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Thermodynamics

Workshop 3

Equilibrium

1. Ammonium glutamate is formed by the hydrolysis of glutamine:

Glutamine + H2O NH4+ + Glutamate-

In an experiment in which chemical equilibrium was established at 298 K, the mixture


contained 0.92 mM of glutamine and 0.98 M of ammonium glutamate.
i) Calculate the equilibrium constant of this reaction;
ii) What is the change of Gibbs free energy of this process?

2. The enzyme, phosphoglucosomutase, catalyses the interconversion of glucose 1-phosphate


and glucose 6-phosphate:

glucose 1-phosphate glucose 6-phosphate

in the state of chemical equilibrium 95% of glucose 6-phosphate is present at 298 K.


Calculate equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs free energy.

3. Reaction
A + B C + 2D

was studied in aqueous solution in conditions resembling physiological (37 C). At the start
of the reaction the molar concentrations of A and B were 0.5 M and 1 M. After the
equilibrium state was achieved, the concentration of reactant D was 0.2 M.

i) What is the equilibrium constant of this reaction at 37C?


ii) Calculate the change of Gibbs free energy of the process and comment on the
spontaneity of the direct reaction.

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4. An enzyme was specifically activated by the nucleotide AMP when was bound by the
enzyme protein in a chemically reversible reaction:

Enzyme + AMP Enzyme-AMP

The table below shows the equilibrium constant of this association reaction at different
temperatures:

Table. Association constant of enzyme and ATP measured at different temperatures.

Temperature, C K, M-1
22 1.83103
26 2.67103
30 3.30103
34 4.38103
38 5.78103

i) Calculate the value of H of the process?


ii) What is the value of the change of free energy of this process at 40C?
iii) How would you estimate the change of entropy for this reaction.

Solutions

1. Estimate the concentration of sodium chloride required to produce an isotonic aqueous


solution. Cryoscopic constant of water is 1.86C.

2. Give directions for the preparation of 100 mL of isotonic 1% hexamethonium tartrate. The following
data are available: