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INDEX 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CORPORATE HISTORY FORGING ±AT A GLANCE FMDIII ± PRESS LINES MAINTAINENCE - TYPES FMD III - MAINTAINENCE PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL FMD III ± QUALITY CONTROL

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World venture of Bharat Forge.

Departments at BFL Pune.

BHARAT FORGE LIMITED, PUNE

MCD C DFD (Machine (closed die forging component division) division)
CDFD engg Die shop FMD I,II,III Heat treatment Processing MCD I MCD II

HFD
ADMINISTRATION MQC (meterological quality control)

(Heavy Forging Division)
HFD I HFD II

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FORGING at a glancProcess of Forging
y y

Forging Types of Forging
o o o

Hammer Forging (Flat Die) Press Forging Die Forging

y

Forging equipment
o o o

Forging Press Mechanical Forging Press Hydraulic Forging Press

y

Heat Treatments
o o o o

Preheating Annealing Normalizing Hardening

Process: Forging is a metal forming process used to produce large quantities of identical parts, as in the manufacture of automobiles, and to improve the mechanical properties of the metal being forged, as in aerospace parts or military equipment. The design of forged parts is limited when undercuts or cored sections are required. All cavities must be comparatively straight and largest at the mouth, so that the forging die may be withdrawn. The products of forging may be tiny or massive and can be made of steel (automobile axles), brass (water valves), tungsten (rocket nozzles), aluminum (aircraft structural members), or any other metal. More than two thirds of forging in the United States is concentrated in four general areas: 30 percent in the aerospace industry, 20 percent in automotive and truck manufacture, 10 percent in off-highway vehicles, and 10 percent in military equipment. This process is also used for coining, but with slow continuous pushes. The forging metal forming process has been practiced since the Bronze Age. Hammering metal by hand can be dated back over 4000 years ago. The purpose, as it still is today, was to change the shape and/or properties of metal into useful tools. Steel was hammered into shape and used mostly

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for carpentry and farming tools. An ax made easy work of cutting down trees and metal knives were much more efficient than stone cutting tools. Hunters used metal-pointed spears and arrows to catch prey. Blacksmiths used a forge and anvil to create many useful instruments such as horseshoes, nails, wagon tires, and chains. Militaries used forged weapons to equip their armies, resulting in many territories being won and lost with the use and strength of these weapons. Today, forging is used to create various and sundry things. The operation requires no cutting or shearing, and is merely a reshaping operation that does not change the volume of the material. Forging: Forging changes the size and shape, but not the volume, of a part. The change is made by force applied to the material so that it stretches beyond the yield point. The force must be strong enough to make the material deform. It must not be so strong, however, that it destroys the material. The yield point is reached when the material will reform into a new shape. The point at which the material would be destroyed is called the fracture point. In forging, a block of metal is deformed under impact or pressure to form the desired shape. Cold forging, in which the metal is not heated, is generally limited to relatively soft metals. Most metals are hot forged; for example, steel is forged at temperatures between 2,100oF and 2,300oF (1,150 oC to 1,260oC). These temperatures cause deformation, in which the grains of the metal elongate and assume a fibrous structure of increased strength along the direction of flow. (See Figure)

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Normally this results in metallurgical soundness and improved mechanical properties. Strength, toughness, and general durability depend upon the way the grain is placed. Forgings are somewhat stronger and more ductile along the grain structure than across it. The feature of greatest importance is that along the grain structure there is a greater ability to resist shock, wear, and impact than across the grain. Material properties also depend on the heat-treating process after forging. Slow cooling in air may normalize work pieces, or they can be quenched in oil and then tempered or reheated to achieve the desired mechanical properties and to relieve any internal stresses. Good forging practice makes it possible to control the flow pattern resulting in maximum strength of the material and the least chances of fatigue failure. These characteristics of forging, as well as fewer flaws and hidden defects, make it more desirable than some other operations (i.e. casting) for products that will undergo high stresses. In forging, the dimensional tolerances that can be held vary based on the size of the
work piece. The process is capable of producing shapes of 0.5 to >50.0 cm in thickness and 10 to

<100 cm in diameter. The tolerances vary from s 1/32 in. for small parts to s ¼ in. for large forgings. Tolerances of 0.010 in. have been held in some precision forgings, but the cost associated with such precision is only justified in exceptional cases, such as some aircraft work.

