.

Work out the size of each interior angle.

u

p 5 R Work out the size of each unknown

110 140

t exterior angle in this polygon.

110

130 q

s 130

100 50

r x 1 20

with letters.

x

b Work out the sum of the exterior angle for

each polygon. 2x 2 30

c What do you notice about the sum of the

exterior angles?

6 How many sides does a regular Example 2 ABC is a right-angled triangle.

polygon have if its exterior A

angle is

a 36 b 15 c 9?

5.4 cm

7 How many sides does a regular polygon have

if its interior angle is

a 60 b 156 c 170? B C

7.32 cm

8 Can the exterior angle of a regular polygon Calculate the length of AC.

be 50? Explain.

Give your answer correct to 3 significant

9 P One side of a regular pentagon ABCDE forms figures.

the side of a regular polygon with n sides.

3 Calculate the length of the diagonal of a

A

square with side length 6.3cm.

Give your answer correct to 3 significant

E B figures.

4 A guy rope is attached to the top of a 10m

D C flagpole. It is anchored to the ground 4m

G F from the base of the flagpole.

What is the length of the guy rope?

5 P Ashley walks 1.8 miles east and then

Angle BCF = 90. Work out the value of n.

2.4miles north. He then walks straight back

10 P The interior angle of a regular polygon is to his starting point.

3times the size of its exterior angle. How far does Ashley walk in total?

How many sides does the polygon have?

6 P A garden is in the shape of an isosceles

triangle.

5.4 Pythagoras theorem 1 Calculate the perimeter of the garden.

hypotenuse in each triangle. 6m

Give your answers correct

to 1 d.p.

a

11 m

5 cm 7 Exam-style question

ABCD is a trapezium.

8 cm AB = 5cm

b c 6.5 cm BC = 6cm

AD = 10cm

B 6 cm C

7 cm

7.8 cm 5 cm

3 cm

A D

10 cm

Q1 hint Do not round before taking the Calculate the perimeter of ABCD.

square root. Use all the figures on your Give your answer correct to 1 decimal

calculator display. place. (3 marks)

8 R Can a right-angled triangle have sides of 4 Calculate the vertical height of trapezium

length ABCD.

a 5cm, 7cm, 9cm b 6cm, 8cm, 10cm Give your answer in centimetres, to the

c 7cm, 8cm, 11cm? nearest millimetre.

Explain your answers. 13 cm

A B

1 Exam-style question

D C

A 18 cm

largest square that fits inside an 8cm

9 cm diameter circle.

b Work out the length of the side of the

smallest square that surrounds an 8cm

diameter circle.

C 4 cm B

6 Work out the length of the unknown side in

ABC is a right-angled triangle.

each right-angled triangle.

BC = 4cm

Give your answers in surd form.

AB = 9cm

a C b A B

Calculate the length of AC.

Give your answer correct to 3 significant

figures. (3 marks)

6 cm

8 cm

2 A ladder of length 6m leans against a vertical 8 cm

wall. The top of the ladder touches the wall

5.3m above the ground. C

How far is the base of the ladder from the wall? A B

4 cm

c A 13 cm

B

11 cm

6m 5.3 m

C

looks like this: AC = cm

7 P ABC is an isosceles A

3 The screen of a TV set has a diagonal length

triangle.

of 1.22m and a height of 60cm.

D is the midpoint of BC.

Work out the height

of the triangle.

1.22 m 8 cm 8 cm

60 cm Give your answer h

in surd form.

B D C

Give your answer in metres, to the nearest

centimetre. 6 cm

8 P Work out b c

a the length of BD b the length of CD

c the perimeter of the quadrilateral. x

Give all your answers to 3 s.f. 15 cm

x

C 29

7 cm

D 68

8 cm

Q3b hint Q3c hint

5 cm opp opp

Use tanu=____ Use sinu=____

adj

hyp

A B

9 cm

4 Calculate the length of the side marked x.

Give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.

5.6 Trigonometry 1

1 R Draw triangle ABC accurately using a ruler

and protractor. x

Angle A = 90, angle B = 40 and AB = 4cm.

a Label the hypotenuse (hyp), opposite side

(opp) and adjacent side (adj). 41

b Measure each unknown side to the nearest 12 cm

millimetre.

c Write the fraction 5 Calculate the length of the side marked x in

opposite adjacent each triangle.

i __________

ii __________

Give your answers correct to 1 d.p.

hypotenuse hypotenuse

opposite a

iii ________

40

adjacent

Convert each fraction to a decimal. x

Give your answers correct to 1 decimal place. 3.8 mm

d Repeat parts a to c for triangle ABC with

i angle A = 90, angle B = 40 and

AB = 5cm b

ii angle A = 90, angle B = 40 and 58

AB = 7cm.

2 Use your calculator to find, correct to 2 d.p.

where necessary

x

a sin25 b cos15 c tan38 6.5 mm

d cos76 e tan83 f sin63

3 Calculate the length of the side Example

marked x in each triangle.

Give your answers correct to

3 significant figures.

c 72

a x

8.1 cm

35

8 cm Q3a hint

x adj

Use cosu=____

hyp

6 Exam-style question 2 Calculate the size of angle x in each triangle.

Give your answers correct to 1 d.p.

a Example

38

8 cm

5 cm

17 cm

x

b

x

11 cm

Calculate the value of x. 5 cm

Give your answer correct to 3 significant

figures. (3 marks)

7 P / R A tent makes c

an angle of 65 with

the horizontal.

The tent is 2.1m 2.5 m 2.5 m 8.3 cm

wide and the

sloping sides are

2.5m long. x

65 65

Calculate the 5.8 cm

height of the tent. 2.1 m

The angle between the base of the ladder P Q

and the ground is 78. y

How far up the wall does the ladder reach?

8.6 m

22.4 m

PR = 8.6m.

6m QR = 22.4m.

Calculate the size of the angle marked y.

Give your answer correct to 1 decimal

place. (3 marks)

78

4 P Elena is flying a kite.

The kite string is 30m

long and the kite is 25m

5.7 Trigonometry 2 above Elenas hand.

Work out the angle

1 Use the inverse function on your calculator to between the kite 30 m

25 m

find the value of u correct to 0.1. string and the

a sinu = 0.436 b cosu = 0.228 horizontal.

x

c tanu = 0.763 d sinu=_34

e cosu=__

4

tanu=__

13 f

11

8

5 P A cliff is 40m high. 10 ABC is an isosceles C

Work out the angle of elevation of the top of triangle.

the cliff from point A. a Use the diagram 45

to write the

value of 1 cm

tan45.

40 m

b Use Pythagoras 45

a theorem to find A 1 cm B

A the length of BC.

100 m

Leave your answer in surd form.

6 P A ship sails 7km north and then 10km c Write these ratios as exact values using

east, from A to B. surds.

Another ship sails directly from A to B. i sin45 ii cos45

N 11 ABC is a triangle with AC = 1cm, BC = 2cm

10 km and angle ABC = 30.

B

C

7 km 2 cm

1 cm

30

x A B

A a Use the diagram to write these ratios as

fractions.

a How much further does the first ship

i sin30 ii cos60

travel?

b Work out the length of AB.

b On what bearing from north (x) should the

Leave your answer in surd form.

second ship travel?

c Write these ratios as exact values using

Give your answers correct to 1 decimal place.

surds.

7 P Natasha stands at the top of a 61m tower. i sin60 ii cos30

Dominic is standing on the ground 75m from iii tan60 iv tan30

the base of the tower.

12 Find the exact value of x in these triangles.

What is the angle of depression of Dominic

a b

from Natasha?

x

8 P Work out the area of this isosceles triangle.

2

1

3

6 cm x

1

c

x

72

11 cm 9 cm

6 cm for its tangent? Look back at Q11.

4 R The local election results were displayed

5 Problem-solving in the newspaper using this bar chart.

strategies where appropriate: 754

Use pictures or lists 752

Use smaller numbers 750

Use bar models

Use x for the unknown. McCline Warren

1 R Neil is building a rabbit hutch in the shape The headline read, McCline storms ahead in

of a triangular prism. The end view of the local election.

hutch makes an isosceles triangle with a base How is this bar chart misleading?

of 80cm. The angle of the roof of the hutch is

5 R Geometric tiling is used all over the world

76. Part of the side panel folds down to be

to create patterns. A geometric pattern has

flat on the ground.

been started below with a regular hexagon

Neil wants to know the exterior angle that is and a square.

made when the side panel is open, to make

a Find angles a and b.

sure he has the correct hinge.

a Use the information given to draw an end

view of the hutch with the door down.

Usea scale of 1cm:10cm.

Label all known interior angles of the

triangle. a b

c

Use the diagram below as a starting point.

b Use angles a and b to find angle c.

c Use angle c to find which regular polygon

will fit to join the two shapes.

The front centre pole is 1.2m high.

b Find the angle the side panel makes when Ben attaches a 2m guy line to the top of the

it is fully open. pole and pegs it out.

How far from the bottom of the pole does

Q1 hint Use x for the exterior angle. Ben put the peg for the guy line?

2 R Pia is part of a calling tree. The first person 7 Juan pours 6_16litres of water into some jugs.

calls three people, then each person in this Each jug can hold 1_14litres.

second round calls three people and so on. How many jugs can Juan fill?

a How many people have been called after

the fifth round? 8 The Elizabeth Tower in London is 96.3m tall.

b Write the expression to find the number of From a point on the ground 25m away,

people called in the nth round. what is the angle of elevation to the top of

thetower?

3 R Use the information in the diagram to find Give your answer to the nearest whole

angles a, b and c. number.

c

48

a b

9 Sketch a right-angled triangle. 10 Exam-style question

Label the triangle ABC with the hypotenuse AC.

AB = 4cm R S

BC = 6.5cm

6.9 cm

a Find the length of the hypotenuse to 1 d.p. 11.5 cm

b Find the angles of the triangle to 1 d.p. x

Diagram NOT

accurately drawn

Q9 hint We know one of the angles is 90 as Q

it is a right-angled triangle. Use SOHCAHTOA QRS is a right-angled triangle.

to find one of the missing angles and then

Calculate the size of the angle marked x.

subtract from 180.

Give your answer to 1 decimal place.

(3 marks)

6 GRAPHS

3 a Match each line to an Example

6.1 Linear graphs equation.

C y A B

1 On squared paper, draw a line with gradient 8

a 2 7 D

b _13 6

c 1 5

E

2 Copy and complete this table for the graphs 4

on the grid. 3

2

Equation of line Gradient y-intercept

1

y = 3x 2

24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x

y = 3x 21

22

y = 3x + 1

23

CB A 24

y

25

4

26

3

27

2

28

1

24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x y 5 3x 1 3 y 5 2x 1 1 y 5 2x 1 1

21

22

23 y 5 22x y 5 2x 2 1

24

b Which line passes through the origin?

c Which line is the steepest?

d Which lines have the same y-intercept?

e Which lines are parallel?

4 Write the equations of these lines. 8 R Which is the steepest line?

y A y = 10 2x B 2 + 3x = 3y

C A B

5 C y = _12x D 6x y = 12

4 E x + y = 15

3

Q8 hint Rearrange to y = mx + c if necessary.

2

1

9 P Which of these lines pass through (0, 5)?

25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 x Show how you worked it out.

21

A y = 2x 5 B 2y 3x = 10

22

C 3y = 15 + 6x D x + y = 5

23

E 2x 10 = y

24

25

6.2 More linear graphs

F y

5

1 Draw these graphs from their Example

4

E D equations.

3

Use a coordinate grid from

2

10 to +10 on both axes.

1

a y = 2x + 1 b y = x + 2

25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 x c y = 5 d y=2+x

21

e y = 3 x f

y = 3x + 1

22

23 2 R Match each equation to one of the

24 sketchgraphs below.

25

y 5 3x 1 1 y5x11 y 5 2x 1 1

A y = x + 2 B y = x C y = 4x + 2

D y = 4x 2 E y = 4x 2 A B C

Which of these graphs y y y

a cross the y-axis at the same point 1 x

b are parallel? 1 21

x x

6 a For the equation 3y 6x = 12

i copy and complete the table of values

D E

x 0 y y

y 0

1

ii plot the graph on suitable axes. x

b Repeat part a for the lines with equation x

i x y = 5 ii 2x + y = 6

7 In Q6 you drew the graphs of 3y 6x = 12,

3 Sketch the graphs of

x y = 5 and 2x + y = 6

a y = 3x b y = 2x 4 c

x+y=6

a Rearrange each equation to make y the

subject. 4 a Find the x-intercept and y-intercept of the

b Read the gradient and y-intercept from graph with equation

each. i x + y = 7 ii x y = 4

c Look back at your graphs in Q6 to check iii 2x y = 6 iv y x = 3

the gradients and y-intercepts are correct. b Sketch the graphs.

5 R Which of these are linear functions? 13 Find the coordinates of the point where

A y = x2 B x = y + 4 C 3x = 2y 6 these graphs intersect:

10 y = 2x + 12 and 2y x = 14

D y = ___

x E xy = 5 F 2y + 7x + 10 = 0

6 Copy and complete the definition. Q13 hint Write both as y = mx + c

A linear function has a graph that is a

. line.

7 R a Does the point (1, 2) lie on the line 6.3 Graphing rates of

y = 2x? change

b Does the point (1, 4) lie on the line

y = 2x 3?

1 Aahil cycles from his house to his friends

c Does the point (1, 5) lie on the line house.

y = 3x + 2?

The distancetime graph shows his journey.

8 P A straight line has gradient 2.

Aahils cycle ride

The point (3, 7) lies on the line.

Find the equation of the line. 6

Distance (miles)

9 P Work out the equations of these straight- 5

line graphs. 4

a The line with gradient 2 that passes 3

through the point (0, 3) 2

1

b The line with gradient 1 that passes

0

through the point (4, 0) 09:00 10:00 11:00

c The line with gradient _12that passes Time of day

through the point (2, 5)

d The line with gradient 4 that passes a How far is Aahils house from his friends

through the point (1, 1) house?

b What time does he arrive at his friends

10 Find the gradient of the line joining points

house?

A (3, 1) and B (6, 5)

c How long does he take to cycle there?

a by drawing the graph and using the formula

d How long does he stay at his friends

difference in y-coordinates

gradient=_______________________

house?

difference in x-coordinates e What was his speed on the way to his

y2y1 friends house?

b using the formula m=______

x2x1

where

f Work out the gradient for his cycle ride to

A = (x1, y1) and B = (x2, y2) hisfriends house.

(3, 1) (6, 5) What do you notice?

11 R P is the point (2, 4). Q is the point (4, 0).

Q1f hint Find the time as a fraction of an

a Find the gradient of line PQ.

hour when finding the gradient.

b Write y = mx + c using your gradient from

part a. Substitute the coordinates of Q into

2 Fadeelah goes for a run.

this equation. Solve to find c.

She runs for 1 hour and travels 5 miles.

c Write the equation of the line PQ.

Shethen stops for a half-hour break.

12 To find the coordinates of the point where Thenshe runs a further 3 miles in 40 minutes.

these graphs intersect a On graph paper draw a horizontal axis

y = 2x 1 and y = x 4 from 0 to 3 hours and a vertical axis from

a write the two equations equal to each other 0to 8 miles.

b solve to find x Draw a distancetime graph to show

c substitute x into one of the first equations Fadeelahs run.

to find y b Work out her speed for the last part of her

d write the coordinates (x, y). run.

3 Dillon is practising for a swimming race. 6 Look at the graph you drew for Q3. What was

Heswims 1.5km along the coast in Dillons average speed for the whole swim?

30minutes, rests for 5 minutes, then returns

at a speed of 2km per hour. 7 Ferry A travels from Ryde to Portsmouth.

a Draw a distancetime graph to show Ferry B travels from Portsmouth to Ryde.

Dillons swim. Ferry journeys to and from Portsmouth

b Work out the fastest speed he swam.

Ferry A Ferry B

Ryde 5

4 Exam-style question

Distance (miles)

4

James drove from Petersfield to London.

3

He left home at 11:00.

The graph represents part of Jamess journey. 2

Jamess drive to London 1

Portsmouth 0

70 10:00 10:30

London

60 Time

Distance (miles)

50

a Use the graph to estimate how far the

40 ferries are from Portsmouth when they

30 pass each other.

20 b Work out the speed for each part of the

10 journey for Ferry A.

Petersfield 0 c When was Ferry B travelling fastest?

11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 Howcan you tell this from the graph?

Time

d Which ferry travelled faster on average?

At 12:00 James stopped for a rest.

a How many minutes did he rest? (1 mark) 8 R These three vases are filled with water at a

b How far was James from home constant rate.

at 13:00? (1 mark)

The last 5 miles took James 30 minutes.

c Copy and complete the graph. (1 mark)

A B C

5 The table shows a bus journey from

Bournemouth to Salisbury. The bus stops at a In which container does the depth of water

Ringwood and Fordingbridge on the way. not increase at a constant rate?

b Which graph shows this?

Bus stop Time

Bournemouth (departing) 0705 i ii iii

Depth

Depth

Depth

Fordingbridge (arriving) 0755

Salisbury (arriving) 0825 Time Time Time

When the bus stops it waits for 5 minutes at c Match each graph to a different container.

the stop before leaving.

The distances between stops are 9 R Here are three baths.

Bournemouth to Ringwood 12 miles

Ringwood to Fordingbridge 7 miles

Fordingbridge to Salisbury 11 miles.

A B C

a Assuming a steady speed between stops,

draw a distancetime graph for the journey. They are filled with water at a constant rate.

b Work out the speed of the bus between The baths are all the same depth.

Fordingbridge and Salisbury. On the same axes, sketch and label three

c What was the average speed for the whole graphs showing the rate at which water fills

journey? the baths.

10 Donald takes his boat out on a lake. b The company orders 150 memory sticks.

The graph shows his journey. How much does this cost altogether?

Velocitytime graph for Donalds journey c Next year the company has a budget

of500.

2 How many memory sticks can they

Velocity (m/s)

order?

1 2 R The graph shows the conversion from

miles (m) to kilometres (km).

0 Conversion graph for miles and kilometres

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12 0

00

20

12

24

36

48

60

72

84

96

8

10

Time (s) 18

16

Work out

Kilometres

14

a Donalds maximum velocity 12

b how many minutes his velocity was greater 10

than 1m/s 8

6

c his acceleration for the first part of the

4

journey 2

d the distance Donald travelled during the 0

last 8 minutes of the journey. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

e Copy and complete this description of Miles

Donalds journey. a How many km are equivalent to 10 miles?

He accelerated at m/s2 for the first b How many miles are equivalent to 14km?

minutes, then travelled at a constant c Work out the gradient of the graph.

velocity of m/s for minutes. Next, ...

3 R The graph shows the cost of renting a car

Q10c and e hint Acceleration is given by the in Spain for a number of days.

change in velocity (m/s)

gradient: ____________________

Cost of car hire

time (s)

500

Hire charge ()

300

1 P A company is buying branded memory

sticks to give to its customers. 200

The graph shows the price per stick

depending on how many are ordered. 100

0 5 10 15

10 Days

Price ()

6 on the daily hire charge?

c Write down the equation of the line.

4

d Amy is going on a two-week holiday.

0 Howmuch will her car hire cost?

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Quantity ordered

a How much would a single memory stick

cost?

4 Which of these graphs show one variable in c Will the graph intercept the x-axis?

direct proportion to another? Explainyour answer.

A B C d Is the rate of decrease of temperature

constant?

How can you tell from the graph?

different prices.

Price () 5 7 9 11

D E Sales (000s) 20 15 10 5

a On a suitable grid, plot the points and

draw a graph to illustrate this information.

b Use your graph to find the price at which

sales will be zero.

The equation of the graph is in the form

y = mx + c

5 Look at the graphs in Q1, Q2 and Q3. c Use your graph to find the values of m

Which shows direct proportion? andc.

6 R A recipe for meringues uses eggs and d Explain whether your answer to part b is

sugar in the ratio 1:60. sensible.

a Copy and complete this table. 9 R The graph shows lease packages for two

Number of eggs 1 5 10 different cars, Car A and Car B.

Sugar (grams) Car B

120

b Draw a graph showing grams of sugar (y)

against number of eggs (x). 100

Car A

c Write the equation linking x and y.

d Each egg used makes 6 meringues. 80

Cost ()

60

you can make using 400g of sugar?

7 R Angelica carries out an experiment 40

recording the temperature of a cup oftea as

20

it cools.

The graph gives information about the 0

temperature, TC, of the tea over time. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Temperature of cup of tea Distance (miles/month)

a How much does 400 miles per month

90

80 costwith

Temperature (C)

70 i Car A ii Car B?

60 What is the practical meaning of

50 b the y-intercept value for Car A

40 c the point where the two graphs intersect?

30

20 d Another lease package, for Car C, is

10 introduced. With Car C you will pay 90 per

0 month for unlimited miles.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Which package should each person

Time (minutes) choose?

a What does the y-intercept tell you? Danny: Average 250 miles per month.

b Use the graph to estimate the teas Sally: Average 500 miles per month.

temperature half an hour after it is made.

10 R The heights and weights of six students 3 Work out the gradient of each line segment

are recorded. in Q2.

Height (m) 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.3 4 What is the length of the line segment with

Weight (kg) 32 38 50 68 70 42 end points

a E (3, 2) and F (1, 6)

a Plot a scatter graph of the data.

b G (3, 5) and H (2, 0)

b What type of correlation does this graph c J (6, 3) and K (2, 4)?

show?

c Draw in a line of best fit. 5 R A line is parallel to the line y = 2x + 1 and

passes through the point (3, 2).

d Write the equation of your line of best fit.

a Substitute the value of m for this line into

e Rebecca is 1.35m tall.

y = mx + c

What would you expect her to weigh?

b Substitute the coordinates of the known

11 Exam-style question point to work out the equation of the line.

The tables show the age and value of 12 6 R The graph shows the prices of two

cars of the same make and type. different mobile phone packages.

Write the equation for the price with Plan B.

Age

1 1 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 Mobile phone packages

(years)

Value Plan B

8200 9000 8000 7200 7400 6400

()

Age

2.4 3.0 3.0 3.5 3.5 4.0

Cost ()

(years) Plan A

Value

6600 6000 5200 5000 4400 3800 y 5 2x

()

10

a From this data, work out the value of

i a 5-year old car

ii a 7-year old car. (4 marks)

b Which value is more reliable? 0

Why? (2 marks) 0

Calls (hours)

y=_12x3, which passes through the

Q11 hint You could draw a graph to show

point(1, 0).

this information and extend it.

8 P Find the equation of a line that passes

through the point (3, 3) and is parallel to

the line with equation y x = 4

6.5 Line segments

9 Here are three pairs of perpendicular lines.

B2 y A2 C2

1 Work out the midpoint of a line segment AB,

4

where B1

C1 3

a A is (6, 0) and B is (10, 4)

A1 2

b A is (1, 5) and B is (2, 8)

1

c A is (7, 2) and B is (4, 2)

d A is (0, 0) and B is (7, 5). 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x

21

2 Work out the midpoint of a line segment PQ, 22

where 23

a P is (2, 0) and Q is (6, 4) 24

b P is (5, 7) and Q is (1, 9)

a Write down the gradient of each line.

c P is (4, 8) and Q is (2, 1)

b Multiply the gradients in each pair

d P is (5, 3) and Q is (2, 6).

together. What do you notice?

10 Write down the gradient of a line 6 A maths student uses a graph to model the

perpendicular to trajectory of a ball.

a y = 2x + 5 b y = x + 1 c y = _13x 4 The graph shows the height, h metres, of

the ball at a time t seconds after it is thrown

11 Exam-style question straight up.

Find the equation of a line Trajectory

a parallel to the line y = 2x + 1 that passes

through (0, 5) ( 2 marks) 7

b perpendicular to y = 2x + 1 that passes 6

Height, h (m)

through (2, 7). (2 marks) 5

4

3

1

0

1 Which points lie on the graph of y = x2? 0 1 2 3 4 5

A (0, 0) B (1, 2) C (2, 4) D (3, 6) Time, t (s)

E (4, 16) F (1, 1) G (2, 4) H (3, 9) a What type of graph is this?

2 a Copy and complete this table of values for b When is the ball travelling fastest?

y = x2 + 2 c When is the balls speed zero?

d What is the maximum height that the ball

x 3 2 1 0 1 2 3

reaches?

x2 e How long is the ball in the air?

+2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 f The ball was caught when it was 1.5m above

y the ground. Use the graph to estimate the

b Plot the graph of y = x2 + 2 times this could have occurred.

Q2a hint For quadratic functions with more

than one step, you can include a row for Use the graph to solve the equation x2 4 =

each step in the table. 0

y

3 Exam-style question 4

3

Draw the graph of y = (x + 1)2

for 5 < x < 3 (4 marks) 2

1

y = 2x2 21

22

x 2 1 0 1 2

23

y

24

b Plot the graph of y = 2x2 25

5 R Compare your graphs from Q2, Q3 and

Q4.

a What is the same about these graphs?

b Which ones have a minimum point?

Which ones have a maximum point?

c Find the coordinates of the minimum/

maximum point for each graph.

d Describe the symmetry of each graph by

giving the equation of its mirror line.

8 Here are four graphs. Use these graphs to 10 Exam-style question

solve the equations

a Copy and complete the table for

a x2 3x = 0 b x2 + 3x = 0 y = x2 + 2x + 4

c x2 + 5x 4 = 0 d (x 2)2 = 0

x 4 3 2 1 0 1

a y = x2 3x y

4 y 7

3 (2 marks)

2 b Draw the graph of

y = x2 + 2x + 4 (2 marks)

1

c By drawing a suitable line on your graph,

21O 1 2 3 4 x solve the equation x2 + x 3 = 0(2 marks)

21

22 11 An ornithologist records the height, h metres,

of a bird during flight at time, t seconds, after

b y = x2 + 3x y

it is released.

4

Thetable gives the data he records.

3

2 Time, t (seconds) 0 1 2 3 4

1 Height, h (metres) 0 3.4 6.4 9 11.2

a Use this data to draw a graph showing the

24 23 22 21O 1 x trajectory of the bird.

21

22 b Continue the graph to predict the height

of the bird after 8 seconds.

c y = x2 + 5x 4 y

3

2 6.7 Cubic and reciprocal

1 graphs

O 1 2 3 4 5 x

21 1 Which of the points are on the graph of y = x3?

22 A (0, 0) B (1, 1) C (1, 1) D (2, 6)

23 E (2, 8) F (1, 3) G (1, 1) H (2, 8)

24 2 R Here is the graph of y = x3

y

d y = (x 2)2 y

30

6

5

20

4

3 10

2

1

23 22 21O 1 2 3 x

21O 1 2 3 4 x

21 210

220

solve the equations

a x2 3x 2 = 0 230

b x2 + 3x 4 = 0

c x2 + 4x 4 = 0 a Use the graph___ to estimate

3

i 2.53 ii 2

d (x 2)2 _12x = 0

b Use a calculator ___to work out

e Explain why x2 3x = 3 has no solutions. 3

i 2.53 ii 2

3 a Copy and complete the table of values for 9 Exam-style question

y = x3 + 1 6

a Complete the table of values for y = __

x

x 3 2 1 0 1 2 3

y 26 x 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6

y 6 3 1.5 1

b Draw the graph of y = x3 + 1 for 3 < x < 3.

c What is the same and what is different (2 marks)

about this graph and the one in Q2? 6

__

b Draw the graph of y = xfor

0.5 < x < 6 (2 marks)

4 a Plot graphs of y = x3 1 and y = x3 + 2 for 6

3 < x < 3. c Hence or otherwise solve __x= 4 (2 marks)

b Compare these two graphs and the graphs

from Q2 and Q3. 10 This is the graph of y = 2x3 + 7x2 4

What similarities can you see? y

What are the differences? 30

5 R a Draw a table of values Example

2 20

for y = __

x, where x 0,

for 3 < x < 3. 10

2

b Draw the graph of y = __ x

2

c Draw a table of values for y = __ x, 23 22 21O 1 2 3 x

where x 0, for 3 < x < 3.

