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LNG Operator Training Programme

Fuel Gas

Presentation 19 by K.Brown March 2004

High Pressure Fuel Gas System (23. During ‘holding’ mode.P) Fuel Gas to be used for:  driving gas turbines for power generation and  driving gas turbines for the liquefaction process. to users in the LNG Process Train and Common Facilities. HP system pressure control in the train is achieved by regulating the flow of gas from the inlet of the Sulfinol Unit. the boil off rate exceeds the capacity of the end flash compressors in the process train. During ship ‘loading’ mode.Brown March 2004 .P) and low pressure (L.  flare systems support  firing furnaces. In this case excess boil off gas. including displacement gas from the ship being loaded. Process Description 1. is routed into the HP Fuel Gas header via the Boil-off Gas Compressor. including displacement gas from the ship being loaded. HP fuel gas may be vented to the During ship loading mode. the boil off rate exceeds the capacity of the end flash compressors in the process train. The LNG Train contains an HP Fuel Gas Header which collects gas from within the train. Process Introduction A typical LNG Plant has two inter-connected Fuel Gas Systems which supply high pressure (H.6 barg). 2 Presentation 19 by K. at the correct pressure and temperature. In the event of excess pressure following an upset or transient condition. Boil off gas from the LNG storage area is compressed into this HP header via the End Flash Gas Compressor. the total boil off production from the storage area is routed to the Fuel Gas system in this way.LNG Operator Training Programme Unit Purpose The purpose of the Fuel Gas Unit is to collect and distribute fuel gas. In this case excess boil off gas. is routed via the Boil-off Gas Compressor into the HP fuel gas header.

this gas is fed to the HP fuel gas system via a Defrost Gas Heater. The gas turbines are very sensitive to rapid changes in gas quality. purges and ignition packages.LNG Operator Training Programme The HP fuel gas sources. An air cooled Fuel Gas 3 Presentation 19 by K. and as for the LNG Train turbines. tripping the end flash gas compressor would cause a rapid increase in calorific value and Wobbe index due to reducing the nitrogen content of the fuel gas.Brown March 2004 . H. H. except regeneration gas. Regeneration Gas from the Dehydration Unit can also be fed to the HP fuel gas system. The heater ensures that in all operating cases. for example. The Mixing Drum is provided with a 100% capacity spare drum installed in parallel. The gas then joins the header downstream of the Fuel Gas Heater. excess Fuel Gas will be recycled to the plant inlet. A Mixing Drum.O) Drum and Fuel Gas Heater. a mixing drum is provided to mitigate the impact of upset conditions such as an end flash compressor trip.P Fuel Gas from the process train also supplies the Common Facility Area. a normal temperature of 40 0C. The HP header supplies the Propane and MR gas turbine drivers. which is possible during ship loading mode. Due to the high water content. A Fuel Gas Booster Compressor is normally provided for this purpose. designed to ensure the rate of change of fuel gas quality does not exceed acceptable limits.P Fuel Gas supply to Common Facilities The Common Facilities HP Fuel Gas header supplies the gas turbine driven power generators as well as minor users such as flare pilots. are combined and routed to an HP Knock Out (K. fuel gas being sent to the gas turbines will have acceptable superheat i. The power generation turbines are sensitive to changes in fuel gas quality. is installed in the line to these turbines.e. HP fuel is also let down within the Train to provide the balance of the LP Fuel Gas to the respective furnaces. Major users of H.P Fuel Gas in this area are the gas turbine drivers of the power generators. In the event of more fuel gas being fed into the HP system than the fuel requirement. for re-liquefaction. where sufficient superheat is provided to prevent retrograde (downstream) water condensation.