Types of forging:
Two methods practised at BFL. 1. Impression Die Forging 2. Open Die Forging Impression Die Forging Impression die forging pounds or presses metal between two dies (called tooling) that contain a precut profile of the desired part. Parts from a few ounces to 60,000 lbs. can be made using this process. Process Capabilities

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Commonly referred to as closed-die forging, impression-die forging of steel, aluminum, titanium and other alloys can produce an almost limitless variety of 3-D shapes that range in weight from mere ounces up to more than 25 tons. Impression-die forgings are routinely produced on hydraulic presses, mechanical presses and hammers, with capacities up to 50,000 tons, 20,000 tons and 50,000 lbs. respectively. As the name implies, two or more dies containing impressions of the part shape are brought together as forging stock undergoes plastic deformation. Because metal flow is restricted by the die contours, this process can yield more complex shapes and closer tolerances than open-die forging processes. Additional flexibility in forming both symmetrical and non- symmetrical shapes comes from various performing operations (sometimes bending) prior to forging in finisher dies. Part geometry's range from some of the easiest to forge simple spherical shapes, blocklike rectangular solids, and disc-like configurations to the most intricate components with thin and long sections that incorporate thin webs and relatively high vertical projections like ribs and bosses. Although many parts are generally symmetrical, others incorporate all sorts of design elements (flanges, protrusions, holes, cavities, pockets, etc.) that combine to make the forging very nonsymmetrical. In addition, parts can be bent or curved in one or several planes, whether they are basically longitudinal, equidimensional or flat. Most engineering metals and alloys can be forged via conventional impression-die processes, among them: carbon and alloy steels, tool steels, and stainless, aluminum and copper alloys, and certain titanium alloys. Strain-rate and temperature-sensitive materials (magnesium, highly alloyed nickel-based super alloys, refractory alloys and some titanium alloys) may require more sophisticated forging processes and/or special equipment for forging in impression dies. Open Die Forging Open die forging is performed between flat dies with no precut profiles is the dies. Movement of the work piece is the key to this method. Larger parts over 200,000 lbs. and 80 feet in length can be hammered or pressed into shape this way. Process Capabilities Open-die forging can produce forgings from a few pounds up to more than 150 tons. Called open-die because the metal is not confined laterally by impression dies during forging, this process progressively works the starting stock into the desired shape, most commonly between flatfaced dies. In practice, open-die forging comprises many process variations, permitting an extremely

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broad range of shapes and sizes to be produced. In fact, when design criteria dictate optimum structural integrity for a huge metal component, the sheer size capability of open-die forging makes it the clear process choice over non-forging alternatives. At the high end of the size range, open-die forgings are limited only by the size of the starting stock, namely, the largest ingot that can be cast. Practically all forgeable ferrous and non-ferrous alloys can be open-die forged, including some exotic materials like age-hardening super alloys and corrosion-resistant refractory alloys. Open-die shape capability is indeed wide in latitude. In addition to round, square, rectangular, hexagonal bars and other basic shapes, open-die processes can produce:
y

Step shafts solid shafts (spindles or rotors) whose diameter increases or decreases (steps down) at multiple locations along the longitudinal axis.

y

Hollows cylindrical in shape, usually with length much greater than the diameter of the part. Length, wall thickness, ID and OD can be varied as needed.

y

Ring-like parts can resemble washers or approach hollow cylinders in shape, depending on the height/wall thickness ratio.

y

Contour-formed metal shells like pressure vessels, which may incorporate extruded nozzles and other design features. Not unlike successive forging operations in a sequence of dies, multiple open-die

forging operations can be combined to produce the required shape. At the same time, these forging methods can be tailored to attain the proper amount of total deformation and optimum grain-flow structure, thereby maximizing property enhancement and ultimate performance for a particular application. Forging an integral gear blank and hub, for example, may entail multiple drawing or solid forging operations, then upsetting. Similarly, blanks for rings may be prepared by upsetting an ingot, then piercing the centre, prior to forging the ring.

Forging Equipment:
Forging Press A forging press consists of a hydraulic press, which exerts a force capable of pressing steel or a metal alloy into the shape of the forging die. These machines can be positioned horizontally or vertically. This method can be used to form car wheels, gears, bushings, and other such parts.