2

d Draw the graph of y = __ x

210

2 2 220

about y = __ __

xand y = x?

1 By drawing suitable lines on the graph,

6 a Draw the graph of y = __ x, where x 0,

for 4 < x < 4. a solve the equation 2x3 + 7x2 4 = 0

b Use your graph to estimate the value of b solve the equation 2x3 + 7x2 4 = 10

y when

i x = 2.5 ii x = 3.5 iii x = 1.2

6.8 More graphs

7 R Match each equation to a graph.

1

a y = x2 b y = __ y = x3

x c 1 R The distancetime graphs represent

d y = 2x e y = x f y = _12x MrMurphys cycle rides on two different days.

B Distancetime graphs for cycle rides

A C

y y y

Distance (miles)

50

40

x x x

30

Day 1

20 Day 2

D F 10

E

y y y 0

0

0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

x x x Time of day

a How far does he cycle on

i Day 1 ii Day 2?

8 Use the graphs you drew in Q4 to solve the b Which day does his cycle ride take longer,

equations and by how many minutes is it longer?

a x3 1 = 0 b x3 + 2 = 0 c x3 1 = 5 c Work out his greatest speed on Day 2.

d How long did he stop for in total on Day 1? 4 R The table gives some information about

e Work out his average speed during the the value of a car over 6 years from new.

whole journey on Day 1. Age (years) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

f What does the change in gradient Value

between 15:00 and 16:00 on Day 2 show? 22 18.5 15.5 13 11 10 9.5

(000s)

2 The graph shows the height of an object a Draw axes on graph paper using 1cm to

dropped from the top of a 100m tower. represent 1 year on the horizontal axis and

When does the object reach terminal velocity? 1cm to represent 2000 on the vertical

Height of falling object axis. Plot the values from the table and

join them with a smooth curve.

From the graph, estimate

100

b the value of the car after 3.5 years

Height (cm)

its original price.

5 The graph shows Bacteria growth

the number of

bacteria in a Petri 32

Number of bacteria

dish. 28

0

0 1 2 3 a How many 24

Time (s) 20

bacteria were

there at the 16

Q2 hint Any object when dropped will reach start of the 12

terminal velocity. This is the point where the experiment? 8

velocity will not increase any more and is

b Explain how 4

constant.

you found 0

0 1 2 3 4 5

your answer

3 R Here are two sets of data. Days

to parta.

Data set A c Estimate the number of bacteria after

x 3 3 4 6 6 8 9 9 i 2 days ii 5 days.

y 7 6 10 13 14 16 19 20 d Describe the change in the number of

bacteria from

Data set B i day 1 to day 2

x 3 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.8 ii day 2 to day 3

iii day 3 to day 4.

y 10.5 10.7 12.0 12.6 12.5 14.9 15.5 15.4

6 R The graph Liquid temperature

a Plot each set of data on a scatter graph.

shows the

b Describe the correlation for each set. temperature of 100

c Draw a line of best fit for the graph for a liquid during 90

data set A. What does this show? an experiment. 80

Temperature (C)

grid as the graph for data set B. temperature 60

Copy and complete this table of values to after 50

help you. 10minutes. 40

x 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 b After how 30

many minutes 20

y

will the 10

x 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 temperature 0

have halved? 0 10 20 30 40 50

y Time (minutes)

c Does the

e What do you think the relationship is temperature

between x and y in data set B? ever reach zero?

7 P The graph shows the value of a childs 1 This distancetime graph shows part of

investment. Jasons journey.

Lee made the same journey with an average

Value of investment ()

140 Yasmin made the same journey at an average

120 speed of 27mph.

100

80 Jasons journey

60

40 15

20

0

Distance (miles)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Years 10

investment?

b What is the value of the investment after 5

5years?

c How much did the value increase each

year? 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

d The rate of interest remained the same

Time (minutes)

forthe first five years.

Work out the percentage interest rate. a Which of Lee or Yasmin was travelling at a

e What happened after 5 years? faster average speed?

b How much faster?

Q7d hint

Percentage interest rate 2 R Look at this scatter graph.

actual change It shows the attendance at an outdoor pool

= ______________

100 against the maximum daily temperature over

original amount

two weeks in the summer.

8 On graph paper, draw the Outdoor pool attendance

Example

graphs of

35

a x2 + y2 = 4

Temperature (C)

30

b x2 + y2 = 9

25

c x2 + y2 = 100

20

d x2 + y2 = 25

15

10

6 Problem-solving 5

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Solve problems using these strategies where Number of people

appropriate:

a What were the approximate highest and

Use pictures lowest maximum daily temperatures

Use smaller numbers during the two weeks?

Use bar models b What were the approximate highest and

Use x for the unknown. lowest numbers of people at the pool over

the two weeks?

c Explain how you know if there is a

correlation or not.

d Make a statement summarising the results

shown on this graph.

3 R A vase holds 800cm3 of water. 7 R Ryan sketches a graph to show that

The warmth of the room makes 2.5cm3 of 1 British pound = 2.06 Singapore dollars.

water evaporate each day. Which of these graphs could be Ryans

a Find an expression, in terms of n, for the sketch?

amount of water in the vase at the end of Explain how you know.

the nthday. A B C

b How many days before the vase is

completely empty?

Explain your answer.

4 Exam-style question

The scatter graph shows information

aboutthe height and arm length of each of D E

8students in Year 11.

120

100

Arm length (cm)

90

cows and a single Jersey cow.

70 The Holstein-Friesian cows produce an

average of 22 litres of milk each per day, and

60 the Jersey cow produces an average of 7 litres

120 130 140 150 160 170 180 of milk per day.

Height (cm)

a The total number of litres of milk

a What type of correlation does this produced every day is represented by y.

scatter graph show? (1 mark) The number of Holstein-Friesian dairy

Another student in Year 11 has a height of cows is represented by x.

148cm. Write an equation to show the information

b Estimate the arm length of this above.

student. (2 marks) b Sketch a graph to show your equation.

November 2012, Q2, 1MA0/1H

9 A road ascends from sea level at an angle of

5 Jan, Rowena and Atiq share 420 in the ratio 36 for 2.2 miles.

4:3:5. How much higher is the top of the road than

the bottom?

a How much does each person get?

Give your answer to 1 d.p.

Rowena shares her amount equally with Flo.

b Write the new ratio Jan:Rowena:Flo:Atiq 10 Work out the equation of a line perpendicular

using integers. to y = 4x 5, and passing through the point

(8, 0).

6 R Daniel and Maria are using these linear

equations to draw graphs.

y = x 2 y = 8x y = 2x + 1

y = 3x 3 y = 4x

The first line Daniel draws is parallel to

y = 2x 6. The first line Maria draws passes

through the origin.

a Which equation did Daniel use?

b Can you tell which equation Maria used?

Explain.

7 AREA AND VOLUME

3 Calculate the area and perimeter of this

7.1 Perimeter and area isosceles trapezium.

16 cm

1 a Work out the area and perimeter.

5 cm 4 cm

10 cm

20.5 m

4 Exam-style question

7.5 m

Sheila has a 8m

15 m

rectangular garden 1m

b Work out the area. with two triangular

flower beds of

6 cm

equal size.

3 cm 10 m 1.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m

3.8 cm She wants to cover

the shaded area

10 cm 2 cm

3.8 cm with gravel.

1m

The gravel is sold in

3 cm

bags.

c Work out the shaded area. There is enough gravel in one bag to cover

6m2 of garden.

75 mm

Each bag of gravel costs 12.

Work out the least cost of putting gravel on

Sheilas garden. (4 marks)

120 mm

75 mm

5 P Brian wants to paint this wall.

120 mm

Round your answers to the nearest whole 4m

number where appropriate. 2.5 m

a 5 cm b 2.5 m

3.5 m

4 cm One tin of paint covers 8m2.

8m

11 m Brian needs to paint two coats.

8 cm

How many tins of paint does he need to buy?

6 The area of this trapezium is 66cm2.

c d 1 cm

5 cm

1.5 mm 12 cm

h

10 mm

19 cm 17 cm

the formula A=_12(a+b)h

5.5 mm

b Simplify to get an equation.

Q2a hint Use the formula: area = _12(a + b)h = h

c Solve to find h.

7 P A trapezium has area 78mm2, and parallel 4 Calculate these areas.

sides 12.5mm and 7mm. Work out its height. a b

8 R Find the missing lengths. Example

a 7 cm 1.1 m 2.5 m

84 cm

a Area

49 cm2 10 cm 25 cm

Area = cm2 Area = m2

b b c 23 mm d 1.5 m

Area

11 mm

313.5 mm2

0.5 m

35.5 mm 65 mm

55 mm

9 P All four corners of a rectangular piece

of paper are folded in to make this shape. Area = cm2 Area = mm2

The shape is divided by a vertical line of

symmetry to give two identical trapezia. 5 A rectangular field has an area of

4.8hectares.

The length of one of the sides is 240m.

What is the length of the other dimension?

25cm square of a field.

15 cm The whole field has area 30ha.

15 cm

Estimate the number of beetles in the field.

The area of this shape is 187.5cm2.

Work out the length of the piece of paper. Q6 hint Work out the area of the square in

m2. How many squares will fit in the field?

7.2 Units and accuracy

7 Bags of nuts are sold in 500g bags.

A factory packs the bags with a 5% error

1 a Explain why these two squares have the interval.

same area.

a Work out the largest and smallest possible

masses of the bags of nuts.

1m 100 cm

b Write the possible masses as an inequality.

1m 8 A factory makes pencils with a length of

100 cm

200mm.

b Work out the area of each square.

There is a 2.5% error interval on this length.

c Copy and complete.

Work out the possible lengths of the pencils

1m2 = cm2

in centimetres.

2 R a Sketch a square with side length 1m

and a square with side length 1000mm. 9 R a Each measurement has been rounded

to the accuracy given. Write its smallest

b Copy and complete.

possible value.

1m2 = mm2

i 45m (to the nearest metre)

c How do you convert from mm2 to m2? ii 209mm (to the nearest mm)

3 Convert b Each measurement has been rounded to

a 500cm2 to mm2 b 4.8m2 to cm2 1d.p. Write its smallest possible value.

c 8500mm to cm d 19.7cm2 to m2

2 2 i 8.6g

e 2.34m2 to mm2 f 4025mm2 to m2 ii 0.4cm

g 7250mm to cm h 4250000mm2 to m2

2 2

10 Each measurement has been rounded to the

accuracy given. 7.3 Prisms

Write an inequality to show its smallest

and largest possible values. Use x for the 1 R a Make a sketch 10 cm

measurement. of this triangular

prism. 4 cm 5 cm

a 25kg (to the nearest kg)

b 32.8cm (to 1 d.p.) b Work out the area

of the triangular 3 cm

c 8.4km (to 1 d.p.)

face. How many faces

d 0.76m (to 2 d.p.)

of the triangular prism also have this area?

11 Write c Work out the area of the three rectangular

i the upper bound faces.

ii the lower bound of each measurement. d Work out the total surface area of the

triangular prism.

a 4m (to the nearest m)

b 2.6g (to the nearest tenth of a g) 2 Calculate the surface area of

c 12.3cm (to 1 d.p.) a a cuboid 2.5cm 10cm 4.5cm

d 7.25 litres (to 2 d.p.) e 5000km (to 1 s.f.) b this triangular prism.

f 450mm (to 2 s.f.) g 2.80kg (to 3 s.f.)

5 cm

25cm by 34cm to the 20 cm

nearest cm. 12 cm

a Work out the upper and 3 a Explain why the shapes in Q2 are prisms.

lower bounds for the b Work out the perimeter of the triangular

length and width. face of the solid in Q2b.

b Calculate the upper and lower bounds for c Multiply the perimeter of the cross-section

the area of the rectangle. by the length of the solid and add the area

of the triangular faces. What do you notice?

13 R The dimensions of this isosceles

trapezium are given to 1 d.p. 4 Work out the volume of each prism.

5.9 cm a 8 cm b

3 cm 2 cm

3.0 cm

3 cm 9 cm

6.5 cm

2.5 cm

c 40 mm d

80 mm 10 m

Work out the upper and lower bounds for its

perimeter.

3m 2m

100 mm

14 R A triangle has area 54.4cm2to 1 d.p. 55 mm 25 m

Its base length is 9.95cm (to 2 d.p.). 8.5 m

90 mm

a Write the upper and lower bounds for the

area and the base length. 5 R This triangular

prism has volume 11.2 cm

b Work out

373.5cm3. 7.5 cm

lower bound for area 2

i _________________________

a Work out the

upper bound for base length value of b. 12 cm

b

upper bound for area 2 b Sketch its net

ii ________________________

and work out its surface area to 1 d.p.

lower bound for base length

c What is the lower bound for the height of Q5a hint Write and solve an equation:

the triangle to 2 d.p.? volume = 373.5 = _12 b

6 Exam-style question 12 Mike owns a factory which makes fence posts.

He needs to treat the fence posts with wood

Maggie has a petrol

preservative.

tank.

The tank is in the He will treat all the surface area of each post.

shape of a cuboid. 20 Each post is modelled as a cuboid 2m in

The depth of the 60 length with base dimensions 40mm by 40mm.

petrol in the tank 50 a Work out the surface area of each post.

is 12cm. b Mike will treat 500 posts. He needs 30ml

The tank is turned on its end, so it is of preservative for every square metre of

standing on the shaded face. wood.

Work out the depth, in cm, of the petrol in Estimate the amount of preservative he

the tank now. (3 marks) needs to the nearest litre.

7 R a Sketch a cube with side length 1m and 12x(7x 1).

a cube with side length 100cm. 6x 2 1

b Copy and complete. 1m3 = cm3

c How do you convert from cm3 to m3? 5x

4x

8 R a Work out the volumes of a cube with

side length 1m and a cube with side

length 1000mm. 3x

b How do you convert from m3 to mm3?

14 R The dimensions of this triangular prism

9 Convert are measured to 1d.p.

a 8.2m3 into cm3

b 4800mm3 into cm3 15.9 cm

c 1650000cm3 into m3

d 12.55cm3 into mm3 9.2 cm

e 87500cm3 into litres 18.0 cm

f 6.05 litres into cm3 Calculate the upper and lower bounds for the

g 0.25m3 into litres volume of the triangular prism.

h 98cm3 into ml

of his loft conversion. He will paint two coats

7.4 Circles

on all the walls and the ceiling. What is the

total area Sam will paint to the nearest m2? 1 R The table gives the diameter and

circumference of some circles.

3.9 m

5m Diameter Circumference

5cm 15.7cm

2.5 m

10m 31.4m

3.3 m

42mm 131.9mm

circumference

3.8 m a Work out the ratio ____________

for each

diameter

one. What do you notice?

11 P / R A cuboid has 8 edges of the same circumference

length and 4 shorter edges which are 3.5cm b The ratio ____________

of a circle is

diameter

each. represented by the Greek letter p (pi).

Its volume is 143.5cm3. Find the p key on your calculator.

What is the length of the longer edge Write the value of p to 8 decimal places

(to 1 d.p.)? (8d.p.).

2 Work out the circumference of each circle. 6 P The diameter of a wheelchair wheel

Give your answers to 1 d.p. and the units of measures 63cm.

measurement. How many complete revolutions does the

a b wheel make in an 800m wheelchair race?

8 cm 5.2 m

7 R The areas and circumferences of these

circles are given in terms of p.

Match each circle to its area and circumference.

c d a b c d

47 mm 8.6 cm

4 cm 9 cm 15 cm 20 cm

a b

81p cm2 225p cm2 16p cm2 400p cm2

7 cm 9.3 m

c d

5m 8 R a Work out the area and circumference of

11.9 cm

a circle with radius 7cm

i in terms of p ii to 2 s.f.

b Which values for the area and

4 Exam-style question circumference are the most accurate?

Tariq designs a pattern for a park square in 9 The circumference of a circle is 215cm.

the city centre. a Substitute the value for C into the formula

He draws this design to be made from dark C = pd

grey and light grey gravel. b Solve the equation to find the diameter to

Each bag of gravel covers an area of 8m2. 1 d.p.

10 Find the radius of a circle with circumference

20m. Give your answer to 1 d.p.

50 m

11 a Find the radius of a circle Example

with area 484cm2.

How many bags of dark grey and light grey Give your answer to the

gravel are needed to complete the design? nearest cm.

You must show your working. (5 marks) b Find the diameter of a

circle with area 952cm2.

5 Georgie owns a factory which produces Give your answer to the nearest mm.

aluminium bars for climbing gear.

The diagram shows the cross-section of one 12 a Copy and complete to make r the subject

of the bars. of the formula for the area of a circle.

A = pr2

A

__

10 mm =r 2

___

13 mm A

__

=

a Work out the mean distance across the bar. out the radii of these circles to 2 d.p.

b By modelling the cross-section as a circle, i circle 1 with area 120cm2

calculate an estimate for its area to the ii circle 2 with area 750mm2

nearest square millimetre. iii circle 3 with area 6.7m2

13 R Paul sells cans of drink. Each can is in 5 P Two quarter circles are cut from this

the shape of a cylinder. The diameter of the rectangular piece of card.

cross-section of each can is 7cm. Work out the shaded area.

Paul packs the cans in boxes 40 cm

like this. What percentage of

the area of the base of each 20 cm

box do the cans occupy?

along the rectangle of cardboard? 6 The area of this quarter circle is

33.2cm2 to 1d.p.

Find the perimeter of the

quarter circle to 1d.p.

7.5 Sectors of circles

Q6 hint Calculate the area of the whole

1 Work out the area to 1 d.p. of circle, and then find its radius.

a the semicircle b the quarter circle.

7 Exam-style question

A Example

Diagram

20 cm NOT

6 cm 10 cm accurately

45 drawn

O B

Q1 hint Find the area

of the whole circle first. OAB is a sector of a circle, centre O.

The radius of the circle is 20cm.

The angle of the sector is 45.

2 Work out the perimeter of each semicircle Work out the arc length and hence the

i in terms of p ii to 1 d.p. perimeter of sector OAB.

a b Give your answer correct to 3 significant

figures. (2 marks)

15 cm

2.5 cm

8 Work out the area of the sector in Q7.

Give your answer to 3 s.f.

3 Work out the perimeter of this quarter circle

length and area of this

a in terms of p sector to 3 s.f. 155

b to 1 d.p. b The radius of the 14 cm

circle was measured

4.5 m to the nearest cm and the angle was

measured to the nearest degree.

4 P A racecourse comprises a rectangle and Work out the upper and lower bounds for

2identical semicircles. the area of the sector.

60 m

100 m

x

Work out to the nearest metre

9 cm

a the area of the racecourse

b the perimeter of the racecourse. Find the angle of the sector, to the nearest

degree.

11 P Find the angle of this sector. 2 Work out the volume of each cylinder.

Giveyour answers to 3 s.f.

150 mm

a 4.5 cm

b

51 mm

x

8 cm

80 mm

94 mm

12 P This sector has area 24m2.

Find the radius.

Give your answer to a suitable degree of c 6m

accuracy.

25 cm

r The shape of the slick can be modelled as a

cylinder.

13 P Angle AOB is 135. The diameter across the slick is 150m and

5p the mean thickness of the slick is 0.1mm.

The arc length AB is ___ cm.

6 Estimate the volume of the oil slick.

Find the area of sector AB in terms of p.

Give your answer in m3 to 2 d.p.

O 317cm3. Work out its height to 1 d.p.

135 6.2 cm

A B

h

14 P Calculate the area of the shaded region.

Give your answer in terms of p.

area of each cylinder in Q2.

Write each answer to 3 s.f.

12 cm

7.6 C

ylinders and 6 P A cylinder has total surface area 33cm2

and diameter 10mm.

spheres Work out its height, to the nearest millimetre.

1 R The volume of a cylinder of radius r and Q6 hint Substitute the values into the

height h is V = pr2h surface area formula and solve.

diameter 10cm. The same amount of water

h is poured into another cylindrical vase with

different dimensions. The water rises to one

and a half times the height it reached in the

first vase.

Explain why this is a formula for the volume Work out the diameter of the second vase

of a prism. incm to 1 d.p.

8 Calculate the surface area and volume of

each sphere. Give your answers in terms of p. 7.7 Pyramids and cones

a b

1 Here is a square-based pyramid.

12 mm

8 cm

10 cm

garden ornaments. The factory produces the

7 cm

hemispheres with external diameter 20cm

and a thickness of 3mm. a Work out the area of each triangular face.

Work out the volume of metal used for each b Calculate the total surface area of the

hemisphere, to the nearest cubic millimetre. pyramid.

10 Exam-style question 2 This pyramid has a square base of side 5cm,

and vertical height 9cm.

A manufacturing company makes plastic

containers for childrens toys. Calculate its volume.

Each container comprises a cylinder with

identical hemispheres at each end.

The length of the cylinder is 2.5cm. 9 cm

The diameter of the cylinder is 1.75cm.

5 cm

1.75 cm 5 cm

This solid is made from

a triangular-based pyramid

and a triangular prism.

a Calculate the total volume of the container. The triangular prism has

Give your answer correct to 3 significant a right-angled triangular

figures. (3 marks) cross-section and a length

b Calculate the surface area of the container. of 10m.

5m 10 m

Give your answer correct to 3 significant The height and base of 12 m

figures. (3 marks) the triangle are 12m and

5m respectively.

11 P A cuboid-shaped block of metal has The ratio of the volume of the pyramid to

dimensions 20cm by 10cm by 4cm. the volume of the prism is 1:4

The block is melted down and made into Find

spherical ball bearings, each with a radius a the volume of the prism

of5mm. b the height of the pyramid. (6 marks)

How many of these ball bearings can be

made from the block? 4 A cone has base radius 9cm

12 P What is the radius of a sphere with volume and height 12cm.

6000cm3? Calculate its volume

a in terms of p

13 P A cylinder has a volume of 450cm3 b to 3 s.f. 12 cm

measured to the nearest 10cm3, and a radius

of 5cm measured to the nearest cm.

What are the upper and lower bounds of its

height? 9 cm

5 A cone has base radius 11 This 3D solid is made from x cm

70mm and slant height a cylinder and a cone.

250mm. 250 mm Write an expression in

Calculate, in terms of p terms of x and p for

a the area of its base a the surface area of the 12 cm

b its curved surface 70 mm cylinder

area b the curved surface area x cm

c its total surface area. of the cone

c the total surface area of

6 P Work out the capacity of this disposable the solid.

cup in ml.

Give your answer to 3 s.f. 12 Calculate the volume and surface area of this

3D solid. Give your answers to 3 s.f.

4 cm

45 mm

10 cm

180 mm

with radius 3.6cm and volume 129cm3.

Give your answer to 3 s.f.

plastic. 7 Problem-solving

The diameter of the cone is 50mm.

a What is the height of the cone? Solve problems using these Example

b What is the surface area of the cone? strategies where appropriate:

Give your answers to 3 s.f.

Use pictures or lists

9 P A cone and a sphere have identical total Use smaller numbers

surface areas. The height of the cone is 24cm Use bar models

and the slant height is 26cm. Use x for the unknown

Work out the radius of the sphere to the Use a flow diagram.

nearest millimetre.

1 R Gillian sells items at a craft fair.

10 The top half of this cone is cut off to leave a The prices of the items sold at her last craft

3D solid called a frustum. fair were

3.50, 12.50, 25, 8, 5, 4.50, 5, 16, 5,

2.50, 5, 12.50, 2.50, 5, 3.50

6 cm

a Find the mean, median, mode and range

of the prices of the items sold.

6 cm b Why might Gillian want to know the mode?

10 cm c What might Gillian say about the range?

Work out the volume of the frustum, in terms

of p. _38of the space is taken up by work stations

and _13of the space is taken up by the canteen.

Q10 hint Volume of frustum The rest is taken up by conference rooms.

= volume of whole cone volume of top cone

What is the floor area of the conference

rooms?

3 R A local school has been given an area of a 8 Exam-style question

memorial park to create a mosaic.

The shape and measurements of the area are The cabins on a ship need repainting.

shown below. The walls overlooking the sea will be

painted blue. There are enough cans of blue

60 cm paint to cover 50m2.

100 cm 3.8 m

70 cm 60 cm 60 cm

130 cm

85 cm 2m

80 cm cabinet

150 cm

120 cm

a What is the perimeter of the shape for the The shaded area is the part of the wall to be

mosaic? painted. If all the cabins are the same, how

b What is the area of the mosaic? many complete cabin walls can be painted

c How did you work out the area of the with the paint they already have?

mosaic? Show all your working.

Round all answers to 2 d.p. (5 marks)

4 R A farmer rents two rectangular fields.

Onefield measures 350m 620m and the 9 An open-air stage is being built in a park.

other measures 430m 860m. Atrack needs to be placed along the arc of

How many hectares of field does the farmer the sector for the scenery.

rent?

back

Q4 hint 1ha = 100m 100m

4.5 m

the circumference of the wheel is used to

front

measure distance.

What would the radius of the wheel need to a What length does the track need to be?

be in cm for each turn to measure Give your answer to 1 d.p.

a 1 metre b What is the area of the stage?

b 1.5 metres Give your answer to 2 d.p.

c 5 metres? 10 R Philip and Craig are building model

Give your answers to 1 d.p. castles for a project.

Philip uses cylinders for his towers and needs

6 R The sum of the interior angles of a

to make cones for the turrets.

polygon is1080.

Craig uses prisms with square-faced ends

What is the name of the polygon?

and wants to make square-based pyramids

Explain how you know.

for the turrets.

7 R A class have been asked to design a

Craig Philip

container to hold exactly 8 litres of liquid. 8 cm 8 cm

Knowing that 1litre = 1000cm3, what possible

dimensions could the container have if it was

a a cube

24 cm 24 cm

b a cuboid

c a triangular prism?

6 cm 6 cm

and width/diameter, which tower has the

larger surface area? Show your working.

8T

RANSFORMATIONS AND

CONSTRUCTIONS

5 Exam-style question

8.1 3D solids

Here is a solid prism.

1 On squared paper, draw and Example

label the plan, front elevation 5 cm

and side elevation of these

solids. 3 cm

a 3 cm 8 cm

b c

4 cm 9 cm

2 cm

13 cm

2 R Sketch the solids represented by these

plans and elevations. 4 cm

a Plan Front Side On a centimetre-square grid, draw an

accurate plan view of the solid prism from

the direction of the arrow. (2 marks)

rotation

c Plan Front Side

axes.

3 P Here is the side elevation of a 3D solid. a Draw a rectangle Q with coordinates

A(3, 2), B(1, 2), C(1, 5) and D(3, 5).

Sketch three possible 3D

solids it could belong to. b Reflect rectangle Q in the y-axis.

Label the image R.

4 P / R Here is a cube. c Reflect rectangle R in y = 1.

a Calculate the surface 3 cm Label the image S.

area of the cube. d Reflect rectangle S in the y-axis.

b The cube is cut in 3 cm Label the image T.

half along the red 3 cm

e Describe the single reflection that maps

plane. Sketch the rectangle T onto rectangle Q.

plan, front elevation

and side elevation Q1 hint Use tracing paper to help.

of each of the new

3D solids. 2 R Draw a coordinate grid from 6 to +6 on

c Calculate the surface area of both axes.

each of the new solids. a Draw triangle A with coordinates (0, 2),

d Repeat parts b and c (2, 2) and (2, 4).

for the cube cut along b Reflect triangle A in the line y = x.

this red plane. c Reflect triangle A in the line x = 2.

