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Kunal Banerjee
email :
A. S. Durga Prasad
email :
Chandra Wadhwa, V. C. Kothari, « Official Organ of The Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India
A. N. Raman, S. R. Bhargave,
Somnath Mukherjee, G. N. Venkataraman,
Hari Krishan Goel, Dr. Sanjiban
Volume 43 No. 9 September 2008
Bandyopadhyaya, M. Gopalakrishnan,
Suresh Chandra Mohanty, Ashwin G.
Dalwadi, Balwinder Singh, Editorial 645 Commodity Futures
B. M. Sharma Problems and Prospects of
President’s Communique 646
Commodity Futures Market in India
Subhash Chander Vasudeva, R. K. Jain, Cover Features
Pawan Kumar Sharma, Jaikant Singh, by Dr. V. Gangadhar &
T. S. Rangan BPO: Potential in the Insurance Sector
G. Naresh Reddy 705
Sudhir Galande
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Senior Director (Examinations) Blooming and Glowing BPO
Quality of Work Life of Employees in
Chandana Bose by Dr. T. Ramesh 656
Engineering Industry
Senior Director CMA Global Perspectives by S. Varadaraj &
(Administration & Finance) Satisfied Stakeholders Dr. R. Sellappan 711
R N Pal
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J. P. Singh Letter to Editor 716
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644 the management accountant, September, 2008


India 'Calling':its destination BPO

'Call centers' or more technically Business with the fact that countries like Philippines
Process Outsourcing (BPO) firms have and China are breathing down our neck in the
emerged as the new buzzword in corporate race to garner a greater share of the
corridors. Simplistically speaking, BPO is the outsourcing pie, imply that Indian BPO firms
act of giving a third party the responsibility of have to continuously invest in technological
running what would otherwise be an internal improvement that facilitate outsourcing,
system or service. BPO is positively related enhance their service levels, strengthen their
to the search for more efficient organizational operational risk systems, be better equipped
designs: cost reduction, productivity growth to deal with the volatile and unforeseen future,
and innovative capabilities. This is the reason and above all maintain their cost effectiveness,
why it is considered a source for strategic which is the main driving force behind the
advantage. The functions or processes being success of the sector. As it is, many fear that
outsourced range from manufacturing to as outsourcing moves up the value chain to
customer service to software development and second and third generation deals from mere
much more. It is dependent on information contracting out of utility to process
technology hence it is also referred to as enhancement and further to business
information technology enabled services. transformation, companies will be forced to
While the world has awakened to the engage intensively in process enhancement
potentialities of this low cost, geographically tools like Six Sigma to enhance productivity.
fragmented business model as a major driver This will put pressure on the cost
of growth, India has been one of the major competitiveness of Indian companies. This is
beneficiaries of this relatively new way of where the role of the cost accountants will be
doing business. India has a commanding 63% paramount- to ensure sustainability of the cost
of the share of the offshore outsourcing advantage while ensuring value creation.
business by virtue of its substantial IT prowess, Hence, continuing with our tradition of
vast pool of skilled and educated English publishing topical issues of interest for our
speaking workforce, cost advantage vis-à-vis readers, we have attempted to include in this
other developed nations, major developments edition, articles that deal with the success
in technology and enabling regulatory story of the BPO phenomenon and the
environment. business possibilities emerging from this
However, as with all new business ventures, sector. This topic may throw open many new
there are bound to be threats and opportunities. issues and keep many debated issues
As the outsourcing movement grows, there is unresolved. It is in the interest of the readers
backlash since white-collar jobs are moving that they join this debate for mutual benefit
away from the US-UK to India. This coupled and understanding.

the management accountant, September, 2008 645

l President’s Communique l

My dear Professional Colleagues,

Through this regular column I would like to raise issues which are of relevance
to the institute and the profession and I would be grateful to you if you could
send me any reactions that you may have after reading the communiqué.
I am sad to inform you that Shri N. K. Roy, Former President, a doyen of the
profession and the senior most member of the Institute (Membership No. 9)
passed away on July 29, 2008. May his soul rest in peace
Some of the action points mentioned earlier like Cost Accounting Standards,
launching of Accounting Technician course etc., are already under way and I
am happy to inform you that there is a great sense of participation and
achievement from the members. The work of the Expert Group is also progressing rapidly and many
valuable comments are being received from the industry and other professionals.
I have always been of the opinion that our profession has a very important role to play in the economy
and our members are all true professionals. The increasing recognition for our professionals in different
spheres of economic activity bears testimony to this fact. However, there is no denying the fact that there
is an urgent need for defining and building the ICWAI brand in an organized and effective manner and
percolating its message to every corner of the country as well as to the extent possible in the international
arena. This has always been my goal and I am seeking the counsel of my colleagues to help me to do this
strategically and in a manner which will be cost effective. This is no doubt a challenging task. We cannot
lose sight of the fact that the opportunities are immense and we need to put in our whole-hearted collective
efforts to attain our objective. In this glorious journey, I seek the support, wisdom and understanding of
all our members so that together we can make a solid progress to achieve further glories for the profession,
our members and students.
One direct impact of Brand building will be to "walk-the-talk" which means all our professionals should
try to be world class, value driven and they should be the force to drive value with the society and
I am glad to inform you that the ICWAI National Award for Excellence is scheduled to be held in
December 2008. Like earlier years, awards for different categories will be given away separately for the
Public Sector and Private Sector Companies categorized according to the size and nature of business. I
request all our membership fraternity to propagate this in their companies so that more companies
participate in the competition. Further details regarding the Excellence Award will be available on the
website as well as will be published in the next issue.
The Institute with the full involvement and active participation of a number of members and experts in the
field has already released the Exposure Draft of Cost Accounting Standard on Materials. Draft Cost
Accounting Standards on Employee Cost, Utilities, Administrative Overheads, Direct Costs, Packing
Material Cost and Repairs and Maintenance are ready and the Cost Accounting Standard Board is
deliberating on these drafts under the able leadership of Shri M. Gopalakrishnan, Chairman of CASB.
The Exposure Draft on these topics will be released shortly for comments.
As you are aware the Cost Accountants have been recognized in the VAT Act of most of the States for
conducting VAT audit. Strong representations have been made and vigorous follow-up is being made for

646 the management accountant, September, 2008

l President’s Communique l

inclusion of Cost Accountants to conduct VAT audit in the few states where it is not yet done. Shri B. M.
Sharma, Chairman of PD Committee has been taking a lead role in this endeavour and our Regional
Council Members of the respective regions as well as Chapters in the State capitals have also been
taking an active role in this matter.
SEBI has recently introduced internal audit of brokers. We are in the process of representing to SEBI for
considering Cost Accountants also for this purpose. We feel that Internal Audit per se requires evaluation
of various activities in order to enhance operational competence and performance comparison with
benchmarking. In this context our profession has a greater and important role in this field.
The Companies Bill is expected to be placed before the Parliament in the coming session. I believe that
this would introduce a number of far reaching changes in our profession and I would like suggestions
from the members as to the activities where the Institute can support in utilizing the opportunities that
I am happy to inform you that a new website for the Institute is getting launched shortly. Another positive
step taken by our IT Department is providing all Chapters and Regional Councils with new email ids in
the domain. Similarly, all officers of the Institute have been provided with similar new email ids
to enable students and members to communicate with the respective officers directly. An important event
in the development of a proper administrative structure is technologically linking the Regional Councils
and the Head Quarters (HQ) and this project is significantly moving ahead under the leadership of Shri
A. S. Durga Prasad, Vice President and Shri S. R. Bhargave, Chairman of IT Committee.
The e-edition of The Management Accountant is now available in colour on the website and this has been
made possible by the team of officers in the Research & Journal Department under the leadership of Shri
A. N. Raman, Chairman of the Committee. The new look Management Accountant in print copy is also
going to be launched shortly.
This issue in your hand has features on the IT enabled services which has built up an economic miracle for
the country. The concerns and issues have been well presented in the articles and I am sure the members
will appreciate it.
I had the privilege of attending the Annual Seminar of Ranchi Chapter on 17th August 2008 at Ranchi
which was attended by over 300 participants. The Seminar was a grand success and I congratulate the
office bearers of Ranchi Chapter for conducting the seminar in a very professional manner with active
involvement of all the participants.
With best wishes,

Kunal Banerjee

the management accountant, September, 2008 647

Cover Feature

Data Base and Methodology

BPO: Potential in the In view of aforesaid objectives, the
present study is based on secondary

Insurance Sector data only. The study covers the pre and
post reforms period. The data for the
study have been taken from various web
The time difference between the Greenwich and India provides scope for the sites and the several issues of reputed
India operations to work around the clock, 465 days. In the insurance industry, journals namely “ The Management
high volume and low severity claims are the ones most apt to recognize savings Accountant”, “CRISIL Young Thought
through BPO. This enables companies to better focus on the higher risk and Leader Series”, and “Yojana” were also
lower volume claoms. BPO can also reduce insurance back-office costs by 30% consulted. The newspapers, namely The
to 50%. It also eliminates the need to invest heavily in the latest technology and Economic Times and Financial Express
skills. were also consulted for the completion
of data.
S.C. Das* The study has been divided into
Introduction The insurance sector is witnessing four parts as follows:
a concerted move towards business l Basics of Outsourcing: It deals

he recent business trends have
generated more interest among process outsourcing as a strategic types, approaches and elements of
insurance carriers than business option. This industry is ideally suited outsourcing. Further, potential
process outsourcing. The combination for outsourcing, given large transaction benefits of outsourcing and risk
of unrelenting pressure on expenses, volume, structured decision-making and associated with outsourcing also
vast improvements in networking and reliance on rule-set processes. been projected this segment.
communication technology, and Outsourcing in this domain has shifted l BPO Market: Several projections
increased appreciation of highly flexible along the complexity and maturity by different agencies like as
business models has caused virtually spectrums from transaction processing Forrester, Gartner and Nasscom-
all insurance carriers to explore non- to true business transformation. Mckinsey regarding global BPO and
traditional options for running their Corporate houses are progressively BPO in India are incorporated in this
businesses. Though the adoption of acknowledging the potential benefits segment.
BPO for core insurance services is from BPO in this segment and
processing slowly, the market has l Transformation of Insurance: There
identifying road maps for process re- has been a great transformation of
grown to almost US $ 3 billion by 2006.
engineering that will contribute to insurance sector globally and also
Outsourcing offers a convincing
greater profitability. Outsourcing in India after passing IRDA-99 Act.
business model that insurance
companies can leverage in the constant strategies are being driven by the twin This segment deals the size of life
drive to attain customer satisfaction, objectives of cost rationalization and and non-life sector and challenges
operational effectiveness, and market quality enhancement. before Indian insurance sector.
advantage that will ultimately drive the Objectives of the Study l BPO in the Insurance sector: This
bottom line. In a highly competitive The main objectives of this paper segment tries to identify
market, where differences in policy are as follows: complexities of outsourcing, status
premiums are insignificant, the focus of insurance BPO and India. Further
must be on customer retention. Business l To study the conceptual frame work
of outsourcing; a comprehensive set of outsourcing
process outsourcing is growing within solutions in the insurance sector
the insurance industry, driven by l To understand the emerging global has also been projected. Finally the
increasing comfort with vendors and the BPO and advantage India; author has given concluding
need to reduce costs. In fact insurance l To understand the transformation of remarks of the study.
industry itself has born out of the need Insurance in India;
to outsource ones risks. Basics of Outsourcing
l To examine the potentiality of BPO When an insurer (the customer)
in the insurance sector; and pays a third party (the vendor) to
Sr. Lecturer in Commerce, Faculty of
Commerce, Banaras Hindu University, l To suggest the right insurance provide certain services essential to the
Varanasi outsourcing solution. operations of the customer’s business,

