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2, JUNE 2010

the PV Maximum Power Point

Liang-Rui Chen, Member, IEEE, Chih-Hui Tsai, Yuan-Li Lin, and Yen-Shin Lai, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractIn this paper, a novel photovoltaic (PV) maximum The module-integrated PV architecture shows many advan-

power point tracking (MPPT) based on biological swarm chasing tages like high PV power utilization, cost reduction of the MPPT

behavior is proposed to increase the MPPT performance for a converter, as well as high flexibility in the expansion of the

module-integrated PV power system. Each PV module is viewed as

a particle, and as a result, the maximum power point is viewed as power level [17][19]. In practice applications, conventional

the moving target. Thus, every PV module can chase the maximum MPPT methods [20] can be directly used in each module in

power point (MPP) automatically. A 525 W prototype constructed a module-integrated PV architecture. However, these conven-

by three parallel-connected 175 W PV modules is implemented to tional MPPT methods can only obtain one measured data (i.e.,

assess the MPPT performance. Comparing with a typical perturb voltage, current, and power) of PV in one sampling time. Thus,

and observe (P&O) MPPT method, the MPPT efficiency M P P T is

improved about 12.19% in transient state by the proposed MPPT two or more sampling times are needed to obtain sufficient in-

as theoretical prediction. formation so as to decide the MPP tracking direction. If the

irradiation or the temperature varies within two sampling time,

Index TermsMaximum power point tracking (MPPT), particle

swarm optimization, photovoltaic (PV), swarm intelligence. the decided MPP tracking direction will be wrong in some times.

Therefore, a conventional module-integrated PV power system

does not have a more excellent MPPT performance than the

I. INTRODUCTION traditional centralized PV architecture. In this paper, a novel

S GLOBAL environmental concern on the decrease of MPPT method based on biological swarm tracking behavior

A fossil fuel sources increases day-by-day, renewable en-

ergy sources such as photovoltaic (PV), wind, geothermal en-

is proposed to make all modules cooperatively to obtain suf-

ficient information in one sampling time to decide accurately

ergy, and sea tide are attracting more and more attention as the MPP tracking direction. In the proposed biological swarm

alternative energy sources. Among them, PV power is an es- chasing-based MPPT (Bio-MPPT) algorithm, each PV module

tablished technology and has rapid growth in recent years. It is emulated as a particle and the MPP is viewed as the moving

is also the most potential candidate of green energy. Since the target. Thus, every PV module can automatically chase the MPP

PV panel performs a nonlinear voltagecurrent curve, its max- by the proposed Bio-MPPT algorithm. A 525 W prototype con-

imum power point (MPP) varies with irradiation and tempera- structed by three 175 W PV module is implemented to assess

ture. To solve this problem, many MPP tracking (MPPT) meth- the MPPT performance. Comparing with a typical P&O algo-

ods were proposed such as, hill climbing method [1], [2], per- rithm, the MPPT efficiency M PPT is improved about 12.19%

turb and observe (P&O) method [3][5], incremental conduc- in transient state by the proposed Bio-MPPT algorithm.

tion method [6][8], constant voltage method [9], [10], short-

circuit current method [11], and as well, intelligent computing II. BIOLOGICAL SWARM CHASING ALGORITHM

method [12][16]. These presented MPPT methods can control

Swarm intelligence is an artificial intelligence technique in-

the PV panels voltage or current to track and maintain the MPP

volving the study of collective behavior in decentralized sys-

of the PV panel to increase the PV power efficiency. Recently,

tems. One of the most popular swarm intelligence paradigms is

the module-integrated PV architecture was presented to improve

the particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is basically devel-

PV power system performance, in comparison with the tradi-

oped through the simulation of social behavior of bird flocking

tional centralized PV architecture. In the module-integrated PV

and fish schooling [21], [22]. PSO is a global optimization algo-

architecture, each module consists of a PV panel and an MPPT

rithm for dealing with problems on which a point or surface in an

converter and operates in parallel.

n-dimensional space represents a best solution. Potential solu-

Manuscript received March 5, 2009; revised July 21, 2009; accepted tions are plotted in this space and seeded with an initial velocity.

