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JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL & PEMBUATAN

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3


COURSE CODE KNJ2251
CATEGORY FULLY OPEN ENDED
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 4 WEEK

TITLE M1 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND CALIBRATION

1.1 Introduction
The need for an open-ended laboratory activity is emphasized in enhancing independent
learning activities and inculcating creativity and innovation of students.

This open-ended laboratory activities is created to provide a platform for students (as a
PREAMBLE group) to determine the objectives and scopes of the laboratory assignment, identify the
necessary apparatus and prepare step by step methodology to carry out the task to
address the given problem. The group will be required to analyze all the technical data
obtained and present them in a technical format.
1.2 Objectives (WP2)
To solve a given problem using the right laboratory testing tools and methodology.
2.0 Problem Statement
Temperature sensitive devices response to a step change of temperature variation
according to the type of device. Sensor may also be affected by the sheathing around the
PROBLEM sensor, as both of the sensor and sheath must reach the thermal equilibrium with the
STATEMENT object interest before meaningful measurement of the temperature can be made. The
accuracy of the sensor will be influence if the sensor had no sufficient time to achieve
thermal equilibrium with the object of interest. Therefore the output signal from the
sensor will be unsteady, and must be determined first.
3.1 Apparatus (WP1)
The group must identify the availability of the chosen apparatus in the laboratory before
the right procedures can be identified.
3.2 Procedures (WP1)
The group is required to search for the relevant procedure to carry out the test based on
WAYS & MEANS
the available apparatus in your laboratory. The document must be made ready for
verification by the instructor before the laboratory activity commences.
3.3 Data Acquisition
All data collected and observed during the test must be tabulated in proper format for
easy verification and presentation of the technical report.
4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion (WP2)
The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the apparatus used, the procedures undertaken for the test, data acquisition
process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of the set-out output to address the given
problem. The format of the technical report is left to the creativity discretion of the
RESULTS group.

The report must be submitted SEVEN (7) days after the completion of the test.

Each group will be given 15 minutes to present the findings in class during the 14th
week after the end of the project.
JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL & PEMBUATAN
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3


COURSE CODE KNJ2251
CATEGORY FULLY OPEN ENDED
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 4 WEEK

TITLE M2 LINEAR AND RADIAL HEAT TRANSFER

1.3 Introduction
The need for an open-ended laboratory activity is emphasized in enhancing independent
learning activities and inculcating creativity and innovation of students.

This open-ended laboratory activities is created to provide a platform for students (as a
PREAMBLE group) to determine the objectives and scopes of the laboratory assignment, identify the
necessary apparatus and prepare step by step methodology to carry out the task to
address the given problem. The group will be required to analyze all the technical data
obtained and present them in a technical format.
1.4 Objectives (WP2)
To solve a given problem using the right laboratory testing tools and methodology.
2.0 Problem Statement
Heat transfer, also referred to simply as heat, is the movement of thermal energy
between two mediums of different temperatures per unit time when the two mediums
are separated by a wall. Heat transfer occurs in the three main forms:
- Thermal conduction in solid, liquid and gaseous body.
- Convection between a solid medium and flowing liquid or gaseous medium.
- Thermal radiation that occurs without material carrier.

Steady state thermal conduction


Thermal conduction is a transfer of energy (heat) in solid, liquid or gaseous media due to
the temperature differences between adjacent parts of a body. Steady state thermal
conduction is commonly referred to as the equilibrium heat transfer between two
medium by continuous supply of heat inside the medium. The flow of heat, Q due to heat
conduction is given by the following equation:

PROBLEM Q = - . A. t. dv/dx (1)


STATEMENT Where:
Q = Heat flow
= Coefficient of thermal conductivity
A = Surface area
t = Time
dv/dx = Temperature drop in the direction of heat flow

The heat flow, Q, can also be written as Q/t.

Q/t = - . A. t. dv/dx (2)


It is prerequisite for the calculation that the temperature difference is only present in
one direction and the temperature in the layers perpendicular to this temperature
difference is constant.