648 the management accountant, September, 2008

Cover Feature

the customer is engaged in Figure: 1 Key Elements of BPO

“outsourcing.” In the financial services
Knowledge Services HR Services
sector, outsourcing includes insurance
companies paying the vendor to
perform various aspects of the back
office administrative processes, i.e.,
application receipt and processing, Elements of BPO Finance/Accounting
Customer Interaction
Services Services
underwriting (in according with
underwriting rules provided by the
customer), billing and collection and call Back Office Transaction IT/Software Operations
centers. Types of Outsourcing: There
Source: Extracted from ‘Key Elements of BPO’, Link:
are basically two broad categories of
Information Technology Outsourcing centralized program and lower preceding outsourcing is successful.
(ITO) coordination costs; management more The strength of this approach is to meet
strategically involved; enables the immediate needs through pilots;
In an ITO customer’s service relate
organization wide learning. The staged approach and evolved
to data center functions, such as
weakness of this approach is greater prototyping the organization and
running mainframe computer hardware
risk and impact; resource intensive; supplier improve each addition;
and software, managing networks, or supplier has incentive to prove it to
more stakeholders; can attract public
hosting application systems. These obtain more work; attracts interest from
attention; complex and requires
transactions frequently involve delicate suppliers due to potential revenue
significant management; supplier may
privacy and other regulatory issues. stream. The weakness of this
not have all requisite skills.
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) approach is the larger frame; supplier
Piecemeal Approach: Each activity
In a BPO, the customer’s services likely to continuously seek escalation
is outsourced independently over time
relate to particular business processes, of outsourcing irrespective of
and a variety of suppliers are used;
or administrative functions, such as organization’s readiness; maintaining
most common approach, but often by
billing and collection, payroll or benefit momentum.
default rather than by design. The
plan administration and claims strength of this approach is best Key Elements of BPO: The
processing. In regulated industries, supplier and price obtained for each philosophy behind BPO is specific, do
such as insurance, the particular activity over time; staggers risk of what you do best and leave everything
business processes, such as processing disruptions; solves needs as they arise; else to business process outsourcers.
applications for insurance. less complexity, manageable at lower Companies are moving their non-core
levels; can incorporate lessons into business processes to outsource
Approaches to Outsourcing: There
future deals, if knowledge is shared. The providers. In insurance industry core
is no single approach to outsourcing.
weakness of this approach is not insurance services are specific
In practice organizations use different
possible to generate overall value, operational areas such as underwriting,
approaches and typically in a hybrid policyholder and agent services, and
fashion. The important issue is that the overtime; high coordination costs and
duplication effort; synergies difficult; claims (Figure: 1). Non-core services
approach is determined as part of a include areas such as HR and benefits
carefully crafted strategy, rather than adversely between suppliers and
administration, as well as enterprise
one that occurred haphazardly. There blaming at interface points; isolated
services like property management and
are primarily three approaches1 that are lessons; less able to attract among
used both effectively at different times major suppliers.
BPO in today’s world is seen as a
over the last decade and they are: Incremental Approach: One or
strategic management option rather
Big Bang Approach: Significant more suppliers are selected for pilot
than just a way to cut costs. It helps
portions of all activities are outsourced projects with planned escalation of
achieve the companies their business
at one time; reported often in the media outsourcing; escalation occurs if
objectives through operational
but less used in practice. The strength 1
Gangadhar and Reddy, 2005, “Strategies excellence and an edge in the market
of this approach is more interest from for Business Process Outsourcing in India”, place. Outsourcing gives the
suppliers due to potential revenue; The Indian Journal of Commerce, vol. 58: p27 combination of people, process and
the management accountant, September, 2008 649
Cover Feature

technology to operate effectively in the claims are the ones most apt to sector, according to research firm
global market place without burdening recognize savings through BPO. Gartner3 . The most attention grabbing
time and budget. This is the reason why This enables companies to better headlines across the globe these days
more and more companies are showing focus on the higher risk and lower seem to be dominated by massive
interest in outsourcing their activities volume claims; and cooperative cutbacks, employee layoffs
to several off shore locations. It is l Back Office Costs: BPO can also and M&As. These stories frequently
expected that US companies will reduce insurance back-office costs report on corporate restructuring efforts
outsource $ 3B this year in business by 30 to 50 percent. It also eliminates where outsourcing of functions figures
outsourcing (Joe Needham, 2005). This the need to invest heavily in the prominently. Whether it is Europe,
includes costs associated with latest processing technology and North America or Asia there seems to
insurance claims handling, skills. These two components are be a growing trend towards
transcription of personal files, and often underutilized and quickly outsourcing4 . According to a latest
credit card processing. The total become obsolete. This allows report by technology and market
represents a 65% increase from the switching from fixed to variable (i.e., research firm Forrester, the spending by
previous year. India, China and the per transaction) pricing, which European firms on BPO services on such
Philippines are the leading countries provides greater financial as financial services, procurement and
taking on the bulk of the growing work. predictability and the cost customer core, is set to rise to euro 18.9
Potential Benefits of Outsourcing: transparency needed for accurate billion by 2011, from euro 11 billion in
BPO has been found beneficial to the pricing. 2006, reflecting a five year compounded
business with the results of increased Risks of Outsourcing: Balanced annual growth rate of 11.5 percent5 .
customer satisfaction. More efficient against the benefits are risks, such as: Global Market Size: The sheer
operations, access to global
l Low Accountability: Drastic links magnitude of BPO opportunity is
capabilities, increased cash flow, and tempting. The momentum for BPO
on the outsourcing vendor’s
faster time-to-market are also very continues to grow as the factors that
accountability for its breaches, (i.e.,
feasible outcomes of BPO. Outsourcing force companies to focus on core
low limits of liability), which expose
can benefit a company in many ways,
the company to losses due to the competences intensify. The global
including the following2 :
vendor’s failures; BPO market as per the Gartner group
l Current Technologies: Stay current grew by 13% between 1999 and 2000.
l Vulnerability: Transferring control of
with technology trends at lower Further Gartner predicts it to be
processing to an outsourcing
costs because of the vendor’s $234bn in 2005 and $310bn in 2008.
vendor means the company control
ability to leverage scale; BPO sector is very upbeat, with the
to dictate;
l Scalability: maximize flexibility to Nasscom-Mckinsey report 2002,
l Loss of Negotiating Leverage: A
scale up or ramp down processing scaling up the potential revenues
company’s bargaining leverage
capacity; from the sector by 2008 to $ 24bn
drops considerably when the
l Technology experience: Shift outsourcing vendor controls the from the $17bn it had projected in
managing technology to a firm resources to process the business; its 2000 report.
whose core competency is and BPO Industry in India: India’s BPO
technology; industry has grown at phenomenal
l Termination of the Relationship:
l Variable Cost Structure: Convert a Bringing the processing back in- rates in the past few years. BPO exports
company’s fixed costs to variable house or transferring the processing grew from a mere $565 million in 1999-00
costs based on the customer’s fee to another outsourcer at the end of to $3.6 billion in 2003-04. Despite
structure; the relationship is full of
l Labor Costs: Access lower labor uncertainties. “IT, BPOs the fastest growing within
financial services”, Business Journal, May
costs to the extent work can be done BPO Market 30, 2003. Link: http://www. bizjournals.
offshore; com/sanjose/stories.
Business process outsourcing and
l Reducing Cost: In the claim area, IT outsourcing are the fastest growing 4
Kumar Gireesh“ Global BPO-Advantage
leakage is typically cut (avoiding service lines in the financial services India”, The Management Accountant, p448,
overpayment) by 50 percent to 75 2004.
percent. In the insurance industry, 2
“Outsourcing-Lord, Bissell and Brook”, 5
The Economic Times, 5th October 2006,
high volume and low severity Link: Bennet, Coleman & Co. Ltd. New Delhi.

650 the management accountant, September, 2008

Cover Feature

emerging constraints the industry is percent of India’s population. Another increase the FDI limit in the insurance
expected to grow rapidly, given cost 0.5 percent of the population will be sector to 49 percent. In budget 2004-05,
pressures and demographic shortage’s supported by BPO. Thus at best 2 the government laid emphasis on
in developed countries and India’s percent of India’s population will be infrastructure and agriculture with the
comparative advantage based on its impacted by BPO. In sheer GDP terms need for huge investments in these
labor endowment and skill base. BPO assuming India’s GDP to be about USD sectors, the insurance sector is
exports are projected to rise to $20 billion by 2010, 4 percent of the GDP expected to play a pivotal role by
billion by 2007 and employment in this will be contributed by BPO. investing in projects with long
sector is projected to rise from its Transformation of Insurance gestation period.
current level of around 3,00,000 to one Life Insurance Market: A shift from
While the early 90s brought forth
million by 20126 . India is likely to capture a public sector monopoly in the
liberalization on all major economic
56 percent share of offshore business insurance sector and entry of Indian
fronts, the insurance was left
process outsourcing business by 2006 and foreign partners would definitely
untouched. But before long, the
with the demand for BPO services usher competition in the sector. The
passage of IRDA bill in 1999 paved the
increasing at on annual growth rate of monopoly of LIC and public sector
way for the liberalization of Indian
50 percent 2004-06, according to a report general insurance companies has come
insurance sector. During the last three
by rating agency ICRA. The size of the to an end. As per the figures available
decades global insurance penetration
Indian BPO market is likely to be around with IRDA for the period ended August,
as a percentage of the gross domestic
$ 9-12 billion by 2006 and will employ 2005, the 13 private players have
product has more than doubled from
around 4,00,000 people (ICRA BPO grabbed nearly 24 percent market share
around 3.5 per cent in 1970. The
Industry Report, 2004). from LIC in terms of premium
insurance sector thus grown more
Forrester Research predicts 3.3 strongly then the overall economy. The underwritten as against 17.70 percent
million US jobs to move offshore by insurance premium in India accounted in August, 20048 .
2015. BPO revenue has grown by 60 for a mere 2 percent of GDP as against Non-Life Insurance Market:
percent in the year 2002-03 to touch USD the world average of 7.8 percent and G- According to data available with IRDA,
2.3 billion. This is stated by grow by 7 average of 9.2 percent during 90s. The the market share of the new entrants
another 60 percent in the year 2003-04 insurance premium as a percentage of has climbed to nearly 26 percent in terms
as per Nasscom. As per Nasscom- savings in India is 5.95 percent as of gross direct premium at the end of
Mckinsey report the total opportunity compared to 52.5 percent in UK. The August 2005 as against 18.7 in August
is at USD 148 billion and if India insurance has lot of potentiality, which 2004. It is surprising that India’s market
captures 1/6 th of total then it will has to be tapped in general insurance. share of total premium is only 0.25
translate to about 5,40,000 jobs by 2010 Regular penetration is about .60 percent percent as against 46 percent of USA.
with revenue of USD 24.67 billion. If of India’s GDP which is quite low and Per capita general insurance premium is
above projections were correct then in also the developed countries7 . In the 2.3 US Dollars as against 14.62 US
year 2010 BPO industry will directly developed countries it ranges between Dollars in the case of USA. General
support the livelihood of about 1.0-1.5 2-8 percent but insurance schemes have insurance premium is only 0.5 percent
to be improved substantiality and this of GDP as against 8.62 percent in the
“Spreading the Benefits of BPO growth” improvement is to develop the various case of USA. This shows that there is a
Rupa Chandra, Financial Express, April insurance segments in India. tremendous scope of development of
2005, Link: http://fecolmunists. express Non-life insurance business in India.
The entry of banks into insurance The Indian general insurance market is
industry and to some extent the entry
Krishnaveni, “Issues and Challenges of of about Rs. 13,000 crore, out of which
of insurer into banking has changed the
Indian Insurance Industry”, The four PSU insurance companies and rest
Management Accountant, p936 December, face of insurance industry. This has
come about due to bancassurance and by the private players, who started their
8 assurbanking. The banking industry operation about couple of years back,
Bansal Anand, “Insurance Sector: Is contribute Rs. 12,5909.
Privatization on the Right Track”, The acts as a distributor for the insurance
Management Accountant, p933 December, products, in which case the original Challenges of Indian Insurance Sector:
2005 insurer undertakes the risk. Further, The transition of the insurance industry
Choudhury Nirmala, “General Insurance industry experts favor the entry of new from a public monopoly to a competitive
Industry in India-Issues and Challenges” players. Perhaps, with this in mind, the environment now presents very
Insurance Theory and Practice, p83, 2005. government of India has proposed to interesting challenges, both to the