November 11, 2009. Date of publication February 2, 2010; date of current Particles move through the problem space, then, a certain fitness

version May 21, 2010. Paper no. TEC-00061-2009. criteria evaluates them. As time goes by, particles accelerate to-

L.-R. Chen and Y.-L. Lin are with the Department of Electrical Engineering,

National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (e-mail: ward those with better fitness. Several areas have adopted the

lrchen@cc.ncue.edu.tw). idea that swarms can solve complex problems. The term swarm

C.-H. Tsai is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National refers to a large group of simple components that work together

Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (e-mail: chtsai@cc.hwh.

edu.tw). to achieve a goal and to produce significant results [21][26].

Y.-S. Lai is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei Unfortunately, a typical PSO is used to solve these problems

University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (e-mail: yslai@ntut.edu.tw). that the targets (i.e., optimal solutions) are time invariable. On

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. the other hand, the target (i.e., MPP) of a PV MPPT problem

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEC.2009.2038067 is time variable. In order to overcome this problem, a modified

0885-8969/$26.00 2010 IEEE

CHEN et al.: BIOLOGICAL SWARM CHASING ALGORITHM FOR TRACKING THE PV MAXIMUM POWER POINT 485

location is updated

Gb est = MAX{Pi,b eat |i=1,2,...,N }. (2)

Finally, the new velocity and position of the ith particle can

be obtained according to (3) and (4), respectively,

Si (n + 1) = wSi (n) + C1 rand[Pi,b est Xi (n)]

+ C2 rand[Gb est Xi (n)] (3)

Xi (n + 1) = Xi (n) + Si (n + 1) (4)

in which, Si (n + 1) and Si (n) represent the velocities of the ith

particle at times n + 1 and n respectively; w is the inertia weight;

C1 is the cognitive component; C2 is the social component;

rand[] is a randomizer to generate a random real value bounded

in [0,1]; and Xi (n + 1) and Xi (n) represents the positions of

the ith particle at times n + 1 and n, respectively. Equation (3)

shows the velocity update, according to its previous velocity

Si (n), the distance between the previous position Xi (n) and

Pi,b est , and the distance between the previous position Xi (n)

and Gb est . This indicates that the biological swarm chasing

algorithm tracks two best Pi,b est and Gb est at the same time.

Thus, the local and global problem spaces are searched to obtain

an optimal solution with a faster speed. Notably, a PSO will idle

or end if the all particles locate at the same position. In order to

avoid this problem in the proposed Bio-MPPT, the distance Di,k

between the new particle position Xi (n + 1) and others particle

positions Xk (n + 1)|k =1,...,i1 are measured and shown as (5).

If the distance Di,k is larger than a presetting small distance d,

the position of the ith particle is updated. Otherwise, the position

of the ith particle is not updated as represented in (6) to make

each particle have a minimum distance d

Di,k = |Xi (n + 1) Xk (n + 1)|k =1,...,i1 | (5)

Fig. 1. Flowchart of the biological swarm chasing algorithm.

Di,k d, Xi (n)

Xi (n + 1) = (6)

Di,k > d, Xi (n + 1).

PSO with dynamical tracking ability and collective behavior, In the biological swarm chasing algorithm, totally four chas-

working as biological swarm chasing behavior, is proposed in ing behaviors are automatically implemented for different situ-

this paper. ations as depicted in Fig. 2(a)(d). Fig. 2(a) shows the Pi,b est is

The flowchart of the biological swarm tracking algorithm is located at Xi (n) and the Gb est is located at the other particle.

shown in Fig. 1. Assuming the swarm size is N . First, initialize This means the chasing direction of the ith particle is suitable,

a swarm of particles and then perturb these particles to move. however, it is not perfect. Thus, the next position Xi (n + 1) is

Next, evaluate the fitness of each particle according to the given not only affected by the own inertia but also strongly affected by

final objective function (i.e., fitness function) at last and current the Gb est to modify the chasing direction as depicted in Fig. 2(a).