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Mechanical Forging
Mechanical presses have a motor-driven flywheel that stores energy to drive a ram--

much lighter than a hammer--through a crank or other mechanical device. The ram in a press moves more slowly than a hammer and squeezes the workpiece. The largest mechanical presses have a total force of 12,000 tons and cannot forge as large or complicated parts as the larger hammers. Hydraulic Forging Press Hydraulic presses, in which high-pressure fluid produced by hydraulic pumps drives a ram, are about 100 times slower than hammers. They are used for large or complex die forgings and for extrusion. Presses with a total force of 50,000 tons have been developed in the United States primarily for the forging of large airplane components. Even larger hydraulic presses, up to 78,000 tons, have been introduced in Europe.

Heat Treatment:
Materials can be improved before or after manufacturing by different heat treatment processes. Forging is usually performed to hot metals, allowing for smoother flow and easier deformation. Steel is heated to varying temperatures, usually between 1700oF to 2000oF but can reach as high as 2400oF, depending on the carbon content. Depending on the amount of work required to the piece, it may be necessary to reheat the piece one or more times. The temperature of the metal when completely forged is called the finishing temperature. After forging, the material must be cooled uniformly and protected from moisture or cold air. This is done by placing the material into dry ashes, lime or mica dust in order to retard the rate of cooling. Preheating:
Preheating of materials is done to help prevent cr acking or distortion of the material. This is done by placing the metal in a series of furnaces of increasing temperatures instead of throwing it directly into the furnace used to heat the metal for forging, annealing, normalizing or

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hardening. Another way to achieve this is to start in a cold furnace and slowly bring it to temperature.

Annealing: Annealing should follow forging as soon as possible whenever machining is required. Annealing is the heating and then cooling of metal to make the metal less brittle, or more malleable and ductile. This will soften the steel that was previously hardened and reduce internal stresses. Annealing is done by heating the metal to a temperature beyond the critical temperature and holding it there for a period of time. The metal is then cooled with the furnace and not removed until the furnace is cold. It can also be cooled to a temperature within the furnace that is known to be below the lower critical temperature, at which the annealing is complete. Slower cooling rates are required as carbon content increases in the metal. Normalizing: Normalizing is done to improve the crystalline structure of the steel, thus obtaining superior properties. Heating the forged part just beyond the critical temperature and then allowing it to air-cool completes normalizing. This allows the grain-size to be refined and, if not held at that temperature too long, will result in a newly formed crystalline structure. The internal stresses, if any, will be relieved, hardened steels will be softened, overheated steels will have a more favorable, normal fine-grained structure, and structural distortion will be removed.

Hardening: Hardening of steels can also be done after forging. The workpiece is heated slowly, to obtain the finest grain-sizes, to its hardening temperature - much higher than annealing temperatures. The metal is kept at this temperature only until uniform heat distribution and completion of the thermal transformation. Prolonged exposure at these elevated temperatures will result in increased grain growth and surface decarburization, if no protection from oxidation is provided. Oxidation can be avoided by surrounding the metal with some material that will use up the oxygen that is present in

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the furnace. Once the metal has been uniformly heated to temperature, it is removed from the furnace and placed directly into a quenching tank. This rapidly cools the metal and the metal retains its new qualities.

FMD III

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Kurimoto Press Line

TMP 12500T

Japan made

German made

Classified into crank mechanical press

Crank mechanical press

Capacity 5500T

Capacity 12500T

Induction heating

Oil fired rotary furnace heating

Cutting of steel billets on carbide saw

Cutting on bandsaw

Twisiting and Padding operations on Manyo 400T press

Two presses for trimming and padding
1650T 1600T

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Product: Crankshaft.