Thermal Conductivity
Thermal conductivity is a molecular process that comprises an exchange of kinetic
energy from one molecule to the other. In addition to molecular vibration, thermal
conduction in metals occurs due to the flow of electrons that enhance the conduction
properties. In such materials, electrons are not bound together in fixed position but
move around the lattice just like molecules present in the gas. This is the reason why
electrical conductors have considerably higher thermal conductivity than electrical
insulators. The coefficient of the thermal conductivity at 200 C can be written as below:

= (2.45. . T)/ in W/m.K) (3)

= electrical conductivity ( 1/ m)
T = absolute temperature (K)

Linear Heat Conduction Through a Wall


From equation 1 which the constant A and dx = s can be written as:

Q/t = -/s. A. (1 - 2) (4)

Conduction of heat occurs through a wall made up with several layers:


First layer : Q/t = 1/1 . A. (1 - 2)
Second layer : Q/t = 2/2 . A. (2 - )
Third layer : Q/t = / . A.( - 1)

By reorganizing and adding equations for the individual layers together, the heat flow
from the overall temperature difference is found as follows:

Q/t = [A. - + ] / [( / ) + ( /) +( /) (5)

Radial Heat Conduction


Radial conduction corresponds to the conduction of heat through hollow cylinder. Whilst
rod a wall, the cross sectional area of the heat flow remains constant, the area through
which the heat flows changes in the case of radial heat transfer, A = f(r). However, the
flow of heat remains constant and at any point on the cylinder the equation bellows
applies:

Q/t = - . A. dv/dx (6)

Where A= 2. r. . L (Area of cylinder)


L= Length of cylinder

Substituting A into the equation 6:

Q/t = - . 2. r. . L. dv/dx

By reorganizing and integrating over the limits to , one will obtain the flow of heat
by a hollow cylinder from the equation below:

Q/t = [- . 2. r. . L. (1 - 2)]/ln / (7)

WAYS & MEANS 3.1 Apparatus (WP1)


The group must identify the availability of the chosen apparatus in the laboratory before
the right procedures can be identified.
3.2 Procedures (WP1)
The group is required to search for the relevant procedure to carry out the test based on
the available apparatus in your laboratory. The document must be made ready for
verification by the instructor before the laboratory activity commences.
3.3 Data Acquisition
All data collected and observed during the test must be tabulated in proper format for
easy verification and presentation of the technical report
4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion (WP2)
The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the apparatus used, the procedures undertaken for the test, data acquisition
process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of the set-out output to address the given
problem. The format of the technical report is left to the creativity discretion of the
RESULTS group.

The report must be submitted SEVEN (7) days after the completion of the test.

Each group will be given 15 minutes to present the findings in class during the 14th
week after the end of the project.
JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL & PEMBUATAN
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3


COURSE CODE KNJ2251
CATEGORY PARTIALLY OPEN ENDED
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 2 WEEK

TITLE M3 GAS MIXTURES AND COMBUSTION

1.5 Introduction
The need for an open-ended laboratory activity is emphasized in enhancing independent
learning activities and inculcating creativity and innovation of students.