times (i.e., time n 1 and n). If the fitness value fi (n 1) at Note that the particle position Xi (n + 1) is a normal probability

time n 1 is better than the fitness value fi (n) at time n, the distribution in the gray circle area since there are rand[ ] oper-

best particle Pi,b est is set as the fitness value fi (n 1) and the ators in (3). Fig. 2(b) shows that the Pi,b est and the Gb est are

Pi,b est location is set on the current location. Otherwise, the both located at Xi (n). This means the particle is moving with a

best particle Pi,b est is set as the fitness value fi (n 1) and the right direction and the moving direction should be maintained

Pi,b est location is not changed. It is clear that the ith modules as Fig. 2(b). Fig. 2(c) shows the Pi,b est is located at Xi (n 1)

Pi,b est can be written as (1) and this process is similar to that of and the Gb est is located at the other particle. This means the

the perturb and observe tracking process [3][5] chasing direction of the ith particle is not suitable. Therefore,

the next position Xi (n + 1) should not be affected by the own

Pi,b est = MAX{fi (n 1), fi (n)}, i = 1, 2, . . . , N. (1) inertia. The next position Xi (n + 1) should be mainly affected

by the Gb est to strongly modify chasing direction as depicted

After that, the best group Gb est is replaced by the maximum in Fig. 2(c). Fig. 2(d) shows that the Pi,b est and the Gb est are

value of all best particle Pi,b est written as (2), and then the Gb est both located at Xi (n 1). This means the particle is moving

486 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

Fig. 2. Biological swarm tracking behaviors in four different situations. tem. (b) Master module. (c) Slave module N .

There are two assumptions in the proposed Bio-MPPT-based

PV power system: 1) similar V I curve for each PV panel and

2) similar solar irradiation and temperature. Fortunately, the two

assumptions are easy achieved for same type of PV panels in

one same PV power plant.

A. Hardware Descriptions

The proposed Bio-MPPT-based PV power system is belong to

Fig. 3. Example of a biological swarm chasing curves. the module-integrated architecture and constructed by a master

module and N 1 slave modules as plotted in Fig. 4(a).

The master module consists of a PV panel and a dc/dc

converter with a master controller as shown in Fig. 4(b). In

with a wrong direction and leaving away from the target. It is the master controller, two main functions including digitalized

interesting to see that the next position Xi (n + 1) goes back to pulsewidth modulation (DPWM) control and Bio-MPPT are

Xi (n 1) to search the area again as shown in Fig. 2(d). From built. The DPWM control is used to change the input voltage of

Fig. 2(a) and (c), we can see that the particles moving behav- the dc/dc converter (i.e., PV panels voltage) to obtain more PV

ior is affected by other better particles. This indicates that the power by using feedforward control. Each slave module consists

collective behavior, information sharing and swarm intelligence of a PV panel and a dc/dc converter with a slave controller as

are achieved in the biological swarm tracking algorithm. Fig. 3 shown in Fig. 4(c). In the proposed Bio-MPPT-based PV power

shows an example that three particles chase a moving target system, each PV module is viewed as a particle, and the MPP is

. Clearly, the biological swarm tracking algorithm can chase viewed as the moving target. Every PV module is designed to

and track a moving target as we wanted. chase the MPP automatically by using the Bio-MPPT algorithm.

CHEN et al.: BIOLOGICAL SWARM CHASING ALGORITHM FOR TRACKING THE PV MAXIMUM POWER POINT 487

Fig. 5. Problem space and constrain condition curves of the proposed Bio-

MPPT algorithm.

in these slave modules are measured simultaneously and sent

to the master module. Next, the Bio-MPPT algorithm built in

the master controller runs and the command operation voltages Fig. 6. Flowchart of the proposed slave controller.

V2 , V3 , . . . , VN are obtained. Then, the command operation

voltages V2 , V3 , . . . , VN are updated and sent to corresponding

modules. After that, each dc/dc converters change their source It is reasonable that the objective function is defined as the

voltage to move the operation point of the PV panels to achieve output power of the PV panel, which is written as

the MPP.