Connecting rods connected to crankshaft:

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Raw Material Procurement.
100% inwards raw
y y

Verification

y y

Die number Heat no. Challon Qty Test certificate from Steel mill

Unloaded in designated racks

GRR (Good receipt report)

Under inspection board

MQC

Dimensional report

Accepted

Not accepted

Not accepted

Die number board

Rejected area

Rejected area

To cutting

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Material taken from steel yard

cutting of steel billets according to the job (carbide saw cutter)

Heating in induction heater

R-0 robotic arm

manipulator

Process line for Kurimoto press line

R-1 loader robot

Buster

Blocker

Finisher

Trimming

R-2 loader robot

Twisting

R-3 loader robot

Unloaded to web conveyor for controlled cooling

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Material availavle from steel mill

Process line for TMP
Band saw cutting

conveyor

oil fired rotary furnace

conveyor

R-0 robotic arm

1250 Press line

Manipulator

R-2 Loader robot

loader R-1

Blocker

Finisher

R-2 loader

Triming

Padding

Controlled cooling

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Maintenance in FMD III
RCM (Reliability Centred Maintenance) is Practised at FMDIII. Lets see different maintenance programs first so that we can get why ultimately RCM is used. Introduction What is maintenance and why is it performed? Past and current maintenance practices in both the private and Government sectors would imply that maintenance is the actions associated with equipment repair after it is broken. The dictionary defines maintenance as follows: ³the work of keeping something in proper condition; upkeep.´ This would imply that maintenance should be actions taken to prevent a device or component from failing or to repair normal equipment degradation experienced with the operation of the device to keep it in proper working order. Unfortunately, data obtained in many studies over the past decade indicates that most private and Government facilities do not expend the necessary resources to maintain equipment in proper working order. Rather, they wait for equipment failure to occur and then take whatever actions are necessary to repair or replace the equipment. Nothing lasts forever and all equipment has associated with it some predefined life expectancy or operational life. For example, equipment may be designed to operate at full design load for 5,000 hours and may be designed to go through 15,000 start and stop cycles. The design life of most equipment requires periodic maintenance. Belts need adjustment, alignment needs to be maintained, proper lubrication on rotating equipment is required, and so on. In some cases, certain components need replacement, e.g., a wheel bearing on a motor vehicle, to ensure the main piece of equipment (in this case a car) last for its design life. Anytime we fail to perform maintenance activities intended by the equipment¶s designer, we shorten the operating life of the equipment. But what options do we have? Over the last 30 years, different approaches to how maintenance can be performed to ensure equipment reaches or exceeds its design life have been developed in the United States. In addition to waiting for a piece of equipment to fail (reactive maintenance), we can utilize preventive maintenance, predictive maintenance, or reliability cantered maintenance.

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Reactive Maintenance Reactive maintenance is basically the ³run it till it breaks´ maintenance mode. No actions or efforts are taken to maintain the equipment as the designer originally intended to ensure design life is reached. Studies as recent as the winter of 2000 indicate this is still the predominant mode of maintenance in the United States. The referenced study breaks down the average maintenance program as follows: ‡ >55% Reactive ‡ 31% Preventive ‡ 12% Predictive ‡ 2% Other. Note that more than 55% of maintenance resources and activities of an average facility are still reactive. Advantages to reactive maintenance can be viewed as a double-edged sword. If we are dealing with new equipment, we can expect minimal incidents of failure. If our maintenance program is purely reactive, we will not expend manpower dollars or incur capitol cost until something breaks. Since we do not see any associated maintenance cost, we could view this period as saving money. The downside is reality. In reality, during the time we believe we are saving maintenance and capital cost, we are really spending more dollars than we would have under a different maintenance approach. We are spending more dollars associated with capitol cost because, while waiting for the equipment to break, we are shortening the life of the equipment resulting in more frequent replacement. We may incur cost upon failure of the primary device associated with its failure causing the failure of a secondary device. This is an increased cost we would not have experienced if our maintenance program was more proactive. Our labour cost associated with repair will probably be higher than normal because the failure will most likely require more extensive repairs than would have been required if the piece of equipment had not been run to failure. Chances are the piece of equipment will fail during off hours or close to the end of the normal workday. If it is a critical piece of equipment that needs to be back on-line quickly, we will have to pay maintenance overtime cost. Since we expect to run equipment to failure, we will require a large material inventory of repair parts. This is a cost we could minimize under a different maintenance strategy.