the management accountant, September, 2008 651

Cover Feature

new players and to the customer. The l Insurance companies in India will relationship in place. A large deal may
insurance penetration as well as the size have to develop appropriate involve the transfer of a number of back
of the average cover is well below channels to tap this huge market as office operations, multiple processing
international averages, proving great the core of insurance business locations, and various administrative
marketing opportunity for the insurance hinges on an efficient distribution. functions. It may also involve a variety
companies. While LIC has done l Direct marketing is one of the most of differentiating services from
commendable work, there is still a great successful channels of distribution outsourcing provider overtime and deal
deal of scope for bringing in innovative in the developed economies. It is a size alone may not always be a sufficient
products and distribution channels to great way to reach a large indicator of the implementation
tap this market. There is still a great deal population. So, the product should challenges.
of scope fro bringing in innovative be sold through telemarketing or For examples, health and medical
products and distribution channels to direct mail. insurance companies are seeing high
tap this market. There is one truth in l In the insurance business cost transaction volume with low skill
marketing and that is “Different control and ability to service large requirements as prime targets for
Consumers Approach Buying number of customers are crucial outsourcing. An example of this could
Differently”. Insurance is bought issues. So modern technology is to include provider sign up verification of
because of convenience, product be adopted to handle both the benefits, or certification acceptance
placement, and safety of funds, advice services effectively. roughly requires 23 key activities that a
and not the price. l Today customers are well equipped follow a tightly controlled decision tree.
Currently product-market relationship is with information, so insurance BPO provides who are well established
dominated by personalized selling company should reposition may see this as an opportunistic
rendered by tied agents. Developing different products by changing approach to the industry. However,
sensible approaches not only for the customer attitudes. company’s processes and strengths
co-existence but flowing of multiple l The actuary should be required to may not always align with the
channels for sagacious and pragmatic attend minimum number of seminars requirements for statutory compliance.
propositions in product formulation, called continuous professional Therefore, it is imperative that
market segmentation by single development courses financial companies undergoing a BPO
distribution network will be an awesome control of the organization. understand what is being outsourced,
challenge for the insurance companies. l Distribution of existing insurance the different vendors involved, and how
Also companies will have to transform products is the main cause of worry they will interface with internal human
customer relationship management to for insurance companies in India. capital. The use of multiple vendors
value based client relationship. requires a due diligence process for each
BPO in the Insurance Industry
Insurance business is based on one.
Ideal processes for BPO are ones
averages and spreading of risks. So a Complexities of Outsourcing:
that can be standardized or automated10.
flexible pricing structure for sustaining The financial services industry is Insurance outsourcing contracts
customer confidence and interest will particularly suitable for BPO due to its present unique challenges not found in
be a challenging task before Indian repetitive and transaction oriented other commercial transactions. For
insurers. The benchmark of success of nature. Even in 2005, insurance example, outsourcing transactions must
organization will be determined not only companies are still lagging behind most adequately address:
by the rate of return but also by the industries in efficiently adopting the l Change Control process:
quality of corporate governance. So, BPO model. Processes being considered Outsourcing contracts are typically
insurance company should focus on ripe for outsourcing are tightly for long terms, i.e., 5-10 years, during
pricing, distribution, risk management controlled by corporate compliance or which the related technology will
and investment decision-making. statutory and regulatory factors in the change significantly. The
back office of many insurance outsourcing contract needs to
Joe Needham, “Is the Insurance Industry companies. Many times the size of recognize such changes and include
Ripe for BPO” Link: http://www. insurance BPO deal is indicative of the “change control” provisions to challenges to put the outsourcing address such changes.
652 the management accountant, September, 2008
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l Regulated Activities: When the shared with its competitors) and will variables that impact the complexity
vendor’s services relate to areas assist the vendor in customizing the of an outsourcing effort are those
which are regulated, such as settling vendor’s business. Who owns, and factors that influence, directly of
claims, sending non-renewal more importantly, who has the indirectly, the organization’s
notices, responding to consumer continuing right to use such know- readiness to plan and conduct a
complaints, bureau reporting how can be controversial issues, particular outsourcing project.
deadlines and notices of adverse especially after the relationship While BPO may seem
underwriting decisions, the ends. straightforward, problems exist
outsourcing contract needs to l Information Technology: when organizations are not properly
address the vendor’s responsibility Outsourcing vendors claim an evaluated before transition. A point
to perform such tasks as required ability to perform the services more of recommendation is that primary
by applicable regulations. efficiently and cheaper than the companies should perform the due
l Limited Remedies: Practically all customer can, because the vendor diligence on their own organizations
vendors’ first drafts include very has better technology and has a and not allow the outsourcer to do
restrictive limitations on their higher leverage rate (several the primary analysis. This will
liability if they breach their customers share in the cost of provide a position of leverage
obligations. These limitations maintaining the latest technology during contract negotiations.
include caps on damages, and therefore enjoy economics of
l BPO Project Complexity: Besides
exclusions of consequential scale that each customer alone
the statutory and regulatory
damages, limited indemnification would not attain). There may be
adverse effects of this and they compliance mentioned above a wide
rights for the benefit of the customer,
need to be understood and variety of factors may contribute “
and broad indemnification
addressed. to raising the complexity of an
provisions protecting the vendor.
outsourcing project”. A critical step
These limits expose the customer to l E-Business Issues: Outsourcing
is to stress test a process that will
significant losses caused by failures transactions involving electronic
be used from inception to
of the vendor, and the customer signatures and other uses of the
implementation (measuring
having limited or no recourse Internet for receiving and sending
against the vendor, creating a moral seasonal volumes, staff utilization,
documents require a thorough
hazard. Understanding these limited understanding of how the insurance aggregate demand) this will allow
remedies and their practical impact laws apply to these methods. the process owner to mitigate and
can be difficult. Negotiating Further, there may be required understand complexity as soon as
remedies which provide practical disclosures and other record inherently possible.
and meaningful protections for the retention obligations needed if Insurance BPOs and India: The
outsourcing customer is often one documents will be received or insurance sectors are in the process of
of the most controversial and delivered exclusively through outsourcing business opportunities.
difficult elements of the outsourcing electronic means. Insurance companies with large
contract. l Soft Landings: Vendors typically do volumes and repetitive transactions
l Intellectual Property Rights: There not address, or do so casually, what around the world are working towards
are numerous IPR issues arising happens when the relationship lowering the cost and upgrading the
from typical outsourcing contracts. ends and how the customer service quality to their customers and
The intellectual property used in reconstitutes its operations, business partners. Working towards an
such transactions includes the transitions to another outsourcing effective cost control management, the
materials the vendor uses to perform vendor or simply winds down the insurance companies are on the look out
the services, such as its pre-existing operation. Failing to adequately for outsourcing the service agencies for
know-how and the know-how address this is in the contract can the purpose. All the related activities
developed specifically for the result in the customer’s remedy of such as new business prospects, policy
customer. Customers typically termination for breach being an administration, claims management and
share their know-how (some of inadequate remedy. customer service are carried out by the
which the customer does not want l Back office Complexity: Additional BPOs.
the management accountant, September, 2008 653
Cover Feature

The insurance sector is no this information. Depending on the BPO risks are associated with the
exception to BPOs. According to a status, maturity, and sometimes, the design and management of the overall
market intelligence report by Nasscom simple existence of these factors, the BPO project. The purpose of analyzing
on the scope of BPO, after the effort can be positively or negatively risks is to identify obstacles to the
successful experience of insurance influenced. A list of essential activities success of the project and assess the
majors such as GE Capital, Royal and is listed below (Joe Needham, 2005): magnitude of each of these risks. Special
Sun Alliance, Phonix and Conseco Exl l Process Map: The organization
focus should be placed on managing
Services, most other leading insurance the most critical risks as they are
should map and document their
companies are evaluating off-shoring eliminated or at least reduced during a
current processes and service
opportunities in India 11 . Norwivh time of change. Further if a business
levels. This usually takes the most
Union, the UK insurance company unit does not have a solid
time but is essential and a necessary
already has BPOs set up in New Delhi understanding of its current
requirement to ensure compliance
and Bangalore or processing general performance levels and the key metrics
and cost realization as part of the
insurance claims. Aviva operates in involved, it will be difficult to define
business requirement definition
India with 1200 employees. The time meaningful service level agreements
difference between the Greenwich and with outsourcing providers. Similarly, if
India provides scope for the India l Organizational Readiness: The the business processes are not well
operations to work round the clock, 365 ability of the organization to adapt documented, it will be difficult to define
days. Aviva has 450 centers for the proposed BPO and process their business requirements to potential
servicing the British customers. 2000 changes will drive implementation outsourcers. Perceived insurance
employees are engaged in back office time and user community acceptance. processes that will be impacted by BPO
functions and for handling British l Political Landscape: The based on cost of labor and skill set
insurance claims. Claims BPO, an characteristics of the organizational required to perform the function are
offshore division of the US based such as cultural and political norms indicated in Table 1.
company Greensnow Inc. is functioning will help determine if the project is Conclusion
with 400 people in Nashik focusing on successful. An area that is perceived Managing the BPO change is the
medical and dental insurance claims of as volatile may require additional necessary glue needed to build a sup-
the US customers. Tela Sourcing LLC dedication support time. portive climate and organizational sys-
has set up a back office in Pune for its l Process Metrics: The organization tem necessary to implement a success-
health insurance products with a view should measure the current and ful transformation. Within BPO, change
to reduce costs. The new companies, a proposed operation. The management incorporates the critical
joint venture of Adaptis Inc. and DIndia disciplines of communication and train-
development of reasonable service
healthcare service aims at cost effective ing, which affects behavior, skills de-
level performances will allow the
and value added claim-processing velopment, cultural and organizational
business unit owner to set realistic
services to the US customers. The transformation. These attributes are in-
expectations for service levels.
highly skilled, well-educated, low cost herent with all insurance outsourcing
labor along with the advanced l Outsourcing Experience: Previous
transactions can range from simple to
technology and infrastructure provide utilization of outsourcing by
more complex. The need for insurance
a real-time link between the HQ at companies will drive their
executives to fully understand the fi-
Baltimore, US and Pune in India. embracement of the results. All nancial and organization implications as
organizations should have a it relates to their insured’s, agents and
Insurance Outsourcing Solution:
financial baseline for analyzing customer service representatives, will
Because of the task-oriented
outsourcing opportunities; and be paramount to the success of the
environment in many of the insurance
ensure that it takes into account outsourcing endeavor. All BPO engage-
processes, previously mentioned,
outsourcing projects should current and proposed demand. ments require informed, involved and
incorporate project tasks to develop l Business Priority: The priority is committed leadership. It’s critical that
placed on relationship initiative in leadership remains visible and the in-
Transformation of Insurance in India, relation to other efforts that will drive ception of the outsourcing idea to its
Editorial Team, The Chartered the required commitment and implementation and subsequent man-
Accountant, June 2004, p1344 resources needed to be successful. agement.

654 the management accountant, September, 2008

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Table 1: Insurance Outsourcing Solutions

Agency New Business Customer In-force Termination

service Administration
• Licensing and • Pre-screen & • Queries • Premium • Claims
contracting capture • Changes management exam. and
• • adjudicati
Correspondence Underwriting • Complaints • Error reporting on
• Renewals • Underwriting • Quotes • Balancing • Maturities
• Termination support •
• Return mail and • Delivery • Loans Surrender
Address change • Requirements • Withdrawals • Exchange
• Commissions & Follow- • Dividends
• Special ups • Title address
Compensation • Policy change
• Abandoned issuance
• Certificate
Properties • Fund
• Debt Application
Management • Refunds & • Quotes &
NTO reinstatements
• Assignments
• Correspondence

Source: EXL Service, “ Outsourcing Banking and Financial Processes”,

Financial institutions need to have l Poddar, A.N., Indian Insurance Indus- l Ramani Balakrishna,”BPO in Insurance
a shift of paradigm to view capability try-Transition and Prospects, In D.C. Sector: Pains and Prescription”, Link:
outsourcing as an effective mode of op- Srivastava and Shaashank Srivastava
(Eds.), New Century Publications, New services/bpm/bpo_insurance.htm.
erations in order to succeed. The tradi-
Delhi, 2001. l “IT, BPOs the fastest growing within
tional and vertical organizational struc-
l Singh, Anuroop, “The New financial services”, Business Journal,
ture must be replaced with dynamic new
Insurance_Myth and Reality”, Cited in: May 30, 2003, Link: http://www.
business models and partnerships for Thomas, M.G., Asia Insurance, Post
optimal business performance. Out- Mumbai, New Media Services, 2000. 05/26/daily44.html.
standing products or ideas will have to l
l Tripathy N.P., Insurance Theory and “BPO Industry in India-A Report”,
higher probability of reaching the mar- Practice”, Prentice Hall of India, New Link:
ket rapidly when executive time is freed Delhi, 2005. bpo-in-India.html.
up to focus on value creation. In this l “Business Process Outsourcing, EXL
l J. Brain Heywood, “The Outsourcing
type of new relationships, the clients Dilemma: The Search for Competitive- Service, BPO India”, Link: http://
and services providers agree on long- ness”, Pearson Education Limited,
term business goals in a more flexible 2001. l “The Hindu Business Line: BPO, ITES
and adaptable framework. The new per- l Simon Sijbrands, Giles Williams and Growth put at $24b by 2008”Link:
formance indicators are value creation, Chris Hoyle, “Beyond transaction pro-
speed-to-value and optimization of stories2003092801340100.htm.
cessing: Is Outsourcing right for the fi-
value with success related rewards. nancial services industry?” KPMG’s l “Lord Bissell and Brook llp”, Link:
Frontiers in Finance, April 2003.
l Verma rahul, “BPO: Potential in the Fi- l Chanda Rupa,“Spreading the Benefits
l Ansari, H., “Milestone-Insurance and
growth: Insuring India’s Growth”: In- nancial Sector”, CRISIL Young Thought of BPO Growth”, Link: http://
surance Industry in India- A Survey, Leader Series, 2003.
The Financial Express, Mumbai, (No- l “Non-voice BPO in the Insurance Sec-
l The Management accountant, Decem-
vember 13-14, 2004). ber 2005. tor-India”, Link: http://www. research
l Palande, P.S., Shah, R.S., and Lunawan, and
l The Chartered Accountant, June 2004.
M.L., Insurance in India: Changing l “Key Elements of BPO”, Link: http://
Policies and Emerging Opportunities, l The Insurance Times, December 2005.
Response Books, New Delhi, 2003. l The Economic Times, New Delhi. BPO.aspx.q

the management accountant, September, 2008 655

Cover Feature

Blooming and Glowing and technical talent. This makes India

one of the obvious choice to outsource.
Dell, Sun Microsystems, LG, Ford, GE,

BPO Oracle all have announced plans to scale

up their operations in India. Others like
American Express, IBM and British
In this article, the author has explained the basis of outsourcing, its various Airways are leveraging the cost
types and the benefits that accure from this method. advantage India has to offer while
setting up call centres. Several foreign
Dr. T. Ramesh* airlines and banks have too set up
business process operations in India.

usiness world is undergoing It involves a clear change-management
changes rapidly. In this race, strategy. It enables companies to further Agencies like Leo Burnett, WPP,
various business have practices emphasize on their core competencies. OMD have outsourced part of the
came into being and one among them is publicity and promotion work. Lowe
BPO Scenario in India :
to shorten the process cycle. This can India works for Unilever in the Indonesia
BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) and Singapore markets. New York based
be done by computerisation or
has been the latest mantra in India law and Kenneth that farms work across
efficiency should be improved. A new
today. As the current sources of its 16 offices. The strategy
concept called ‘outsourcing’ concept
revenue face slower growth, software development is done in the UK, the
has arisen. That is cross-border trade
companies are trying new ways to creative idea development in India,
through electronic commerce, in which
increase their revenue. BPO is top on integrated solutions are worked out in
services flow from the territory of one
their list today. IT services companies Brazil and so on, New York based
member into the territory of another
are making a quick entry into the BPO Banerjee and Partners (B&P) is another
member crossing national frontiers
space on the strength of their existing such agency which sends its creative
through the use of electronic commerce.
set of clients. brief to the Mumbai Office and handles
In IT parlance, it is commonly known as
BPO. Outsourcing has long been The philosophy behind BPO is the creative development, execution
practiced in areas such as specific, do what one does best and and production works.
manufacturing where the jobs involve leave enerything else to business Indian revenues from BPO are
low level skills or specialized skills. process outsourcers. Companies are estimated to have grown 107 per cent
moving their non-core business and this particular area employs 35,000
Business Process Outsourcing
processes to outsource providers. BPO people in the year ending March 31,
(BPO) occurs when an enterprise turns
saves precious management time and 2002. The cost saving is estimated in
over the management and optimization
resources and allow focus while the range of 10% to 15%. But there are
of its business function, such aspay roll,
building upon core competencies. The long term benefits and advantages as
accounts payable, purchasing or retail
list of functions being outsourced is companies outsource to streamline
sale to a third party that performs such
getting longer day by day such as order processes, save time or leverage the
functions according to a set of
entry, billing and collection, human strengths of third party specialists. The
predecided norms and standards (and
resources administration, cash and resultant benefit in terms of bigger
often in predetermined formats).
investment management, tax market share and future profits can far
Though these functions may depend
compliance, internal audit, pay roll...etc. outweigh the immediate savings.
on Information Technology (IT), they
are separate functions from core IT Outsourcing is also economical, for Many European and US companies
operations like data center activities or instance if a bank shifts work of a 1000 have realized that they should focus on
network management. people from US to India it can save their main business and outsource their
about $18 million a year due to lower Human Resource Department, accounting
The skills required to manage
costs in India. According to Mckinsey, departments etc. and it is here exactly
business processes is different from
giant US pharma firms can reduce the India fits in. Today US corporations
what is needed for managing
cost of developing a new drug, currently have embraced BPO wholeheartedly.
technology. A BPO vendor pays
estimated at between $600 million and Managed Care Companies, which is
stronger attention to employee
$900 million by as much as $200 million more popularly known as Healthcare
transitioning and strategy for the people
if development work is outsourced to payers are increasingly outsourcing
of the original company it is replacing.
India. business processes due to changing
*Lecturer in Commerce, P.G. Centre, Lal India has one of the largest pool of and challenging business environment
Bahadur College, Warangal-506 007 (AP). low-cost English speaking scientific companies.
656 the management accountant, September, 2008
Cover Feature

and technological and legislative Integrative Processes : Exhibit-I

changes. There is a good opportunity Today we can see not only business Firm
for Indian BPO vendors in this space. process outsourcing but also
BPO vendors will need to have good knowledge process outsourcing and BPO
domain knowledge, process know-how legal process outsourcing.
and competence with technological Offshoring Near shoring
Business Process Outsourcing :
solutions to cater to these Manage Care
companies. The concept was first given by Perot The above Exhibit-II shows the
when he founded Electronic Data place of the firm in going for outsourcing
Stages of Development in BPO :
Systems (EDS) in 1962. EDS would tell business. This shows that there is a lot
For the last five decades BPO has a prospective client: “You are familiar of growth and demand for outsourcing
been undergoing many changes. with designing, manufacturing and business. Earlier, Convergys were in the
Outsourcing is not new, it has been selling furniture, but we’re familiar with second place in outsourcing but now it
a popular management tool for decade. managing information technology you is first to go for sourcing.
One can safely say outsourcing has need, and you pay us monthly for the
evolved as shown below : India’s BPO Industry is booming-
service with a minimum commitment of
in2005, India garnered more than half
l 1960’s–time–sharing. two to ten years”. Thus it started by
the global $6-billion offshored BPO-but
l 1970’s–parts of IT Operations
transfering an organisation’s non-core
to maintain its leadership it will have to
and core business process to an outside
l 1980’s–entire IT operations find more young people who are
provider to achieve cost reductions and
l 1990’s–alliances/tie-ups
proficient in English and other European
at the same time improving the quality
languages and who are willing to work
l 2000’s–IT-enabled services. of service. When outsourcing takes
graveyard shifts for low wages. India’s
In the initial stages it has outgrown place across borders, it is termed as
BPO Companies are trying to overcome
its label. The term BPO is greatly offshore outsourcing. Modern
margin pressures by bundling IT
misunderstood by both potential telecommuni-cations and Internet
services with BPO and by acquiring
employees and the media. For instance technologies allow outsourcing to
companies abroad. And that should
a shoe manufacturer may get all the another country with lower costs.
accentuate the churn in BPO respect
components of his shoes made outside Advantages of BPO : rankings next year.
and assemble it in his firm. So he is infact Owing to its advantages such as (1) If we look at the revenue growth.
doing an outsourcing business but he performance of non-core activities of an The export revenues of the ITES-BPO
won’t say, “will you do business organisation can be improved by hiring Sector, has increased by around forty
process outsourcing for me?”. Rather the professional organisation which percent to reach $7.1 billion in 2005-
he would like to say that he has gone has taken up this activity itself as its 2006. The offshore IT and BPO
for a contract or may say “will you core activity. (2) Time management made professionals in the US and Europe
supply the shoe parts for me?” Recently easy. (3). It can cater the multifarious have also been major contributors to
this term ‘Business Process activities, different skills can be the large foreign exchange inflows
Outsourcing’ emerged as a result of broughtin which make the organisation coming to India. India now accounts for
increased offshore business. The India fat and unmanageable. Big organisations, sixty five percent of the global industry
ITES-BPO industry emerged as one of such as WIPRO, GENPACT etc. are now on offshore IT and forty six percent of
the key investment markets in the going for oursourcing on a large scale. the global business process industry.
country and the industry progress into
the third phase of Industry evolution
by greater degree of depth, TOP FIVE RANKS IN BPO
specialization and competition. The
Rank Present Survey Previous Survey
market also experienced maturity and
consolidation due to numerous merges 1. Convergys Wipro spect.
and acquisitions which took place 2. Genpact Convergys
within the sector. In traditional functions
3. Wipro BPO WNS Groups
as financial services, manufacturing, IT
and ITES, there is a rapid growth in 4. Progeon M Source E
outsourcing. Today, MNCs continue to 5. 24/7 Customer ICICI
invest in captive BPO units across One source
supplier countries to reduce risk and
improve quality control. * Source : Business World–5th June, 2006.

