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Executive summary

Experiment no. 3

Experiment Title: Properties of Hydrocarbons

Submitted by:

Group No. 3

PT 2A, 2MT-L

Milagroso, Miguel Jethro

Miranda, Chrismane Lou

Ravago, Precious Mae

Rinen, David Martin


PROPERTIES OF HYDROCARBON
EXPERIMENT NO. 3
Miguel Jethro J. Milagroso, Chrismane Lou B. Miranda, Precious Mae Ravago, David
Martin Rinen
FEU NRMF, School of Physical Therapy
e-mail: mirandachrismane@gmail.com

Abstract

Experiment no. 3 is entitled as Properties of Hydrocarbons. In this lab experiment, we are able
to differentiate saturated from unsaturated hydrocarbons using their properties and by their
reactions. We also understood what substitution and addition reactions are. This experiment
includes Solubility Test, Bromine Test, Baeyers Test, Aluminum Chloride Test, Sulfuric Acid
Test and lastly, Relative Density Test. Performing these tests aided us to compare and distinguish
saturated hydrocarbons from unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Keywords: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aliphatic, aromatic

Introduction

A hydrocarbon is an organic compound (as acetylene or butane) containing only carbon and
hydrogen and often occurring in petroleum, natural gas, coal, and bitumens. These hydrocarbons
are categorized as aliphatic and aromatic. Aliphatic hydrocarbons have straight chains and can be
divided into three classes: alkanes have single bonds and are said to be saturated; alkenes and
alkynes are said to be unsaturated which contains carbon-carbon double or triple bonds.
Aromatic hydrocarbons have cyclic structures and contain the benzene ring.

Experimental Methodology

For Solubility Test, first, we are to put 5 ml of water into 4 different test tubes. Labelling each test
tube as A, B ,C and D. Second, we placed 1 ml of hydrocarbons (Toluene, Heptane, and unknown)
to each test tube. Third, we placed the stopper to the test tube and shake it. We noted our
obervations.

For Bromine Test, we prepared 4 test tubes and placed 1 ml of the same hydrocarbon sample in
procedure I in each test tube. Second, we added 4 drops of 5% bromine in CCl4 and carefully
swirled the contents of the test tubes. And for every 30 seconds we placed a bit of saturated blue
litmus paper to the tip of each test tube. Lastly, noting any shading changes and the speed of the
progressions for five minutes.

For the Baeyers Test, we prepared 4 dry test tubes A, B, C, and D. On each test tube, we placed
1 ml of hydrocarbon sample. Then added 3 drops of 1% aqueous KMnO4 to each test tube.Next,
we twirled delicately and let it remain for 5 minutes. Lastly, we recorded our observations.

For Aluminum Chloride Test, we labeled another 4 dry test tubes and placed 2 ml of chloroform
in each test tube. Next, we placed 2 drops of each hydrocarbon and inclined each test tube to
moisten its wall. We included 0.5 gram of aluminum chloride and recorded our observations

For Sulfuric Acid Test, we prepared 4 test tubes with labels A, B, C, and D. On each test tube,
placing 1 ml of hydrocarbon. Then added 3 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid. Next, shaked the tube
well and noted the outcomes.

For Relativity Density Test, we examined again the mixtures in procedure I and decided in each
case whether the hydrocarbon is denser or less dense than water.

Experiment No. 3 data sheet

Table 1. OBSERVATIONS

HCs SOLUBILIT BROMINES BAEYERS ALUMINU SULFURI RELATIVE


Y TEST TEST TEST M C ACID DENSITY
CHLORIDE TEST TEST
TEST

Heptane Insoluble Basic Settled at AlCl3 Non acidic Less dense


the bottom sticked and
and floated
darkened above the
heptane

Pentene Insoluble Basic Settled at AlCl3 Acidic Less dense


the bottom sticked and
floated
above the
pentene

Toluene Insoluble Basic Settled at AlCl3 Acidic Less dense


the bottom sticked and
floated
above the
toluene

Unknow Insoluble Basic Settled at AlCl3 Acidic Less dense


n the bottom sticked and
and floated
darkened above the
unknown
substance

Questions:

1. Which hydrocarbons are soluble in water?

None of the hydrocarbons given to us are soluble in water because all Hydrocarbons are
organic compounds and consist of only C and H atoms.

2. Describe what happened when KMnO4 was added to pentene?

When KMnO4 was added to the pentene the KMnO4 settled at the bottom of the test tube.

3. What happened when AlCl3 was added to heptane?

When AlCl3 was added to heptane, the AlCl3 stick at the sides of the test tube and floated
atop the heptane.

4. What type of hydrocarbon is the unknown


The unknown hydrocarbon is an aromatic hydrocarbon because it is capable of reacting
and is responsible for favoring the substitution reaction.

5. Enumerate systems exhibiting a.) substitution b.) addition reactions.

A.) Substitution - a single displacement reaction and is a common type of reaction. It is


characterized by one element being displaced from a compound by another element.

Examples: Toluene, Benzene and another aromatic compounds

B.) Addition - a reaction in which one molecule combines with another to form a larger molecule
with no other products.

Example: Aluminum chloride, Alkene and alkyl systems

Results and Discussions

In the experiment we conducted, it can be concluded that one can distinguish saturated from
unsaturated hydrocarbons using their properties by observing their different reactions in each test
that was made. It can be said that hydrocarbons are insoluble with water because of the data results
in the solubility test. Also, basing from the previous experiment stating that water is polar while
hydrocarbons are considered non polar. So, using the principle like dissolve likes, the students
distinguished saturated from unsaturated. Hydrocarbons are completely insoluble in water and is
less dense that is why they float. Also, in the addition to Bromine Test, hydrocarbons will only
react under free radical conditions meaning you have to add UV light. So by simply adding some
bromine to it would not cause any reaction to occur.

Synthesis

There are a lot of reactions that we expected to happen and also some that we did not expect to
occur. After the experiment, it was clear to us what hydrocarbons are and what properties are. We
were able to achieve our goals and distinguish the saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons using
properties and reactions and also understand the substitution and addition reactions. We also
learned that we should be more cautious in handling such chemicals and laboratory equipment
inside the laboratory.