O(V, I) = V I. (10)

B. Software Description

In order to describe the PV MPPT problem formulation The flowchart of the proposed slave controller is shown in

clearly, the problem space and constrain condition cures are Fig. 6. After the power is ON, the slave controller receives

described in Fig. 5. the command operation voltage V from the master module.

The problem space of the PV MPPT is a 2-D space with Next, the DPWM duty cycle is changed according to the com-

variables PV voltage (V ) and PV current (I) and bounded on mand operation voltage V and then the input voltage of the

the PV panel open-circuit voltage Vo c and the PV panel short- dc/dc converter is changed. After that, the PV voltage V and

circuit current Isc . The constraint condition is the V I cure of the PV current I are measured and sent to the master mod-

the PV panel written as [27] ule. Finally, the MPP is tracking and keeping in each slave

module.

q V

I = np Iph np Isat exp 1 (7) The flowchart of the proposed master controller is shown in

kAT ns

Fig. 7 and briefly described as follows. First, initialize and per-

where turb a population of particles (i.e., PV panels operation point)

Ki in the VI problem space. The command operation voltage V

Iph = Iscr + (T Tr ) Si (8)

1000 are also sent to each slave module to change the PV panels

operation point. Next, the PV voltage V and PV current I of

Iph

Isat = (9) each module are received.

exp (Vop en q/kAT ) 1 Then, evaluate the fitness of each operation point according

and to (10). After that, find the best particle Pi,b est of the ith mod-

np solar cell number in parallel-connection; ule as mentioned in Section II. If the updated Pi,b est is also

Iph photocurrent; better than the current best group Gb est , then the Gb est is re-

Isat solar cell reverse saturation current; placed by the updated Pi,b est and the Gb est location is set on

q electronic charge (1.6 1019 C); the Pi,b est location. Finally, update moving velocities and posi-

k Boltzmanns constant (1.38 1023 J/K); tions of PV operation points according to (3)(6), respectively.

A ideality factors (1.2 for Si-mono); At the same time, the command operation voltages V of all

T solar cell temperature in K; modules are sent to corresponding slave modules to change PV

ns solar cell number in series-connection; panels operation points to achieve to MPP. Equation (4) shows

Iscr short-circuit current at 25 C and 1000 W/m2 ; the position updating is according to its previous position Xi (n)

Ki short circuit current temperature coefficient; and its current velocity Si (n + 1). From (3) and (4), we can also

Tr reference temperature; see the perturb step size in the proposed Bio-MPPT is equal to

Si solar irradiation (W/m2 ); Si (n + 1) that is adaptive and controlled by the Pi,b est and the

Vop en open-circuit voltage. Gb est .

488 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

and a buck converter that is controlled by a master or a slave

controller. In this case, the master controller is realized by us-

ing a personal computer (PC) with an 8 bits microprocessor

HT46R24, and the slave controller is realized by using an 8 bits

microprocessor HT46R24. Thus, the communication between

the master module and the slave modules can be easy imple-

mented by using digital interface. The sampling period is set

to 1 s in the prototype. First, the voltages V1 , V2 , and V3 and

Fig. 7. Flowchart of the proposed Bio-MPPT algorithm. currents I1 , I2 , and I3 of the three PV panels are measured by

microprocessors HT46R24 and sent to the PC simultaneously.

Next the Bio-MPPT algorithm as described in Section III is run,

IV. DESIGNED EXAMPLE and command operation voltages V1 , V2 , and V3 are obtained.

In order to assess the performance of the proposed Bio-MPPT- Then, better duty cycles D1 , D2 , and D3 for buck converters

based PV power system, a 525 W prototype as shown in Fig. 8 1, 2, and 3 are obtained according to the command operation

is designed and implemented. We can see that modules are voltages V1 , V2 , and V3 . After that, duty cycles D1 , D2 , and

parallel-connected to serve in a low voltage application. How- D3 for buck converters 1, 2, and 3 are updated to change the

ever, considering shadowing effects, this prototype cannot work PV panels output voltage to move the operation point of the

well for series-connected modules in a high voltage application. PV panels to achieve the MPP. After many cycles as mentioned

CHEN et al.: BIOLOGICAL SWARM CHASING ALGORITHM FOR TRACKING THE PV MAXIMUM POWER POINT 489

TABLE I TABLE II

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE USED PV PANEL PARAMETERS OF THE BIO-MPPT IN THE PROTOTYPE

wanted.