3 Describe the reflection that maps ii 180 about (0, 0)

a P onto Q b P onto R iii 90 clockwise about (3, 1)

c P onto S d P onto T. iv 180 about (1, 4)

v 90 anticlockwise about (1, 4)

y

vi 180 about (1, 0).

6

Label your results i, ii etc.

5

R4 P T 7 Describe the rotation that Example

3 takes each shape to its image.

2 y

1 10

8

26 25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 6 x

21 6

22 D 4

S 2 A

23

24 Q

28 26 24 220 2 4 6 8 x

25 22

C

B 24

26

26

8 P Draw a coordinate grid from 5 to +5 on

a A to B b A to C.

both axes.

y a Plot the points (2, 1), (4, 2) and (1, 3).

7 Join them and label the shape A.

6 b Reflect shape A in the x-axis.

5 Label the image B.

C

4 c Reflect shape B in the y-axis.

3 A B Label the image C.

2 d Describe the transformation that takes

1 shape A to shape C.

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x 9 R The rotation of a square can always be

described as a reflection.

5 Draw a coordinate grid from 5 to +5 on both Decide whether this statement is sometimes

axes. true, always true or never true.

a Draw shape A with coordinates (2, 1),

(4, 1) and (3, 3). 10 Exam-style question

b Reflect shape A in the line y = x. y

Label the image B. 5

c Reflect shape A in the line y = x. 4

Label the image C. 3

d Reflect shape C in the x-axis. 2 A

Label the image D. 1

B

e Describe the reflection that maps shape D

25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 x

to shape B. 21

22

6 R Draw a coordinate grid from 8 to +5 on

23

both axes.

a Draw shape A with coordinates (2, 1), (4, 1), Describe fully the single transformation

(4, 4) and (2, 4). that maps shape A onto shape B. (3 marks)

b Rotate triangle A

i 90 anticlockwise about (2, 1)

d Shape A is enlarged by scale factor 4 to

8.3 Enlargement make shape D.

Work out the area of shape D.

1 Copy the diagram, drawing the x-axis from e Copy and complete this table.

2 to 8 and the y-axis from 2 to 5.

Scale Area of enlarged shape

_____________________

y Shape

factor Area of shape A

5

B 2

4

3

C 3

2 D 4

1

4 Copy these diagrams.

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 x Enlarge each shape by the scale factor given.

a scale factor _12

Enlarge the rectangle by scale factor 2, with

these centres of enlargement.

a (1, 4) b (1, 1) c (3, 2)

2 Shape A has been enlarged to give shape B.

y

6 b scale factor _13

A 4

2

26 24 22 O 2 4 6 8 10 x

22 B

24 5 a Copy and enlarge each shape by the

given scale factor about the centre of

26

enlargement shown.

a What is the scale factor of the i scale factor _13

enlargement?

b Copy the diagram.

Join corresponding vertices on the object

and the image with straight lines.

Extend the lines until they meet at the

centre of enlargement. ii scale factor _12

c Write the coordinates of the centre of

enlargement.

d Copy and complete to describe the

enlargement from A to B.

Enlargement by scale factor ____ ,

centre ( ____ , ____ ). iii scale factor _13

height 3cm.

a Work out the area of the triangle.

b Shape A is enlarged by scale factor 2 to

make shape B.

Work out the area of shape B.

c Shape A is enlarged by scale factor 3 to b R When a shape is enlarged by scale

make shape C. factor _13, is its area enlarged by scale

Work out the area of shape C.

factor (_13) ? Explain.

2

6 P Describe the enlargement that maps 8 P Describe fully the transformation that

shape A onto shape P. maps shape S onto shape T.

a y y

5 10

4 8

P

3 6

S

2 4

1 2

21 22

22 A 24

23 T 26

24 28

25 210

26

b y

vertices to find the centre.

5

4

9 India said, An enlargement does not change

3 the orientation of the shape.

2 Is India correct?

1 Explain your answer.

25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 x 10 Exam-style question

21

22 y

23 10

A

24 8

A

25 6

P

26 4

2

7 P Draw a coordinate grid from Example

210 28 26 24 22 O 2 4 6 8 10 x

12 to +12 on both axes. 22

B

Join the points (6, 3), (8, 3) and 24

(6, 6) to make a triangle. 26

Enlarge the triangle 28

a by scale factor 2, 210

centre of enlargement (5, 2)

b by scale factor 3, Describe fully the single transformation

centre of enlargement (5, 4) that maps shape A onto shape B. (3 marks

c by scale factor 1,

centre of enlargement (6, 3).

Exam hint.

For 3 marks, give 3 pieces of information

about the transformation.

4 Draw a coordinate grid from 6 to +6 on both

8.4 Translations and axes.

combinations of a Plot a triangle with vertices at (2, 3), (0, 1)

and (1, 4). Label the triangle P.

transformations b i Translate triangle P by vector ( ).

2

7

1 Copy the diagram. Translate Example ii Translate this new triangle by vector

shape A by the vectors 4

a ( )to B b ( 3)to C

1 2

3 c Describe the translation of triangle P to

triangle Q, using a single vector.

( 0)to E

c ( )to D d

0 2

5 a R A shape is translated by vector ( )

7 2

e ( )to F

5 3

followed by a translation by vector ( ).

3 3

1

y

What is the resultant vector?

b The resultant of two vectors is ( ).

10 3

8 4

The first vector is ( ).

1

6 2

A What is the second vector?

4

2 6 Copy this diagram and shape A only on a

coordinate grid from 6 to +6.

24 22 O 2 4 6 8 10 x y

22

10

8

2 Describe these translations using column P 6

vectors.

4

a A to B b C to E

c D to C d F to B 2

e B to F

28 26 24 22 O 2 4 6 x

y 22 A

V

10 24

8 26

F B

6

A

a Translate shape A by vector ( ) .

4 7

3

2 C Label the image B.

b Reflect shape B in the line x = 2.

28 26 24 22 O 2 4 6 8 x Label the image C.

22

24 E 7 Copy the diagram from Q6 and shape P only.

a Translate shape P by vector ( ) .

D 6

26 2

Label the image Q.

b Reflect shape Q in the line y = 1.

3 R A shape is translated by vector ( ) .

a Label the image R.

c Translate shape R by vector ( ).

6

b

2

What vector would translate the shape back Label the image S.

to its original position? d Describe the reflection that maps shape P

Explain your answer. onto shape S.

8 Copy the diagram from Q6 and triangle V only. 11 Adam says, A shape and its transformed

a Rotate triangle V through 180 about the image always have the same area.

point (1, 0). Label the image W. Do you agree with this statement?

b Reflect triangle W in the line y = x. If not, give a counter example and explain

Label the image X. your answer.

c Translate triangle X by vector ( ).

9

0

Label the image Y.

d Describe the single transformation that 8.5 Bearings and

maps triangle V onto triangle Y.

scaledrawings

9 P / R A tessellation is made by transforming

shape A. 1 P During a search and rescue mission the

positions of a frigate, lifeboat and helicopter

D are marked in relation to the man overboard.

F C

E B Frigate

A

Man

overboard

Copy the tessellation onto a coordinate grid

with the vertices of A at (0, 0), (3, 0), (3, 1), Helicopter

(1, 1) (1, 2) and (0, 2).

Describe the transformation that would move Lifeboat

shape

a A to B b B to C c C to D The real-life distance from the frigate to the

d A to E e E to F. helicopter is 16km.

f What transformation of shape A would a What scale has been used on the map?

make a shape with 4 times the area? b From the map, estimate the distance

from

10 Exam-style question

i the lifeboat to the man overboard

y ii the helicopter to the man overboard.

4 c The helicopter flies at a speed of

3 140km/hour.

2 A

How long will it take it to fly from its

1 current position to the man overboard?

Giveyour answer in minutes.

25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 x

21

22

B 2 Adrian is using a map with a Example

23

scale of 1:250000.

24 He measures these distances

25

on the map.

a 5cm b 10cm

a Describe fully the single transformation c 3cm d 0.5cm

that maps triangle A onto triangle B. What are the distances in real life?

(2 marks) Write your answers in kilometres.

b Reflect triangle B in the y-axis and

label the image C. Then translate 3 The scale on a map is 1:50000.

shape C by vector ( )and label

4 What is the distance on the map, in cm,

0

the image D. (3 marks) for a real distance of

c Describe the single transformation a 30km b 5km c 13km?

that maps triangle B onto

triangle D. (2 marks)

4 The scale on a map is 1:10000. 9 P A man walks 7km on a bearing of 120.

a On the map, the distance between the He then turns and walks 8km on a bearing

post office and the library is 3.5cm. of320.

Work out the real distance between them. a Use a scale of 2cm to 1km to draw an

Give your answer in metres. accurate scale drawing of the walk.

b The real distance between the two b How far is the man from his starting point?

churches is 1.5km. Work out the distance c What is the bearing he should walk on to

between the churches on the map. Give return to his starting point?

your answer in cm.

10 P The bearing from Manchester Airport to

5 a The scale of the map is 1:1000000. Amsterdam Airport is 105.

Calculate the distance in km between Calculate the bearing of Manchester Airport

i St Peter Port and St Helier from Amsterdam Airport.

ii St Helier and Carteret.

N

b Which town is 57km from Cherbourg?

Alderney

St Annes

Cherbourg 105

Manchester

Vale

Herm FRANCE Amsterdam

St Peter

Port

Guernsey

Sark

Carteret 11 P a The bearing of B from A is 125.

Workout the bearing of A from B.

Jersey b The bearing of C from D is 322.

Jersey Zoo

Rozel Work out the bearing of D from C.

Captive Island

St Aubin St Helier

12 Exam-style question

The diagram shows the N

6 The diagram shows the relative positions of

positions of two boats,

towns A, B and C.

B and C.

C Boat T is on a bearing

of 190 from boat B. B 150

Boat T is on a bearing

N

35 51 of 315 from boat C.

A 6 km B Draw an accurate diagram

to show the position of boat T.

a Make an accurate scale drawing using a

Mark the position of boat T C

scale of 1:50000.

with a cross ().

b Work out the real distances AC and CB.

Label it T. (3 marks)

7 P The distance between Heathrow and

Gatwick is 35km.

The bearing of Gatwick from Heathrow is155.

Make an accurate scale map of the locations 8.6 Constructions 1

of the two airports, using a scale of 1cm to

5km. 1 Construct an accurate drawing Example

of this triangle.

8 P A ship is 120km east of a port. The ship

R

then sails on a bearing of 310 for 90km. 8 cm

a Make an accurate scale drawing. 5 cm Q

Use a scale of 1cm to 20km.

11 cm

b What is the bearing of the port from the P

ship?

2 Construct each triangle PQR. 10 Follow these instructions to draw the

a PQ = 4cm, QR = 7cm, PR = 5cm perpendicular from point L to the line MN.

b PQ = 9cm, QR = 6cm, PR = 4cm a Open your compasses and draw an arc

c PQ = 9.5cm, QR = 6.5cm, PR = 4.5cm with centre L. Label the two points where

it intersects with the line MN as Q and R.

Q2 hint Sketch each diagram first and label

the lengths. L

7.5cm. M Q R N

Check the angles using a protractor.

b From each point Q and R, keeping

4 R Explain why it is impossible to construct your compasses the same, draw an arc

atriangle with sides 3cm, 5.5cm and 12cm. underneath the line so they cross.

5 Construct an accurate scale c Join this point with point L.

drawing of this flower bed. 7m 11 P A walker is in the middle of a field

Use a scale of 1:100. 5m

and wants to walk the shortest possible

distanceto the marked footpath.

4m

The scale is 1:1000

6 The diagram shows the profile

of a triangular shed. Walker

15 m 15 m

Using a scale of 1cm to 2m,

construct an accurate scale

drawing of this profile.

10 m

7 P This chocolate box is in the shape of

triangular prism.

shortest path for the walker to get to each

of the two straight parts of the footpath.

The end faces are equilateral triangles with

b Work out the difference in the distances.

sides of length 5cm.

The whole box has length 7cm. c The speed of the walker is 1.5m/s.

Construct an accurate net for the box. How long would it take to walk the shorter

distance?

8 a Draw a line segment PQ Example

10cm long. Construct the

perpendicular bisector of PQ. 8.7 Constructions 2

b Use a ruler and protractor

to check that it bisects your 1 For each angle Example

line at right angles. i trace the angle

c Mark any point R on your perpendicular ii construct the angle

bisector. bisector using a ruler

Measure its distance from P and from Q. and compasses

9 P Two schools A and B are 0.8km apart. iii check your two smaller

a Using a scale of 1:10000, draw an accurate angles using a protractor.

scale drawing of the schools. a b

b A pelican crossing is equidistant from the

two schools.

Construct a line to show where the pelican

crossing could be.

2 P Use a ruler and compasses to construct 7 P a Use a ruler, protractor and compasses to

these angles. construct the triangle PQR.

a 90 b 135 Q

5 cm

bisect a straight line?

45 R

3 P Use a ruler and compasses to construct 9 cm

P

these angles.

b Construct a line that is perpendicular to

a 22.5 b 112.5

PR and passes through Q. Label the point

where it meets PR as S.

4 P Use a ruler and compasses to construct a

210 angle. c Calculate the perimeter of triangle PQS.

5 P A rectangular piece of land is being split 4 cm

tetrahedron is made from

into two plots A and B.

equilateral triangles.

4m Construct the net using

a ruler and compasses.

135 9 a Draw any triangle ABC.

Plot B b Construct the bisector of each angle.

30 m c Label the point where the bisectors cross

Plot A

as point D.

d Construct the perpendicular from D to

each of the sides of the triangle.

40 m e Measure the distances from D to where

each perpendicular meets the sides.

a Make a scale drawing of the rectangular What do you notice?

plot using a scale of 1cm to 4m.

b Use a ruler and protractor to construct the 10 R a Draw a circle with centre O and radius

diagonal line. 6cm. Mark a point A on its circumference.

c Calculate the area of plot A. b Keep the compasses the same size as the

radius and draw an arc from point A.

6 P A piece of cloth in the shape of an Label the point where the arc cuts the

equilateral triangle (ABC) is cut into two circleB.

equal right-angled triangles to make two A

sails for a boat. Angle CBD is bisected and the B

lower part of the sail is dyed red.

O

C

8m 8m

c Keeping the compasses the same, repeat

from point B. Repeat until you have six

E

points on the circumference.

d Join alternate points on the circumference.

B D A

8m e Name the shape you have constructed.

Use a scale of 1cm to 1m. radius 6cm.

b Measure the length of the line DE. Q11 hint What angle will you need to

c What percentage of sail BCD is dyed red? construct from the centre to two consecutive

points on the circumference?

7 P This triangle is rotated B9

8.8 Loci anticlockwise about C.

a Copy the diagram.

1 A dog is tied to a post by a 6m length of rope. b The triangle is then

C

Sketch the locus of where the dog can roam. rotated 90 clockwise A9

about B9. Add this to

2 P Draw a line 10cm long. the diagram.

Draw the locus of all points which are 5cm c Draw the locus of

from the line. vertex A.

d Draw the locus of A B

3 P A rectangular bowling green is marked out vertex C.

to measure 20m by 3m.

8 P Two lighthouses are 100km Example

20 m apart.

3m Lighthouse A is on a bearing

of 100 from lighthouse B.

A fence is put up 1m outside the perimeter. Each lighthouse can be seen

a Draw a plan of the fenced area using a at a distance of 80km.

scale of 1cm to 2m. Draw an accurate scale drawing of the

b Construct the locus of the fence. lighthouses using a scale of 1cm to 20km.

Shade the region where both lighthouses can

Q3 hint Think carefully about what happens

be seen.

at the corners.

9 Exam-style question

4 R / P a Draw two points 8cm apart and Here is a scale drawing of a rectangular

label them A and B. garden ABCD.

b Construct the perpendicular bisector of B C

the line AB.

c Mark a point which is

i 5cm from A and 5cm from B

ii 7cm from A and 7cm from B.

d What do you notice about these points?

two towns P and Q. P and Q are 40km apart.

Using a scale of 1:1000000, construct the locus

of points where the cinema could be built.

flowerbed equidistant from the edge AB and

the edge AD.

C B

A D

8m Scale: 1 cm represents 2 metres.

Jane wants to plant a tree in the garden

at least 5m from point C

D 10 m A

nearer to AB than to AD

a Copy the diagram using a scale of 1cm and less than 3m from DC.

to1m. On a copy of the diagram, shade the region

b Construct the locus of points where the where Jane can plant the tree. (4 marks)

bulbs will be planted. March 2013, Q15, 1MA0/1H

10 P A dog is tied to a rope at the corner of a 2 R Look at these designs.

barn which measures 10m by 7m. y

5

4

3

12 m

7m 2

1

10 m 25 24 23 22 21 O 1 2 3 4 5 x

21

Make an accurate scale drawing of this barn. 22

Use a scale of 1cm to 2m. 23

Accurately shade the region where the dog 24

can roam. 25

11 P ABCD is a rectangle with sides 7cm and

3cm. y

5

A 7 cm B

4

3 cm 3

2

D C

1

Copy the diagram. Shade the region that is

closer to AB than BC and more than 2cm 25 24 23 22 21 O 1 2 3 4 5 x

21

from A. 22

12 A graph x2 + y2 = 40000 shows the region 23

covered by a radio mast, where x and y are 24

inmetres. 25

a Draw a coordinate grid from 300 to +300

on both axes. Plot the graph.

Sue-Ellen is designing a patchwork quilt.

b What area does the radio mast cover? Shestarted with the shape on the first grid

Give your answer to the nearest thousand and then used three transformations to

square metres. create the pattern on the second grid.

Whatcould the three transformations be?

8 Problem-solving

3 An ancient fort has 9 sides.

Solve problems using these strategies where a What is the sum of the interior angles of

appropriate: the floor plan of the fort?

b If all 9 sides of the fort were of equal

Use pictures or lists length, what would each interior angle be?

Use smaller numbers

c The angles are actually one of three sizes.

Use bar models Three of the angles measure x, three

Use x for the unknown measure 2x, and the remaining three

Use a flow diagram. measure 3x.

What are the three sizes of angles?

1 Kelly needs to draw some

construction drawings

4 Michaela bought a car for 5700 plus

for a model she is making.

VAT at 20%. She will pay the cost of the car

Use the picture to draw

in12 equal monthly payments.

the plan, side elevation

What is the amount of each monthly

and front elevation

payment?

for Kellys model.

5 R Pete and Andy are hiking to the nearest 7 The manual for a photocopier needs a

village. Their map has a scale of 1:100000. diagram to show how to fix a paper jam.

The path they need is 9cm long on the map. Lever A needs to be rotated 120 clockwise

Pete says that it will only take a few hours to and lever B needs to be rotated 90

get to the village as it is only 9km away. anticlockwise.

Andy says it is too far to hike to as it is 90km

away.

a Who is correct? A B

Explain your answer.

b There is a sign for a village 12km away.

What distance would this be on the map?

c What would the scale be if 8cm represents The centre of rotation is marked on each

80km? lever (0).

Copy the drawings onto a grid and then use

6 This grid shows the position of a set of patio dotted lines to draw the images of where the

furniture. levers need to rotate to.

y

8 A farmer has invested in five wind turbines

10

to supply energy to his farm and village.

8 A Hedraws a grid to show where four of the

6 turbines are to be placed.

4

y

2 10

B

8

210 28 26 24 22O 2 4 6 8 10 x A

22 6

B

24 4

26 2

D

28

210 28 26 24 22O 2 4 6 8 10 x

210 22

C

24

The grid shows the new positions of the 26

furniture after it was blown by strong winds. 28

y 210

10

8 Use column vectors to describe the

6

translation that would move turbine

a A to B b B to C c C to D

4

A The farmer places turbine E by translating it

2

by vector ( ) from turbine D.

2

210 28 26 24 22 O 2 4 6 8 10 x 7

B 22 d Copy the grid and draw turbine E in its

24 correct position.

26

9 R There are some red counters and some

28

blue counters in a bag.

210

7 red counters are added and the number of

red and blue counters is now the same.

Fully describe the transformation of

Then 22 blue counters are added and the

a the table ratio of red:blue becomes 1:3.

b chair A How many red counters were originally in the

c chair B. bag?

10 Exam-style question

In this question, use a ruler and a pair of compasses.

Leave in all your construction lines.

The scale drawing shows part of a school building and the

playground outside.

The head teacher wants to paint a mini-maze on the playground.

It needs to be

at least 4m from the fence KL

at least 3.6m from the tree T

nearer the maypole M than to the goal post G.

Construct and shade the region where the mini-maze can go.

K L

T

M

G

School

3 Find the roots of these functions.

9.1 Solving quadratic a x2 3x b x2 36 c 100 z2

equations 1 4 a Use this graph to solve the equation

x2 2x 8 = 0

1 Find the solutions to these quadratic y

equations. 2

a 5x2 = 45

21028 26 24 22O 2 4 6 8 10 x

b 3x2 3 = 72 22

c 4x2 144 = 0 24

26

2 Solve y 5 x2 2 2x 2 8

Example 28

a x2 + 10x + 21 = 0 210

b a2 + 3a 18 = 0

c p2 8p + 12 = 0 b Factorise x2 2x 8 = 0 to show that you

d y2 y 20 = 0 get the same solutions.

5 Solve 7 P A photo frame has a x

x2 x = 2

a x2 + 7x = 12 b space for a photo that 5 inches

c x2 = 7x 10 d x2 = 8x is 7 inches by 5 inches.

It has a wooden border x x

7 inches

Q5a hint Rearrange into the form that is the same width all

x2 + x + = 0 the way round. The area

of the wooden frame is

45 square inches. x

6 P Write any function that will give the roots

x = 2 and x = 5. a Write an equation for the area of the

wooden frame.

b Solve your equation to find x.

9.2 S

olving quadratic 8 Exam-style question

equations 2 Solve, by factorising, the equation

6x2 19x + 15 = 0 (3 marks)

1 Write and solve an equation to find x.

x13 9 Solve, giving your solutions Example

in surd form

Area 5 28 m2 x a x2 + 8x + 5 = 0

b x2 + 5x + 2 = 0

c x2 + 4x 3 = 0

2 P A tile design is available in two sizes. d x2 + 6x 4 = 0

A small tile has dimensions l l. e 2x2 + 10x + 7 = 0

A large tile has dimensions 2l (l + 2). 10 Solve, giving your solutions to 2 decimal

The area of a large tile is 160cm2. places

What are the dimensions of the small tile? a x2 + 4x 6 = 0 b 2x2 + 3x 8 = 0

3 Copy and complete to factorise the c 3x 4x 11 = 0 d

2 5x2 + 10x 9 = 0

expression. 11 Solve 3x2 5x 8

2x2 + 5x 7 = (2x ______)(x ______) a by factorising

b by using the quadratic formula.

4 Factorise these expressions.

a 3x2 + 12x + 9 12 Exam-style question

b 2x2 + 7x + 3 Solve 3x2 + 9x 10 = 0

c 6x2 10x 4 Give your solutions correct to

d 5x2 + 13x 6 2 decimal places. (3 marks)

e 3x2 2x 8

5 Solve

9.3 Completing the square

a (3x 9)(x + 5) = 0

b (2y + 7)(3y 21) = 0 1 Write a quadratic expression for the area of

c (4t 5)(2t 5) = 0 the large square.

d (3d + 7)(3d 10) = 0 x 3

x

Q5a hint Either 3x 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0

6 Solve 3

a 2x2 + 7x + 3 = 0

b 3x2 + 7x + 4 = 0

c 4x2 + 5x 21 = 0 Q1 hint Write an expression with two brackets.

Expand to get a quadratic expression.

d 4x2 16x + 15 = 0

2 Write these expressions in the form 10 Copy and complete to solve 3x2 + 12x 18 = 0.

(x + 3)2 + or (x + 3)2 Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.

a x2 + 6x + 10 3x2 + 12x 18 = 0

b x2 + 6x + 7 3(x2 + x ) = 0

c x2 + 6x 1 x2 + x = 0

(x + )2 2 = 0

3 Write these as perfect squares.

(x + )2 = 0

a x2 + 4x + 4

(x + )2 = __

b x2 + 10x + 25

__ x + = __

c x2 + 16x + 64

x = + or x =

d x2 + 20x + 100

4 Write these in the form Q10 hint Begin by dividing every term by

Example

(x + p)2 + q the coefficient of x2, 3. Then complete the

square for the first two terms. Rearrange

a x2 + 4x + 7 terms and then take the square root of both

b x2 + 10x + 20 sides.

c x2 + 14x

d x2 + 8x + 20 11 Solve these quadratic equations, giving your

e x2 6x + 10 answers correct to 2 decimal places.

a 2x2 + 12x 4 = 0 b 4x2 32x 9 = 0

5 Copy and complete to solve the quadratic

c 3x2 6x 8 = 0 d 6x2 + 24x 15 = 0

equation, giving your answer in surd form.

e 4x + 20x 7 = 0

2

x2 + 6x + 6 = 0

(x + )2 + 6 = 0 12 Exam-style question

(x + )2 = __ Solve 5x2 + 30x + 8 = 0 by completing

(x__+ ) = __ thesquare.

x = or x = +

Give your answer correct to

2 decimal places. (3 marks)

6 Solve these quadratic equations, giving your

answers in surd form.

a x2 + 4x + 2 = 0

9.4 Solving simple

b x2 + 10x + 18 = 0

c x2 + 2x 4 = 0 simultaneous equations

7 Copy and complete to write the expression 1 Solve the simultaneous equations

2x2 + 8x + 35 in the form p(x + q)2 + r a y = 4 b y = 2

2x2 + 8x + 35 = 2( + ) + 35 3x + y = 13 4x + y = 10

= 2[(x + )2 ] + 35

c y = 3 d y = 3x

= 2(x + )2 8 + 35 5x + 2y = 31 2x + 3y = 22

= 2(x + )2 +

e y = x 1 f y=x+2

Q7 hint Factorise the x2 and x terms. Then x + y = 9 x + 2y = 13

complete the square for the expression g 4x y = 0 h y 2x = 0

inside the brackets. Simplify so that you 3x + 2y = 11 3x + y = 20

have p(x + q)2 + r

2 P Two shirts and one pair of trousers cost 40.

A pair of trousers costs 4 more than a shirt.

8 Write these in the form a(x + p)2 + q

a How much is a shirt?

a 3x2 + 6x 5 b 4x2 16x + 11

b How much is a pair of trousers?

c 2x + 12x 7 d

2 3x2 18x + 10

3 P Alfie buys 3 fish and 2 portions of chips

9 Solve these equations by completing the for 12. Lauren buys 4 fish and 4 portions of

square. Give your answers in surd form. chips for 18.

a 2x2 + 8x 14 = 0 b 3x2 24x + 30 = 0 How much does one portion of chips cost?

4 Solve these simultaneous equations. 8 Exam-style question

a 4x + y = 16 Example

Solve the simultaneous equations

3x y = 5

3x y = 9

b 3x + y = 11

x+y=7 2x + 3y = 5 (3 marks)

c 6x 2y = 20 9 Solve the simultaneous equations

5x 2y = 16

4x + y = 0

5 Emily solves simultaneous equations in x + 4y = 0

thisway.

10 P The sum of two numbers is 29 and their

2x y = 7

difference is 7.

x + y = 5

Let the two numbers be x and y.

y = 5 x

Write two equations and solve them to find

2x (5 x) = 7

the two numbers.