the management accountant, September, 2008 657

Cover Feature

The above Exhibit-III shows that lowest cost anywhere across the world claims processing and corporate
the export revenues increased fairly to timely delivery. Wipro, TCS, Transworks planning departments of large fortune
from 2000-01 to 2005-06. The are making selective acquisitions to be 500 companies. As these services are
employment generated in the ITES-BPO near to their customers. project-based, small and medium sized
sector in financial year 2004, financial The entire gamut of work involved enterprises can also avail KPO services.
year 2005 is estimated to be 21,6000, in and outsourcing can be split into As per National Association of Software
31,6000 respectively. It is expected to three kinds – brawn work, brain work and Services Companies (NASSCOM)
create 409000 jobs in Financial year and a combination of the two. Brawn estimates, 45 percent of growth rate is
2006. expected by 2010 and mostly from India.
work includes artwork, designing and
The banking, financial services and production while brain work involves In future more and more countries
insurance (BFSI) vertically remained concept and content development. will outsource to low-cost countries.
the largest user of Indian ITES-BPO Knowledge Process Outsourcing : India can have an advantage on its side
services, followed by telecom because of excellent communicative
Knowledge Process Outsourcing skills (using English) and also in having
healthcare and airline segments.
(KPO) is another new industry with a varied specialized skills.
Customer care and support services
high growth rate in India and it is the Indian Companies have already
have been the main revenue earner from
latest dimension of BPO. forayed into this new area offering
the ITES-BPO export market.
Unlike conventional BPO where the analytics and research along with their
As a matter of fact, outsourcing
focus is on process expertise, in KPO, BPO Offerings. The global KPO market
started to address the ‘pain points’ and
the focus is on knowledge expertise. It is expected to touch $ 17 billion by 2010,
then the companies advised their
involves high-end qualifications such of which nearly $12 billion would be
customers on what technology they
as professional qualifications. It is outsourced to India providing
must use and implement, thus paving
mainly associated with analytical and employment to 2.5 lakh people. Currently
the way to the consulting practice, work it employees about 25000 people.
technical skills together with some
that is still in progress. This is how the Ofcourse BPO survives on its strategy
decision making skills. India, China,
companies started working on Business of cost effectiveness and its cost-
Russia, Canada, Israel and the
outsourcing. Infosys, calls the Global benefits monitored all the time. This is
Philippines are some of the major KPO
delivery model as Collaborative the new horizon looming large before
services providers today. Clients of
Distributed Development Model. It our profession.
KPO services include market research
recognizes that business models are
and consulting firms, investment banks, Legal Process Outstanding :
more important than choice of
and financial services instititons, patent Another new process integral to
destination. Its core premise is about
filling companies, legal and insurance business process outsourcing is Legal
marrying the best of skills available at
Process Outsourcing. Law firms, legal
departments of major corporations,
Total Export Revenue of ITES-BPO Services ITES-BPO Services particularly from countries like the US,
UK and Canada are increasingly
outsourcing in the legal industry across
8 the globe to follow the BPO to gain
Export Amount (bin $)

efficiency and reduce the cost in the

u 6.3 market place. For this three essentials
of Legal Processes outsourcing
u 4.5 professional are: Domain Specialization
4 ego Graduation, Post Graduation in law,
u 3.6 Good communication Skill and Good IT
u 2.5
2 Conclusion :
u India, with its large base of highly
u 0.9 qualified knowledge professional is
0 perceived as a lucrative business
2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 destination. The success in Business
Process Outsourcing in India
Year encouraged many firms to start
outsourcing their high-end processes
Source : National Association of Software and services Companies (NASSCOM) also.
658 the management accountant, September, 2008
Cover Feature

Benefits derived from BPO can be References : 8. Business Vision–July-Sept. 2006,

summarized as follows : Quarterly Journal of Management–
1. Business World–10th April, 2006, BPO, Education Outsourcing and legal process
1) Productivity Improvements True Value? by Singdha Sengupta. outsourcing–Emerging trends in India by
2) Access to expertise 2. Business World–26th June, 2006, BPO M. Anuradha Reddy & C. Vidya
3) Operational cost control Buzz and BPO Testing Times–The BW respectively.
4) Cost Savings Round Table-XIII. 9. ABHIGYAN–July-Sept., 2006. State,
5) Improved accountability 3. Business World–20th March, 2006, Ad FDI and Export of Software and BPO
Outsourcing–by Tanmoy Neog. Services from India-Candan Mukherjee.
6) Improved HR
7) Opportunity to focus on core 4. Business World–5th June, 2006, Into 10. Business Today–7th May, 2006. The
Higher Orbit bit. Dennis Ross. Real BPO Boom (And Bust), Editor
Breaking newground in BPO.
As Abdul Kalaam visualized, India 5. E-Business–Feb., 2006–IT Outsourcing
may look forward for its bright future if by Scott Kirkwood. 11. Business Today–16th July, 2006. The
its youth are led in this knowledge path next wave of outsourcing, editorial and
6. The Chartered Accountant–Journal of near shoring is here, Indian BPO-Shivani
towards success and aim being the Institute of Chartered Accountants latha.
remembered as good human being. This of India–July, 2006–KPO–An
can be achieved when learning is Emergency opportunity for CA–CA 12. Business Today-10th September, 2006,
purposeful, creativity blossoms, and Pawan Kumar Sharma. 27001 reason, India BPOs. Discover a
when creativity blossoms, thinking New Mantra-Amit Mukherjee.
7. The Chartered Accountant–May, 2006,
emanates. When thinking emanates, Business Process Management, 13. The Hindu Speaks on Management,
knowledge is fully lit, when knowledge “Survival Mechanism in Competitive Volume-II Outsourcing–an intelligent
is lit, economy flourishes. landscape” by Dr. Malayendu Saha. alternative–S. Ramanadhan.q

the management accountant, September, 2008 659

CMA Global Perspectives

“Some organizations are struggling

Satisfied Stakeholders with the idea of reporting on all 50 core
indicators,” she notes. “However, the
Corporate social responsibility reporting is on the rise, but reporting processes issues are so complex and the interests
are still evolving. Stakeholder communication is the key — the more there is, the so varied, that to streamline reporting
better it will be standards further would be difficult.”
Allan Willis, an independent consultant
Robert Colman* 2002. This is up from 10% in 2000.
who collaborated with Stratos on their
Julie Pezzack, a consultant with Stratos report, is also involved with the

riple bottom line (TBL), or and one of the key contributors to the evolving GRI standards and attended a
corporate social responsibility study, notes that a lot of companies and meeting in NewYork City in January,
(CSR) reporting, is gradually industries have substantially improved during which GRI users weighed in on
becoming a more common reporting their reporting practices during that time its effectiveness thus far.
model. This is clearly demonstrated in as well. “The oil and gas industry is
Building Confidence: Corporate strong in this area, and the quality of “One of the main points they made
Sustainability Reporting in Canada, the reporting in the forestry industry has was that they don’t want anymore
most recent study of Canadian firms improved dramatically since our last indicators,” he notes. “Instead, they are
currently publishing some form of CSR report,” she says. “Reporting is an looking for guidance and protocols
report, giving stakeholders key iterative process and evolves over time. around the indicators that already exist.”
information on the social, environmental Companies are realizing that corporate Todd stresses that reporting has to
and economic performance of a responsibility can add value to their be reflective of the company and its
company. business and needs to be managed and stakeholders. “You have to balance the
communicated to their stakeholders.” demands of comparability and relevance
The challenge for companies that in any CSR report,” she says.
are new to the idea of reporting on a This is something that is stressed
triple bottom line is where to start — in Building Confidence as well. “One
what to report and how to do so. There’s of the key issues is that companies
no magic formula for such a process, shouldn’t be reporting for reporting’s
but there are a few guideposts to sake,” says Pezzack. “Companies need
consider along the way. to use the reporting process to drive
Balanced reporting performance in their operations by
providing timely, relevant information
The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
to improve decision making. The issues
released its most recent Sustainability
reported need to make sense for the
Reporting Guidelines in 2002, after two
business and its stakeholders.”
years of consultations with a variety of
The report is the second of its kind interest groups, and testing by a AccountAbility, an international
and was published by Stratos, a number of corporations. The GRI’s professional institute that develops
corporate sustainability consulting mission is to develop and disseminate assurance and accountability
company, in November 2003. Only 57 globally applicable sustainability management tools and standards, has
reporters were identified in the reporting guidelines for voluntary use created an assurance standard for CSR
company’s first study in 2001. Since by organizations reporting on a triple reporting that can help companies
then, the number of CSR reporters has bottom line. The 2002 Guidelines, which determine whether everything of
risen to 100 companies. Currently, 60% include 50 core indicators, are the importance is included in their final
of companies on the TSX Composite foundation on which many companies report. It’s called the AA1000
Index now report some sustainability build their CSR reports. Assurance Standard and, although it’s
performance information, with 22% But the GRI isn’t considered a used mostly by CSR report auditors, it
producing stand-alone sustainability or panacea by anyone. Susan Todd, addresses the essential points with
integrated annual reports for 2001 or principal of Solstice Consulting in which a company should be concerned.
Vancouver, a sustainability auditing and “GRI is a content standard. It’s about
*Robert Colman is editor-in-chief of CMA consulting firm, notes that it simply comparability,” notes Todd. “AA1000
Management Magazine. creates a base standard. is a process standard. It’s about making
660 the management accountant, September, 2008
CMA Global Perspectives