Typical characteristics of the used 175 W PV panels are listed

in Table I and its 3-D-mesh graph of the objective function with

constrain conditions is also plotted in Fig. 9 to clearly show the

MPPT problem. It is clear that the object of the Bio-MPPT is to

tracking the PV panel so as to operate at the ridge in the Fig. 9.

Before using the Bio-MPPT, many key parameters that control

the Bio-MPPT need to be decided, such as population size of

particles N , inertia weight w, cognitive component C1 , social Fig. 10. (a) Setup experiment system. (b) Close-up picture of the slave module

component C2 , boundary constraint of variable V , and boundary circuit.

constraint of variable I. Since the number of the used PV panels

is three and its open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current are Bio-MPPT in the designed example are listed in Table II. It is

44 V and 5.2 A, respectively. The population size of particles N , notable that these values of the inertia weight w, the cognitive

boundary constraint of variable V , and boundary constraint of component C1 and the social component C2 in Table II are not

variable I are 3, 044 V and 05.2 A, respectively. The inertia optimized. These optimal values may be found to obtain a better

weight w controls the exploration of the search space. A higher MPPT performance.

inertia weight w (i.e., 0.9) allows the particles to move freely in

order to search a larger space. However, a higher inertia weight

w decreases the convergent ability. The cognitive component C1 V. EXPERIMENTS

and social component C2 control the movement of each particle Three experiments are conducted to assess the performance

toward its own best particle Pb est and best group Gb est . Large of the proposed Bio-MPPT. First, the feasibility of the proposed

values may cause the divergent problem, while small values Bio-MPPT is verified by using computer simulation and the re-

limit the movement. In this prototype, inertia weight w = 0.4, alized prototype simultaneity. Fig. 10(a) and (b) show the setup

cognitive component C1 = 2 and social component C2 = 2 are experiment system and the close-up picture of the designed

selected by try-and-error method. The key parameters of the and realized slave module without PV panel. Fortunately, all of

490 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

recorded in the Bio-MPPT controller (i.e., personal computer)

to easily process the experiments and performance analysis. Ac-

cording to (7)(9) and Table II, a PV MPPT simulation software

is also built by using MATLAB. Using the developed PV MPPT

simulation software, parameters of irradiation and temperature

can be set arbitrarily and then all of the Bio-MPPT behavior can

be obtained. A conventional P&O MPPT (sampling time: 1 s,

perturb step size: 0.5 V) is also conducted in the developed PV

MPPT simulation software to compare with the proposed Bio-

MPPT in order to assess the MPPT efficiency. Finally, the robust

ability of the proposed Bio-MPPT is also tested by computer

simulation.

A. Bio-MPPT Feasibility

Fig. 11(a) and (b) show the simulated and measured V-I and

V-P trajectories of the PV panels 1, 2, and 3 at about 600 W/m2

irradiation with 40 C by the proposed Bio-MPPT. It is clear that

the three PV panels can actually reach the MPP as we wanted.

We can also see that the simulated and measured V I and V P

trajectories are similar and all located on the calculated V I and

V P curves based-on (7)(9). This indicates that the developed

simulation software and theory analysis are correct and can be

used to assess the Bio-MPPT performance. The output power

trajectories of PV panels 1, 2, and 3 are also plotted in Fig. 12.

It shows that PV panels can actually track and keep on the MPP

by the proposed Bio-MPPT.

In order to verify the effect of rapidly changing irradiation

conditions, a ramp profile of irradiation is used, which starts

from 120 W/m2 , stops at 1000 W/m2 , and decrease to 350 W/m2

with a constant slope. In this experiment, the temperature is

25 C. The output power curves of the proposed Bio-MPPT

method and the typical P&O MPPT method are depicted in

Fig. 13(a) and (b).

It is easy to see that the proposed Bio-MPPT and the typi-

cal P&O MPPT method are performing similar in steady state.