2x 5 + x = 7

3x 5 = 7 11 P A plumber charges a call-out fee of x

plus an hourly rate of y per hour. Callum

3x = 12

pays 90 to call out the plumber for 3 hours.

x = 4

Louise pays 110 for 4 hours.

4 + y = 5

a Work out the call-out charge.

So y = 1

b How much would you have to pay for

(2 4) 1 = 7 3 5hours?

Solve the simultaneous equations in

Q4 part a using Emilys method. 12 Exam-style question

The diagram shows a rectangle.

Q5 hint Write the second equation with All sides are measured in centimetres.

y as the subject. Substitute y = into the

first equation then collect like terms to y

find x. Substitute x = into the second

equation and check your solutions work by y25 x

substituting them into the first equation.

2x 2 4

6 a Copy and complete to solve the

simultaneous equations. Amy says the perimeter of the rectangle is

less than 50cm.

3x 2 y 5 13

Show that Amy is correct. (5 marks)

32 2x 1 2y 5 14 32

x 2 2y 5

2x 1 2y 5 14 9.5 M

ore simultaneous

x 2 2y 5

equations

x10 5

x 5 1 a Write the equation of a line through (2, 7).

b Substitute your value of x into equation b Write the equation of a line through (3, 11).

to find y. c Solve your simultaneous equations from

parts a and b to find m and c.

Q6a hint Multiply every term in equation d Write the equation of the line through the

by 2. Then add equations and .

points (2, 7) and (3, 11).

7 Solve these simultaneous equations. Q1a hint Substitute x = 2, y = 7 into

a 2x y = 4 b 2x 2y = 6 y = mx + c

4x + 3y = 18 x + 3y = 7

Q1d hint Substitute your values of m and c

c x 2y = 6 d 3x y = 10

from part c into y = mx + c

2x + 3y = 2 2x + 3y = 3

2 Find the equation of the line through the 10 The diagram shows a rectangle with all

points (3, 11) and (2, 1). measurements in centimetres.

2y 1 2

3 Solve these simultaneous equations.

a 4x + 3y = 24 Example 2y 2 5 x14

5x 2y = 7

b 7x + 2y = 15 3x 1 1

4x + 4y = 20 a Write down a pair of simultaneous

c 5x + 3y = 9 equations in x and y.

3x 4y = 17 b Solve the equations.

d 3x 4y = 4 c Give the dimensions of the rectangle.

2x + 2.5y = 13

e 2x + 3y = 9

3x 2y = 19 9.6 Solving linear and

4 P In a caf, two sandwiches and two bananas

quadratic simultaneous

cost 4, and two sandwiches and one banana equations

cost 3.50.

Work out the cost of a sandwich and the cost 1 Solve these simultaneous equations.

of a banana. a y = x Example

x2 + y = 20

5 P Henry buys two adult and three child

cinema tickets for 41.20. b x y = 5

Rachel buys two adult and four child tickets x2 11 = y

for 48.40. c y + 2x = 7

How much is an adult ticket and how much is 2x2 + 5x + 10 = y

a child ticket? d y = 3x + 2 e x2 + y2 = 16

y = 3x2 + 11x + 7 y = 2x 2

6 P Holly buys two pens and three pencils in a

shop and pays 3.45. 2 Solve these simultaneous equations.

At the same time Leah buys three pens and Give your answers correct to 2 decimal places.

two pencils and pays 2.70. a y 2x = 5 b 3y + 2x = 11

What is the cost of a pen? y = x2 4x + 3 y = x2 + 2x 5

What is the cost of a pencil? 3 R The diagram shows a sketch of the curve

y = 3(x2 x). The curve crosses the straight

7 Exam-style question line with equation y = 2 2x at two points.

Solve the simultaneous equations. y

5x + 4y = 4

3x + 8y = 6 (3 marks)

200kg. Two possible maximum loads are

4small crates and 2 large crates, or 1 small Find the coordinates of the points where they

crate and 3 large crates. intersect.

What is the mass of a small crate? 4 Solve these simultaneous equations.

What is the mass of a large crate?

a y = 2x2 3x + 1 b y = 3x2 9x + 3

9 P Hire charges for a taxi consist of x fixed x + y = 5 y = 2x + 7

charge + y pence for each mile travelled. c y = x 9x + 10 d

2 y = 2x2 + 3x 10

A 5-mile journey costs 6. y + 3x = 2 y 2 = 5x

A 10-mile journey costs 10. e y = x 2 f y = 2x + 3

How much would a 20-mile journey cost? y2 = 14 x y2 = 8x + 33

5 R The diagram 9 Solve these simultaneous equations.

shows a patio Garden Give your answers correct to 3 significant

within a garden. figures.

2x 2 1

The length of a x2 + y2 = 24 b x2 + y2 = 30

the patio is Patio x y = x + 2 y = 2x 3

half the length c x + y = 65

2 2

y

of the garden. y = 5 2x

a Write an equation to represent the length

of the garden (y).

b Write an equation to represent the area of

the patio, which is 15m2.

9.7 S

olving linear

c Use these two equations to find the value of inequalities

x and hence the length of the garden (y).

1 Write down four integers that satisfy each

6 A curve with equation y = x2 + 5x 12 crosses

inequality.

a straight line with equation y = 3x 4 in two

a x + 3 . 5

places.

b x 2 , 1

Find the coordinates of the points where they

intersect. c 2x 1 . 6

d 4x + 3 . 1

7 Exam-style question e 4 , x < 5

C is the curve with equation y = x2 x 1 f 4 < x , 0

L is the straight line with equation y = 2x + 3 g 4 . x > 2

L intersects C at two points, P and Q.

Calculate the exact length of PQ. (6 marks) 2 Write the inequalities that these number

lines represent for x.

Exam hint a

There are 2 marks each for finding P and Q, 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x

and 2 marks for finding the length of PQ.

b

8 R The diagram shows a circle of diameter 23 22 21 0 1 2 3 x

6cm with centre at the origin. c

y 25 24 23 22 21 0 1 2 x

3 d

26 25 24 23 22 21 0 1 x

2

e

21 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x

1

f

24 23 22 21 0 1 2 3 x

23 22 21 O 1 2 3 x

21 3 Exam-style question

2 < x , 5 where x is an integer.

22 a Write down all the possible values

of x. (2 marks)

23 b Write down the inequality represented

on the number line.

a Write the equation for the circle.

b Use an algebraic method to find the 25 24 23 22 21 0 1 2 x

points where the line y = 3x + 1 crosses (2 marks)

the circle.

4 Draw number lines to show these 11 a Multiply both sides of the inequality 4 , 7

inequalities. by 1. Is the inequality still true?

a x , 3 b Divide both sides of the inequality 12 . 9

b 2 < x < 4 by 3. Is the inequality still true?

c 4 , x , 0 c What happens when you multiply or divide

d 3 , x < 2 an inequality by a negative number?

12 Find the possible integer values of x in these

5 {x:x . 2} means the set of all x values such inequalities.

that x is greater than 2.

a 7 , x , 3

Write the meaning of these sets.

b 8 , 2x , 6

a {x:x . 4}

c 6 < 10 2x < 16

b {x:x < 2}

d 4 < 8 3x , 14

c {x:x , 0}

d {x:x . 0} 13 Solve these inequalities and write the

e {x:x > 3} solutions using set notation.

a 2(x + 3) > 4x + 2

6 Show the sets in Q5 on number lines. b 4x 3 . 7 x

c 7 < 3x 4 , 5

d 4 < 2(3 x) < 18

7 Solve each inequality and Example

show your answer on a

number line.

Write the solutions using

9 Problem-solving

set notation.

a 2x , 10 Solve problems using these strategies where

appropriate:

b 4x > 8

c 3x + 2 . 5 Use pictures or lists

d 3x 4 < 8 Use smaller numbers

Use bar models

8 Exam-style question Use x for the unknown

4x 7 , 12 Use a flow diagram.

Find the largest integer value of x. (3 marks)

1 Three lookout towers of a castle form the

corners of a triangle. The North Tower is 85m

Q8 hint Use the inequality symbol on each from the East Tower. The East Tower is 65m

line of your working. from the West Tower, and the West Tower is

70m from the North Tower.

9 Solve these inequalities and write the Use a scale drawing to show the shape and

solutions using set notation. dimensions of the triangle formed by the

a 4(x + 1) , 12 three towers.

b 3(x 2) > 2x 2

2 Exam-style question

c 5x 1 . 2(2x 1)

d 3(7 x) , 4(3x 6) 2 < n , 5 where n is an integer.

a Write down all possible values

10 Solve for n. (2 marks)

a 3 , 2x 1 < 9 b Write down the inequality represented

b 4 < 3x + 2 , 11 on the number line.

3x

c 3 , ___, 6 25 24 23 22 21 0 1 2 3 4 5 x

2

2x+3 (2 marks)

d 1 < ______

, 1

5

3 R Marcia is decorating a gift box she has 6 Find the possible integer values of x in these

made in the form of a triangular prism. inequalities.

Shehas enough glitter to cover 400cm2. a 10 , 3x 4 , 8

b 3 < 2x 5 , 3

7 Solve 2x2 + 4x 3 = 0.

Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.

8 cm

12 cm 8 R The outdoor area of a pre-school is 42m2.

6 cm The storage shed in the outdoor area has

dimensions b b.

a Does Marcia have enough glitter to The dimensions of the outdoor area are

completely cover the box? 3b (b + 5).

b What extra information did you need What are the dimensions of the shed?

to find before you could answer part a?

Howdid you find it? Q8 hint Draw a picture.

c What is the volume of the box?

4 R Jessica is putting together a flat-pack 9 Solve these simultaneous equations.

bookcase. Some of the shelves are slightly 5x + y = 6

longer than others even though they are all x2 + y = 12

meant to be the same length. She works out

that the lengths have been rounded to the 10 R Three equations are written on the board.

nearest centimetre. x2 5x + 7 = 0

a If a shelf is meant to be 75cm what are x2 + y2 = 34

the possible values it could be? y = 3x + 4

b If one shelf is the upper bound value and a Clay has been asked to choose one of the

one shelf is the lower bound value, what is equations to draw a circle.

the size of the gap that would be created?

Which equation does Clay use to draw the

c How would rounding to the nearest tenth circle?

of a centimetre affect the measurements

b What is the centre point of this circle?

of the shelves?

c Clay is asked to choose one of the other

5 Jonathan has two bags of oranges and three equations to draw a straight line.

bags of apples. They weigh 17lb. Which equation does he choose?

Corinne has three bags of oranges and four d Use the equations from parts a and c and

bags of apples. They weigh 24lb. solve them simultaneously to find the

How much does one bag of apples weigh? points where the line intersects the circle.

10 PROBABILITY

a Copy and complete the sample space

10.1 Combined events diagram to show all the possible

outcomes.

1 T-shirts are made in five different colours b Work out the probability of getting

(red, blue, navy blue, green and pink) and i a product of 6

with four different logos (cat, dog, fox, owl). ii a product that is a prime number

a How many possible combinations are iii a product of 20.

there?

b What is the probability that the 5 Exam-style question

combination chosen is red with an owl Bethan rolls two dice.

logo? She adds the scores on the dice together.

c What is the probability that the She records the possible scores in a table.

combination chosen is not red with a

foxlogo? + 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2 At a school, students choose two of five

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

different activities: drama, mountain biking,

hockey, art and orchestra. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

a How many combinations of two activities 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

are there? 5 6 7 8

b What is the probability that a student will 6 7 8 9

choose art?

a Complete the table of possible

c What is the probability that a student will

scores. (1 mark)

choose mountain biking?

b Write down all the ways in which Bethan

d What is the probability that a student can get a total score of 7

chooses art and drama?

One way has been done for you.

3 A coin is flipped and an ordinary six-sided (1, 6) (2 marks)

dice is rolled. Both dice are fair.

a Write a list of all the possible outcomes. c Find the probability that Bethans total

b How many outcomes are there altogether? score is prime. (2 marks)

c Work out

i P(head and 2) 6 Aiden spins a three-sided spinner labelled

ii P(tail and odd number). with the numbers 1, 3, 5 and a four-sided

4 Amelia rolls a six-sided dice Example spinner labelled with the numbers 2, 4, 6, 8,

and spins a four-sided then finds the sum of the two numbers from

spinner, then multiplies the his spins.

results together. a Draw a sample space diagram to show all

of the possible outcomes.

b How many possible outcomes are there

Dice altogether?

1 2 3 4 5 6 c Work out the probability of getting a

totalof

1 1 2

i 5

2 2 4 ii an odd number

Spinner

3 3 iii less than 12.

4 d Which total are you most likely to get?

7 Two bags, A and B, contain coloured marbles. 4 The chance of a traffic light being red is 35%.

Bag A has 2 green, 1 red and 1 blue. The chance of it being amber is 17%.

Bag B has 3 red and 1 blue. What is the probability that next time you are

Logan takes a marble at random from each bag. at the lights it will be green?

a Draw a sample space diagram to show all

5 The lettered cards are shuffled. A card is

the possible outcomes.

picked at random.

b Work out the probability that the marbles

will be A B C D E F G H I J

i both green

ii the same colour Work out the probability of picking a vowel,

iii different colours. aletter in the word BAD or a letter in the

word CAT.

8 Shen rolls a dice twice.

Work out the probability that he will roll the 6 P The table gives the probability of getting

same number on both rolls. each of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on a biased dice.

Q8 hint List all possible outcomes. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6

Probability 0.5 2a 4a 2a a a

9 A group of six students, Mohammed, Susan,

Jackson, Henry, Charles and Eloise, sit Work out the probability of getting

together in a science class. Two students a 2 or 4 b an odd number.

from the group are picked at random to

7 A fair four-sided spinner Example

demonstrate an experiment.

showing the numbers 14

Work out the probability that both the

is spun.

students are male.

Work out the probability of

getting

10.2 M

utually exclusive a 4 b not 4.

events 8 A letter is picked at random from the alphabet.

Find the probability of picking

1 A five-sided spinner lettered A, B, C, D, E is spun. a a vowel b not a vowel.

Which two of the following events are

mutually exclusive? 9 The probability that it will snow tomorrow

is0.37.

A Spinning a vowel

Work out the probability that it will not snow

B Spinning a letter in the word ADD

tomorrow.

C Spinning a consonant

2 A fair six-sided dice is rolled once. 10 Exam-style question

Work out the probability of rolling Here is a four-sided spinner. 4

a a prime number or an odd number The spinner is biased.

3

1

c a square number or a prime number. probabilities that the spinner

will land on 1 or on 3.

3 A standard pack of cards is shuffled and a

card is picked at random. Number 1 2 3 4

Find the probability of picking Probability 0.2 0.1

a a king or a 2 The probability that the spinner will land

b a red queen or a club. on 2is the same as the probability that the

spinner will land on 4.

Q3 hint A standard pack of 52 cards is equally Work out the probability that the spinner

split into four suits: hearts, diamonds, clubs willland on 4. (3 marks)

and spades. For each suit there is an ace, 2, 3,

March 2014, Q4, 1MA0/2H

4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, jack, queen and king.

11 R William has a box of biscuits. In the box 3 Ahuva rolls a ten-sided dice Example

there are chocolate, wafer and sugar-coated numbered 110.

biscuits in the ratio 2:4:5. a What is the theoretical

William doesnt like the wafers. probability that the dice

Work out the probability that he will pick a will land on 7?

biscuit at random that is not a wafer. Ahuva rolls the dice 200 times.

12 A and B are two mutually exclusive events. b Estimate how many times the dice will

P(A) = 0.3 and P(A or B) = 0.73 land on 7.

Work out the value of P(B). 4 There are toffees, chocolates and mints in a

bag in the ratio 2:7:3.

Q12 hint For two mutually exclusive events,

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B).

a What is the probability of picking a mint?

A sweet is picked at random from the bag

13 P C and D are two mutually exclusive events. and then replaced. This is done 240 times.

P(D) = 0.11 and P(C or D) = 0.7 b How many mints would you expect to be

Work out P(not C). picked?

5 The probability of a person failing their

10.3 E

xperimental driving test is 0.64.

Work out an estimate for how many of the

probability next 200 people who take the test will pass.

6 There are 24 counters in a bag. There are red,

1 Eli dropped a piece of buttered toast lots of

blue, yellow and green counters.

times. Itlanded either butter up or butter down.

A counter is picked from the bag and then

He recorded his results in a frequency table.

replaced.

Position Frequency The table shows the results.

Butter down 48

Colour Frequency Relative frequency

Butter up 52

Red 35

a Work out the total frequency. Blue 14

b Work out the experimental probability of Yellow 33

the toast landing

Green 18

i butter up ii butter down.

c He drops the toast 50 more times. a Copy and complete the table, calculating

How many times do you expect it to land the relative frequency for each outcome.

butter down? b What is the experimental probability of

picking a red?

2 Exam-style question

c The experiment is repeated 400 times.

A car manufacturer wants to work out an How many times would you expect to get

estimate for the number of cars of each ared?

colour that will be bought next year. d Are there the same number of counters of

The Managing Director says to record the each colour? Explain your answer.

colours of the next 100 cars sold.

The Assistant Director says to record the 7 The table shows the results of rolling a dice.

colours of the next 1000 cars sold. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6

Who is more likely to get the better estimate?

Frequency 18 13 14 16 17 22

Give a reason for your answer. (1 mark)

Is the dice fair? Give a reason for your answer.

Exam hint 8 Isaac rolls two dice and records the result.

You only get the mark for the job title and Hedoes this 180 times.

a reason. Just writing the correct name One possible outcome is (2, 2). Estimate the

scores 0 marks. number of times he will get two 2s.

9 The probability of winning a game is __ 1

10. 3 60 customers bought a holiday at a travel

Ghayth says that if he plays 10 times he will agents one day.

win. Of the 60 customers, 45 bought a holiday

Is he right? Give a reason for your answer. abroad.

10 Ben flips two coins 100 times. A total of 35 of the customers paid in full.

Of these, 13 were going on holiday in the UK.

How many times would you expect him to get

a two heads b one head and one tail? Paid in full

animal brought to the vets being a dog is0.47. Part paid

Of the next 150 animals brought in, 37 are 60

Paid in full

dogs. UK

Is the vets estimate a good one?

Explain your answer. Part paid

10.4 I ndependent events b Work out the probability that a person

and tree diagrams who goes abroad pays in full.

1 There were 30 customers in a restaurant one hockey and at football.

lunchtime. Of these, 17 chose the set menu. The probability that Team A wins the hockey

13 of the customers who chose the set menu is 0.5. The probability that Team B wins the

had coffee. football is 0.7.

25 customers ordered coffee in total. Assuming that the two events are

Copy and complete the frequency tree for the independent, work out the probability that

30 customers. Team A wins both games.

Coffee

5 R The probability that it rains is 0.3.

Set menu 17

Theprobability that Amy remembers

No coffee her coat is 0.7.

30 Assuming that the two events are

Coffee

independent, work out the probability that

Other

a it rains and Amy has her coat

No coffee b it doesnt rain and Amy doesnt have

hercoat

2 A driving test centre examines 50 students c it rains and Amy doesnt have her coat.

one day.

Of the 50 students, 27 are female. 6 Two letters are picked one after the other

A total of 32 students passed, 18 of whom from a set of alphabet cards.

were male. (The same letter can be picked twice.)

Work out the probability that

Pass

a both letters are vowels

Male b both letters are consonants

Fail c the first letter is a vowel and the second

50

letter is a consonant

Pass

Female d the first letter is a vowel and the second is

in the word CONSONANT

Fail e the first letter is a consonant and the

second is a vowel.

a Copy and complete the frequency tree.

b Work out the probability that a student 7 A fair coin is flipped. What is the probability

picked at random is a male who fails. of flipping three heads one after the other?

8 In a game, a set of cards is Example b Work out the probability that

numbered 110. i he wins both games

If you pick a prime number ii he wins the first game but not the

you win a prize. second.

1 2 3 4 5 11 Exam-style question

A fair dice is rolled.

6 7 8 9 10

Hanifa notes whether it is a square number.

James plays the game twice. She then repeats this process.

a Complete the probability tree diagram.

a Copy and complete the tree diagram to 1

show the probabilities 3 Square

1st game 2nd game 1 Square

3

2 Not square

5 Win

4 52 Square

Win

10 5

Lose Not

square Not

Win square

Lose

(2 marks)

Lose

b Work out the probability that Hanifa

b What is the probability of winning rolls at least one square number.

i two prizes ii nothing (3 marks)

iii one prize iv at least one prize?

9 Marganita has two bags of sweets. 12 R Daniel spins two spinners.

Bag A contains 7 toffees and 3 mints. On spinner 1, P(blue) = 0.1

Bag B contains 4 toffees and 6 mints. On spinner 2, P(blue) = 0.72

She picks a sweet at random from each bag. a Draw a tree diagram to show all the

a Copy and complete the tree diagram to possible outcomes.

show the probabilities. b What is the probability of only one spinner

Bag A Bag B landing on blue?

c What is the probability of both spinners

Toffee

Toffee landing on blue?

Mint d If each spinner was spun 1000 times, how

many times would you expect them both

Toffee to land on blue?

Mint

Mint

b Work out the probability of picking 10.5 C

onditional

i two sweets the same

ii one toffee and one mint

probability

iii no mints

iv at least one toffee. 1 For each of the events, state if the events are

independent or dependent.

10 Terry plays two games on his phone. He has a Picking a card from a pack, replacing it and

a 1 in 10 chance of winning the first game then picking another one.

and a 1 in 5 chance of winning the second.

b Flipping a coin and rolling a dice.

a Copy and Game A Game B

complete c Picking two marbles from a bag, one after

Win the other.

the tree Win

diagram to Lose d Picking a counter from a bag, then rolling

show the a dice.

probabilities. Win e Picking a student from a class, then

Lose picking another student.

Lose

2 GCSE students in a school have to study one 6 There are 3 red, 4 blue and 5 green marbles

subject from each of two lists. in a bag. Husni picks a marble then John picks

The table shows their choices. a marble.

a Copy and complete the diagram to show

List A

all the probabilities.

History Geography French Total

1st marble 2nd marble

DT 12 7 8 27

ICT 8 17 12 37 2

List B

11 Red

Art 3 6 7 16

Red Blue

Total 23 30 27 3 51

12 4 Green

Work out the probability that a student

Red

chosen at random

a studies history Blue Blue

b studies DT Green

c studies ICT, given that he studies history Red

d studies French, given that she studies art. Green Blue

3 Marion has a bag containing Green

Example

6 chocolates and 6 mints. b What is the probability that they both pick

She chooses a sweet at the same colour?

random and eats it.

She then chooses another 7 P There are 3 tins of red paint and 11 tins

sweet at random. ofgreen paint.

a Copy and complete the tree diagram to James and Melek both take a tin at random.

show all the probabilities. Work out the probability that they do not

1st sweet 2nd sweet

pick the same colour.

11 Chocolate used batteries and 4 dead batteries.

6 51 Chocolate Melissa takes two batteries at random.

12 2

Mint Work out the probability that she picks new

batteries.

Chocolate

Mint 9 Exam-style question

Mint

Here are seven tiles.

b Work out the probability that the sweets

will be 1 1 2 2 2 3 3

i both chocolate ii one of each

iii both mint. Jim takes at random a tile.

4 P In a survey, 45% of the people asked were He does not replace the tile.

male. 35% of the men and 40% of the women Jim then takes at random a second tile.

supported a football team. a Calculate the probability that both the

One person is chosen at random. tilesJim takes have the number 1

Find the probability that this is a woman who on them. (2 marks)

does not support a football team. b Calculate the probability that the

numberon the second tile Jim takes is

5 P A train is either late or on time. greater than the number on the

Theprobability it is late is 0.85. If the train is first tile he takes. (3 marks)

late, the probability Mr Murphy is late is 0.7. November 2012, Q21, 1MA0/2H

Ifthe train is on time, the probability he is

late is 0.1.

Work out the probability that Mr Murphy Q9 hint Draw a tree diagram to help you.

arrives at work on time.

5 R Dan asked the 30 students in his class if

10.6 Venn diagrams they were studying French (F) or Spanish (S).

and set notation 15 were studying both and a total of 21 were

studying French.

They were all studying at least one language.

1 A = {square numbers , 10}

a Draw a Venn diagram to show Dans data.

B = {positive odd numbers , 10}

b Work out

a List the numbers in each set.

i P(S)

A = {1, } B = {} ii P(F > S)

b Write true or false for each statement. iii P(F < S)

i 5A iv P(F9 > S).

ii 9B

iii 11B 6 100 customers were surveyed to find out

about their shopping habits for groceries (G)

2 The Venn diagram shows two sets, P and Q, and and clothing (C). Of those surveyed:

the set of all numbers being considered, j. 64 bought their groceries online

P Q 13 bought both groceries and clothing online

8 bought neither online.

3 15 4

a Draw a Venn diagram to show the data.

12

6 8 b Work out the probability that a customer

9 from the sample buys clothing online.

14

j 1 2 5 7 10 11 13 c Work out the probability that a customer

from the sample buys groceries online,

Write all the elements of each set inside curly given that they buy clothing online.

brackets { }.

a P b Q c j 7 At a school, the students can play football (F),

hockey (H) or tennis (T).

d Which set is {multiples of 3 < 15}?

Nahal carried out a survey to find out which

e Write descriptions of the other two sets.

sport students in his year played.

3 For the Venn diagram in Q2, write these sets. He recorded his results in a Venn diagram.

a P < Q b P>Q

F H

c P9 d Q9

e P9 > Q f Q9 > P 20 7 4

4 The Venn diagram shows two Example 3

8 2

events when a 12-sided dice

is rolled: square numbers and 4

factors of 6.

j T

X = {number is square}

Y = {number is a factor of 6} a How many students took part in the

X Y survey?

One of the students is chosen at random.

4 2

b Work out

1 3

i P(H)

9 6 ii P(F > T | F)

12 iii P(T > H | H).

j 5 7 8 10 11

Work out

a P(X) b P(Y)

c P(X > Y) d P(X < Y)

e P(X9) f P(Y9)

g P(X > Y9) h

P(X9 < Y9).

8 The Venn diagram shows the instruments 1 R Maya is playing a board game with Ellen.

played by members of an orchestra: violin (V), She has two dice and needs to roll two 6s.

flute (F) and piano (P). Ellen says that two 6s is the hardest roll

toget.

V F

a Draw the sample space diagram and find

0 the probability of rolling two 6s.

8 6

b What is the probability of rolling

4

2 3 i two 4s

ii two 5s

6 iii a 3 and a 2?

j P c Was Ellen correct?

Explain your answer.

a How many people play all three

2 Frankie is trying to find a matching pair of

instruments?

socks. A blue, a red, a black and two green

b How many people are in the orchestra? socks have been washed and are in a clean

c Work out pile. A blue, two white, a red and a black sock

i P(V > P > F) are still in the dryer. Frankie takes one sock

ii P(V > F) from the dryer and one from the pile, both of

iii P(V < P | P). them at random.

What is the probability that she picks out a

9 Exam-style question matching pair of socks?

There are 100 students studying maths. Draw a sample space diagram to show all the

All 100 study at least one of three courses, possible outcomes.

Pure, Mechanics and Statistics. 3 R Kai wants to make a set of nesting gift

18 study all three. boxes. He uses a grid to draw bases for the

24 study Pure and Mechanics. the different sizes of box.

31 study Pure and Statistics. Kai draws a 3cm 4cm rectangle using the

22 study Mechanics and Statistics. points (0,0), (4,0), (4,3) and (0,3).