the reporting process relevant to innovative financial services provider on all of their operations. They may not
organizations and stakeholders. So the that is currently working on its fourth have the information management
GRI and AA1000 complement each externally verified CSR report. The systems in some locations to gather all
other nicely. “ company used stakeholder consultation of the relevant data to maintain the same
The AA1000 standard addresses (primarily surveys and focus groups) level of reporting, but as companies
three key issues: to help determine what they were going identify these gaps, systems evolve to
to report. Indicators were also capture the relevant information.”
Materiality: does the sustainability
developed based on VanCity’s social B.C. Hydro is another company that
report cover all areas of performance
and environmental policies and has altered its reporting method. “They
that stakeholders need to judge the
commitments and best practices. now produce one report that integrates
organization’s sustainability perfor-
mance? “We asked our stakeholders what full financial and broader sustainability
was important to them, and then created information and data,” says Pezzack.
Completeness:is the information
indicators based on that feedback,” “This is challenging, as it requires trade-
complete and accurate enough to
notes Joanne Westwood, social audit offs on the amount of information that
assess and understand the
manager at VanCity. The company also can be included in one report.”
organization’s performance in all these
carefully chose which stakeholders it Changing the parameters isn’t a
would approach for feedback. problem, notes Pezzack, as long as
Responsiveness: has the
“For our last report, we limited our companies are clear about why they
organization responded coherently and
consultation to staff, members aren’t reporting on certain issues.
consistently to stakeholders’ concerns
(customers) and community leaders,” VanCity experienced this as it further
and interests?
says Westwood. “We didn’t have the developed its CSR report to conform to
The critical message is that resources to go beyond that, and we the GRI Guidelines.
stakeholders have to be involved at felt that these are the stakeholders that
every stage of the reporting process, “In our second report, we piloted
are most important to our business.
“to create a sense of openness and also the GRI Guidelines and reported on the
However, we may look at expanding our
to understand what information really indicators that were relevant to VanCity
consultations in the future.”
matters to the stakeholders,” says Todd. as a financial institution,” says
It’s certainly necessary to keep this Westwood. “Now, we are planning to
“A report that covers all elements of
dialogue lively and relevant. If a report in accordance with GRI (which
the GRI standards but doesn’t address
company’s stakeholders want to see requires reporting on all of the elements
the key issues stakeholders want to
specific information about each and indicators in the Guidelines). If
hear about isn’t useful.”
different operation of a large industrial there are areas that aren’t relevant or
Setting parameters concern, for instance, it may be material, we will clearly state this as a
Determining what stakeholders worthwhile to have some mechanism to reason why this particular information
want isn’t as difficult to establish as one ensure that material issues are covered isn’t included.”
might think. “A lot of the forums in — perhaps an NGO panel or a panel of
which you can gather this information other expert stakeholders. “This Audits and alternatives
already exist,” notes Todd. Market assurance improves the report and The completeness and rigour of the
research, employee engagement boosts a company’s credibility,” notes information and figures supplied in CSR
surveys and similar venues all offer an Todd. reports is an important issue for
opportunity to get critical feedback. A number of reporting challenges companies to consider, according to
Companies can simply add a couple of arise when trying to find the right Building Confidence. A small number
questions to these to gauge what balance in a CSR report. For instance, of Canadian companies use some form
environmental and social issues are Building Confidence refers to a couple of third party audit or assurance
critical for stakeholders.” of companies that, since 2000, have process to verify the information in their
If you create this dialogue, Todd expanded the scope of their CSR reports. According to a 2002 KPMG
believes that it will lead to better reports, but in doing so have lost some study, only 10.5% of CSR reports in
communication. “You will start to hear of the specificity regarding their Canada were audited, compared to 27%
from stakeholders if something goes operations. globally.
wrong,” she says. “Two years ago, Talisman was only “The most critical of readers are
Vancouver City Savings Credit reporting on its Sudanese operations,” worried about issues being left out
Union (VanCity), for instance, is an notes Pezzack. “Now they are reporting entirely,” notes Todd, who, along with

the management accountant, September, 2008 661

CMA Global Perspectives

her work at Solstice, is director of The Todd suggests that this is not as recently created Statement of Values
Accountability Project (TAP), a new important as one would expect. and Commitments as a framework. This
Canadian initiative aimed at enhancing “Stakeholders get a certain amount of statement, which guides business
CSR reporting through use of the comfort from knowing a report is there, decisions and strategies at VanCity, was
AA1000 standard. “If you do leave and therefore must be credible,” she created in consultation with members,
critical information out and the says. “Readers rely on experts to digest staff and community leaders to ensure
stakeholders know it, it shoots your the reports for them, just as they do with it was relevant to key stakeholders.
credibility to pieces. Even if the financial reports.” This consultative process continues
information is negative or demonstrates However, some CSR reporters are to pay dividends, and demonstrates the
where you’ve failed in an initiative, as trying to adapt their reports to reach a value that CSR reporting offers.
long as it’s there it increases the wider audience. “We’ve found that our commitment
credibility of the report.”
“Effective communication of our to CSR and corporate accountability is
But there remains an under-capacity reports to employees and members has a way to differentiate ourselves from big
on the auditing side — a dearth of been a key challenge for us,” says banks, and it helps attract and retain
professionals with the accounting Westwood. “We’re currently working members as well as employees,” says
knowledge combined with the on an enhanced communication Westwood. “It helps us identify
environmental knowledge to do a strategy. We’re trying to design the potential risks in our business and
thorough audit. And, as Pezzack points report so that it’s shorter, and we’re keeps us aware of stakeholder concerns.
out, a third party audit can be very using our Web site to provide more We’ve seen continuous improvement
costly. Some companies, she notes, detail. At the same time, we plan to on the triple bottom line, and have
verify their reports every second year promote the report in our branches and integrated our social audit with our
as a cost-saving measure. internally, through presentations to business planning processes. The
“Alternatively, some companies employees.” social audit is built into our executive
create a stakeholder advisory panel, to Other companies have altered their performance partnership agreement,
review the report and comment on reports to include chapters geared which means we have accountability for
coverage of the relevant issues,” she toward specific stakeholders as well. our commitments throughout the
says. And with the use of the Internet, any organization.”
Again, what is stressed is the detailed drill down of information in CSR reporting is not yet, and may
importance of communication. shorter reports can be supplied online. never be, an exact science, but the
“Reporting on both the positive and Integrating value process continues to offer companies
negative aspects of a company’s new perspectives on their operations,
performance is important to demonstrate The challenge of CSR reporting is
their staff and their stakeholders.
credibility. Other aspects of quality really taking the first step. From there,
the process will evolve with the To view the report Building Confidence
reporting include presenting trend data visit For
over multiple years and explaining organization.
information about The Accountability
changes in performance. Showing that “The first step is to pull people
Project and related workshops and
the company is setting targets for itself, together within your organization and
seminars, please visit http://
and that management is willing to hold determine where you have information To
itself accountable for future and where you need additional
view a Web-based sustainability
performance improvements, is also information,” says Pezzack. “People are
reporting toolkit, created by Canada’s
considered best practice.” often amazed to find out what
Federal Government in consultation
Report designs information is available to report on
with Stratos, visit http://
immediately. These pieces form the
A recent worldwide stakeholder For
survey on non-financial measures by building blocks to what the company
information about VanCity’s CSR report
ECC Kohtes Klewes, called Shared will report in the future.”
Values, noted that despite the valuable Some companies will start with one
information in many CSR reports, few division or one stakeholder group and This article is reprinted with the
of the shareholders, investors, develop the concept further in permission of Certified Management
employees and consumers actually read succeeding years. VanCity, for instance, Accountants of Canada from March
the reports thoroughly, despite the fact organized its first report by stakeholder 2004 issue of CMA Management
that they are the primary stakeholders. groups. For its third report it used its magazine.

662 the management accountant, September, 2008

CMA Global Perspectives

their scorecarding system reported, on

Timing and precision average, achieving much greater results
from their system than those that
Implementing a scorecarding system successfully implemented in a shorter period of time.
While many consider quick
implementation of a scorecarding
Raef Lawson, William system desirable, it’s more important to
Stratton, and Toby Hatch take the necessary time to properly
design and implement the system so that

n this final article in our series, we the reasons for its deployment are
look at issues involved in the satisfied.
implementation of scorecarding An organization may have a variety
systems. In prior articles, we examined of reasons for implementing a
features of scorecarding systems that scorecarding system. As we noted in
contribute to their successful an earlier article (“The tactical
implementation and the role of software. advantage,” CMA Management,
system. The time required to implement August/September 2003), scorecarding
a system depends on a number of systems are used for both tactical and
factors, including the implementation strategic purposes.
method, the degree of automation, the Organizations that implement
use of consultants, and the resources relatively quickly — in three months or
available. In practice, most less — are more likely than those taking
organizations implement their longer to be doing so for tactical
scorecarding system in six months or reasons, such as tracking progress
less (see Figure 1), although some take towards achieving organizational goals,
more than two years. linking compensation to performance,
A deadline is set in slightly more and correlating measures and actions
than half of scorecard implementations. to understand cause and effect.
For these organizations, 31% set a Organizations that take longer to
Based on the guidance provided in deadline of less than three months, 33% implement their scorecarding system
those articles, organizations should be set a deadline of three to six months, can be divided into two groups. The
able to design effective scorecarding 23% a deadline of six to 12 months, and first group includes those that are
systems and are ready to proceed with 13% a deadline of more than one year. implementing the system to meet
the actual implementation of the Having a deadline for governmental regulations and to
systems. We now look at the time implementation ensures that it’s monitor regulatory compliance. The
required to implement a scorecarding completed in a timely manner. In our longer implementation time frame is
system, the role consultants should survey, there was no deadline set for understandable, given the necessary
play in the implementation, the effect of any of the implementations that took complexity of these systems.
using scorecarding software, and other more than two years. Most of the The second group takes longer to
implementation issues. implementations that took over a year implement for strategic reasons. These
As before, we draw on the insights had the same problem. reasons include the need to make
provided by our survey on scorecarding The shorter the deadline for strategy everyone’s job, the need to
usage by North American implementation, the shorter the actual communicate the organization’s
organizations, sponsored by the implementation period. Overall, 92% of strategy to everyone in a clear and
AICPA, CAM-I, CMA Canada, IQPC, organizations implementing a simple manner, aligning employee
Targus Corporation, and Hyperion scorecarding system complete it within behaviour with strategic objectives, and
Solutions. the given deadline. linking and aligning the organization
Timing around strategy. The time required to
Implementation impetus accomplish the process necessary to
It’s important to have a realistic time Is faster better? Organizations that meet these objectives — including the
frame for implementing a scorecarding took more than 24 months to implement tasks of defining the organization’s

the management accountant, September, 2008 663

CMA Global Perspectives

mission and vision, defining its strategy, implementing a scorecarding system.

mapping its strategy to objectives, and Thus, none of the organizations that
defining performance measures extensively used consultants (and only
associated with those objectives — is one that used consultants somewhat)
necessarily longer than that for a failed to use an organizing framework
tactically-oriented system. However, for their performance measures. This
our survey results indicate that compares to 16% of those that didn’t
organizations using this approach see use a consultant. The consultants used
greater returns. of outside consultants to facilitate the extensively by organizations almost
Number of measures process. But they should do so with exclusively used the Kaplan-Norton
care. Most organizations (68%) choose framework.
Performance measurement systems
are nothing new. Most organizations not to use a consultant. Twenty-two per But the longer time required to
use a plethora of measures, presented cent of scorecard implementers use a implement a scorecarding system
on numerous key performance indicator consultant somewhat, and the remaining without outside consultants isn’t
(KPI) reports. Correlation analysis often 10% use a consultant extensively. necessarily a bad thing. On average,
indicates that organizations have too The use of consultants correlates organizations that don’t use
many measures, with numerous with the size of an organization. In consultants report achieving the
redundancies. Many of these measures general, smaller organizations are less greatest benefits from their system,
are tracked for dubious reasons. One likely to use consultants than larger followed by those that only use a
company in our survey stated that ones (see Figure 2). Mid-size consultant somewhat. Organizations
measures were tracked “because we’ve organizations were most likely to use that extensively use outside
always tracked them.” consultants somewhat, and the largest consultants report the fewest benefits
organizations were most likely to use from their scorecarding system.
When an organization that already
has a KPI system rolls out a them extensively. A reason for this may be that the
scorecarding system, it needs to tie The extensive use of an outside focus of many strategic (versus
them together. Otherwise questions will consultant for a scorecarding system software) consultants’ work is the
arise such as “Utilization rates, implementation can speed up the alignment of an organization’s
efficiency rates, etc. are on my KPI completion of the project substantially. resources with its strategy. Problems
report, but not my scorecard. Why?” In our study, 40% of organizations that frequently arise, however, because they
went this route completed fail to focus on sustainability. Thus the
In a recent implementation, a large
implementation in less than three thick binder delivered by the consultant
manufacturer of machine parts received
months. Additionally, most took under documenting the organization’s
considerable pushback from its
six months, and none took more than 24 mission, vision, and strategy sits on the
employees due to a failure to link the
months. client’s desktop and fails to change its
two systems. Its employees were
Many (35%) organizations that employees’ behaviour. The big gap is
evaluated using the KPI system’s
don’t use consultants also complete that clients don’t have anything that
operational reports but were
implementation in three months or less. takes them from where they are to where
compensated based on their scorecards.
However, there are a substantial number they need to be. They need to deploy a
A result of this situation was that the
that take one, two or more years to system that is both sustainable and
company was focused on mass
complete an implementation. flexible.
production of unprofitable parts instead
of working on making those parts Organizations that use consultants The longer time required to
profitably. The organization needed to to a slight degree have a modal time for implement a scorecarding system
tie the KPIs into its strategy or modify implementation of six to 12 months, more without outside consultants reflects a
the measures (or add measures) to than that for organizations that use greater involvement by the organization
ensure that the systems were tied consultants extensively, but less than in the design and implementation of the
together. that for organizations that don’t use system, and more attention to laying
consultants at all. the groundwork essential for successful
Use of outside consultants
implementation. Organizations need to
When proceeding with a An advantage of using consultants
spend the time up front, to
scorecarding system implementation, is that they generally have a well
understanding their vision, and to make
organizations should consider the use defined, well thought out process for
sure that their data sources are