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Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance can be defined as follows: Actions performed on a time- or machine-runbased schedule that detect, preclude, or mitigate degradation of a component or system with the aim of sustaining or extending its useful life through controlling degradation to an acceptable level. The U.S. Navy pioneered preventive maintenance as a means to increase the reliability of their vessels. By simply expending the necessary resources to conduct maintenance activities intended by the equipment The U.S. Navy pioneered preventive maintenance as a means to increase the reliability of their vessels. By simply expending the necessary resources to conduct maintenance activities intended by the equipment designer, equipment life is extended and its reliability is increased. In addition to an increase in reliability, dollars are saved over that of a program just using reactive maintenance. Studies indicate that this savings can amount to as much as 12% to 18% on the average. Depending on the facilities current maintenance practices, present equipment reliability, and facility downtime, there is little doubt that many facilities purely reliant on reactive maintenance could save much more than 18% by instituting a proper preventive maintenance program. While preventive maintenance is not the optimum maintenance program, it does have several advantages over that of a purely reactive program. By performing the preventive maintenance as the equipment designer envisioned, we will extend the life of the equipment closer to design. This translates into dollar savings. Preventive maintenance (lubrication, filter change, etc.) will generally run the equipment more efficiently resulting in dollar savings. While we will not prevent equipment catastrophic failures, we will decrease the number of failures. Minimizing failures translate into maintenance and capitol cost savings.

Predictive Maintenance Predictive maintenance can be defined as follows: Measurements that detect the onset of a degradation mechanism, thereby allowing causal stressors to be eliminated or controlled prior to any significant deterioration in the component physical state. Results indicate current and future functional capability. Basically, predictive maintenance differs from preventive maintenance by basing maintenance need on the actual condition of the machine rather than on some preset

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schedule. You will recall that preventive maintenance is time-based. Activities such as changing lubricant are based on time, like calendar time or equipment run time. For example, most people change the oil in their vehicles every 3,000 to 5,000 miles traveled. This is effectively basing the oil change needs on equipment run time. No concern is given to the actual condition and performance capability of the oil. It is changed because it is time. This methodology would be analogous to a preventive maintenance task. If, on the other hand, the operator of the car discounted the vehicle run time and had the oil analyzed at some periodicity to determine its actual condition and lubrication properties, he/she may be able to extend the oil change until the vehicle had travelled 10,000 miles. This is the fundamental difference between predictive maintenance and preventive maintenance, whereby predictive maintenance is used to define needed maintenance task based on quantified material/equipment condition. The advantages of predictive maintenance are many. A wellorchestrated predictive maintenance program will all but eliminate catastrophic equipment failures. We will be able to schedule maintenance activities to minimize or delete overtime cost. We will be able to minimize inventory and order parts, as required, well ahead of time to support the downstream maintenance needs. We can optimize the operation of the equipment, saving energy cost and increasing plant reliability. Past studies have estimated that a properly functioning predictive maintenance program can provide a savings of 8% to 12% over a program utilizing preventive maintenance alone. Depending on a facility¶s reliance on reactive maintenance and material condition, it could easily recognize savings opportunities exceeding 30% to 40%. In fact, independent surveys indicate the following industrial average savings resultant from initiation of a functional predictive maintenance program: ‡ Return on investment: 10 times ‡ Reduction in maintenance costs: 25% to 30% ‡ Elimination of breakdowns: 70% to 75% ‡ Reduction in downtime: 35% to 45% ‡ Increase in production: 20% to 25%. On the down side, to initially start into the predictive maintenance world is not inexpensive. Much of the equipment requires cost in excess of $50,000. Training of in-plant personnel to effectively utilize predictive maintenance technologies will require considerable funding. Program development will require an understanding of predictive maintenance and a firm commitment to make the program work by all facility organizations and management.

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Reliability Cantered Maintenance

Reliability cantered maintenance (RCM) magazine provides the following definition of RCM: ³a process used to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical asset in its operating ontext.´ Basically, RCM methodology deals with some key issues not dealt with by other maintenance programs. It recognizes that all equipment in a facility is not of equal importance to either the process or facility safety. It recognizes that equipment design and operation differs and that different equipment will have a higher probability to undergo failures from different degradation mechanisms than others. It also approaches the structuring of a maintenance program recognizing that a facility does not have unlimited financial and personnel resources and that the use of both need to be prioritized and optimized. In a nutshell, RCM is a systematic approach to evaluate a facility¶s equipment and resources to best mate the two and result in a high degree of facility reliability and cost-effectiveness. RCM is highly reliant on predictive maintenance but also recognizes that maintenance activities on equipment that is inexpensive and unimportant to facility reliability may best be left to a reactive maintenance approach. The following maintenance program breakdowns of Continually top-performing facilities would echo the RCM approach to utilize all available maintenance approaches with the predominant methodology being predictive. ‡ <10% Reactive ‡ 25% to 35% Preventive ‡ 45% to 55% Predictive. Because RCM is so heavily weighted in utilization of predictive maintenance technologies, its program advantages and disadvantages mirror those of predictive maintenance. In addition to these advantages, RCM will allow a facility to more closely match resources to needs while improving reliability and decreasing cost.