57 study Pure. Using (0,0) as his centre of enlargement,

37 study Mechanics. hedraws the bases of the next two boxes.

a Draw a Venn diagram to show this Kai uses scale factors of 1.5 and 2.

information. (3 marks) a Use a grid of 0 to 12 on both axes. Draw the

One of the students is chosen at random. first box and the two enlargements.

b Work out the probability that this student b Kai wants to draw the bases for two more

studies Pure but not Mechanics.(2 marks) sizes. Thefourth box has a width of 7.5cm

Given that the student studies Statistics, and the fifth has a width of 9cm.

c work out the probability that this What scale factors (from the first box) does

student also studies Mechanics.(2 marks) Kai use for the fourth and fifth boxes?

c Draw the bases of the fourth and fifth

boxes on the grid.

4 R A biased dice is twice as likely to land on a

10 Problem-solving 6as on a 5 or a 2.

It is three times as likely to land on a 1 as on

Solve problems using these strategies where a 2, but a 4 is only half as likely as a 1.

appropriate: Landing on a 3 is equally as likely as landing

Use pictures or lists on a 4.

Use smaller numbers Work out the probability for landing on each

Use bar models number. Write your answers as percentages.

Use x for the unknown

Q4 hint Use a flow diagram to work out the

Use a flow diagram. probability of each event in turn.

5 R Blake is making a five-sided spinner 9 R A nursery school teacher has a box of

labelled 15 for a board game he has made. stickers. There are 10 smiley face stickers,

He wants to check that the spinner is fair. 5bear stickers and 5 rainbow stickers.

a How can Blake test the spinner? Twochildren take a sticker at random.

Blake spins the spinner 200 times. a Draw a diagram to show all the

The table shows his results. probabilities.

b What is the probability that the two

Number 1 2 3 4 5

children will take different stickers?

Frequency 42 36 45 38 39

10 Mike and Syeona are rolling two ordinary

b Is the spinner fair?

dice. They make a Venn diagram to show

Explain your answer.

all the possible outcomes of the totals, and

6 R Jackson buys four apple and berry whether they are multiples of 2, multiples of

smoothies and six cartons of orange juice. 3 or a prime number.

He pays 29.60. j

Multiples of 2 (M2)

April buys five apple and berry smoothies

and three cartons of orange juice. 4 8

Shepays 24.40.

How much does one apple and berry 6 2

smoothie cost? How much does one carton of 5

3

orange juice cost? 7

Multiples of 3 (M3) Primes (Pr)

7 A glass hemisphere dome and base are being

made for a garden fountain. The diameter of

a Copy and complete the Venn diagram.

the dome is 1.2m. What are the surface area

and volume? Give your answers in terms of p. b Mike uses the diagram to find

i P(M2 > M3)

8 Exam-style question ii P(M39)

There are 30 dogs at the animal shelter. iii P(Pr > M2 | Pr)

Each dog is at least one colour from black, c Syeona writes the following in set notation

brown and white. for Mike to find.

3 of the dogs are black, brown and white. Totals that are either multiples of 2 or 3,

15 of the dogs are black and white. given that the total is not a multiple of

5 of the dogs are brown and white. both 2 and 3.

8 of the dogs are black and brown. Write the set notation and find the

22 of the dogs are black.

probability.

15 of the dogs are brown.

a Draw a Venn diagram to show this

information. (3 marks)

One of the dogs is chosen at random.

b Work out the probability that this dog is

brown but not white. (2 marks)

Given that the dog is black,

c work out the probability that this dog is

also brown. (2 marks)

11 MULTIPLICATIVE REASONING

7 Jade buys a car for 16000.

11.1 Growth and decay In the first year the car depreciates by 22%.

In the second year it depreciates by 15%.

1 Caz bought a caravan for 8000. It lost 25% What is the value of the car at the end of the

of its value in the first year. It lost 18% of its second year?

value in the second year. Work out

8 5000 is invested for 2 years at 2.7% per

a the multiplier to find the value of the

annum compound interest. Work out the

caravan at the end of the first year

total amount in the account after 2 years.

b the value of the caravan at the end of the

Give your answer to the nearest penny.

first year

c the multiplier to find the value of the 9 R 10500 is invested for 2 years at 5.5% per

caravan at the end of the second year annum compound interest.

d the value of the caravan at the end of the a Work out the total amount in the account

second year after 2 years, to the nearest penny.

e the decimal multiplier that the original b How much interest is paid in total for the

value of the caravan can be multiplied by 2years?

to find its value at the end of 2 years.

10 R a Are these formulae the same or different?

Q1e hint

Formula 1: amount after n years

3 single decimal multiplier

= initial amount ( ________________ )

n

100 + interest rate

original

value at value at 100

3 end of 3 end of

value Formula 2: amount after n years

one year two years

n

interest rate

2 Work out the decimal multiplier that represents 100

a an increase of 10% each year for 2 years b Apply each formula to Q9 and then

b a decrease of 20% for 3 years. explain your answer.

3 Su earns a salary of 27000 a year. At the 11 4500 is invested for 3 years at 2.4% per

end of the first year she is given an increase annum compound interest.

of 3%. At the end of the second year she

Work out the total interest earned over the

is given an increase of 2.5%. Work out Sus

3years.

salary at the end of 2 years.

4 R Billy says a decrease of 10% followed by 12 Exam-style question

an increase of 15% is the same as an increase Kyle puts 1600 in a savings Example

of 5%. Is Billy correct? Explain. account for 2years.

5 Work out the multiplier as a decimal number The account pays compound

for interest at an annual rate of

a an increase of 15% followed by an increase 3.7% for the first year

of 5% 2.2% for the second year.

b a decrease of 2% followed by a decrease a Work out the total amount of money

of3% inKyles account at the end of

c an increase of 4% followed by a decrease 2 years. (3 marks)

of 4%. Kyles monthly mobile phone bill increases

by 7.5% to 64.50. The cost of his broadband

6 Robina buys a house for 154000. In the first connection increases by 20% to 26.40.

year, the value of the house decreases by 4%.

b Compare the increase in Kyles mobile

In the second year, the value of the house phone bill with the increase in his

increases by 1.5%. Work out the value of the broadband connection bill. (3 marks)

house at the end of the second year.

13 P Lee invests 75000 in a savings account 2 Water flows from a hosepipe at a rate of

for 2 years. The account pays 4.47% 1200litres per hour.

compound interest per annum. a Work out how much water flows from the

Lee has to pay 20% tax on the interest hosepipe in

earned each year. The tax is taken from the i 10 minutes ii 35 minutes.

account at the end of each year. Two identical hosepipes are used at the same

How much is in the account at the end of time to fill a garden pool. They each have the

2years? same flow rate as in part a. The pool has a

14 R Theo invested 5700 in a savings account. capacity of 216000 litres. Initially the pool is

He is paid 2.75% per annum compound empty.

interest. b Work out how many days it takes to fill the

How many years before he has 6183.30 in pool.

the savings account? 3 R Dave drives his motorbike for 180 miles

15 The number of cells in a biological sample and uses 25 litres of petrol.

increase by 7% each hour. a Work out the average rate of petrol usage.

A scientist estimated there were 1.2 million State the units with your answer.

cells present at time t = 0. b Estimate the amount of petrol Dave

a How many complete hours later will the would use if he travels 275 miles on

number of cells reach 1.68 million? the motorbike. Give your answer to an

b Estimate the number of cells 24 hours appropriate degree of accuracy.

after time t = 0, to 3 significant figures.

4 Convert these speeds from Example

16 In 2014 the rate of increase in the population m/h to km/h.

of the UK was 0.3%. The population of the UK a 7500m/h

in 2014 was 63.7 million. b 970m/h

If the population keeps growing at the same

c 36500m/h

rate, how big is the population likely to be in

2025? d 243600m/h

17 A new virus has spread among a population 5 R Convert these speeds from metres per

at a rate of 17.5% per day. In a city there are second (m/s) to metres per hour (m/h).

now 371 cases. a 3m/s b 15m/s

How many people had the virus 7 days c 100m/s d 0.5m/s

earlier? e Would more or fewer metres be travelled

in 1 hour than in 1 second?

11.2 Compound measures 6 Copy and complete the table.

1 P Abdul works for 40 hours from Monday to Metres per second Kilometres per hour

Friday. His rate of pay for working Monday to 10

Friday is 7.90 an hour. 25

Abdul is paid time and a half for each hour 126

he works on a Saturday and double time for

180

each hour he works on a Sunday.

a How much is Abdul paid for a week when 7 The average speed of a small plane is 360km/h.

he works 40 hours from Monday to Friday, What is this speed in metres per second?

plus 5 hours on Saturday and 4 hours on

Sunday? 8 P / R The new fast train in the UK has an

b In one week Abdul works 40 hours from expected top speed of 272km/h. Usain Bolts

Monday to Friday and some hours on fastest recorded running speed is 10.44m/s

Sunday. He is paid 371.30 for the week. (run on 16 August 2009).

How many hours did Abdul work on How much faster than Bolt is the train

Sunday? expected to be?

9 a A bike travels at bm/s. 3 The cross-sectional area of Example

Write an expression for this speed in km/h. this plastic cylinder is 300cm2.

b A man runs at ckm/h. Its length is 100cm.

Write an expression for this speed in m/s.

10 Exam-style question

Paul travels 45 miles in 1 hour and 20

minutes and then 120km in 2_2hours.

1 Area 5

300 cm2

5 miles = 8 kilometres 100 cm

What is his average speed for the total

journeyin km/h to the nearest km? (3 marks) The plastic has a density of 2.34g/cm3.

What is the mass of the cylinder?

11 Kelly flies for 45 minutes at an average speed 4 Air has density 0.0012g/cm3.

of 15m/s in a hang glider. The mass of air in a room is 54kg.

How far has Kelly flown in kilometres? What is the volume of the room?

12 Archie skis cross-country for a distance of 5 The density of iron is 8000kg/m3.

7.5km. It takes him 40 minutes. What is the density of iron in g/m3?

What is his average skiing speed in m/s?

6 The density of gold is 19.32g/cm3.

13 A fast sports car starts from rest and What is the density of gold in kg/m3?

accelerates at 4.5m/s2 for 81m.

Use the formula v2 = u2 + 2as to work out 7 A plastic has density yg/cm3.

the final velocity in m/s, where v is the final Write an expression for its density in kg/m3.

velocity, u is the initial velocity, a is the 8 R 1m3 of water from the North Sea has mass

acceleration and s is the distance. 1025kg. 1m3 of water from the Dead Sea has

mass 1240kg.

14 A car has a velocity of 540m/minute when it

drives past a service station on a motorway. In which sea is the water more dense?

It then accelerates and travels a distance of 9 Exam-style question

1.2km in 50 seconds.

Use the formula s=ut+_12at 2to work out the An alloy is made from a mix of copper and

acceleration of the car in m/s2. tin. The density of copper is 8.94 grams per

cm3. The density of tin is 7.3 grams per cm3.

15 A motorbike travels with an acceleration of 500cm3 of the alloy is made from 360cm3

7m/s2 and reaches a speed of 63km/h in of copper with 140cm3 of tin.

2.5seconds. Work out the density of the alloy to3s.f.

Use the formula v = u + at to work out the (3 marks)

initial velocity of the motorbike in m/s.

10 A force of 54N is applied to an area of

21600cm2.

11.3 M

ore compound Work out the pressure in N/m2.

a pressure of 50N/m2.

Work out the force in N.

1 A steel pipe has a mass of 9.765kg and a

volume of 1260cm3. 12 Copy and complete the table.

What is its density in g/cm3? Give your answers to 3 significant figures.

2 A cubic block of wood has side length 1m Force Area Pressure

and mass 690kg. 40N 3.2m2 N/m2

What is the density of the wood in g/cm3? 6.4m2 16.5N/m2

N

2000N m2 250N/m2

13 A cylindrical plant pot has a circular base with 2 The table shows some masses in both

diameter 0.3m. pounds and kilograms.

The plant pot exerts a force of 60N on the Kilograms 10 20 30 40

ground.

Pounds 22 44 66 88

Work out the pressure in N/cm2.

Give your answer to 3 significant figures. a What is the ratio of kilograms:pounds in

the form 1:n?

14 A cylinder with a movable piston in an engine b Plot a line graph for these values.

contains hot gas. c Are pounds and kilograms in direct

The pressure of the gas is 350N/m2. proportion? Explain your answer.

The area of the piston is 0.05m2. d What is the gradient of the line?

What is the force exerted by the piston? e Write a formula that shows the relationship

between kilograms and pounds.

15 R Claire sits on a table with four identical

3 The table shows the distance (s) in

legs. Each table leg has a flat rectangular

kilometres travelled by a car over a period of

base measuring 2cm by 3cm.

time (t) in hours.

Claire has a mass of 68kg and the table has a

mass of 4kg. Distance, s (km) 15 30 45 60

a Use F = mg to work out the combined Time, t (hours) 2 4 6 8

weight of Claire and the table, where g is

a Is s in direct proportion to t? Explain.

the acceleration due to gravity.

Use g = 9.8m/s2. b What is the relationship between distance

(s) and time (t)?

b Work out the pressure on the floor exerted

by the table only in N/m2, when only the c Work out the distance travelled after

four table legs are in contact with the 1.5hours.

floor. 4 The cost of buying Example

c The area of Claires feet is 330cm2. 150 US dollars is 100

Workout the pressure on the floor when 300 US dollars is 200.

Claire is standing up in bare feet. a Show that the amount in

Give your answer in N/cm2. US dollars, $D, is directly

Use g = 9.8m/s2 and give your answer proportional to the amount

to3 s.f. in sterling, P.

d Is the pressure on the floor greater when b What is the relationship between D and P?

Claire is sitting on the table or when she is c How much is 570 in US dollars?

standing up in bare feet?

5 It takes 4 cleaners 3 hours to clean a house.

Q15a hint Weight is a force on an object due How long would it take 9 cleaners?

to gravity and is measured in newtons (N). Give your answer in hours and minutes.

6 It takes 8 women 3 hours to dig a ditch.

16 a Convert 2500N/m2 to N/cm2. Howlong will it take

b Convert xN/cm2 to N/m2. a 2 women b 5 women?

c For both parts a and b, multiply the exact

answer in hours (H) by the number of

11.4 Ratio and proportion women (N). What do you notice?

7 P and Q are in inverse proportion.

1 Copy and complete these. Work out the values of A, B, C and D.

a A:B = 5:2 so A=__B P 25 10 B C 3.6

Q 7.2 A 45 62.5 D

b X:Y = 3:7, so X=__Y

c 10P = Q so Q:P = : k

Q7 hint P Q = a constant k, so Q=__

P

8 Do these equations represent direct

proportion, inverse proportion or neither? 11 Problem-solving

2

a y=__x b y = 5x c y = 10x 5

y Solve problems using these Example

d __

x=3 e xy = 6 strategies where appropriate:

Use pictures or lists

9 P The frequency, fHz, of a sound wave is

inversely proportional to the wavelength, Use smaller numbers

lm, of the sound wave. Use bar models

When the frequency is 200Hz, the Use x for the unknown

wavelength is 1.7m. Use a flow diagram

Find the wavelength when the frequency is Use arrow diagrams.

680Hz.

1 R Water flows from a hose at 0.42 litres

10 P Boyles law states that the pressure of a per second. If the hose is turned off after

gas and its volume are inversely proportional, 10minutes, will it have filled more than half

providing the temperature and the amount or less than half of a 500-litre pond?

of gas stay constant. Explain how you found your answer.

A sample of gas occupies 0.0015m3 when the 2 R Four child tickets to a show cost 14.

pressure is 100000N/m2. Five adult tickets to the show cost 31.25.

What is the volume of the sample when the a What is the cost of tickets for 9 children

pressure increases to 200000N/m2? and 13 adults?

b Two adults take some children to the show.

11 v is inversely proportional to u.

The total price of the tickets is 26.50.

v = 35 when u = 0.2.

How many children did they take to the

a Find a formula for v in terms of u. show?

b Calculate the value of v when u = 140.

3 R Therese wrote down these values:

12.5

12 a Copy and complete the table for q=____

p

5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2

Write down two inequalities that these

p 1 2 5 10 values would satisfy. Use the letter n to

q represent an integer in your inequality.

against p. Pritpal ran for 5_25miles.

c Work out the value of q when p = 50. a What is the total distance run by Malcolm

Doesit fit the shape of your graph? and Pritpal?

d Work out the value of q when p = 0.05. b How much further did Pritpal run than

Isyour answer consistent with your sketch? Malcolm?

Give your answers as mixed numbers where

13 Exam-style question appropriate.

The time, t minutes, it takes to pull an object 5 The amount, M, Sandy earns is directly

up a ramp with an electric motor is directly proportional to the number of hours, H,

proportional to the mass, mkg, of the object. she works. When H = 21, M = 472.50.

When m = 1kg, t = 2.5 minutes. Find the value of M when H = 35.

a Find m when t = 1.25 minutes. (3 marks)

The time, t minutes, it takes to pull an object 6 A survey was taken of people coming out of

up a ramp with an electric motor is inversely a grocery shop. 35% of the people were men.

proportional to the power, P watts, of the 70% of these men bought milk. 15% of the

electric motor. women did not buy milk.

When P = 1800W, t = 3 minutes. One of these customers was chosen at

b Find the value of t when P = 1600W. random to take part in a longer survey.

(3 marks) Find the probability that this customer was a

woman who did buy milk.

7 A plastic block in the shape of a cuboid 9 R Yogesh has 9866.37 in his savings

has a density of 3.9g/cm3. account. He has received 3% per annum

Ithas a length of 24cm. compound interest since opening the

The width of the block is _13of its height. account 2 years ago. He has not deposited

Its height is _14of its length. any extra money since opening the account.

What is the mass of the block? a How much did Yogesh originally deposit

when he opened the account?

8 R A company needs to complete a b Tara says that if Yogesh had originally

construction project in 8 days. deposited 500 more, he would now have

It will take 18 workers 12days to complete 500 more in his savings account.

the project. Is Tara correct? Explain how you know.

What is the minimum number of workers

they will need, to be able to complete the 10 Exam-style question

project on time? h is inversely proportional to the square of r.

When r = 5, h = 3.4.

Q8 hint More than 18 workers will be needed

Find the value of h when r = 8. (3 marks)

to complete the project in less than 12 days.

June 2013, Q22, 1MA0/2H

12 SIMILARITY AND

CONGRUENCE

c 3 cm 3 cm

12.1 Congruence

2.1 cm

4.2 cm 4.2 cm

2.1 cm

1 Here is a pair of congruent triangles.

14 cm x

35 y

d

4.5 cm 4.5 cm

87 87 35 35

6.5 cm 6.5 cm

Write down

a the size of angle y b

the length of side x. 3 State whether each pair of triangles

2 Each pair of triangles is congruent. described below is congruent or not.

Explain why. If the triangles are congruent, give the reason

a and write the corresponding vertices in pairs.

64 7 cm 72 a ABC where AB = 5cm, BC = 9cm,

7 cm angle B = 37

64 PQR where PQ = 50mm, QR = 95mm,

72

angle Q = 37

b 9 cm b ABC where AB = 6cm, angle B = 51,

11 cm angle C = 97

PQR where PQ = 6cm, angle Q = 97,

11 cm

angle R = 51

9 cm

4 Which of these triangles is congruent to

triangle ABC? Give reasons for your answer. 12.2 G

eometric proof

B D and congruence

43 1 ABC is an equilateral triangle. Example

32 10.9 cm 8.5 cm

7.7 cm C

105

E

C 6 cm A F

I 6 cm L

H

105

7.7 cm A D B

7.7 cm

10.9 cm 110 a Prove that triangle ACD is congruent to

32

J triangle BDC.

6 cm

K b Which angle is the same as angle CAB?

G

2 The diagram shows A

5 Are these triangles congruent? a kite ABCD.

Justify your answer. a Prove that triangles 48

ABC and ADC are D 95 B

13 cm 13 cm congruent.

5 cm

M N

b Find the size of

i angle ABC

12 cm

ii angle BCD.

C

6 Are all right-angled triangles with one side

3cm and one side 5cm congruent? Explain. 3 In the diagram, P S

X is the

7 ABCD is a parallelogram. midpoint of PQ. 102 2.2 cm

A B Xis also the X

3.7 cm

midpoint of ST.

Prove that the

triangles PSX and T Q

112 QTX are congruent.

D C

a Work out the size of angle ABC. 4 Exam-style question

b Show that triangle ABC and triangle ACD In the diagram, R is the midpoint of PT

are congruent. and ofQS. PQis parallel to ST.

P Q

8 Exam-style question

A B R

105

62 C

S T

D E Prove that triangle RST is congruent to

AB is parallel to DE. Which angle is equal to triangle PQR. (2 marks)

a angle CDE (1 mark)

b angle DEC (1 mark) Exam hint

c angle ECD? (1 mark) You need to write a series of logical

Triangles ABC and CDE are congruent. statements that show the statement is

d If AE = 12cm what is the true. You must give a mathematical reason

length of CE? (1 mark) for each statement.

5 P FGH is an isosceles triangle with FG = GH. 10 P KLMN is a square. The diagonals KM and

Point E lies on FH. LN are drawn and meet at P.

EG is perpendicular to FH. Prove that the diagonals KM and LN are

a Prove that triangle FGE is congruent to perpendicular bisectors.

triangle GHE.

11 Exam-style question

b Given that angle GFE = 70 work out the

size of angle FGE. ABC is a right-angled isosceles triangle

with AB = BC.

Q5 hint Sketch the triangle. D is the midpoint of AC.

A

6 ABCD is a rectangle. A B

Use congruent

D

triangles to show

that the area of ADC

= the area of ABC. D C

B C

7 P PQRS is a parallelogram. Prove that triangle ABD is congruent to

P Q triangle CBD. (2 marks)

12.3 Similarity

S R

a Prove that triangles PQT and SRT are 1 Write the pairs of corresponding sides in

congruent. triangles X and Y.

b Hence, prove that the diagonals of a E

C

parallelogram bisect one another.

42

42

8 P ABCD is an isosceles trapezium.

Two lines are drawn from A and B that meet X Y

35

DC at right angles. 35

A B

A B D F

Triangle Y has side DF = 7.5cm.

Write the ratio of corresponding sides as a

fraction.

D K J C

3 Here are two right-angled triangles.

Prove that triangle ADK is congruent to

triangle BCJ. C

F 3 cm D

1 cm

9 ABCD is a rectangle. B C 4 cm

E

AC and BD are the

diagonals of the E A 12 cm B

rectangle, which a Which side in triangle ABC corresponds to

cross at point E. i DF

A D

a Draw the rectangle ii FE?

showing both diagonals. DF

b Mark on all equal angles. b Work out the ratio ___

AB

c Which triangles are congruent in your DE

c Work out the ratio ___

diagram? AC

d Using your answers to parts ac, show that d Use your answers to parts a and b to show

lines AC and BD bisect at point E. that the triangles are similar.

4 The diagram shows parallelograms ABCD and 7 These two rectangles are Example

EFGH. similar.

Angles ABC and EFG are the same size. Find the missing side length x

F in the larger rectangle.

E

A 7 cm B x cm

8 cm

3 cm 10 cm

6 cm 8.4 cm

D C

G

6 cm

H

AD 8 Exam-style question

a Write the ratio ____

HG

b Write the ratios of the other corresponding A scale diagram of a room has length 12cm

sides. and width 8cm.

lm Diagram NOT

c Are the parallelograms similar? drawn accurately

12 cm

Explain your answer. 4m

8 cm

5 State which of the pairs of shapes are similar.

a scale diagram actual dimensions

E 6.2 cm F of room

A 3 cm B

Work out the actual area of the room.

(3 marks)

H G 8cm long.

C

b F The real shed is 7.5m wide.

What is the length of the shed?

12 cm 13 cm 10.4 cm 10 a Show that triangles A and B are similar.

10 cm

A 5 cm B D 3 cm E

c 4 cm hyp opp

3 cm

1.5 cm A 2 cm C

B

3 cm 60 60 60

7 cm 2 cm x adj

c Show that triangle C is similar to A and B.

6 Show that quadrilateral ABCD is similar to Explain.

quadrilateral EFGH. adjacent

d Write down the value of __________

H hypotenuse

for these triangles.

D e What is another name for the ratio

adjacent

__________

47 G

?

C 133 hypotenuse

width 4.5cm. A miniature of the chocolate

A 2 cm B bar is similar to the large one but has length

E 3 cm F 4cm. Find the width of the miniature bar.

12 P The diagrams show the octagonal base of

a summer house. 12.4 More similarity

ym

7.5 cm 4.5 m 1 Are triangles ABC and A B

x cm 108 40

CDE similar?

A 4.5 cm B 6.75 m Explain.

32

The sizes of the plan are shown in diagram A.

Work out the value of

E D

a x b y.

Q1 hint Find the angles in triangle CDE.

13 Are the triangles in each pair similar?

Explain.

2 a Show that triangles PQR and RST are

a similar.

12 cm

4.5 cm 22.4 cm 31.5 cm P Q

A B

3.2 cm 9 cm

b R

3 cm

4.2 cm

1.2 cm S T

x

8.4 cm S 2.8 cm T

b Find the missing length x.

3 a Explain why K

triangles FGH

and FJK are H

similar.

14 Here are two circles.

b Calculate the 9 cm

length HK. 12 cm

c Calculate the

4 cm 1 cm length JK. F J

6 cm G 2 cm

4 a Find the sizes of angles PQN and LMN.

Q

b Are all circles similar? N

15 cm

15 Triangle CDE is similar to triangle FGH. 65

/CDE = /FGH 10 cm 14 cm

H 72

E P

M

4.2 cm 13.3 cm

L

C 3.1 cm 7.75 cm F

b Explain why triangle LMN is similar to

2.7 cm D triangle LPQ.

G

c Find the length of LQ.

Calculate the length of d Find the length of NQ.

a FG b FH e Find the length of MP.

5 Calculate the height of the Statue of Liberty 10 Two similar triangles have areas of 45cm2

using similar triangles. and 405cm2 respectively.

The base of the smaller triangle is 3.5cm.

Find the length of the base of the larger

triangle.

31 m

11 The area of the front face of a coin is 12cm2.

What is the area of a similar coin with

57 m 114 m

a twice the diameter of the original coin

6 The diagram shows 3 cm b half the diameter of the original coin?

a logo made of 12 P A rectangular photograph has width 6inches

two similar and area 24 square inches. An enlargement of

parallelograms. it has area 486 square inches.

The perimeter of the a Work out the area scale factor.

small parallelogram is

13.5 cm b Work out the length scale factor.

9cm. The area of the small

parallelogram is 6cm .

2 c Use the length scale factor to work out the

dimensions of the enlarged photograph.

Work out the perimeter and area of the large

parallelogram. 13 P The circular tops of two tins of beans are

similar. The area of the larger top is 75cm2.

7 Exam-style question

The area of the smaller top is 8_13cm2.

A company makes two different-sized The circumference of the larger top is 31cm.

chocolate boxes. What is the circumference of the smaller top?

The smaller box has length 20cm, and Give your answer to 1 decimal place.

surface area 350cm2.

The larger box is mathematically similar to

the smaller box and has length 30cm. 12.5 Similarity in 3D solids

Work out the surface area of

a large box. (3 marks) 1 In each pair of diagrams, solid A is enlarged to

make solid B. Copy and complete the table.

8 Shape K is similar to shape L.

a

21 cm 1 A 3 B

4.2 cm 6

2

K L 1 3

b

2 2k B

The perimeter of shape K is 42cm and its A

3 3k

area is 112cm2. 1 k

Find the perimeter and area of shape L.

Linear Volume Volume Volume

9 Shape A is similar to shape B. Example scale factor of A of B scale factor

a

x b

4.2 cm

A 2 Cuboids A and B are similar.

B The volume of cuboid A is 6cm3.

5.3 cm y

A

The area of shape A is 64cm2. B

3 cm

The area of shape B is 10.24cm2.

Calculate 6 cm

a length x b length y. Calculate the volume of cuboid B.

3 Cylinders C and D are similar. 8 P Cuboids B and C are mathematically similar.

The volume of C is 200cm3. The volume of B is ___

1

125 of the volume of C.

The surface area of B is 13.5cm2.

Work out the surface area of cuboid C.

C 7 cm D 10.5 cm

9 P A bucket has a surface area of 2200cm2

and capacity 9.4 litres.

Calculate the volume of D. Find the surface area of a similar bucket

which has a capacity of 75.2 litres.

4 Frustums E and F are similar.

The volume of frustum E is 648cm3. 10 Exam-style question

12 cm The bases of two similar cylinders, A and

8 cm B, are 846cm2 and 94cm2 respectively.

E F

A

B

Calculate the volume of frustum F.

5 Sphere J is similar to sphere K. Example

The volume of J is 8 times the The volume of cylinder A is 1296cm3.

volume of K. Show that the volume of cylinder B

is 48cm3. (5 marks)

J K 11 Exam-style question

The diagram shows two similar solids, A and B.

24 cm

Work out the diameter of sphere K. B

A

6 Prisms L and M are similar.

The volume of M is 512 times the volume of L. 3 cm

x 9 cm

2 cm

Solid A has a volume of 29cm3.

y 56 cm a Work out the volume of solid B.(2 marks)

L M

Solid B has a total surface area of 819cm2.

b Work out the total surface area

of solid A. (2 marks)

Calculate the value of

a length x b length y.

12 R Are two spheres always similar?

7 R Pyramid A and pyramid Z are similar. Explain your answer.

12 Problem-solving

A

Z Solve problems using these Example

strategies where appropriate:

The volume of pyramid A is 216 times the

Use pictures or lists

volume of pyramid Z.

Use smaller numbers

Thesurface area of pyramid Z is 11cm2.

Use bar models

a Write down the volume scale factor, k3.

Use x for the unknown

b Work out the linear scale factor, k. Use a flow diagram

c Work out the area scale factor, k2. Use arrow diagrams

d Calculate the surface area of pyramid A. Use geometric sketches.

1 R Jason draws a right-angled triangle with 5 Martha has 60m of fencing and two plots of

hypotenuse 45cm and one side 27cm long. land. The two plots are similar. The perimeter

Yasmin draws a triangle where one side is of Plot B is 38m. Martha puts fencing around

36cm long, the hypotenuse is 45cm long and both plots of land. What length of fencing

one angle is 90. will she have left?

Are the two shapes congruent?

Explain how you know.

A B

2 At a bottle stall at a summer fair, tickets from

4.5 m

1 to 100 are placed in a bag.

Customers can pull out 5 tickets for 1. 11.25 m

To win a bottle from the stall, the number on 6 What are the roots of these quadratic

a ticket must end in either 5 or 0. functions?

The first customer picks out 5 tickets.

a y2 + 11y + 24 = 0 b t2 t 12 = 0

a What is the probability that the first ticket

c b + 6b + 8 = 0

2

will be a winner?

b What is the probability that the first two 7 R Jermain has two similar boxes, A and B.

tickets will not be winners? Box A is shown below. Box B has a height of

The first customer finds one winning ticket 9cm. What is the volume of box B?

out of the five they picked out.

c What is the probability that the next 3 cm A

customer will find a winning ticket on their 2 cm

12 cm

first turn?

8 A delivery company charges 80 per cubic

3 A rectangular park has a pathway which goes metre for express delivery. Mason pays

diagonally across it. to send two containers. On Monday, he

The park is 21m wide and 28m long. sends a container with a volume of 15m3.

There is enough tarmac to make a path On Thursday, he sends a container that is

32mlong. mathematically similar and twice as wide.

Will there be enough tarmac for the path? a How much did Mason pay to send the

container on Monday?

4 R Rectangles A and B are similar.

b How much did Mason pay to send the

Rectangle C is an enlargement of rectangle B

similar container on Thursday?

by the same scale factor as rectangle B is an

enlargement of rectangle A. 9 R XYZ is a triangle.

XY = YZ = XZ

B y cm Point O is the midpoint of XY.

30 mm A

92 mm 46 cm a What type of triangle is XYZ?

Explain your answer.

b Jamie draws the line OZ to make triangles

C zm OXZ and OYZ.

Prove these two triangles are congruent.

xm 10 Exam-style question

a Work out the value of x. WXYZ is a square. Prove that triangles

b Work out the value of y. WXY and WYZ are congruent.

c Work out the value of z. X Y

enlargement.

W Z (2 marks)

13 MORE TRIGONOMETRY

6 In this diagram, the measurements are

13.1 Accuracy correct to 2 s.f.

Find the upper and lower bounds for the

1 In this diagram, the lengths of AC and BC are value of x, to 3 d.p.

given correct to 1 d.p.

77

A 14 m

x xm

3.7 cm

7 Exam-style question

C 4.5 cm B

Will wants to calculate his running speed

a Find the upper bound for the length of over 100m.

i AC ii BC. He measures the length of the track, D, as

b Use your answers to part a to work out the 100m to the nearest metre.

upper bound of x. He measures his time, T, as 12.8 seconds to

c Find the lower bound for the length of 3significant figures.

D

i AC ii BC. Will uses the formula S=__to calculate his

T

d Use your answers to part c to work out the speed.

lower bound of x. Calculate the upper bound and the lower

bound for Wills speed. (4 marks)

2 The upper bound for cosx is Example

0.3213899726 and the lower

bound is 0.3015986744. D

Q7 hint The upper bound of __ is not

a Find the upper and lower T

upper bound of D

_______________

bounds for x.

and the lower bound of

upper bound of T

b What do you notice?

D lower bound of D

__ is not _______________

3 In this diagram, the T lower bound of T

measurements are

correct to 3 s.f. 7.52 cm

5.17 cm

Find the upper and

lower bounds for x

13.2 Graph of the sine

the value of x. function

4 In this diagram, the 1 Find the value of sinu in each diagram.

measurements are a y

correct to 2 s.f. 7.5 cm

5.2 cm

1

Find the upper and

lower bounds for x

the value of x.

21 O 1 x

5 In this diagram, the

measurements are

correct to 2 s.f. 7.5 cm x cm 21

Find the upper and

lower bounds for the y

b

value of x, to 3 d.p. 62

1

21

1 from 0 to 1.

Copy and complete these statements in the

same way.

a As u increases from 90 to 180,

21 O 1 x sinu ...

b As u increases from 180 to 270,

sinu ...

21 c As u increases from 270 to 360,

sinu ...

c y

1 5 Here is the graph of y = sinx for

0 < x < 180.

y

1

21 O 1 x

21

d y 0.5

1

21 O 1 x

0

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 x

21

i sin30

ii sin15.

2 a What is the largest value that sinu b Describe the symmetry of the curve.

cantake? c Use the graph to check your answer to Q3.

b What is the smallest value that sinu d Copy and complete, inserting numbers

cantake? greater than 90.

c Find two values of u so that sinu = 0. i sin30 = sin

__

3 ii sin75 = sin

3 sin60 = ___ iii sin0 = sin

2

Use the diagram to__ find an obtuse angle u e Use the graph to give an estimate for the

solutions to sinx = 0.75.

3

such that sinu = ___

.

2 6 Here is a sketch of the graph of y = sinx for

y 0 < x < 360.

3

1 2 y

1

1 1

60

0

21 O 1 x 90 180 270 360 x

21

7 The graph of y = sinx repeats every 360 in

both directions. 13.3 Graph of the cosine

a Sketch the graph of y = sinx for function

0 < x < 540.

b Use your sketch to find 1 Find the value of cosu in each diagram.

i sin390 y

a

ii sin480.

1 1

c The exact value of sin45 is ___

__ .

2

Writedown the exact value of

i sin405

ii sin495. 21 O 1 x

d Explain how you worked out your answers

to part c.

21

Q7a hint Include x-values 0, 90, 180, y

270,360, 450, 540 and y-values 1, 0.5, 0,

b

0.5, 1. 1

1__

sinx = ___ . 21 O 1 x

2

b Write down __ four values of x such that

3

___

sinx = . 21

2

c Check each of your answers using your c y

calculator.

1

9 Exam-style question

Here is a sketch of y = sinx.

y 21 O 1 x

A

1

21

D O B x

d y

21

C 1

labelled points. (4 marks)

21 O 1 x

10 Solve the equation 10sinx = 3 Example

for all values of x in the

21

interval 0 to 720.

__ y

3

2 cos30 = ___ 1

2

11 Solve the equation 8sinu = 6.5 for all values Use the diagram

of u in the interval 0 to 720. to find a reflex 1

angle u such __ 30

3 21 O 1 x

that cosu = ___ .

2 1

21

3 cos60 = 0.5 8 Exam-style question

a Find a reflex angle u such that cosu = 0.5.

The diagram shows a sketch of the graph

b Find an obtuse angle such that cosu = 0.5. y = cosx

y

4 As u increases from 0 to 90, cosu decreases A

from 1 to 0.

Copy and complete these statements in the C

O x

same way.

a As u increases from 90 to 180,

cosu ... D B

b As u increases from 180 to 270, Write down the coordinates of points

cosu ... A, B, C and D. (4 marks)

c As u increases from 270 to 360,

cosu ...

9 8cosx = 4.64

5 Here is the graph of y = cosx for a Use cos1 on your calculator to find one

0 < x < 360. value of x.

y b Use your answer to part a and your sketch

1 from Q6 to solve 8cosx = 4.64 for values

of x in the interval 0 to 720.

0 10 Solve the equation 7cosu = 4.3 for values of

180 360 x

u in the interval 0 to 720.

21

i cos90 ii cos240.

b Describe the symmetry of the curve.

1 Find the value of tanu in each diagram.

c Copy and complete y

a

i cos0 = cos 1.0

ii cos30 = cos 0.8

iii cos150 = cos P 0.6

0.4

6 The graph of y = cosx repeats every 360 in 0.2

both directions. 1 0 x

a Sketch the graph of y = cosx for 20.2

0 < x < 720. 20.4

b Use your graph to find 20.6

20.8

i cos420 ii cos600.

1__ 21.0

c The exact value of cos45 is ___ .

2

b y

Write down the exact value of 1.0

i cos405 ii cos675. 0.8

P 0.6

Q6a hint Include x-values 0, 90, 180,

0.4

270, 360, ... , 720 and y values 1, 0.5, 0,

0.2

0.5, 1.

1 0 x

20.2

7 Use your sketch from Q6 to find four values 20.4

of x such that __ 20.6

1__

___ 3

___ 20.8

a cosx =

b

cosx = .

2 2 21.0

Check your answers using a calculator.

c y 5 Here is the graph of y = tanx for

1.0 0 < x < 360.

0.8

y

0.6

P 10

0.4

0.2 8

6

1 0 x

20.2 4

20.4 2

20.6 0

20.8 90 180 270 360 x

22

21.0

21.2 24

26

y 28

d

1.4

210

1.2

1.0

0.8 a How often does the graph repeat?

0.6 b Use the graph to estimate the value of

0.4 i tan70

0.2 ii tan150.

1 0 x c Describe the symmetry of the curve.

20.2 d Copy and complete, inserting numbers

20.4 greater than 180.

20.6

i tan45 = tan

P 20.8

ii tan80 = tan

21.0

iii tan135 = tan

1__

2 tan30 = ___ 6 a Sketch the graph of y = tanx for

3 0 < u < 540.

1

Use the diagram 3 b Use your sketch to find

to find a reflex i tan495 ii tan420.

angle u such 30 1

0 c The exact value of tan30 is ___

__ .

1

3

that tanu = ___

__ .

3 Write down the exact value of

i tan390 ii tan150.

d Explain how you worked out your answers

to part c.

3 tan45 = 1

a Find a reflex angle u such that tanu = 1. 7 a Write down four values of x such that

1

b Find an obtuse angle such that tanu = 1. tanx = ___

__ .

3

b Write down four values of x such that

4 As u increases from 0 to 90, tanu increases 1

from 0 to infinity. tanx = ___

__ .

3

Copy and complete these statements in the c Check your answers using a calculator.

same way.

a As u decreases from 180 to 90, 8 4tanx = 9

tanu ... a Use tan1 on your calculator to find one

b As u increases from 180 to 270, value of x.

tanu ... b Use your answer to part a and your sketch

c As u decreases from 360 to 270, from Q6 to solve 4 tanx = 9 for values of x

tanu ... in the interval 0 to 540.

9 Solve the equation 8 tanu = 7 for values of u 5 Exam-style question

in the interval 0 to 720.

Q

10 Exam-style question

P R

a Sketch the graph of y = tanx in the

100 12 cm

interval 0 to 720. __

b Given that__tan60 = 3solve the O

equation 3tanx = 3 in the

PQR is an arc of a circle centre O with

interval 0 to 720. (4 marks)

radius 12cm.

PR is a chord of the circle.

Exam hint Angle POR = 100.

You are expected to use your sketch from Calculate the area of the shaded region.

part a to solve the equation in part b. Give your answer correct to

3 significant figures. (5 marks)

13.5 C

alculating areas 6 P a Calculate angle AOB.

and the sine rule Give your answer correct to

1 decimal place.

1 a Write h, the perpendicular height of the A

triangle, in terms of a and u.

15 cm

24 cm

a O

h

b

B

b Write a formula in terms of a and u to

calculate the area of the triangle. b Work out the area of the shaded segment.

Give your answer correct to 3 significant

2 Find the area of each triangle.

figures.

a b

3.5 cm 122 4.8 cm

6 cm Q6a hint Split the triangle into two right-

62 angled triangles.

9 cm O

Work out the length of AB.

A B

A

thecircle.

37 Work out the area of the shaded segment.

C 16 cm B Give your answer correct to 3significant

4 a Find the area of figures.

A B

triangle AOB in

70 m

this circle.

55 8 cm

b Find the area of 45 m

the sector AOB. O

c Find the area of O

the shaded

segment of the

circle.

R = Reasoning P = Problem-solving 13.5 Calculating areas and the sine rule 115

8 Find the length of the side Example 12 In triangle XYZ, XY = 15cm, YZ = 13.5cm and

labelled x in each diagram. angle YXZ = 57.

Give your answers correct to Work out the size of angle XZY.

3significant figures. There are two possible answers.

Give each of them correct to 1 decimal place.

a b x cm

28

x cm 7 cm

76 11.5 cm

13.6 The cosine rule and

49 65 2D trigonometric

c d problems

21

24 mm 32.8 m 33

1 Find the length of the side Example

41

marked with a letter in each

x mm 82

diagram.

xm

Give your answers correct to

3 significant figures.

9 Find the size of angle u in each diagram.

Give your answers correct to 1 decimal place. a b 8.4 cm b cm

4 cm 21

a b 109 a cm

12 cm 6.4 cm 56 12.7 cm

9 cm

14.7 cm

65 5 cm

c c mm d 112 7.87 m

c d

13.1 mm 4.29 m

15.1 m 8.45 m 6.86 m 15.3 mm 142 dm

13.2 m

these triangles.

10 a Work out the length of BD. Give your Give your answers correct to 1 decimal place.

answer correct to 3 significant figures.

a b

B 7 cm 8 cm 18.2 cm

16.3 cm 8.6 cm

C a b

48 13.3 cm

10 cm

c 8.3 cm d 5.91 m

101 84 c

A 11.5 cm d

D 4.5 cm 9.6 cm 7.86 m

b Work out the size of angle BCD. Give your 7.23 m

answer correct to 1 decimal place.

3 In the diagram, O is the centre of the circle of

BC = 7cm and angle

B radius 8cm.

BAC = 35.

AB is a chord of length 11cm.

Work out the size

of angle ACB. Work out the size of angle AOB.

12 cm

The diagram 7 cm 7 cm A

shows that 8 cm

there are two 35 11 cm

possible A C C O

triangles.

Hence there are two possible answers. B

Give both, correct to 1 decimal place.

116 R = Reasoning P = Problem-solving 13.5 Calculating areas and the sine rule

4 R a Work out the B

15 cm C 8 Exam-style question

length of BD. A

Give your 13 cm 16 cm ABC is a triangle.

answer correct 38 AB = 16.4cm

to 3 significant A 11 cm D BC = 10.9cm 36 16.4 cm

figures. Angle CAB = 36.

b Work out the size of angle CBD. Give your Work out the area of B

answer correct to 1 decimal place. triangle ABC. 10.9 cm

c Work out the area of quadrilateral ABCD. C

Give your answer correct to 3 significant Give your answer correct to

figures. 3 significant figures. (6 marks)

5 R The diagram shows B

the positions of three

railway stations, A, B

and C.

N

33 km

14 km

13.7 S

olving problems

Calculate the bearing C in3D

of C from A. 32

25 km 1 R ABCDEFGH is a cuboid. Example

H G

A

E F

6 R A ship leaves port P and sails for 40km on 9 cm

a bearing of 041. It then sails a further 31km

on a bearing of 126 to reach port R. D C

8 cm

N A 15 cm B

a Calculate the length of diagonals

i EG ii AG

Q 126

N iii CF iv CE.

31 km b Find the angle between the

40 km

diagonal BH and the plane ABCD.

41 R c Find the angle between the

diagonal CE and the plane EFGH.

P d Find the angle between the

diagonal AG and the plane ADEH.

a What is the direct distance between P

andR? Q1 hint Sketch separate triangles using

b What is the bearing of R from P? information from the cuboid.

Q6 hint The north lines are parallel. Use this 2 P In the diagram, ABCDEF is a prism.

to find an angle inside the triangle.

The cross-section is a right-angled triangle.

All of the other faces are rectangles.

7 Find the size of each lettered angle or length.

B

a b 11.7 cm

a 3.2 cm

b

A

14 cm 10.3 cm

53 6 cm F

11 cm C

c 17 cm E 16 cm

103

9 cm

D

c

d 142 9 cm Calculate the angle that the diagonal AC

15 cm makes with the plane CDEF.

3 R In the diagram, ABCD is a tetrahedron. 6 P ABCDE is a pyramid with a rectangular base.

A AB = AC = AD = AE = 35cm

A

29

16 cm

62 D 35 cm

E

70

B C B

13 cm D

14 cm 22 cm

a Work out the length of AC. C

b Work out the length of CD. Calculate the size of angle BAD correct to the

c Given that BD = 17cm, calculate angle BCD. nearest degree.

The base BCDE lies in a horizontal plane. 13.8 Transforming

AB = AC = AD = AE = 18cm

trigonometric graphs 1

AM is perpendicular to the base.

A 1 Here is the graph of y = cosx for

180 < x < 180.

y

18 cm

E 1

D E

D 0.5

M

B

15 cm C F

2180 290 0 90 180 x

C

a Calculate the length of 20.5

B G

i BD ii BM iii AM.

b Calculate the angle that AD makes with 21

A H

the base, correct to the nearest degree.

c Calculate the angle between AM and the a Copy the table.

face ABC, correct to the nearest degree. i Write in the values of x and cosx at

points A to H on the graph.

5 Exam-style question ii For each x-value, write the value of cosx.

The diagram shows a A x cosx cosx

square-based

A 180 1 1

pyramid ABCDE.

Each triangular face B 120 0.5 0.5

is an isosceles 16 cm C

triangle. E b Sketch the graph of y = cosx for

B 180 < x < 180.

D c Describe how the graph of y = cosx is

7 cm

7 cm

C transformed to give the graph of y = cosx.

a Calculate the length of the diagonal BD. 2 a Use your table from Q1. Add a column for

Give your answer correct to 3 significant cos(x). Find the cosine values from the

figures. graph to fill in the cos(x) column.

b Calculate the area of triangle ABD. b Sketch the graph of y = cos(x) for

Give your answer correct to 180 < x < 180.

3 significant figures. (6 marks)

c What do you notice?

3 Here is the graph of y = tanx for 10 Exam-style question

180 < x < 180.

Here is a sketch of the graph of y = cosx.

y y

B

6

5

A

4

x

3

2

C

1

Write down the coordinates of each of the

2180 290 0 90 180 x

21 labelled points. (3 marks)

22

23

24 13.9 Transforming

25 trigonometric graphs 2

26

1 a Copy the graph of y = cosx for

Sketch the graph of y = tan(x) for 180 < x < 180 from Q1 in lesson 13.8.

180 < x < 180. b Add 1 to the y-coordinate at each of the

labelled points.

4 a Look at your graph of y = cos(x) for c Draw the cosine graph that passes through

180 < x < 180 in Q2. the new points. Label it y = cosx + 1.

What transformations will turn the graph of d Describe the transformation from the

y = cos(x) into the graph of y = cos(x)? graph of y = cosx to this graph.

b Sketch the graph of y = cos(x). e Now subtract 1 from the y-coordinate at each

c Can the transformation in part a be of the labelled points on the original graph.

described in any other way? f Draw the cosine graph that passes through

the new points.

5 a Sketch the graph of y = sinx for g Describe the transformation from the

180 < x < 180. graph of y = cosx to this graph.

b Sketch the graph of y = sin(x). h Write down the equation of the graph.

2 Write down the equation of each graph.

6 Explain why the graph of y = sin(x) is the

same as the graph of y = sinx. Q2 hint First decide whether it is a sin, cos

or tan graph.

7 a Describe the transformation that maps

a y

thegraph of y = tanx to the graph of

1.5

y = tan(x).

1

b Sketch the graph of y = tanx and the graph

0.5

of y = tan(x) for the interval 0 to 360.

0 90 180 270 360 x

8 a Describe the transformation that maps the 20.5

graph of y = sinx to the graph of y = sinx.

y

b Sketch the graphs of y = sinx and b

3

y = sinx for the interval 180 to 180.

2

9 a Describe the transformation that maps 1

thegraph of y = tanx to the graph of 0 90 180 270 360 x

y = tan(x). 21

b Sketch the graphs of y = tanx and 22

y = tan(x) for the interval 180 to 180. 23

c y b y

1

0 90 180 270 360 x

21

22

21

3 Here is the graph of y = sinx for 0 < x < 360.

y c

1 y 5 0.866 y

4

3

2

0 90 180 270 360 x 1

21

21

22

23

a Copy and complete this table of values for 24

sin(x + 60).

x 0 30 60 90 7 a Sketch the graph of y = cosx for

sin(x + 60) sin60 = 0 < x < 360.

b Sketch the graph of y = sin(x + 60) b Copy and complete the table of values for

y = 2cosx.

c Describe the transformation that takes

the graph of y = sinx to the graph of x 0 30 60 90 120

__

y = sin(x + 60). 3

cosx 1 ___ 0.5

2

4 Describe the transformation of the graph of __

y = sinx to make the graph with equation 2cosx 2 3

a y = sin(x + 30)

c On the same axes, sketch the graph of

b y = sin(x + 50)

y = 2cosx.

c y = sin(x 60)

8 Sketch the graphs of these functions for

5 Describe the transformation of the graph of 0 < x < 360.

y = tanx to make the graph with equation a y = 2cosx

a y = tan(x + 60) b y = 0.5tanx

b y = tan(x + 20) c y = 3sinx

c y = tan(x 30).

9 a Copy your sketch graph of y = cosx for

6 Match each graph with one of these equations. 0 < x < 360 from Q7.

A y = tan(x + 30) B y = sin(x 45) b Copy and complete the table of values for

y = cos(2x).

C y = cos(x 45)

a y x 0 30 60 90 120

1 cos(2x)

c Sketch the graph of y = cos(2x) on the

same axes.

0 90 180 270 360 x 10 Sketch the graphs of these functions for

0 < x < 360.

21 a y = sin2x b y = cos3x

c y = tan4x

11 Exam-style question 2 R Triangle XYZ has angles 96, 39 and 45.

Can you tell if triangle XYZ is congruent to

The diagram shows part of a sketch of the

triangle ABC in the diagram below?

curve y = cosx

Explain your answer.

y

B

1

96

B

O 90 180 270 360 x

45 39

21 A C

A

a Write down the coordinates of the 3 Fiona invests 1250 at 4.4% per annum

points A and B. (2 marks) compound interest. Ian invests 900 at 5%

Here is a sketch of the curve y = asinbx + per annum compound interest.

c, for 0 < x < 360. After 2 years, what is the difference between

the amounts in the two accounts?

y

2 4 R A town roundabout is being replanted.

1 Theroundabout has a diameter of 8m and

has been divided into 6 equal sectors.

O 90 180 270 360 x

21 a What is the area of each sector?

Give your answer to 2 d.p.

22

23

One sector is split into three sections

A, B and C, as shown in the diagram.

24

A B C

13 Problem-solving

Solve problems using these strategies where

appropriate:

Section A extends from the centre to the

Use pictures or lists midpoint of the radii and will be planted with

Use smaller numbers tall grasses.

Use bar models Section B will be planted with flowers.

Use x for the unknown Section C is a segment and will be covered in

Use a flow diagram slate.

Use arrow diagrams b What is the area of section A + section B?

Give your answer to 2 d.p.

Use geometric sketches.

c One bag of slate covers 1m2. If only one

1 A box of pens contains 12 black, 9 red, bag is available, will there be enough slate

5 green and 20 blue. to cover the whole of section C?

A pen is picked at random. 5 Omar needs to make a triangular cover to fit

What is the probability of over his deck. He knows two lengths of the

a picking red or green triangle and one of the angles.

b picking blue or green Use the sine

c picking red or black or green rule to help 4.34 m 123

d not picking green? Omar find y x

the other two 8.46 m

angles to 1 d.p.

6 R In a woodcraft shop a crate is used to 8 A scientist stands on the roof of a building

store offcut pieces of dowel. The offcuts are 100ft above the ground, to the nearest foot.

all different lengths but cannot stick out The scientist fires a zip line down from the

above the top of the crate as another crate roof at an angle of 62, to the nearest degree.

will be stored on top. a How long does the zip line need to be to

What is the longest piece of dowel that can exactly reach the ground, for the upper

be placed in the crate withoutit sticking out and for the lower bound of the angle?

over the top? Give your answers to 2 d.p.

Look at the diagram to help you. b What is the difference between the

Work out your answer to 1d.p. upper bound length and the lower bound

A B length?

E 9 A cruise ship visits two islands (Q and R)

F 48 cm before returning to port (P).

D N

C

H 42 cm

66 cm G

153 Q

50.4

7 Exam-style question miles

57.8 miles

Match each of the sketch graphs below to

one of these equations.

P

y = x2

55.3 miles R

y = sinx

y = x3 + 1 What is the bearing from island Q to island R?

y = x3 + x Give your answer to the nearest whole degree.

y = x2 2 10 A circular stage has a special floor covering.

y = cosx One segment has been damaged and needs

y to be replaced. To compare quotes for

a

replacing the shaded segment, the stage

owners need to find its area.

A

O x

y 11.8 m

b

O

B 7.4 m

O x

Chord AB = 11.8m

The radius of the circle = 7.4m

O x a Find the angle AOB.

b Find the area of sector AOB.

(3 marks) c Find the area of the damaged segment.

Give all your answers to 1 d.p.

14 FURTHER STATISTICS

5 R Dr Hyden wants to collect some data on

14.1 Sampling the lengths of appointments at the local

health centre.

1 R Muhammad wants to find out about the One day there are 500 patients, of whom 210

films people watch. are female.