664 the management accountant, September, 2008

CMA Global Perspectives

sufficient to meet their current and implementation (“Organizing the system introduces something new to an
future needs. implementation,” CMA Management, organization, something that may not
Implementing software November 2003), including the top- be immediately accepted. It’s critical to
down, bottom-up, and pilot project communicate — even to
As discussed last month, 70% of
approaches. overcommunicate — with the
organizations implementing
Implementations that start out at the employees regarding the new system.
scorecarding systems use software in
highest level and then roll down, An organization needs to demonstrate
their implementation. As might be
especially those that roll down to teams the new system and talk with employees
expected, the quickest implementations
(or products or services) are most likely about what it will do for them. If this
are those that don’t involve software.
to be implemented quickly. isn’t done, they will question it when
Implementations involving off-the-shelf
Implementations that take the longest they are asked to use the system.
applications take about the same
time tend to use a bottom-up approach, Presenting scores alone will lead to
amount of time to implement as in-house
and those that use a pilot project questions regarding why they are “that
applications. The longest
approach tend to be somewhere in colour” and what calculations are
implementations involve those that use
between the other two approaches time- behind them. Organizations that
both off-the-shelf and in-house-
wise. communicate effectively prior to
developed software (these accounted
implementation will find that the
for all instances of implementations When implementing a project using
scorecarding system is more easily
taking greater than 24 months). a bottom-up approach, flexibility in the
Consultants and automation system automation is essential,
especially for data availability. For Another critical level of the
Consultants are often used to assist organization at which buy-in for
example, a large financial institution
in the implementation of scorecard implementing a scorecarding system is
implemented a scorecarding system
automation. Organizations that believe essential is at the “C” level of an
using a bottom-up approach. Each
automation is an important feature of organization — whether it’s the CEO,
branch was told to come up with its own
their performance measurement system COO, CFO or CIO. While
scorecard. Each of the branches’
are more likely to use the services of an implementation can be top-down,
scorecards had their own flavour. Each
outside consultant. Of those bottom-up, or done as a pilot project,
branch had to make a leap of faith that
organizations that use consultants, organizations may find it hard to
its scorecard was tied to overall
either somewhat or extensively, subsequently “sell up” or “sell down”
corporate strategy. The organization
approximately 80% use software in their the idea of scorecarding without top
subsequently decided to implement a
scorecard system, compared with only management support. This support also
centralized scorecarding system, and its
64% for organizations that don’t use ensures that adequate funding for the
information systems were able to meet
consultants. initiative is available for future rollout
its changing data requirements. Now
The use of consultants greatly helps this organization can track the same of the system.
the implementation of new scorecarding performance measures at all of its Organizations that are implementing
software. When asked about the branches and use them for a scorecard system need to ensure that
difficulty in automating their benchmarking purposes. they have set apart a realistic amount
scorecarding system, approximately of time for it. While management may
Employee buy-in
one-third of those organizations be eager to get the system up and
extensively using consultants have An important aspect of
running, it’s important for the
successfully implemented new software, implementing a scorecarding system (or
organization to take the time to
indicating either that it wasn’t difficult any other performance measurement
adequately prepare for the installation.
or that it was difficult, but that the system) is taking the steps in the
This includes thinking through the
problems had been solved. This implementation process to ensure
organization’s mission and vision,
compares with only 14% for employee buy-in. Our survey results
developing a strategy, mapping its
organizations that used consultants indicate that, on average, employee
strategy to objectives, developing an
only somewhat, and for those not using acceptance and use of the scorecarding
organizing framework for performance
outside consultants at all. system was greatest when the
measures that reflect the strategy of the
scorecarding system took three to six
Implementation approach organization, developing appropriate
months to implement.
We have previously discussed the performance measures, designing an
Implementing a scorecarding appropriate information system to
various approaches to scorecard

the management accountant, September, 2008 665

CMA Global Perspectives

support scorecarding, and selling the scorecarding study, open to participants For information on
system to all levels of the organization. worldwide, is now commencing, and becoming a sponsor, contact the study
The use of outside consultants can interested readers are invited to coordinator, Toby Hatch of Hyperion
facilitate the process, but they cannot participate in the study by going to Solutions, at toby_hatch @ hyperion.
and should not be used to replace the com. Thanks to Jose Contreras of
necessary involvement of the Dr. Raef Lawson and Dr. William Hyperion Solutions for his valuable
organization’s own personnel. By taking Stratton are the supervisors of this contribution.
these necessary steps, organizations can study. Dr. Lawson is a professor at the
go a long way toward ensuring a successful This article is reprinted with the
University at Albany, State University permission of Certified Management
scorecard implementation. of New York and can be reached at Accountants of Canada from March
The results presented here are from Dr. Stratton is a 2004 issue of CMA Management
the first phase of our scorecarding professor at Pepperdine University and magazine.
study. The next phase of the on-line can be reached at William. Stratton


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IFAC Article

appreciate how SPC can enhance the

Scorecard Support BSC. These concepts were first
developed by Walter Shewhart and
introduced in his text, “Economic
Larry B. Weinstein and Control of Quality of Manufactured
Joseph F. Castellano Product.” Subsequently, SPC has
become one of the most important tools
Benchmarking and stretch targets are often adopted to support the Balanced for improving processes (for a more
Scorecard. But do they do what is necessary to make scorecards effective? Using detailed explanation of SPC, please refer
statistical process control might be more effective. to the book Understanding Variation:
The Key to Managing Chaos, by
The Balanced Scorecard (BSC), first department goals. The third process – Donald Wheeler).
proposed by Robert Kaplan and David business planning – makes it easier to The targets and goals used for the
Norton, has emerged as an important integrate business and financial plans. BSC are, in effect, specifications. The
strategic management system. The BSC The final process– feedback and common mistake in traditional
offers organizations an alternative learning – gives an organization the performance measurement is to confuse
performance measurement system to capacity for strategic learning. these specifications – no matter how
overcome the deficiencies associated Whether the BSC is used as a important and desirable they may be –
with an over-reliance on traditional performance measurement or strategic with the capability of a given process.
financial measurement systems. By management system, a company must A problem occurs if management
incorporating the perspectives of address how targets and goals– the establishes targets and goals for BSC
customers, internal business processes, metrics used in the scorecard process – without considering the current
and learning and growth, it enables are established. While benchmarking performance of the processes used to
users to identify and measure factors best practices of other organizations and deliver the results. For example, if
critical to an organization’s efforts to using stretch targets are methods management sets a target (specification)
become more flexible and responsive to discussed in the scorecard literature, we of 95% on-time delivery (OTD) for a
customer needs. believe theseapproaches may customer delivery process without
The BSC isn’t just a mixture of key undermine the credibility and considering the current capability of the
performance indicators that includes usefulness of the BSC. Such process, the goal is purely arbitrary.
financial and non-financial performance measurements are simply arbitrary Pressures to meet such targets and
measures. Rather, it’s a system that goals and targets. As such, they suffer goals can lead to the distortion of
translates the firm’s vision and strategy from the same deficiencies when used processes and figures.
into a linked set of performance in a BSC as when incorporated in more Traditional performance measure-
measures. These measures must include traditional performance measurement ment usually entails comparing some
both outcome measures (the lag systems. More importantly, the use of specification target or goal to some
indicators), and the drivers of those benchmarking and stretch targets actual result. The outcome is favourable
outcome measures (the lead indicators). doesn’t consider the current if the target is met or exceeded, and
For some companies, the BSC has performance of the processes used to unfavourable if it isn’t met.
evolved into a strategic management achieve the firm’s strategy. Since Unfortunately, traditional analysis can’t
system. Used in this manner, the successful BSC strategy determine the reason for meeting or
scorecard incorporates four new implementation requires the missing the target.
management processes that enable improvement of critical business Unlike traditional performance
managers to link long-term strategic processes, the use of statistical process measurement, which attempts to attach
objectives with short-term actions. The control (SPC) should become an integral a meaning to every data point and
first process – translating the vision – part of establishing the numerical targets outcome, SPC focuses on the behaviour
helps the organization build consensus and goals of balanced scorecards. of the time series of the underlying
around its vision and strategy. The Statistical Process Control process. In effect, SPC incorporates the
second process – communicating and Although a detailed explanation of use of process behaviour charts (also
linking – facilitates management’s SPC and capability analysis is beyond referred to as control charts) and other
efforts to communicate and link the the scope of this article, the reader needs quality tools to define the capability of
firm’s strategy to individual and to understand some basic concepts to the process.

the management accountant, September, 2008 667

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Analyzing Variation cause if it is an undesirable result or, in variation or the failure to achieve BSC
Process behaviour charts allow the case of a desirable outcome, to results is futile. The process is
management to analyze process determine if and how it can be replicated performing as best it can, given its
variation. All processes exhibit in the future. When the special cause is present design. Unless management
variation. The key question for eliminated, the process returns to a changes the process, similar results can
management is whether the variation is state of statistical control. be expected in the future.
random and inherent in the design of Bsc And Process Once a process is in statistical
the process (usually referred to as Behaviour Charts control, only common cause variation
common cause variation), or whether is present. This allows management to
With process behaviour charts,
forces outside the design of the process make predictions about the future
management can evaluate the current
are causing the variation (usually performance of this process because its
performance of a process and determine
referred to as special, or assignable outputs are predictable and within a
whether the process’s current
cause variation). Management must definable capability. Since prediction is
configuration is capable of achieving
respond to common cause variation and an integral part of the BSC process,
the numerical targets and goals for BSC
special cause variation in distinct ways. efforts to bring processes into statistical
measurements. If management isn’t
Confusing the two, or not being able to control are critical to ensure that
satisfied with the amount of variation
distinguish between them, can cause management will take the appropriate
or the average output level of a stable
serious and costly mistakes. action when undesirable results occur.
process, it must improve the process
Through the use of process If a process is not stable, special causes
by making changes to the process
behaviour charts, management can are present; it is useless to make
inputs (people, methods, equipment,
determine if the variation that is predictions about the future
materials, and environment). Returning
occurring is a common cause or a special performance of the process since it does
to the example in Exhibit A, if
cause. A process that displays only not have a definable capability.
management isn’t satisfied with the
common cause variation is one that is current process average of almost 18 Using process behaviour charts in
said to be stable or in statistical control. days to process a medical claim or the the BSC process also gives
For example, Exhibit A shows a control amount of variation present, it has to management the added advantage of
chart for the length of time it takes to change the process to get better results. focusing on the distribution of process
process a medical claim. Data is shown Blaming process managers for the results over time. One of the dangers of
for the number of days it takes to
process each claim. The control chart
shows a stable process since all of the
data points fall between the upper
control limit (UCL) of 26.7 days and the
lower control limit (LCL) of 8.6 days. The
current process average is 17.7 days.
If the process behaviour chart
reveals that special cause variation is
present – for example, by the
occurrence of points outside the upper
or lower control limits – something is
occurring outside management’s
original design of the process. For
example, Exhibit B shows a control chart
for the time it takes to resolve customer
complaints. Since the chart reveals the
presence of points above the UCL of
7.1 days and below the LCL of 3.0 days,
special cause variation is present in the
process. The proper course of action
when special causes are present is to
investigate the signal to eliminate the