However, the proposed Bio-MPPT method is obviously bet-

ter than the typical one in transient state. The reason is that

the typical P&O MPPT method get confused in the rapidly Fig. 11. Trajectories of (a) V I and (b) V P of the PV panels 1, 2, and 3.

increasing irradiation condition since the MPP power at last

sampling time may be less then the non-MPP power at current

C. Bio-MPPT Robust Ability

sampling time [27]. In the decreasing irradiation condition, the

MPP power at last sampling always larger then the non-MPP Fig. 14 shows the MPPT trajectories that PV panels 1 and

power at current sampling time so as to avoid confused. The 2 works at 750 W/m2 irradiation with 40 C and PV panel 3

proposed Bio-MPPT method can overcome this problem. Com- works at 250 W/m2 irradiation with 40 C. This test condition

paring with the Bio-MPPT method the MPPT efficiency M PPT , is to simulate the clouds shadow completely falls on the PV

defined as (11) [27], [28], is improved about 12.19% in transient panel 3 as shown in Fig. 15(a). From 14, it is obvious that each

state (i.e., t = 61140 s in Fig. 13) by the proposed Bio-MPPT PV panel can operate at the MPP in this case. This means the

method proposed Bio-MPPT is robust in cloudy days. However, a partial

shadow, shown as Fig. 15(b), is not considered in this system.

Pactual (t) dt

M PPT (%) = 100% (11) The MPPT behavior of the proposed Bio-MPPT is still confused

Pm ax (t) dt

with partial shadow effect.

where Pactual and Pm ax are the actual PV power and the theo- Fig. 16 shows the MPPT trajectories that PV panels 1, 2, and

retical maximum PV power, respectively. 3 works at 25, 25, and 40 C, respectively. In this experiment,

CHEN et al.: BIOLOGICAL SWARM CHASING ALGORITHM FOR TRACKING THE PV MAXIMUM POWER POINT 491

Fig. 14. MPPT trajectories that PV panels 1, 2, and 3 work at 750, 750, and

250 W/m2 irradiations respectively.

Fig. 15. Clouds shadows (a) completely and (b) partial fall on the PV panel.

Fig. 16. MPPT trajectories that PV panels 1, 2, and 3 works at 25, 25, and

Fig. 13. Generated power curves of (a) proposed Bio-MPPT method and 40 C, respectively.

(b) typical P&O MPPT method.

VI. CONCLUSION

2

the irradiation is 850 W/m . It is clear that PV panels 1, 2, and In this paper, a novel PV MPPT with swarm intelligent tech-

3 can operate at the MPP in this case. Therefore, this shows nique, called Bio-MPPT, has been proposed to increase the

that the proposed Bio-MPPT can work well for PV panels at MPPT performance. In the Bio-MPPT method, every PV mod-

different temperatures. This means the proposed Bio-MPPT is ule is viewed as a particle and is designed to track and keep on the

robust in temperature. MPP automatically by using the swarm intelligence algorithm.

492 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

A 525 W prototype constructed by three parallel-connected [17] E. Roman, R. Alonso, P. Ibanez, S. Elorduizapatarietxe, and D. Goitia,

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[5] N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, Optimization of [27] K. H. Hussein, I. Muta, T. Hoshino, and M. Osakada, Maximum pho-

perturb and observe maximum power point tracking method, IEEE Trans. tovoltaic power tracking: an algorithm for rapidly changing atmospheric

Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 963973, Jul. 2005. conditions, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 5964,

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IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 622631, Jun. point tracking algorithm using an experimental, programmable, maximum

2008. power point tracking test bed, in Proc. 28th IEEE Photovolt. Special.

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photovoltaic system with modified MPPT method and reactive power

compensation, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 881

886, Dec. 2007.

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supply, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. AES-4, no. 1, pp. 102

111, Jan. 1968.

[9] M. A. S. Masoum, S.M.M. Badejani, and E. F. Fuchs, Microprocessor-

Liang-Rui Chen (M05) was born in Changhua,

controlled new class of optimal battery chargers for photovoltaic applica-

Taiwan, in 1971. He received the B.S., M.S., and

tions, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 599606, Sep.

