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SPE 92186

Reservoir Performance under Solution Gas-Drive and Gravity

Roberto Padilla-S., Mexican Petroleum Institute; and Rodolfo Camacho-V., PEMEX; SPE Members

A Technical Note

On the Asymptotic Decline Production Equation

The second decline period (see Figs.14 and 15) does not follow the exponential decline curve. Fig.20 shows the
production behavior for several wellbore pressure and skin values. It can be observed that all data points fall below the
exponential decline curve. In this case a negative exponent should be expected, which is in agreement with results of Gentry
and McCray.16 In Fig.20, the production data follows the b=-1 and b=-2 curves. This result represents an extension of the
Fetkovichs type curves.
1 E+01

Boundary Dominated
Flow Period
qDd Second Decline

1 E+00

reD = 2000, Set 1

kz/kr = 1
hDi =1

1 E-01 Pwf/Pb s
0.964 5
1.004 5
0.964 -2
1.000 -2
1.004 -2
1.000 0
1 E-02
b = -2 b = -1 b=0 0.5 b=1

1 E-03
1 E-02 1 E-01 1 E+00 1 E+01 1 E+02 1 E+03

Fig. 20. Second decline stage on Fetkovichs type curve, b<0 (SPE 92186).

Conclusion #8.The c t / t function during the first decline period, when gravitational forces are important is approximately
constant with time. Therefore production decline has an exponential form. However, the computation of reservoir drainage area
with single-phase flow expressions is not valid. When a second decline period is present, it does not follow an exponential
form. In this decline period a negative and constant exponent is expected.

Considering the all above mentioned the next asymptotic decline equation is explicit and given by,

q Dd , (1)
(1 bt Dd ) 1 / b

which is valid for the second decline production stage in reservoirs producing under combined effects of SGD and GD, also it
can be used to define the production decline forecasting behavior and reserve calculations in oil and gas wells. This equation
will be indeterminate when btDd=1. For example, for b=-1, tDd never will take the value of 1. If tDd1, then qDd -. So, the
trend of production will shows an asymptotic decline trajectory with negative and constant exponent, see type curves in Ref.1.
The Eq.(1) has been used in a great number of real field cases (see also Refs.1 and 2).

1. Padilla, S.R. et al.: Anlisis del Comportamiento de Produccin en Pozos con Exponente de Declinacin Negativos, Ingeniera
Petrolera, Vol. XLV, No.7 p.42-55, julio 2005.
2. Padilla, S.R. et al.: Efectos Petrofsicos y Entrada de Agua en el Comportamiento y Prediccin de la Produccin en Yacimientos
Fracturados Carbonatados, Ingeniera Petrolera, Vol. XLVIII, No.3 p.6-18, marzo 2007.