He wonders whether to ask 50 people coming a Dr Hyden wants a sample of 10% of

out of a cinema. thepatients.

a Is this sample likely to be representative of How many patients should she ask?

the population? Explain. b Describe how Dr Hyden could select a

b Hamish suggests that he pick 50 people at simple random sample.

random from the telephone book. c She decides to ask 25 males picked at

Is this sample likely to be representative of random and 25 females picked at random.

the population? Explain. i What percentage of the males are

selected?

2 R Explain whether each of these samples is ii What percentage of the females are

biased. selected?

a A supermarket wants to find out what

customers think of their product range. 6 The table shows the numbers of students

They ask the first 30 customers through studying different languages.

the tills on a Monday morning. Language Number of students

b A sample of voters is asked what they French 120

think of the current government.

They are chosen randomly from the German 140

electoral roll. Spanish 90

c A science teacher asks the students in his Mandarin 110

lunchtime science club what they think of Latin 40

science.

a Habiba chooses a sample of 50 students.

d A company wants to know whether their

Show that this is 10% of the total number

product is being well advertised. They

of students.

carry out a street survey in 30 towns

across the UK. b Work out 10% of each subject group.

c Show that taking 10% of each subject

3 Elizabeth wants to generate 20 random group gives a sample of 50 students in

numbers. total.

She rolls an ordinary dice twice to give her a

2-digit random number. 7 A library wants to find out what users think

a Use this method to generate 5 random of their new lending service.

numbers. There are 870 women and 630 men

b Will all possible 2-digit numbers be registered with the library.

included using this method? a Explain why a stratified sample should

beused.

4 A head teacher wants to select Example b The librarian wants to survey 10% of

20 students randomly from a theusers.

list of 100 students. How many women and how many men

She uses a calculator to should be asked?

generate random numbers c The librarian decides to ask 100 users.

between 1 and 100. How many of each gender should he ask?

Describe in words how she could use these

numbers to select the students.

8 Exam-style question 2 This frequency table gives the heights of

50seedlings.

A gym has 2000 members.

Draw a cumulative frequency table for this data.

Each member has one of three types of

membership: Bronze, Silver or Gold. Height, h (cm) Frequency

The table shows the number of members in 0.5 , h < 0.7 2

each group. 0.7 , h < 0.9 5

Type of Number of 0.9 , h < 1.1 18

membership members 1.1 , h < 1.3 12

Bronze 450 1.3 , h < 1.5 9

Silver 980 1.5 , h < 1.7 4

Gold 570

3 Exam-style question

The manager wants to carry out a survey on

a stratified sample of 200 of these members. This table gives the weights of Example

30 new-born babies.

Find the number of members from each

group that should be in the sample.(3 marks) Weight, w (kg) Frequency

2.7 , w < 3.0 1

Q8 hint Show all your calculations clearly. 3.0 , w < 3.3 0

You could add columns to the table. 3.3 , w < 3.6 5

3.6 , w < 3.9 7

9 P In a colony of birds, 50 are caught and

tagged. A month later another 50 birds are 3.9 , w < 4.2 12

caught. Two of them are tagged birds. 4.2 , w < 4.5 5

a What fraction of the birds in the second a Draw a cumulative frequency

sample are tagged birds? diagram. (2 marks)

b Assume the fraction of tagged birds in the b Use the diagram to find an estimate

second sample is the same as the fraction for the median weight. (1 mark)

of tagged birds in the colony. c Estimate the range. (2 marks)

Estimate how many birds are in the colony.

10 P A scientists captures and tags 4 a Draw a cumulative frequency diagram for

100penguins from a colony of penguins. the seedlings data in Q2.

There are approximately 1200 penguins in b Find an estimate for the median height of

the colony. The scientist returns a month the seedlings.

later and captures 60 penguins. 5 The times taken by 50 students to complete

How many would he expect to find tagged? their maths homework are shown in the table.

Time, m (minutes) Frequency

14.2 Cumulative frequency 10 , m < 15 1

15 , m < 20 7

1 The frequency table shows the ages of 20 , m < 25 11

90customers in a spa. Copy and complete 25 , m < 30 12

the cumulative frequency table. 30 , m < 35 12

Cumulative 35 , m < 40 7

Age, y (years) Frequency

frequency a Draw a cumulative frequency diagram.

20 , y < 30 6 6 b Estimate the median time taken.

30 , y < 40 18 6 + 18 = c Estimate the lower quartile of the time

40 , y < 50 22 taken.

d Estimate the upper quartile.

50 , y < 60 34

e Use your answers to parts c and d to work

60 , y < 70 10 out an estimate for the interquartile range.

6 R The table shows the masses of 100 cakes

in grams. 14.3 Box plots

Mass, m (grams) Frequency

1 Draw a box plot for this data Example

900 , m < 950 2

on the ages of customers.

950 , m < 1000 37

1000 , m < 1050 32

1050 , m < 1100 22

1100 , m < 1150 5

Minimum LQ Median UQ Maximum

1150 , m < 1200 2

19 25 33 45 61

a Draw a cumulative frequency diagram.

b Estimate the median, quartiles and 2 R This data shows the lengths of time, in

interquartile range. minutes, it took 11 people to walk 1 mile.

c Estimate how many cakes weigh less than 9, 11, 12, 12, 15, 15, 16, 16, 17, 18, 18

1075g. a Write down the median time taken.

d Copy and complete. b Find the upper and lower quartiles.

90 cakes are estimated to weigh less than c Draw a box plot for the data.

______ grams. 3 R This stem-and-leaf diagram shows the

amounts of time 25 people spent in a coffee

7 Exam-style question

shop.

The table below shows information about 1 8 8 9

the heights of 60 students.

2 0 3 3 4 5 7 8

Height, x (cm) Number of students 3 5 5 7 9 9 9 9 9

140 , x < 150 4 4 0 2 2 5 7 8

150 , x < 160 5 5 2

160 , x < 170 16

Key: 1 | 8 represents 18 minutes

170 , x < 180 27

a What was the shortest length of time a

180 , x < 190 5 customer spent in the coffee shop?

190 , x < 200 3 b What is the median length of time?

a Draw a cumulative frequency table. c Find the lower and upper quartiles of the

(1 mark) length of time.

b Draw a cumulative frequency graph. d Work out the interquartile range.

(2 marks) e Draw a box plot.

c Use your graph to find an estimate of

the median height. (1 mark) 4 The results in two different maths tests are

shown in the comparative box plots.

d Use your graph to find an estimate for

the number of students who are less than Results

185cm tall. (2 marks) Test A

Exam hint

For parts c and d draw lines on the graph Test B

with a ruler to show how you got your

answers.

50 60 70 80 90

Marks

a Which test has the higher median?

b Work out the interquartile range for each

test.

c Work out the range for each test.

5 R Summary statistics on the ages of people Harry weighed 60 tomatoes from group A.

living in two different blocks of flats are given The cumulative frequency graph shows

in this table. some information about these weights.

Block A Block B

60

Minimum 3 17

LQ 18 35

50

Median 29 37

Cumulative frequency

UQ 42 42 40

Maximum 73 91

a Draw comparative box plots for the two 30

blocks of flats.

b Compare the blocks of flats. 20

interquartile ranges and ranges.

0

6 R The cumulative frequency graph gives 140 150 160 170 180 190

information about how long the batteries last Weight (g)

in two different types of mobile phones.

a Use the graph to find an estimate for the

Battery life median weight. (1 mark)

Type B The 60 tomatoes from group A had

100 minimum weight of 153 grams

90 maximum weight of 186 grams.

Cumulative frequency

Type A

80 b Use this information and the cumulative

70 frequency graph to draw a box plot for

60 the 60 tomatoes from group A.

50 Use a scale like this:

40

Group

30

A

20

10 140 150 160 170 180 190

0 Weight (g)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 (3 marks)

Time (hours) Harry weighed 60 tomatoes from group B.

a Use the graph to find the median and He drew this box plot for his results.

quartiles for each type of phone.

b Draw comparative box plots for the two Group

B

phones.

c Compare the two phones. 140 150 160 170 180 190

Weight (g)

7 Exam-style question

c Compare the distribution of the weights

Harry grows tomatoes.

of the tomatoes from group A with

This year he put his tomato plants into two the distribution of the weights of the

groups, group A and group B. tomatoes from group B. (2 marks)

Harry gave fertiliser to the tomato plants in June 2012, Q15, 1MA0/1H

group A.

He did not give fertiliser to the tomato

plants in group B. Q7c hint Be sure to put your comparisons in

the context of the question.

a Work out an estimate for the mean

14.4 Drawing histograms mark of Year 11. (4 marks)

b Draw a histogram for the information

1 The table shows the ages of 60 patients. given in the table. (3 marks)

Class Frequency

Age, a (years) Frequency

width density Q4 hint Use the midpoint of each class

__

3 interval.

0 , a < 10 3 10 10 =0.3

10 , a < 20 14

20 , a < 40 17 14.5 I nterpreting

40 , a < 60 19

histograms

60 , a < 80 7

a Work out each class width. 1 R The histogram shows the heights of a

b Work out the frequency density for each sample of students.

class. Student heights

2 This table shows the lengths Example

3

Frequency density

of time that 100 people spent

watching TV one evening.

2

1

Time, t (hours) Frequency

0 < t < 0.5 5 0

150 160 170 180

0.5 , t < 1 35

Height (cm)

1,t<2 56

a How many students were between

2,t<3 4

150and 155cm tall?

Draw a histogram for this data. b How many students were between

3 This table contains data on the weights of 170and 180cm tall?

65women. c How many students were measured intotal?

Weight, w (kg) Frequency 2 R The histogram shows the distances an

40 , w < 45 2 audience at a theatre had travelled to the

production.

45 , w < 55 17

Distance travelled

55 , w < 65 31

65 , w < 70 11 6

Frequency density

70 , w < 90 4

4

Draw a histogram for this data.

4 Exam-style question 2

Mrs Morris records the results in the Year

11 maths exam. 0

0 10 20 30 40 50

Mark, m (%) Frequency Distance (miles)

0 , m < 40 2 a How many of the audience travelled less

40 , m < 50 4 than 10 miles?

50 , m < 60 12 b Estimate how many of the audience

60 , m < 80 63 travelled less than 15 miles.

c Estimate how many people travelled

80 , m <100 9

between 15 and 40 miles.

3 Exam-style question a Draw a grouped frequency table for the data.

b Work out an estimate for the mean time

The incomplete table and histogram give

taken.

some information about the distances

people travel to work. c How many athletes took longer than

11.5seconds to run 100m?

median of the data in Q2.

Frequency density

the babies born in one day in a maternity

hospital.

0 10 20 30 40 50

Weights of babies

Distance in miles

complete the frequency table below.

Distance (d) in miles Frequency

0,d<5 140

5 , d < 10

10 , d < 20

20 , d < 35 120

35 , d < 50 30

(2 marks) 0

b Complete the histogram. (2 marks) 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2

Weight (kg)

Draw the bars on the histogram neatly Work out the frequency density for that

with a ruler. Show your working to class.

calculate the frequencies. b How many babies were born in total?

c Work out an estimate for the median weight.

4 P The histogram shows the times taken by a d Draw a frequency diagram for the data in

number of athletes to run 100m. the histogram.

100 m times

e Work out an estimate for the mean weight

from your frequency table.

40 f How many of the babies were heavier than

the mean weight?

Frequency density

30

Q6b hint Label the frequency density scale.

20

10

0

10 11 12 13 14

Time (seconds)

7 P The histogram shows the heights of some 4 R Ten male and ten female swimmers

sunflowers. compete in a race.

Heights of sunflowers The times, in minutes, to complete the swim

are recorded.

Frequency density

0.4 Males: 32, 34, 35, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44, 49, 63

Females: 30, 41, 43, 44, 47, 49, 50, 52, 52, 53

0.2 a Explain which of the median and

interquartile range or mean and range

0 should be used to compare the data.

50 100 150 200 250 300 b Compare the times for males and females.

Height (cm)

5 P The table shows how far employees at

a How many sunflowers are there in total? Gatwick Airport travel to work.

b Work out an estimate of the median

height. Length of journey,

Frequency

x (miles)

c Estimate how many sunflowers are taller

than 110cm. 0 , x < 10 1

10 , x < 20 16

20 , x < 30 25

14.6 Comparing and 30 , x < 40 15

describing populations 40 , x < 50 3

a Draw a cumulative frequency diagram.

1 Every day one week, a passenger group b Find the median and interquartile range.

recorded how late two trains were, in minutes. The box plot shows far employees at

Train A 3 7 5 6 8 Heathrow Airport travel to work.

Train B 1 9 2 8 3 Length of journey

late by.

two different physiotherapists are recorded. Distance (miles)

Back Health 54 49 39 44 63 71 65 c Compare the lengths of the employees

Joints Ease 33 39 45 57 62 21 25 journeys to work at the two airports.

a Write down the median age of the clients Q5c hint Compare the medians and

for each physiotherapist. interquartile ranges.

b Work out the interquartile range of

theage of the clients for each 6 P This back-to-back stem-and-leaf diagram

physiotherapist. shows the weights of 20 members at two

c Compare the ages of the clients at the two different slimming clubs.

physiotherapists. Weight Loss World Slimmers Hut

spent playing computer games one day were 9 7 6 6 3 8 0 5 5 7 9 9

recorded. 9 8 6 6 5 5 9 1 1 6 8 9 9 9

17, 19, 23, 25, 28, 31, 34, 38, 40, 41, 120 9 9 6 6 2 0 0 10 2 4

a Work out the mean length of time. Key: 5 | 7 Key: 7 | 0

b Work out the median length of time. represents 75 kg represents 70 kg

c Work out the range and interquartile

range. Compare the weights of the members at the

two different clubs.

7 P The cumulative frequency graph shows 1 Gary conducted a survey asking people of

the ages of children at two different different ages if they shopped more often at

nurseries. Shop A or Shop B. This back-to-back

Ages of children

stem-and-leaf diagram shows the results.

Shop A Shop B

40

Cumulative frequency

9 1 8 8 9 9

Nursery A 8 7 5 2 2 4 4 6 7

30 7 6 5 3 3 2 3 1 2 2 5

9 6 6 5 1 0 0 4 0

20 Nursery B 8 8 8 6 3 2 5 1

Key: Key:

10 9 | 1 represents 19 years 1 | 8 represents 18 years

Compare the data by finding the median

0 ages and interquartile ranges.

0 1 2 3 4 5

Age (years) 2 Plane A took 11 hours to travel 6022 miles.

Plane B travelled at the same average speed on

Compare the two sets of data. a journey of 3904 miles. Round your answers to

the questions to the nearest whole number.

8 Exam-style question

a What was the average speed of the planes?

A survey was carried out on the speeds at b About how long did Plane Bs journey take?

which cars travelled past a primary school.

3 R Judy is conducting a survey of her

Speed, m Cumulative companys employees. There are 250

(miles per hour) frequency employees. Judy will survey a random sample

0 , m < 10 15 of 10 employees. She uses a random number

10 , m < 20 74 table to work out whom to ask.

20 , m < 30 45 9845679256938259793198984293232456

30 , m < 40 18 a Explain one way Judy can generate

40 , m < 50 3 10random numbers.

b Would you consider Judys survey a

A similar survey outside another school gave a

good-sized sample? Explain.

median of 27 and an interquartile range of 15.

Compare the speeds at which cars travelled 4 R Ian buys two similar pictures.

outside the two schools. (2 marks) The larger picture has a height of 23cm.

Thesmaller picture has a length of 7.5cm

and a height of 5.75cm.

Q8 hint Draw a cumulative frequency What is the length of the larger picture?

diagram for the results given in the table.

5 The frequency table shows the test scores for

Year 9 students in a recent science test.

Test scores, t (%) Frequency

14 Problem-solving 0 , t < 25 13

25 , t < 50 18

Solve problems using these strategies where

appropriate: 50 , t < 75 34

75 , t < 100 20

Use pictures or lists

Use smaller numbers Topass the test, students need to score

60% or higher. Draw a cumulative frequency

Use bar models

diagram and estimate how many students

Use x for the unknown passed the test.

Use a flow diagram

Use arrow diagrams Q5 hint Use the data to draw a cumulative

Use geometric sketches. frequency table.

6 Exam-style question 8 R Mark says the interquartile range for

the data in this stem-and-leaf diagram is 8

Chilli plants are watered with water or with because 12 4 = 8.

a water and fertiliser mixture.

Is he correct? Explain how you know.

The box plot shows data about their heights.

2 9 9

3 1 3 3 5 7 9

Water

4 0 2 4 6

5 0 5 6

Water and

fertiliser Key: 2 | 9 represents 29

Height (cm) customers of different ages think about a

new product. The table shows the numbers

a Write down the median height of chilli

of customers who bought the product in the

plants watered with the water and

last month. She wants to look at a stratified

fertiliser mixture. (1 mark)

sample of 20% of the customers.

b Give two comparisons between the

heights of chilli plants watered only with Age (years), a Number of customers

water and chilli plants watered with the 18 , a < 25 160

water and fertiliser mixture. (3 marks) 26 , a < 39 125

40 , a < 60 85

7 This table shows summary statistics from a 61 , a 70

data set of the heights of sunflowers. a How many customers will be surveyed in

Minimum LQ Median UQ Maximum total?

b How many more customers in the

6ft 7ft 8ft 10ft 12ft

18 , a < 25 age range will be surveyed

a Draw a box plot for the data. than in the 40 , a < 60 age range?

b Suppose some more sunflowers were c Explain why a company might want to use

measured and the lower quartile a stratified sample like this.

changedto 5ft.

10 Solve the equation 4sinx = 3 for

Describe how your box plot would change. 0 , x , 720.

Describe what would stay the same. Give your answers correct to 1 d.p.

y

15.1 Solving simultaneous C 5

B

equations graphically 4

A 3

1 R a Match the equations to the three lines 2

A, B and C shown opposite. 1

i x + y = 4 ii y = x + 2 iii 3y + x = 6

22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 6 x

b Hence write down the solutions to these 21

pairs of simultaneous equations.

i x + y = 4 ii x + y = 4

y = x + 2 3y + x = 6

iii 3y + x = 6

y=x+2

2 Solve the pairs of simultaneous equations by 7 a On a suitable grid draw the graph of

drawing the graphs. x2 + y2 = 36

a y = 4x 1 b On the same grid draw the graph of

y = 4x + 1 y=x+6

b 5y = x 8 c What are the coordinates of the points at

x + 5y = 12 which the graphs intersect?

c 0 = 2y x + 4

4y = 13 x 8 Use a graphical method to find an estimate

for the solution to the simultaneous

d 3x 2y = 11 equations

x + y = 4

x2 + y2 = 16

e Show that solving the equations xy=3

algebraically gives the same solutions to

the equations in part d.

3 Tim buys 3 rollerball pens and 5 biros for 9.75. 15.2 Representing

In the same shop, Jenny buys 2 rollerball inequalities graphically

pens and 2 biros for 5.50.

Write a pair of simultaneous equations and 1 a Write down the inequalities represented

solve them graphically to find the cost of by the shaded regions.

a one rollerball pen y

i

b one biro. 5

4

4 R Two mobile phone companies offer the 3

following prices.

2

Fones4U MobilesRUs 1

No monthly contract Monthly line rental 24

Calls cost 0.30 per minute Calls cost 0.06 per minute 23 22 21O 1 2 3 x

21

a For each company form an equation to

ii y

calculate the monthly cost, with y = total

3

monthly cost and x = minutes of calls.

2

b Use a graphical method to work out how

1

many minutes of calls are used if the two

companies charge the same. 24 23 22 21O 1 2 x

21

5 Use a graphical method to Example 22

find an approximate solution 23

to the pair of simultaneous

equations iii y

y + x2 = 1 5

y+ 2 = x 4

3

Q5 hint Start by rearranging the equations, 2

then plot the graphs. 1

21

i graphically 22

ii algebraically to 2 decimal places.

4x 3y = 7

2x2 y = 3

b Which method gives the more accurate

solution? Explain.

b On a suitable coordinate grid, shade the 6 R The diagrams show a shaded region

region of points whose coordinates satisfy bounded by three lines.

i x > 1 ii y , 4 For each diagram

iii 0 . y iv y + 1 , x < 2 i write down the equations of the lines

v 1 , y and y . 1 vi 1.5 < x < 3.5 ii write down the three inequalities satisfied

vii 4.5 , y < 2 by the coordinates of the points in this

region.

2 a Draw a coordinate grid with 4 to 4 on

a y

both axes.

5

b Draw the graph of y = 3x 1

4

c Does the point (4, 2) satisfy the inequality

y < 3x 1? 3

d Shade the region of points that satisfy 2

y < 3x 1 1

21

3x 1=

22

23

3 Draw a coordinate grid with 5 to 5 on both

axes.

b y

Shade the regions that satisfy

5

a y , x b y < 2x 3

4

c y . _12x + 2 d

y > 4 3x

3

4 R x and y are integers. Example 2

On a coordinate grid with 1

5 to 5 on both axes, mark

on all the points with 26 25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x

21

integer coordinates which

22

satisfy all three inequalities:

y + x < 3 x . 2 y > 1

c y

5 Exam-style question 5

4

The lines y = x + 3 and x + y = 7 are

drawn on the grid. 3

y 2

10 1

9

y5x13

8 25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 x

7 21

6 22

5 23

4

3

24

2

1

7 P How many points with integer coordinates

2524232221O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x satisfy these inequalities?

21

22

x1y57

y + 2x , 4 y . 2x 1x . 1

23

8 a Draw the graph of y = 4 x2 for values of

On the grid, mark with a cross (X) each of x from 4 to +4.

the points with integer coordinates that are b Draw the line y = x + 1 on the same axes.

in the region defined by y , x + 3, x + y < 7

c Shade the region that satisfies y , 4 x2

and y . 2 (3 marks)

and y . x + 1

9 This is the graph of y = 5 + 3x 2x2 y

y 10

8 9

7 8

6 7

5 6

4

y 5 x2 2 6x 1 8

5

3 4

2 3

1 2

24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x 1

21

22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x

21

22

a For what integer values of x is the graph

below the x-axis?

d What are the coordinates of the turning

b For what integer values of x point?

is 5 + 3x 2x2 , 0?

2 a Plot the graph of y = x2 + 4x 21

Q9 hint Write your answer as two b Use your graph to work out the roots of

inequalities: x , and x .

the equation y = x2 + 4x 21

10 R a Sketch the graph of y = 12 2x 2x2, c Where does the graph intersect the y-axis?

marking clearly the points where the d Does the graph have a maximum or

graph intersects the x-axis. minimum point?

b From the graph identify the values of x for e What are the coordinates of the turning

which 0 > 12 2x 2x2 point?

Give your answer using set notation. 3 a Solve the equations

11 P By sketching the graph of y = + 6x 9,

3x2 i 0 = x2 + 2x 8

find the values of x which satisfy ii 0 = x2 7x + 6

0 > 3x2 + 6x 9 b Find the value of y when x = 0 for the

Give your answer using set notation. equations

i y = x2 + 2x 8

12 R a Sketch the graph of y = x2 + x 12 ii y = x2 7x + 6

b Hence find the values of x which satisfy

the inequality 12 > x2 + x 4 R Match the graphs to their equations,

Give your answer using set notation. explaining your reasoning.

a y = x2 + x 20 b y = x2 x 20

13 R Sketch graphs to find the values of x

c y = x2 + 8x 15 d y = 2x2 + 13x 15

which satisfy these inequalities.

i y

Give your answers using set notation. 8

a x2 + 3x . 4 b x + 14 < 3x2 c x2 , 25 6

4

15.3 Graphs of quadratic 2

functions 21O

22

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x

24

1 Look at the graph of y = x2 6x + 8

26

a Use the graph to find the roots.

28

b Where does the graph intersect the yaxis?

210

c Is the turning point a maximum or a

212

minimum?

ii y 7 Use the method in Q6 to sketch these graphs.

2 a y = x2 + x 56

b y = x2 5x + 36

21O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x

22 c y = 3x2 6x + 9

24 d y = 4x2 9

26

8 Exam-style question

28

a Solve the equation x2 + 6x 5 = 0

iii y (2 marks)

5 b On a suitable coordinate grid,

sketch the graph of y = x2 + 6x 5,

21028 26 24 22O 2 4 6 8 10 x marking clearly the coordinates of the

25

points of intersection with the axes

210 and the coordinates of the turning

215 point. (4 marks)

220

9 a Write down the coordinates of the turning

iv y

point of the graph of y = (x 2)2 7

5

b Substitute y = 0 into the equation

21028 26 24 22O 2 4 6 8 10 x y = (x 2)2 7 and hence find the

25 coordinates of the roots, giving your

210 answers in surd form.

215

10 Find the roots of these equations given in

220 completed square form, giving your answers

in surd form where appropriate.

5 R For each quadratic function, a y = (x 1)2 4

Example

work out the coordinates of b y = 2(x + 3)2 32

the turning point and state c y = 5(x 2)2 15

whether it is a maximum or

11 By writing the equations in completed square

a minimum.

form, calculate the roots of the equations.

a y = x2 4x + 7

Give your answers in surd form.

b y = x2 2x 5

a y = x2 + 6x 7

c y = x2 12x + 19 d y = 2x2 + 16x + 40

b y = 2x2 12x + 4

e y = 3x2 18x + 33 f y = 4x2 2x + 5

c y = 3x2 8x + 1

6 a Factorise the expression x2 + 2x 35 12 R Give three reasons why the graph shown is

b Hence write down the coordinates of the not y = 3x2 + 12x + 36

roots of y = x2 + 2x 35 y

c Where does the graph of y = x2 + 2x 35 5

cross the y-axis?

d Write x2 + 2x 35 in completed square 21028 26 24 22O 2 4 6 8 10 x

25

form. 210

e Hence write down the coordinates of the 215

turning point of y = x2 + 2x 35 220

f Is the turning point a maximum or a 225

minimum? 230

Explain your answer. 235

g Using your answers to parts a to f, sketch 240

the graph of y = x2 + 2x 35

245

Q6b hint Solve x2 + 2x 35 = 0 250

13 P Find the equation of this graph. iv y

y (4, 6) 4

3

2

O x 1

21

22

23

15.4 Solving quadratic 24

equations graphically 25

1 R Match each graph to its equation. 2 a Copy and complete the table of values for

Hence estimate the roots of the equation. y = 2x2 + 5x 4

a y = x2 5x + 2 b y = 2x2 2x 3 x 2 1 0 1 2 3

c y = x 3x + 1 d

2 y = 3x2 + 5x + 3 y 7

i y

4 b Plot the graph of y = 2x2 + 5x 4 on a

3

suitable grid.

2 c From the graph estimate the roots of the

1

equation y = 2x2 + 5x 4

3 a Plot the graphs of the following functions.

24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 6 x Hence estimate the roots.

21

22 i y = x2 + 3x 6 ii y = x2 + 4x + 3

23 iii y = 3x2 + 2x 4 iv y = 2x2 5x + 5

24 b Use the quadratic formula to find the

25 roots of the equations in part a to

26 3significant figures.

Check your answers to part a.

ii y

4

4 Exam-style question

3 a Complete the table of values for

2 y = 2x2 + 9x 3

1 x 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x y

21

(2 marks)

22

b Plot the graph of y = 2x + 9x 3

2

23

(2 marks)

24

c Use your graph to estimate the roots of

the equation y = 2x2 + 9x 3(3 marks)

iii y

6 d Write the expression 2x2 + 9x 3 in

5 the form a(x + b)2 + c. (2 marks)

4

3 5 R For each function

2

i find the coordinates of the turning point

ii find the y-intercept

1

iii sketch the graph.