The High Pressure Fuel Gas System is supplied by the following streams:  Feed gas from the inlet of Sulfinol Unit is used to control the HP Fuel Gas system pressure at 23. This enables pressurisation of the header prior to commissioning of the LNG Train.6 barg. The HP fuel gas header pressure controller is configured to derive fuel gas preferentially from the liquefaction train.O Drum. Any additional gas demand will be met by the makeup gas supply facility.Brown March 2004 .  Vent gas from the HP MR separator. This gas passes through the HP Fuel Gas K.LNG Operator Training Programme Booster Compressor Aftercooler. raw feed gas from the Gas Metering Area is used to provide fuel gas to the various users.  Nitrogen rich end flash gas from the LNG Stripper via End Flash Gas Compressor. is supplied to remove heat of compression during recycle operation. The High Pressure Fuel Gas System supplies gas to: 4 Presentation 19 by K.  Off-gas from the NGL re injection drum in the Fractionation Unit. This is the largest supplier of HP Fuel Gas. and is also available as a back up in the event of process upset conditions. During Plant start-up. A fuel gas line is provided to supply the Common Facilities HP fuel header from the inlet station. designed to prevent excessive heat being transferred to the inlet area.  Regeneration gas from the Defrost Header at 71 O C (normally no flow)  Start-up and emergency make-up gas from the Sulfinol Unit  Start up gas from the Gas Metering Unit. and is superheated by an electric Start-up HP Fuel Gas Heater before entering the header in the Common Facilities area.  Boil-off Gas from the LNG storage Tanks via the discharge of the End Flash Gas Compressor.

2 barg) The process train has an independent LP Fuel Gas System.LNG Operator Training Programme  LNG Train Flare purges  Low Pressure Fuel Gas system at 3.  Gas turbine drivers of the Propane and MR refrigerant compressors. A vent to flare under pressure control is provided from this drum to dispose of gas in the event of high pressure caused by an upset condition. which consumes gas from the LP header as well as the CO 2 rich off gas from the Sulfinol Unit. 5 Presentation 19 by K. LP Fuel Gas System (3. CO2 ‘off’ gas from the Sulfinol Unit is routed directly to the HTF Furnace where it is disposed of by combustion in the furnace The two LP fuel gas consumers are:  The Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Furnace.  Common Facilities through the mixer drums 2.Brown March 2004 .2 barg. There is no LP fuel gas system in the Common Facilities area. The LP fuel gas system in the process train serves and collects gas from various sources. All of the gas supplies are combined in an LP Fuel Gas KO Drum.

Typically Fuel Gas has the following composition: Methane 85% Ethane 5% Propane 3% Butane 1% Nitrogen 5% Others 1% 6 Presentation 19 by K. passes directly to the HTF furnace The LP Fuel Gas System supples:  The Heat Transfer Fluid Heater. calorific value. can result in changes in. which consumes gas from the LP header only. and Wobbe Index of Fuel Gas which can lead to major process upsets. The LP Fuel Gas System is supplied from:  Let Down from the HP Fuel Gas system  Flash gas from Sulfinol Unit Flash Vessel  Pentane from the Fractionation Unit Debutaniser Column  Inerts from the Propane Receiver (NNF).Brown March 2004 . In addition CO2 off-gas from the Sulfinol Unit. due to operational activities.  The Regeneration Gas Heater Heating Value Changes in the composition of Fuel Gas.LNG Operator Training Programme Heat Transfer Fluid and Regeneration Furnaces  The Regeneration Gas Heater.

The result of this is that there are two definitions of heating value :  Higher Heating Value.Brown March 2004 . A further measure of the quality of fuel gas is known as the Wobbe Index (WI). this figure is the acceptable rate of change of composition for fuel gas feeding the gas turbines.either liquid or vapour . which is used in the design and control of the gas turbine burners.I = Higher Heating Value (ideal relative density) where: the Ideal relative density = average molecular weight of mixture molecular weight of air 7 Presentation 19 by K. LHV. HHV. Hydrogen in the fuel burns to water and when the fuel gases are cooled to the datum temperature.LNG Operator Training Programme The Fuel Gas mixing drums are designed to limit the rate of change of gas quality to within 1% per second. includes the heat of condensation of the water produced during combustion. 15 oC the physical state . excludes the heat of condensation of the water produced during combustion. The Wobbe Index.must be assumed. The Heating Value of a gas is defined as the amount of heat liberated from a gas during complete combustion of a standard volume of the gas.  Lower Heating Value. is defined by: W. So the latent heat of vaporisation of the water may or may not be considered to be part of the heating value.

LNG Operator Training Programme Typical LNG Fuel Gas System PC FC TO FLARE REGEN GAS PURGES FROM E-1450 TC FC HP FUEL GAS HTF PC E-4402 PC FWW FWW PC V-4401 V-4403 V-4411 LC DHC DHC DHC FEED GAS GAS FROM END FLASH PENTANE FLASH GAS INERTS LP TO LP TO HP TO HP TO FROM V-1101 V-1506 GAS FROM FROM C-1504 FROM V-1102 FROM V-1408 F-4101 F-1301 KT-1420 KT-1440 K-1450 8 Presentation 19 by K.Brown March 2004 .