Ph.D. degrees in electronic engineering from Na-

2004.

tional Taiwan University of Science and Technology,

[10] M. A. S. Masoum, H. Dehbonei, and E. F. Fuchs, Theoretical and exper-

Taipei, Taiwan, in 1994, 1996, and 2001, respectively.

imental analyses of photovoltaic systems with voltage and current-based

He joined the faculty of Department of Electri-

maximum power-point tracking, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 17,

cal Engineering, National Changhua University of

no. 4, pp. 514522, Dec. 2002.

Education, Changhua, in August 2006, where he is

[11] T. Noguchi, S. Togashi, and R. Nakamoto, Short-current pulse-based

currently a Professor. His research interests include

maximum-power-point tracking method for multiple photovoltaic-and-

power electronics, renewable energy system, and au-

power-converter module system, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49,

tomatic control.

no. 1, pp. 217223, Feb. 2002.

[12] T. L. Kottas, Y. S. Boutalis, and A.D. Karlis, New maximum power point

tracker for PV arrays using fuzzy controller in close cooperation with

fuzzy cognitive networks, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 3,

pp. 793803, Sep. 2006.

[13] T. Hiyama, S. Kouzuma, and T. Imakubo, Identification of optimal oper-

ating point of PV modules using neural network for real time maximum

power tracking control, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 10, no. 2,

Chih-Hui Tsai was born in 1970. He received

pp. 360367, Jun. 1995.

the B.S. degree from Southern Taiwan University,

[14] F. Giraud and Z .M. Salameh, Analysis of the effects of a passing cloud

Tainan, Taiwan, in 1991 and the M.S.E.E. de-

on a grid-interactive photovoltaic system with battery storage using neural

gree from National Taipei University of Technol-

networks, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 15721577,

ogy, Taipei, Taiwan, in 2001. He is currently work-

Dec. 1999.

ing toward the Ph.D. degree in the Department of

[15] K. R. and S. Rahman, Two-loop controller for maximizing performance

Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of

of a grid-connected photovoltaic-fuel cell hybrid power plant, IEEE

Technology.

Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 276281, Sep. 1998.

He is currently also a Lecturer in the Department

[16] T. Hiyama, S. Kouzuma, and T. Imakubo, Identification of optimal oper-

of Electrical Engineering, Hwa Hsia Institute of Tech-

ating point of PV modules using neural network for real time maximum

nology, Taipei. His research interests include circuit

power tracking control, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 10, no. 2,

design of dc/dc converter and inverter control.

pp. 360367, Jun. 1995.

CHEN et al.: BIOLOGICAL SWARM CHASING ALGORITHM FOR TRACKING THE PV MAXIMUM POWER POINT 493

Yuan-Li Lin was born in 1983. He received the B.S. Yen-Shin Lai (M96SM01) received the M.S. de-

degree from National Formosa University, Yunlin, gree from National Taiwan University of Science and

Taiwan, in 2006 and the M.S.E.E. degree from Na- Technology, Taipei, Taiwan and the Ph.D. degree

tional Changhua University of Education, Changhua, from the University of Bristol, Bristol, U.K., both

Taiwan, in 2008. in electronic engineering.

His research interests include photovoltaic power In 1987, he joined the Department of Electri-

system, microprocessor applications, and power cal Engineering, National Taipei University of Tech-

electronics. nology, Taipei, as a Lecturer, where he has been a

full-time Professor since 1999 and also served as the

Chairperson during 20032006. He has been a Dis-

tinguished Professor since 2006. His current research

interests include design of control integrated circuits, circuit design of dc/dc

converter, and inverter control.

Dr. Lai received several national and international awards, including the John

Hopkinson Premium for the session 19951996 from the Institute of Electrical

Engineers, Technical Committee Prize Paper Award from the IEEE Industry

Applications Society (IEEE IAS) Industrial Drives Committee for 2002, the

Best Presentation Award from IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2004. He

serves as the Secretary of IEEE IAS Industrial Drives Committee from 2008 to

2009, Chair, Taipei Chapter, IEEE IAS, since 2009, and Associate Editor of the

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS and IEEE TRANSACTIONS

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