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NATURAL GAS :

Like crude oil, it is a naturally occurring resource


formed millions of years ago as a result of heat and pressure acting on
decayed organic material. It is extracted from wells sunk into the
earth. The main ingredient in natural gas is methane (94%).

Natural gas is odorless, colorless and tasteless in its


natural state. It is nontoxic, but if released within an enclosed area it
can displace oxygen and act as a simple asphyxiant. When mixed with
the proper amount of air, it is flammable/explosive.

At ambient temperatures it remains in gaseous


form; however, it can be compressed (CNG) under high pressure to
make it convenient for use in other applications or liquefied (LNG)
under extremely cold temperatures (-260°F) to facilitate efficient
transportation of the gas.

Natural Gas is currently transported either in


pipe line network ( at moderate pressure ) with compressor
stations at regular intervals along the pipe line network to
compress and push the natural gas further when the pressure
drops due to long distance or after liquefication by LNG carrier
in liquid state.

Compressed Natural Gas ( CNG ) :

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol)


or diesel fuel. It is considered to be an environmentally "clean"
alternative to those fuels. It is made by compressing purified natural
gas, and is typically stored and distributed in hard containers.

A CNG propelled autorickshaw on the streets of New Delhi, Delhi.


CNG is produced by compressing natural gas at 3,000 psi
pressure (conventional cooking gas is supplied at 25 psi pressure at
the burner). Natural gas is usually transmitted by pipelines to refuelling
stations ( at 25 – 30 psi ) and compressed at a pressure of 3,000 psi
with the help of specially installed compressors to enable it to be
loaded as gas cylinders for vehicles. Vehicles that are equipped with
appropriate fuel conversion kits and tanks (gas cylinder) can
comfortably run on CNG.

LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS ( LNG )

When chilled to very cold temperatures (-260°F) natural gas


changes into a liquid. In this form, liquefied natural gas (LNG) takes up
only 1/600th of the space that natural gas would in its gaseous state
and thus can be stored and transported more efficiently.

LNG can be loaded onto specially built tankers (large ships with
several domed and thermally insulated tanks) and moved across the
oceans to deliver gas to other countries. When LNG is received, it is
warmed and changed back to its gaseous state. It can then be injected
into natural gas transmission pipelines for further transportation. LNG
can also be shipped by truck or stored until it is needed for
regasification and use.

LNG can be very useful, particularly for the transportation of


natural gas, since LNG takes up about one six hundredth the volume of
gaseous natural gas. While LNG is reasonably costly to produce,
advances in technology are reducing the costs associated with the
liquification and regasification of LNG. Because it is easy to transport,
LNG can serve to make economical to those stranded natural gas
deposits for which the construction of pipelines is uneconomical.
1. Production Natural gas is produced
[Photo courtesy of http://www.ead.anl.gov]

2. LNG Liquefication Gas is liquefied


Terminal

3. Transportation Tanker transports LNG

4. LNG Terminal LNG is stored and vaporized

5. Distribution Natural gas is transported via pipelines


to markets

6. Consumption Consumers use natural gas for cooking


and heating purposes

LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS ( LPG ) :

LPG is a byproduct of petroleum refining or natural gas


processing. LPG is the generic name for commercial propane and
commercial butane. Commercial Propane predominantly consists of
hydrocarbons containing three carbon atoms, mainly propane (C3H8).
Commercial Butane predominantly consists of hydrocarbons containing
four carbon atoms, mainly n- and iso - butanes (C4H10). LPG what
we get is ( 30 % Propane and 70 % Butane )
They have the special property of becoming liquid at atmospheric
temperature if moderately compressed, and reverting to gases when
the pressure is sufficiently reduced. Advantage is taken of this
property to transport and store these products in the liquid state, in
which they are roughly 250 times as dense as they are when gases.

Comparison of Alternate Fuels :

Compressed Liquefied Liquefied


Ethanol Methanol
Natural Gas Natural Gas Petroleum
(E85) (M85)
(CNG) (LNG) Gas (LPG)
Chemical C3H8 /
CH4 CH3CH2OH CH4 CH3OH
Structure C4H10
Denatured Methane that Methanol
Primary Propane /
Methane ethanol and is cooled and
Components Butane
gasoline cryogenically gasoline
A byproduct
Corn, grains Natural
of petroleum
Main Fuel Underground or Underground gas, coal,
refining or
Source reserves agricultural reserves or woody
natural gas
waste biomass
processing
Energy
Content per 29,000 Btu 80,460 Btu 73,500 Btu 84,000 Btu 65,350 Btu
Gallon
Energy Ratio 3.94 to 1 or
1.08 to 1 or 1.55 to 1 or 1.36 to 1 or 1.75 to 1 or
Compared to 25% at 3000
93% 66% 74% 57%
Gasoline psi
Liquid or
Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid
Gas

Main parameter is the Energy content per Gallon :

Energy content of CNG is one – third of LPG , which


means that the consumption of CNG will be three times more
than the consumption of LPG for the same heating required.