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How to Initiate Reliability Cantered Maintenance

The road from a purely reactive program to a RCM program is not an easy one. The following is a list of some basic steps that will help to get moving down this path. 1. Develop a Master equipment list identifying the equipment in your facility. 2. Prioritize the listed components based on importance to process. 3. Assign components into logical groupings. 4. Determine the type and number of maintenance activities required and periodicity using: a. Manufacturer technical manuals b. Machinery history c. Root cause analysis findings - Why did it fail? d. Good engineering judgment 5. Assess the size of maintenance staff. 6. Identify tasks that may be performed by operations maintenance personnel. 7. Analyze equipment failure modes and effects. 8. Identify effective maintenance tasks or mitigation strategies. The references and resources provided below are by no means all-inclusive. The listed organizations are not endorsed by the authors of this guide and are provided for your information only. To locate additional resources, the authors of this guide recommend contacting relevant trade groups, databases, and the world-wide web.

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Production Planning and control
PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
Production system is a system whose function is to convert a set of inputs into a set of desired outputs. Production system is depicted under with help of chart

Production management involves the managerial decisions regarding design of the product and design of the production system i.e. determination of production processes and production planning and control

PRODUCT DESIGN Product design is a strategic decision as the image and profit earning capacity of a small firm depends largely on product design. Once the product to be produced is decided by the entrepreneur the next step is to prepare its design. Product design consists of form and function. The form designing includes decisions regarding its shape, size, color and appearance of the product. The functional design involves the working conditions of the product. Once a product is designed, it prevails for a long time therefore various factors are to be considered before designing it. These factors are listed below: (a) Standardization (b) Reliability (c) Maintainability (d) Servicing

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(e) Reproducibility (f) Sustainability (g) Product simplification (h) Quality Commensuration with cost (i) Product value (j) Consumer quality (k) Needs and tastes of consumers. Above all, the product design should be dictated by the market demand. It is an important decision and therefore the entrepreneur should pay due effort, time, energy and attention in order to get the best results. DESIGN OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM Production system is the framework within which the production activities of an enterprise take place. Manufacturing process is the conversion process through which inputs are converted into outputs. An appropriate designing of production system ensures the coordination of various production operations. There is no single pattern of production system which is universally applicable to all types of production system varies from one enterprise to another.

TYPES OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Broadly one can think of three types of production systems which are mentioned here under: (a) Continuous production (b) Job or unit production (c) Intermittent production Continuous production: It refers to the production of standardized products with a standard set of process and operation sequence in anticipation of demand. It is also known as mass flow production or assembly line production This system ensures less work in process inventory and high product quality but involves large investment in machinery and equipment. The system is suitable in plants involving large volume and small variety of output e.g. oil refineries reform cement manufacturing etc.

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(b) Job or Unit production: It involves production as per customer's specification each batch or order consists of a small lot of identical products and is different from other batches. The system requires comparatively smaller nvestment in machines and equipment. It is flexible and can be adapted to changes in product design and order size without much inconvenience. This system is most suitable where heterogeneous products are produced against specific orders. Intermittent Production: Under this system the goods are produced partly for inventory and partly for customer's orders. E.g. components are made for inventory but they are combined differently for different customers. . Automobile plants, printing presses, electrical goods plant are examples of this type of manufacturing.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS
The nature of the process of production required by these three different types of production system are distinct and require different conditions for their working.Selection of manufacturing process is also a strategic decision as changes in the same are costly. Therefore the manufacturing process is selected at the stage of planning a business venture. It should meet the basic two objectives i.e. to meet the specification of the final product and to be cost effective. TYPES OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS The manufacturing process is classified into four types. (i) Jobbing production (ii) Batch production (iii) Mass or flow production (iv) Process Production

Jobbing Production: Herein one or few units of the products are produced as per the requirement and specification of the customer. Production is to meet the delivery schedule and costs are fixed prior to the contract.