24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x a y = x2 + 3x + 4

21

b y = x2 5x 5

22

c y = 2x2 + 5x 6

6 R Dan is sketching the graph of c Write the set of values of x that satisfy

y = 2(x + 4)2 1 x2 + 2x 3 . 0 (where the curve is above

He is finding it difficult to identify the roots the x-axis).

of the equation. Explain why. d Write the set of values of x that satisfy

x2 + 2x 3 , 0 (where the curve is below

7 R By completing the square, decide whether the x-axis).

these quadratic equations have

no roots 12 Find the set of values that satisfy each

two roots inequality.

one repeated root.

a x2 + 3x 4 . 0

a y = x2 + 7x + 12 b y = x2 + 5x 4

b x2 + 2x 15 , 0

c y = x2 8x 13 d y = 2x2 + 8x + 8

c x2 + 6x + 8 , 0

e y = x + 3x 3 f

2 y = 4x2 11x + 7

d x2 + 12x + 35 . 0

g y = 3x2 10x 9 h y = 9x2 6x 1

e x2 5x + 6 . 0

8 Exam-style question f x2 7x + 6 , 0

of the equation y = x2 9x 5, giving

your answers in surd form. (3 marks) 15.5 Graphs of cubic

b Show algebraically that y = x2 + 3x + 8 functions

has no real roots. (3 marks)

1 Expand the expression (x + 1)(x2 + 2x + 3)

9 Write an equation for each graph.

a y b y 2 Copy and complete to expand the expression

(x + 1)(x + 3)(x 2) = (x2 + x + )(x 2)

= x3 + x2 x

23 O 3 x

O 2 6 x

3 Expand the expressions

a (x2 + 2x + 1)(x + 1) b (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)

c y c (x + 2)(x + 4)(x + 2) d (x 2)(x + 5)(x 4)

e (x + 4)(x 1)(x 5) f x(x 6)(x 3)

g (x + 2)2(x 2) h (x 3)3

O 3 x

y

Q9 hint Write y = (x a)(x b) and expand. 25

20

15

10 Use the iterative formula Example

and the starting point given 10

to find one root for each 5

quadratic equation.

Give your answers correct to 25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 x

25

5 decimal places. ______ 210

a y = x2 7x 5 x = ______

5 + 7x x0 = 7 215

b y = x 2x 6 x = 2x + 6

2 x0 = 3.5 220

4

c y = x2 x 4 x=__

x

+1 x0 = 2.5 225

x2 + 2x 3 = 0 a What are the roots of the equation?

b Sketch the graph of y = x2 + 2x 3 b Where does the graph cross the y-axis?

5 a What are the roots of the Example iv y

equation 5

y = (x + 2)(x + 4)(x 6)? 4

b Where does the graph of 3

y = (x + 2)(x + 4)(x 6) 2

cross the y-axis? 1

c Sketch the graph of

y = (x + 2)(x + 4)(x 6) 25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 5 x

21

22

6 R Match each graph to its equation. 23

a y = (x 1)(x + 2)(x 3) 24

b y = (x + 2)(x 3)2 25

c y = (x 3)(x + 3)(x 4)

v y

d y = x(x 2)2

25

e y = (x + 1)(2 x)(x + 5) 20

f y = x2(x 2) 15

i y 10

20 5

15

10 28 26 24 22O 2 4 6 8 x

25

5

vi y

26 25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x 45

25

40

210

35

215

30

220

25

225

20

15

ii y

5 10

4 5

3

28 26 24 22O 2 4 6 8 x

2 25

1

7 How many solutions does each of these cubic

23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x equations have?

21

22 a y = (x 2)(x + 7)(x 8)

23 b y = (x 1)3

24 c y = x(x 2)(x + 5)

25 d y = x(x 4)2

e y = (x2 3x + 4)(x + 5)

iii y f y = (x + 6)(x 2)(3 x)

15

10 8 Sketch the graphs, marking clearly the points

5 of intersection with the x- and y-axes.

a y = (x 4)(x 2)(x + 1)

28 26 24 22O 2 4 6 8 x

25 b y = x(x 1)2

210 c y = (2 x)(x + 2)(x 5)

215 d y = (x 3)2(x + 4)

e y = (x 4)3

9 Exam-style question

15 Problem-solving

Sketch the graph of y = x(x + 4)2

on a suitable coordinate grid marking

Solve problems using these Example

clearly the points of intersection

strategies where appropriate:

with the axes. (3 marks)

Use pictures

10 P The graph has equation Use smaller numbers

y = x3 + ax2 + bx + c Use bar models

y Use x for the unknown

4

Use a flow diagram

2

Use arrow diagrams

24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 4 x Use geometric sketches

22

Use graphs.

24

26 1 A group of Explorer Scouts are on an

28 orienteering expedition.

210 They start at point A and are told to travel

one mile on a bearing of 050 to point B

Work out the values of a, b and c. where they find their next instruction.

11 P A graph has equation y = x3 + ax2 + bx + c Point C is 3 miles from point B on a bearing

of 135.

It crosses the x-axis at x = 4, x = 1 and x = 3.

a Using 3cm for every mile, draw a diagram

Without drawing the graph, work out the

to show where the group needs to go to

values of a, b and c.

visit both points B and C.

12 Use an iterative formula y b What is the bearing of C from A?

to find the one root of

x3 3x2 2 = 0 to 4 d.p. 2 R Look at the graph and the shaded region

The first steps have been bounded by the three lines.

done for you: Write down the three inequalities satisfied by

O 2 4 x

x3 = 3x 2+2

______ the coordinates of the points in this region.

22

x = _______

3

3x2 + 2

y

xn+1 = 3xn + 2

3

2 6

x0 = _______ 5

x1 = 3x02 + 2 4

3

=

_______

3

x2 = 3x1 + 2

3 2 =

2

13 Use an iterative formula to find the negative 1

root of the equation x3 2x2 7x + 5 = 0

to 5 d.p. 24 23 22 210 1 2 3 4 x

y 21

22

23

24

25

26

24 22 O 2 4 x

3 R This frequency table shows different 7 R Joshua is working on a woodwork project.

lengths of material in a craft shop. Sean has measured the height and the

Length, l (cm) Frequency opposite angle of the piece of wood Joshua

needs to cut and has rounded them to the

10 , l < 15 9 nearest cm and the nearest degree.

15 , l < 20 6

20 , l < 25 12

25 , l < 30 16

21 cm a

Which of the following statements are true

about this data?

58

A The higher class boundary of each class

is30. Joshua wants more precision and so cuts the

B The range is 16 9 = 7 wood to the upper bounds so that he can

C The lower quartile is in the 15 , l < 20 sand it down if he needs to.

class. a What is the upper bound of length a, to

D The median is in the 15 , l < 20 class. the nearest mm?

E The upper quartile is in the 25 , l < 30 b What is the difference between the upper

class. bound and the lower bound of the length?

4 Show the area formed by these inequalities 8 Work out the minimum value of n2 6n + 14.

on a grid.

x , 4 y . 2 y , 2x + 1 9 R Naomi is making a maths display showing

different graphs.

5 R Kevin has just fitted a new granite area The labels for the graphs have got mixed up.

around his sink. Match the labels to graphs X, Y and Z.

(2x 1 3) in linear graph cubic graph

(x 1 2) in quadratic graph

(x 1 2) in (x 1 1) in x1y55 y 5 2x 1 2

y 5 x3 1 3x2 2 6x 2 8

granite.

b The actual area of the granite is Graph X

484 inches square. y

Find the dimensions of the sink. 12

10

6 Exam-style question 8

a Complete the table of values for 6

y = x2 2x. 4

2

x 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

y 25 24 23 22 21O 1 2 3 x

22

(2 marks)

24

b Draw the graph of y = x2 2x for

values of x from 2 to 4. (2 marks) 26

c Solve x 2x 2 = 1.

2 (2 marks) 28

June 2013, Q15, 1MA0/2H 210

212

Graph Y Graph Z

y B y A

8 5

7 4

6 C 3

5 2

4 1

3

21O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x

2 21

1

21

y 3 = 4x

22

x2 + 2y = 6

23

24

25

26

16 CIRCLE THEOREMS

2 R Kate says that Q cannot be the centre of

16.1 Radii and chords the circle. Explain why she is wrong.

Work out the size of each angle marked with

a letter.

Q

a a b

100

b 35 140

O 132 O C B A

straight lines through the centre. Prove that

triangles ACO and BDO are congruent.

c c A

C

110

O O

D

B

4 R O is the centre of a circle. Example 2 R The diagrams all show Example

The length of chord AB is 10cm. circles, centre O.

OM is perpendicular to AB. Work out the size of each

OM is 12cm. angle marked with a letter.

a Work out the length of AM. Give reasons for your

State any circle theorems answers.

that you use. a b

b What is the length of the radius of the 25

circle? 120 b

O a O

Q4b hint Use Pythagoras theorem.

OA = 20cm and AB = 24cm. c d

M is the midpoint of AB. 54

c

O d

O

O

20 cm 120

e f

A M B g

f

Work out the length of OM. O

O

e

6 R O is the centre of a circle. The radius of

the circle is 15cm. The distance from O to the

midpoint of chord AB is 12cm.

Work out the length of chord AB.

30

7 R O is the centre of a

circle. M is the midpoint

of chord AB.

O

Angle OAB = 45. 3 Exam-style question

a What is angle AMO? 45 Diagram NOT

b Work out angle AOM. D A accurately drawn

A M B

c Work out angle AOB.

d Which of the triangles AMO, BOM and ABO

are similar? O

34 C

16.2 Tangents B

A, B and D are points on the circumference

1 P AB is a tangent to the circle with centre O. ofa circle, centre O.

AOB = 40. Work out the size of angle ABO.

BOD is a diameter of the circle.

A BC and AC are tangents to the circle.

B Angle OCB = 34.

40 Work out the size of angle DOA. (3 marks)

O March 2013, Q19, 1MA0/1H

4 P A and B are points on the circumference of 3 R The diagrams show circles, centre O.

a circle, centre O. Workout the size of each angle marked with

TA and TB are tangents to the circle. a letter. Give reasons for your answers.

A a b

a

40

55

O T b b

O O

c d

congruent. 4c

220

5 R OA is the radius of a circle with a diameter

O O d

of 20cm. AT is a tangent to the circle joining

point A to point T. AT = 24cm. c

Calculate the distance from T to the centre of

the circle.

State any circle theorems that you use.

e f

Q5 hint Draw a diagram and mark the values 300 100

on it.

e O O f

1 R The diagrams show circles, Example 4 Jarod says the size of a

centre O. angle a is 80.

a Henrysays the size of O

angle a is 100.

35 Show that Henry is 200

O correct.

a b

5 Find the size of each angle marked witha

112 letter.

The centres of the circles are marked O.

c O

d a b

b

100 36

b

O c O 54 O

120

a

a

Work out the size of each angle marked with

a letter.

Give reasons for your answers. 6 Shumi says the size of

angle a is 10.

Charlie says the size O

2 R AB is the diameter of a circle. 20

C is a point on the circumference of the circle. of angle a is 40. a

Use the circle theorem from Q1 to prove that Show that Charlie

ABC is a right-angled triangle. is correct.

7 Exam-style question Angle AOB = x. Write down the size of angles

iAEB iiADB iiiACB

D

Diagram NOT in terms of x.

accurately drawn b What can you say about angles in the

same segment?

O

3 R In each diagram, O is the centre of the circle.

y C

a b

35

a 64

B

A

O d O c

A, B, C and D are points on the

circumference of a circle, centre O. b

Angle AOC = y.

Find the size of angle ABC in terms of y. c d

Give a reason for each stage of your e f

working. (4 marks)

November 2013, Q22, 1MA0/1H O O

112 175

Exam hint g h

Each reason given must be a statement

of a mathematical rule and not just the Work out the size of each angle marked

calculations you have done. witha letter.

Give reasons for each step in your working.

4 R In each diagram, O is the centre of the circle.

16.4 Angles in circles 2 What is the size of angles a, b and c in each

diagram?

1 O is the centre of a circle.

b a b

a Work out the size of a

each angle marked O b 210 a

with a letter. a c O

O b

120

80

c c

a

angles a, b and c in O is the centre of the circle.

terms of x. O B

x c b

O

2 P a Look at the diagram. x A

D

C

D

C

a In terms of x

E O i what is the reflex angle AOC

ii what is the obtuse angle ADC

iii what is the acute angle ABC?

B b Find the sum of the acute angle ABC and

A the obtuse angle ADC.

6 R In each diagram, O is the centre of the 9 R O is the centre of a C

circle. circle. AT is a tangent

a to the circle. O B

a Copy the diagram. 36

80 T

a b Copy the working

O 110 and complete the A

reasons.

b

c Angle OAT = 90 because the angle

between the radius and the is 90

b

94 Angle OAB = 90 36 = 54

132

a OA = OB because

b

O Angle OAB = angle OBA because the

c

angles of an isosceles triangle are

d Angle AOB = 180 (2 54) = 72 because

angles in a triangle to

Work out the size of each angle marked

Angle ACB = 72 2 = 36 because the

witha letter.

angle at the is half the angle at

Give reasons for each step in your working.

the

7 Prove that the exterior angle of a cyclic

10 RRepeat Q9 but this time with angle

quadrilateral is equal to the opposite interior

BAT = 50.

angle.

What is the size of angle ACB?

a

11 R Prove that angle ACB = angle BAT.

C

b c

x

O B

ofb.

A

b Write down the size of angle a in terms

ofb.

c Are a and c equal? 12 Exam-style question

M, N and P are three points on the

8 R Work out the size of each angle marked circumference of a circle, centre O.

with a letter. A M B

Give reasons for each step in your working. y

a b

a

37 a O N

b 105 72 x

c

P

42

d c

b

The straight line AMB is the tangent to the

c d circle at M.

g Angle MPN = x and angle BMN = y.

35 b a

c 37 i Prove that x = y(5 marks)

O e

c d

a e

d f h

b Exam hint

48

Draw on the diagram the angle MON.

28

3 R Work out the size of each angle marked

16.5 Applying circle with a letter.

theorems Give reasons for each step in your working.

a A

1 R In each diagram, O is the centre of the C

a

circle.

64 T

a

g b

j B B A

i O

b

h 32

b c C T

55 A B D O 35

40 k d c

O C

c C

E e

F 66

O 49 D B A T

I i

H G 4 R O is the centre of the circle.

DAT and BT are tangents to the circle.

Angle CAD = 62 and angle ATB = 20.

Work out the size of each angle marked with

a letter. D A

Give reasons for each step in your working. 62

circle. C

a T B

38

Work out the size of

A a angle CAO b angle AOB

c angle AOC d angle COB

a e angle CBO.

Give reasons for each step in your working.

b

5 Exam-style question

T c

35

B, C and D are points on the circumference

b 52 of a circle, centre O.

ABE and ADF are tangents to the circle.

A d

F

C

c A D

T

62 g

f O

66 70

79

e A B E

Angle DAB = 66

Work out the size of each angle marked with Angle CBE = 70

a letter.

Work out the size of angle ODC. (3 marks)

Give reasons for each step in your working.

6 P Find the equation of Example 4 Exam-style question

the tangent to the circle

A and B are points on the circumference

x2 + y2 = 100 at the

of a circle, centre O.

point B (6, 8).

BC is a tangent to the circle.

AOC is a straight line.

7 P Find the equation of the tangent to the Angle ABO = 35

circle x2 + y2 = 25 at the point C (3, 4). Diagram NOT

8 P Find the equation of the tangent to the accurately drawn

A

circle x2 + y2 = 225 at the point D (9, 12). O

35

9 P Find the equation of the tangent to the

circle x2 + y2 = 676 at the point E (10, 24). x

B C

Give reasons for your answer. (5 marks)

Solve problems using these Example

strategies where appropriate: 5 R The diagram shows a circle, centre O.

Use pictures or lists CB and CD are tangents to the circle.

Use smaller numbers Find angle g. Explain your reasoning.

Use bar models B

Use x for the unknown

Use a flow diagram

Use arrow diagrams A 56 O g C

Use geometric sketches

Use graphs

D

Use logical reasoning.

1 R 3 pairs of football boots cost 54. 6 R Pria says that just from knowing the angle

8 football shirts cost 152. GHO, she can work out all the angles inside

There are no special offers or discounts if you triangles GFO and HGO.

buy more shirts or pairs of boots. F

a A football coach has 200. How much

change will she get if she buys 11 pairs of O

football boots? G

b Another coach has 250. Does he have

enough money to buy 7 shirts and 7 pairs

H

of boots?

a Prove that Pria is correct.

2 A park fountain is in the centre (F) of a

circular pool with a radius of 2.5m. b If angle GHO = 41, work out the angles in

triangles GFO and HGO.

A row of lights form a chord across the pool

(GH). The shortest distance from the lights to 7 R Work out the sizes of angles a, b and c.

the fountain is 1.8m. Give reasons for your answers.

a Draw a diagram to show this information.

b

b What is the length of the row of lights?

Give your answer to 2 d.p. 87 c

A B

3 R O is the centre of a

circle. CB and CD are a

tangents to the circle. 98 O x C

108

Find angle x. Explain

your reasoning. E D

8 R 3 avocados and 2 red peppers were 10 R O is the centre of the circle. A, C and E are

bought for 2.95. all points on the circumference.

2 avocados and 4 red peppers were bought BCD is a tangent touching the circle at point C.

for 3.70. DEF is a tangent touching the circle at point E.

How much is C

B

a 1 avocado b 1 red pepper? D

z x

9 This table shows the lengths of 40 caterpillars. 132

O

Length, l (mm) Frequency

A y

8 , l < 10 7

58 E

10 , l < 12 10

12 , l < 14 14 F

14 , l < 16 9 Work out the sizes of angles x, y and z.

a Find the frequency density for each class. Give reasons for any statements you make.

Explain how you found the answers.

b Draw a histogram for this data.

Whydoyou need to work out the

frequency densities to do this?

17 MORE ALGEBRA

6 Make q the subject of the formula

17.1 Rearranging formulae T = pq + pr qs

7 R5ab 7 = c + 2ab

1 Make c the subject of the formula

a Make a the subject.

E = mc2

b Make b the subject.

a the subject of the formula

2 Make_____

8 R L = 4x + xy 5

P=a+b

Jordan rearranges the formula to make x the

3 Make x the subject of each Example subject.

L4x+5

formula.

__ __ His answer is x=_________

y

x

__

a A=4

y b

1

__

K=t

x a Explain why this cannot be the correct

___ answer.

4x

c T= ___

2a

R=2(x+y) 2

d b What mistake has Jordan made?

c Work out the correct answer.

4 In each formula change the subject to the

letter given in brackets. 9 Make x the subject of the formula

p 3x 3 2x1

a V=__d 3 (d) b

V=____

(x) m=______

x

6 2

__

___ 1

3

c p=6x (x) d __

t=

3 Q9 hint First multiply both sides by x.

p (p)

5 Make x the subject of the Example 10 Exam-style question

formula A = 2x + px

Make y the subject of the formula

y

c=_____

(4 marks)

5y

9 Write as a single fraction in its simplest form.

17.2 Algebraic fractions x+1 _____ x+4 x+6

x2 _____

a _____

+ _____

b

3 5 3 7

1 Write as a single fraction in its simplest form. x6 ______ 3x+2

The first one has been started for you. c _____

+

5 2

a a _____ aa

a __ __=

=

5 2 52 10 Exam-style question

3c 2d 3 8 Write as a single fraction in its simplest form

b ______ c ___

____

5 9 2k 11k 4x+5 ______2x1

______

+

(3 marks)

2 Write as a single fraction in its simplest form. 7 2

The first one has been started for you.

1 2 1 __ 1

5y 2 __________

3x 3 ____ 35y

3 x 11 Make a the subject of the formula __ ab=1.

a ____y

=

=

9x y3

9 x

9y 4 21y 2 The working has been started for you.

10x 2 _____ 12x 6 _____

b _____

5 c _____

__ 1 1

3y 20x 35y 20x 3

7 a __=1

b

3 Write as a single fraction in its simplest form. __ 1 1

a=1+__

2 __ 3 1 b

a __

aa b xy 2 ___

xy __ 1 1

a = __

+__ =

5x 2 15x 4 x x+5 b

c ____6 _____

__

_____

d

4y 8y 3 4 12

12 Scientists use the lens formula to solve

xy 2 problems involving light.

Q3b hint Write xy2 as ____

1 1 1 __ 1

The lens formula is __ =__ +

f u v

4 Write as a single fraction in its Example where f = focal length, u = object distance

simplest form. and v = image distance.

4y y 2y y Make f the subject of the formula.

a ___+__ b

___

+__

9 3 3 5

5y y

c ___

__

3 7 17.3 Simplifying algebraic

5 Write down the LCM of fractions

a 2x and 3x b 2x and 6x

c 5x and 6x d 7x and 3x 1 Simplify

1 1 a x+2

6 a Write ___ and ___as equivalent fractions a ___

b _______

3x 2x ab 5(x+2)

with denominator the LCM of 3x and 2x. x+5 (x+4)(x3)

1 1 c _______

___________

d

b Simplify ___+___ (x + 5)

2 (x3)(x8)

3x 2x

x(x5) x(x + 6) 2

7 Write as a single fraction in its simplest form. e ___________

________

f

2

1 1 1 1 7 1 (x5)(x+2) x (x+6)

a ___+___

b ___

___

____

___

c

7x 2x 3x 5x 10x 3x

Q1e hint You can only cancel whole brackets.

8 a Copy and complete.

x+5 ________ (x+5) _______ x+ 2 a Factorise x2 + 4x

_____

=

=

3 23 6 b Use your answer to part a to simplify

b Copy and complete. x 2+4x

_______

x7 ________ (x7) _______ x

_____

= =

x+4

2 32 6

c Use your answers to parts a and b to 3 Simplify fully

x+5 _____ x7 x2 5x 6x 2+9x 4x+8

workout _____ +

a ______ x

________

b

________

c

3 2 2x+3 3x 2+6x

x 23x

4 R Simplify _______

x2 3

17.4 M

ore algebraic

Ayesha says, (x 3) is a factor of the fractions

numerator and the denominator.

a Is Ayesha correct? Explain. 1 Write as a single fraction in its simplest form.

b Can the fraction be simplified? x+5 x+3 x4

Explain your answer. a (x 2) 2 _____

b __________

x2 x4 x+6

5 Simplify fully x+2 ______ 3 4 10

c _____

d _____

______

4(x+1) x 2+2x8 5 4x+8 x3 3x9

a __________

2

__________

b

x +7x+6 3(x2) 4x+12 _____ x+3 (x + 6) 2 _____

x+6

e _______

_______

f

x2 x+5 x+5 x1

6 Simplify fully Example

x 2+7x+12 2 a Factorise x2 16

a ___________ b Factorise x2 + 7x + 12

x 2+3x4

x 216 ___________ 3

x 27x+10 c Write _______

2

as a single

b ___________

2

6 x +7x+12

x +4x12

fraction in its simplest form.

x 216

c _______

3 Write as a single fraction in its simplest form.

(x + 4) 2

x 2+3x4 __________x 24

a __________

2

2

7 Exam-style question x 5x+6 x +5x6

x 2+12x+36 15x+20 3x 22x8

Simplify fully ____________

(3 marks) b ___________ ___________

x 236 x +7x+10

2 x 2 x6

4 Write down the LCM of

8 Simplify fully a x and x + 1 b x + 1 and x + 4

2x 2 + x15 6x 2 + x15 c x + 5 and x + 7 d x + 2 and x 2

a ____________

_____________

b

3x +10x+3

2 3x 2+17x+20 e 2x + 1 and 2x 2

16x 21

c ____________

5 Simplify fully Example

16x 2+8x+1

1 1

a _____

+_____

9 Exam-style question x+1 x+4

2 5

3x 2+11x+10

_____________ b _____

+_____

Simplify fully

(3 marks) x+2 x2

x 24x12

6 2 1 1

c _____

_____

______

d ______

x+3 x1 2x+2 2x+5

10 a Copy and complete.

4 x = ( ) 6 Exam-style question

b Simplify Write as a single fraction in its simplest form

4x

i _____

1

_____ 5

_____

(3 marks)

x4 x3 x+4

16x2

ii _________

2

x x12 7 a Factorise

11 Simplify fully i 3x + 6 ii 5x + 10

25x 2 3x 227 b Write down the LCM of 3x + 6 and 5x + 10.

a _______ b

__________ 1 1

x 5x

2 x 26x+9 c Write ______ +_______

as a single fraction

3x+6 5x+10

8x 2+20x

c ____________

in its simplest form.

8x 2+18x5

12 Show that Q7b hint Look at the factorised form of each

expression:

(x 23x10)(x 22x3)(12x 2+20x) ___ 4x

________________________________

= a(x + y)b(x + y)LCM = ab(x + y)

(3x 24x15)(9x45)(x 2+3x+2) 9

8 a Factorise x2 25 6 R a Work out the area of each shape. __

b Write _____

1 1

+_______

as a single fraction in Write your answers in the form a+b

3

x5 x 225 i ii 1 1 12

its simplest form. 71 3

1 1

a ___________ ______

2x 2+5x+3 2x+3

1 1 b Would the perimeter of each shape be

b __________ +_______

x 2+5x+4 3x+12 rational or irrational? Explain.

1 2

c ___________ +__________ 7 Rationalise the denominators.

x 2+7x+10 x 22x8

The first one has been started for you.

2 5 __ __ __ __ __

d _____ _______

4+

______

3 ___ 3 43+3

______________ 3

6x 36x 2 a __ __ = __ __ =

1 1 1

3

3

3

3

10 Write ___+_______ +__as a single fraction in __ __ __

3x 3(x+1) 9 5

2 2+

6 6

5

b ______

__ ______

c __

______

d __

its simplest form.

2

6

5

___

___________ 1 1 x+9 9+48 __

2 +_______

=____________

Write _______

__ in the form a+b3,

x +9x+20 4x+16 A(x+5)(x+4) 3

and find the value of A. where a and b are integers. (3 marks)

__ __

9 R a Expand and simplify (4+7 )(47

)

17.5 Surds b Is your answer rational or irrational?

c How can you tell if your answer will be

1 Simplify___ rational or irrational?

a i ___

12 d Which of these will have rational answers

ii 75 when expanded?__ __

b Use your answers

___ ___ to part a to simplify i (5+ __3)(3__

3)

412+375 ii (5+ __

3)(5+ __

3)

iii (5+ 3)(53)

2 Simplify___ ___ Check by expanding the brackets.

a 2____

20+480 1

b 3 ___

___

1502__54 ____ e Rationalise the denominator of ______ __

5+

3

c 332+68200

Q9e hint Multiply the __numerator and

3 Factorise these expressions. ).

denominator by (53

The first one has __

been started for you.

___

a 45+9=3 +9=3( + ) 10 Rationalise the denominators. __

___

b 4+12 c

___

1550 d

___ ___

6354 Give your __

answers in the form abor

where a, b and c are rational.

abc

4 Expand and simplify 1 1 __ 2 __

a ________

b ______ ______

c

__

a

(1

3

__

+ 3) b

__ __

( 2+3)(2+ 2)

1+

5

3__

2 2+__

3

__ __ __ 5 __

______

______

3 2+

______

5

c (43)(2+3) d

(23)2 d e __

f __

__ __ 1+

7 4

3 7

5

e (4+6)2 f (5 7)2

11 a Solve x2 + 4x 3 = 0 by using the

5 Exam-style question quadratic formula.

__ b Solve the equation x2 + 6x + 3 = 0 by

Expand (32)2. __ completing the square.

Write your answer in the form a +