This open-ended laboratory activities is created to provide a platform for students (as a
PREAMBLE group) to determine the objectives and scopes of the laboratory assignment, identify the
necessary apparatus and prepare step by step methodology to carry out the task to
address the given problem. The group will be required to analyze all the technical data
obtained and present them in a technical format.
1.6 Objectives (WP2)
To solve a given problem using the right laboratory testing tools and methodology.
2.0 Problem Statement
PROBLEM Diesel engine is introduce as any reciprocating engine in which air is compresses to a
STATEMENT temperature sufficiently high to ensure the spontaneous ignition fuel injected into the
cylinder and combustion of atomized of fuel oil injected into the charge compressed air.
3.1 Apparatus (WP1)
The group must identify the availability of the chosen apparatus in the laboratory before
the right procedures can be identified.
3.2 Procedures (WP1)
1. Switch on main supply to instruments and exhaust fan.
2. Ensure VARIAC TRANSFORMER is located at 0; volt position.
3. Fill cylinder A with diesel oil to the minimum level (16 ml)
4. Open water flow valve E and adjust water flow to 15 L/hour.
5. Adjust oil filter valve B to open position.
6. Adjust throttle valve C to start (Full throttle position)
7. Lift decompression calve D and maintain Lift position.
8. Turn starter key E to start position. Allow starter motor to crank flywheel for
WAYS & MEANS maximum 10 seconds only.
9. Release the decompression lever and starter key together.
10. Upon engine star up, allow 1 minute warm up, before adjusting throttle to middle
position.
11. Select a suitable speed and load, so that the engine will labor upon reaching
maximum load.
12. Reduce to no load or minimum load and maintain throttle position.
13. Introduce a fresh supply of fuel to measuring cylinder. Note consumption rare when
load is slowly increased.
14. Monitor the voltage and ammeter.
3.3 Data Acquisition
All data collected and observed during the test must be tabulated in proper format for
easy verification and presentation of the technical report
4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion (WP2)
RESULTS The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the apparatus used, the procedures undertaken for the test, data acquisition
process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of the set-out output to address the given
problem. The format of the technical report is left to the creativity discretion of the
group.

The report must be submitted SEVEN (7) days after the completion of the test.

Each group will be given 15 minutes to present the findings in class during the 14th
week after the end of the project.
JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL & PEMBUATAN
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3


COURSE CODE KNJ2251
CATEGORY PARTIALLY OPEN ENDED
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 2 WEEK

TITLE M4 AIR-CONDITIONING

1.7 Introduction
The need for an open-ended laboratory activity is emphasized in enhancing independent
learning activities and inculcating creativity and innovation of students.

This open-ended laboratory activities is created to provide a platform for students (as a
PREAMBLE group) to determine the objectives and scopes of the laboratory assignment, identify the
necessary apparatus and prepare step by step methodology to carry out the task to
address the given problem. The group will be required to analyze all the technical data
obtained and present them in a technical format.
1.8 Objectives (WP2)
To solve a given problem using the right laboratory testing tools and methodology.
2.0 Problem Statement
A cooling tower relies on the principles of air-conditioning to lower the temperature of a
circulating flow of liquid. This liquid flow is most commonly used to cool solid objects, in
particular machineries and their components, keeping them well below their melting
point and prevent failures. To make sure the cooling tower is performing optimally, its
performance must be studied. A study on the performance of a cooling tower can be
PROBLEM
done with the help of a bench top unit. The following quantities are to be considered are:
STATEMENT
i. Water flow rates
ii. Water temperatures
iii. Airflow rate
iv. Inlet Air Relative Humidity
The effect of these factors will be studied in depth by varying it. In this way, the
performance of the cooling tower can be determined.
3.1 Apparatus (WP1)
The group must identify the availability of the chosen apparatus in the laboratory before
the right procedures can be identified.
3.2 Procedures (WP1)
1. Set the system under the following conditions and allow stabilizing for about 15
minutes. Water flow rate : 2.0 LPM Air Flow : Maximum Cooling load : 1.0 kW
2. Fill up the make-up tank with distilled water up, record the initial water level and then
start the stop watch.
3. Determine the make-up water supply in an interval of 10 minutes.
WAYS & MEANS 4. In this 10 minutes interval, record a few sets of the measurements (i.e. temperatures
(T1T7), orifice differential pressure (DP1), water flowrate (FT1) and Heater Power
(Q1)), then obtain the mean value for calculation and analysis.
5. Determine the quantity of makeup water that has been supplied during the time
interval by noting the height reduction in the make-up tank.
6. The observation may be repeated at different conditions, i.e. at different water flow
rates, or different air flow rates and with different load.
3S.3 Data Acquisition
All data collected and observed during the test must be tabulated in proper format for
easy verification and presentation of the technical report
4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion (WP2)
The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the apparatus used, the procedures undertaken for the test, data acquisition
process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of the set-out output to address the given
problem. The format of the technical report is left to the creativity discretion of the
RESULTS group.

The report must be submitted SEVEN (7) days after the completion of the test.

Each group will be given 15 minutes to present the findings in class during the 14th
week after the end of the project.