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Batch Production: In this, limited quantities of each of the different types of products are manufactured on same set of machines. Different products are produced separately one after the other. Mass or flow production: Under this, the production run is conducted on a set of machines arranged according to the sequence of operations. A huge quantity of same product is manufactured at a time and is stocked for sale. Different product will require different manufacturing lines. Since one line can produce only one type of product, this process is also called as line flow. Process Production: Under this, the production run is conducted for an indefinite period.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE CHOICE OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Following factors need to be considered before making a choice of manufacturing process. Effect of volume/variety: This is one of the major considerations in selection of manufacturing process. When the volume is low and variety is high, intermittent process is most suitable and with increase in volume and reduction in variety continuous process become suitable. The following figure indicates the choice of process as a function of repetitiveness. Degree of repetitiveness is determined by dividing volume of goods by variety.

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Capacity of the plant: Projected sales volume is the key factor to make a choice between batch and line process. In case of line process, fixed costs are substantially higher than variable costs. The reverse is true for batch process thus at low volume it would be cheaper to install and maintain a batch process and line process becomes economical at higher volumes. Lead time: The continuous process normally yields faster deliveries as compared to batch process. Therefore lead-time and level of competition certainly influence the choice of production process. Flexibility and Efficiency: The manufacturing process needs to be flexible enough to adapt contemplated changes and volume of production should be large enough to lower costs. Hence it is very important for entrepreneur to consider all above mentioned factors before taking a decision regarding the type of manufacturing process to be adopted as for as SSI are concerned they usually adopt batch processes due to low investment.

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PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL
Once the entrepreneur has taken the decisions regarding the product design and production processes and system, his next task is to take steps for production planning and control, as this function is essentially required for efficient and economical production. One of the major problems of small scale enterprises is that of low productivity small scale industries can utilise natural resources, which are otherwise lying. Small scale sector can play an important role, similar to the one played by small scale industries in other developed countries. Planned production is an important feature of the small industry. The small entrepreneur possessing the ability to look ahead, organize and coordinate and having plenty of driving force and capacity to lead and ability to supervise and coordinate work and simulates his associates by means of a programme of human relation and organization of employees, he would be able to get the best out of his small industrial unit.Gorden and Carson observe production; planning and control involve generally the organization and planning of manufacturing process. Especially it consists of the planning of routing, scheduling, dispatching inspection, and coordination, control of materials, methods machines, tools and operating times. The ultimate objective is the organization of the supply and movement of materials and labour, machines utilization and related activities, in order to bring about the desired manufacturing results in terms of quality, quantity, time and place. Production planning without production control is like a bank without a bank manager, planning initiates action while control is an adjusting process, providing corrective measures for planned development. Production control regulates and stimulates the orderly how of materials in the manufacturing process from the beginning to the end.

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STEPS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL
Production Planning and Control (PPC) is a process that comprises the performance of some critical; functions on either side, viz., planning as well as control. See figure.

Production planning: Production planning may be defined as the technique of foreseeing every step in a long series of separate operations, each step to be taken at the right time and in the right place and each operation to be performed in maximum efficiency. It helps entrepreneur to work out the quantity of material manpower, machine and money requires for producing predetermined level of output in given period of time.

Routing: Under this, the operations, their path and sequence are established. To perform these operations the proper class of machines and personnel required are also worked out. The main aim of routing is to determine the best and cheapest Production Planning and control

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1. Planning 2. Routing 3. Scheduling 4. Loading 5. Dispatching 6. Following up 7. Inspection 8. Corrective sequence of operations and to ensure that this sequence is strictly followed. In small enterprises, this job is usually done by entrepreneur himself in a rather adhoc manner. Routing procedure involves following different activities. (1) An analysis of the article to determine what to make and what to buy. (2) To determine the quality and type of material (3) Determining the manufacturing operations and their sequence. (4) A determination of lot sizes (5) Determination of scrap factors (6) An analysis of cost of the article (7) Organization of production control forms. Scheduling: It means working out of time that should be required to perform each operation and also the time necessary to perform the entire series as routed, making allowances for all factors concerned. It mainly concerns with time element and priorities of a job. The pattern of scheduling differs from one job to another which is explained as below: Production schedule: The main aim is to schedule that amount of work which can easily be handled by plant and equipment without interference. Its not independent decision as it takes into account following factors. (1) Physical plant facilities of the type required to process the material being

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scheduled. (2) Personnel who possess the desired skills and experience to operate the equipment and perform the type of work involved. (3) Necessary materials and purchased parts. Master Schedule: Scheduling usually starts with preparation of master schedule which is weekly or monthly break-down of the production requirement for each product for a definite time period, by having this as a running record of total production requirements the entrepreneur is in better position to shift the production from one product to another as per the changed production requirements. This forms a base for all subsequent scheduling acclivities. A master schedule is followed by operator schedule which fixes total time required to do a piece of work with a given machine or which shows the time required to do each detailed operation of a given job with a given machine or process. Manufacturing schedule: It is prepared on the basis of type of manufacturing process involved. It is very useful where single or few products are manufactured repeatedly at regular intervals. Thus it would show the required quality of each product and sequence in which the same to be operated Scheduling of Job order manufacturing: Scheduling acquires greater importance in job order manufacturing. This will enable the speedy execution of job at each center point. As far as small scale industry is concerned scheduling is of utmost importance as it brings out efficiency in the operations and s reduces cost price. The small entrepreneur should maintain four types of schedules to have a close scrutiny of all stages namely an enquiry schedule, a production schedule, a shop schedule and an arrears schedule out of above four, a shop schedule is the most important most suited to the needs of small scale industry as it enables a foreman to see at a glance. 1. The total load on any section 2. The operational sequence 3. The stage, which any job has reached.

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Loading: The next step is the execution of the schedule plan as per the route chalked out it includes the assignment of the work to the operators at their machines or work places. So loading determines who will do the work as routing determines where and scheduling determines when it shall be done. Gantt Charts are most commonly used in small industries in order to determine the existing load and also to foresee how fast a job can be done. The usefulness of their technique lies in the fact that they compare what has been done and what ought to have been done. Most of a small scale enterprise fail due to non-adherence to delivery schedules therefore they can be successful if they have ability to meet delivery order in time which no doubt depends upon production of quality goods in right time. It makes all the more important for entrepreneur to judge ahead of time what should be done, where and when thus to leave nothing to chance once the work has begun. Production control: Production control is the process of planning production in advance of operations, establishing the extract route of each individual item part or assembly, setting, starting and finishing for each important item, assembly or the finishing production and releasing the necessary orders as well as initiating the necessary follow-up to have the smooth function of the enterprise. The production control is of complicated nature in small industries. The production planning and control department can function at its best in small scale unit only when the work manager, the purchase manager, the personnel manager and the financial controller assist in planning production activities. The production controller directly reports to the works manager but in small scale unit, all the three functions namely material control, planning and control are often performed by the entrepreneur himself production control starts with dispatching and ends up with corrective actions. Dispatching: Dispatching involves issue of production orders for starting the operations. Necessary authority and conformation is given for: 1. Movement of materials to different workstations. 2. Movement of tools and fixtures necessary for each operation. 3. Beginning of work on each operation. 4. Recording of time and cost involved in each operation.

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5. Movement of work from one operation to another in accordance with the route sheet. 6. Inspecting or supervision of work. Dispatching is an important step as it translates production plans into production. Follow up: Every production programme involves determination of the progress of work, removing bottlenecks in the flow of work and ensuring that the productive operations are taking place in accordance with the plans. It spots delays or deviations from the production plans. It helps to reveal detects in routing and scheduling, misunderstanding of orders and instruction, under loading or overloading of work etc. All problems or deviations are investigated and remedial measures are undertaken to ensure the completion of work by the planned date. Inspection: This is mainly to ensure the quality of goods. It can be required as effective agency of production control. Corrective measures: Corrective action may involve any of those activities of adjusting the route, rescheduling of work changing the workloads, repairs and maintenance of machinery or equipment, control over inventories of the cause of deviation is the poor performance of the employees. Certain personnel decisions like training, transfer, demotion etc. may have to be taken. Alternate methods may be suggested to handle peak loads.

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Conclusion:
This industrial visit increased our insight on as on how a industry works, how its management is carried out. It has prepared us for our future. Definitely this experience will count.

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