668 the management accountant, September, 2008

IFAC Article

traditional performance measurement the process average drifts up to 1.5 company has adopted a BSC initiative
systems is that they are used as the standard deviations. The program is and has identified the time it takes to
basis for reports, which compare one designed as a disciplined, quantitative process a medical claim as one of its
data point with another. approach for improvement of defined key measurements to improve customer
For example, if management were metrics in manufacturing, service, or satisfaction. The company selects
given a report that showed that last financial processes. medical claim processing as one of its
month the time it took to process a A critical element of the Six Sigma key processes to monitor in the Internal
medical claim increased from 18 days to initiative is careful selection of projects Business Process panel of their
24 days, it might react as if this was a based on their potential to improve scorecard. Based upon best practice
signal that there was a serious problem. performance metrics. Such projects data it sets a stretch target of 14 days
Management would demand an follow a four step process: for the processing of all medical claims.
explanation or perhaps reprimand the • Selection of the appropriate Exhibit C replicates the data and
process manager. Worse yet, they may measurements and collections of control chart already discussed as
be tempted to alter their strategy. But preliminary data; Exhibit A with one addition. We have
as Exhibit A shows, these results are added a line that represents the goal of
• Analysis of preliminary data and
still within the upper and lower control achieving a process average of 14 days
identification of root causes of defects;
limits of the process control chart. to process a medical claim. The current
• Development of improvement average is 18 days (we round all data to
Management shouldn’t just focus
recommendations; and the nearest day). Although this process
its analysis on a few isolated data points
and interpret these without considering • Implementation of sustainable is in statistical control it still shows a
the historical output of the process. solutions. considerable amount of variation. Given
Results must be interpreted in the The Six Sigma initiative is the current design of the process we
context of the distribution of data shown characterized by top management can expect the next claim submitted to
in the process control chart. support, a focus on cost and waste be processed somewhere between 9
Management, in failing to analyze data reduction, understanding customers’ days and 27 days with the average over
in this manner, runs the risk of inviting expectations, and use of performance time being around 18 days. However,
tampering with a stable process (which metrics that directly measure management, interested in improving
can increase variation) or of blaming improvements in cost, quality, and yield. the time it takes to process a medical
process managers for results over which The program emphasizes the formal claim, has set a target of 14 days.
they frequently have little or no control. application of basic quality tools such The 14-day target represents a
Returning to our example in Exhibit A, as flow charts, cause and effect specification limit. Unfortunately the
management might not be satisfied with diagrams, run charts, and Pareto process for which the target has been
the results of this process, but it should analysis. It also stresses training and established is not capable of achieving
realize that these results came from a participation for employees at all levels this specification. The current process
stable process. of the organization. average is only 18 days. Management’s
Management now must study the An Enhanced Bsc failure to use process behaviour charts
process to determine how it can be to assess the current performance of
Exhibit C illustrates how SPC and
improved. One approach that is this process has resulted in setting a
Six Sigma can be integrated to enhance
employed to meet this need is the Six target that is beyond the capability of
the BSC. Assume that an insurance
Sigma process improvement program.
Six Sigma At Work
The Six Sigma initiative is aimed at
eliminating defects from products,
processes, and transactions. The
concept was popularized by Motorola
in the 1980s. The program’s name comes
from the statistical measure of six
standard deviations, or six sigma from a
process average, a range beyond which
no more than 3.4 defects per million
opportunities (DPMO) will occur when

the management accountant, September, 2008 669

IFAC Article

the existing process. Periodic reports to current performance of the process. or whether processes are even in
management will show results that will This scenario invites the possibility of control. Blame, fear, frustration, a loss
at times be better than the 14-day target wrong decisions being made in an effort of confidence in the BSC initiative are
and at times worse. to achieve the target, which could just a few of the costs that can result
Management will seek an further undermine the BSC process. from a failure to use process behaviour
explanation for the unfavourable A better approach would be for charts to support a BSC initiative.
variances and demand that action be management to use a process behaviour Of course, there is nothing wrong
taken. The process manager, in response chart to analyze the current behaviour with using measurements based on the
to management’s request, will do his or of the medical claim process. Their current performance of stable processes
her best to explain why the targets are scorecard processes would have been to set improvement goals. Returning to
missed some periods and met for others. enhanced in the following ways: (1) our example in Exhibit C, management
Blame will not be in short supply. management would clearly see that their has set a BSC target of 14 days to
Decisions about the “problem” will be goal of 14 days was beyond the current process a claim. The only way to
made and actions taken in an effort to performance of the process. In effect, it achieve this goal is through a process
meet the target. Unfortunately, unless was nothing more than an arbitrary improvement initiative such as Six
fundamental changes are made to the target; (2) it would call attention to the Sigma, which results in reducing
process, the actions taken could very fact that if the goal was to reduce the variation and improving the process
likely make the variation and the results current average from 18 to 14 days, the average. Setting this BSC target and
worse. proper course of action would be to monitoring the results of the
These problems are compounded engage in some process improvement improvement effort through the use of
when the BSC is used. The very nature initiative following the outline of the Six a process behaviour chart is a way to
of the BSC process is to put the focus Sigma program discussed earlier to not assess this BSC initiative.
of management on the real drivers of only improve the process average but The BSC process can be a powerful
outcomes/results, a firm’s processes. In to also reduce the amount of variation tool to align, communicate, and link a
effect good processes are the key to in days to process a claim; (3) firm’s strategy to its performance
good results. Successful strategy management would be able to analyze measurement system. However, the
implementation in a BSC initiative the variation from a process to credibility of the BSC process can be
depends upon the current performance determine if it is just a common variation undermined if firms try to use
of a firm’s processes. Process behaviour or a special variation so that the benchmarking or stretch targets to
charts reveal this performance and can appropriate course of action could be establish numerical targets for BSC
identify for management those taken, thereby saving the organization processes. These arbitrary goals and
processes that must be improved to valuable time, talent, and resources, and targets invite fear, frustration, and
achieve the firm’s strategy. (4) the futility of blaming process distortion of the system or distortion of
If management had used a process managers for what is beyond their figures. Since one of the important
behaviour chart in its efforts to analyze control would become clear. benefits of the BSC is to link the firm’s
and improve its medical claims process, In situations where management measurement system to its strategy, it’s
it could immediately have seen the sets BSC goals and targets for processes extremely important to determine the
futility of setting a 14-day goal for this that are not in statistical control – where current performance of those key
process. The target line is clearly below special cause variation is present – the processes that are the performance
the current long-term average for this process isn’t in statistical control, so it drivers, the lead indicators of the BSC
process. More important, variation doesn’t have a definable capability. outcome measures. The only way to
between some upper and lower control Setting goals or targets for these determine the behaviour and current
limit is inevitable. To expect that every processes is a waste of time since their performance of these key processes is
claim be processed in 14 days is simply performance isn’t predictable. Again, through the use of process behaviour
not realistic. process managers and employees charts.
The target-setting problem is attempting to achieve results for these All of the numerical targets and
exacerbated when firms tie performance out-of-control processes waste valuable goals for key BSC processes should be
evaluation and reward systems to time, talent, and resources. Without the determined through the use of process
arbitrarily determined metrics. Process use of process behaviour charts, behaviour charts. Such determinations
managers are now held accountable for management has no way to determine not only prevent the problems
targets that are clearly beyond the the current performance of its processes Contd. on Page 675
670 the management accountant, September, 2008
IFAC Article

The carpet industry is facing

Performance Measurement difficult times throughout the world. The
business market is susceptible to
cyclical trends, and the products are
Systems for Corporate constantly subject to environmental
debate. Interface is one of the stronger
players in this difficult market. This is
Sustainability due to such factors as:
l The Heuga brand name in Europe,
A case study which covers a range of strong
When a company chooses for corporate sustainability and to act accordingly, this products
usually means a drastic change in strategy. Inevitably it calls for adjustment of its l The consistently high quality of its
performance measurement systems, since the effects of the new strategy cannot carpet tiles, a technically difficult
otherwise be measured and monitored. This case study describes the perfor- product.
mance measurement systems at Interface, a company that opted ten years ago for With over 5,000 employees
a strategy of corporate sustainability. It firstly describes the performance mea- worldwide, Interface is a medium-sized
surement systems of Interface, followed by an assessment of their quality. company. It operates in a diversity of
cultures but obviously reflects the
Lineke. Sneller American management style of the
strategy of corporate sustainability. parent company.
Introduction Section 3 then covers the main features
The sections below cover the
Corporate sustainability is receiving a of the theory of performance
management control process of
great deal of attention in Europe. Large measurement systems, and it describes
Interface. They describe how the
multinationals such as Ikea, Bodyshop four quality criteria that apply to such
strategy of Interface came about, how
and BP opted for corporate sustaina- systems. In the final section the quality
objectives and targets are set, the
bility in recent years. In the Netherlands of the performance measurement
performance measurement systems that
the level of interest in the ecological and systems at Interface is assessed in the
Interface has designed and the
social aspects of entrepreneurship may light of these four quality criteria. relationship between performance and
have been less than optimal, but now Interface: Corporate Sustainability In variable compensation.
that corporations of the size of Shell are Actual Practice
focusing on these aspects it is clear that 2.1 Strategy
this is more than a short-term hype. Interface Inc, an American Until 1994 Interface Inc aimed at
corporation that is listed on the Nasdaq worldwide market leadership. This led
For any corporation, the transition
stock exchange, is engaged in the to a large number of business
to sustainable enterprise comes down
market for soft floor coverings as a acquisitions around the world. The
to a strategy change. To enable the
producer and supplier of carpet tiles. company's environmental policy was
effects of implementing the new
This is a niche market, with less than 10 simple: do what is minimally required to
strategy to be measured, monitored and
percent of the total production volume comply with relevant laws and business
managed, the performance measurement
systems and management control of the carpet industry. Interface is the regulations.
processes must be redesigned. This market leader in this niche, with a market In 1994, however, chief executive
article describes how corporate share of more than 50 percent in officer Ray Anderson came under the
sustainability can be embedded in the practically every country where it sells spell of the concept of corporate
management control processes of its products and services. sustainability. The mission of Interface
companies. This is done on the basis of The major part of sales by Interface
a case study at Interface, a corporation is realised in the business market as its "Interface will be the first company
that has applied sustainable business customers are mostly flooring that, by its deeds, shows the entire
practices since ten years. contractors and carpet fitters that lay industrial world what sustainability is
The article is built up as follows. carpeting in office buildings. In in all its dimensions: People, Process,
Section 2 describes the company and addition, Interface has a retail segment, Product, Place and Profit. In doing so
the performance measurement systems which serves the consumer market via we will become restorative by the year
that are used at Interface to support the do-it-yourself and furniture stores. 2020 through the power of influence."

the management accountant, September, 2008 671

IFAC Article

was totally revisited at a large meeting systems, Interface tries to realise this in 2.3 Targets
that involved the entire management of various ways. Examples include The Interface strategy has a horizon
the corporation. scholarship grants for development and that expands over many years. To be
The strategy of Interface is based education in the field of corporate able to follow the implementation and
on the five Ps: People, Process, Product, sustainability, and stimulating to adjust where necessary, such a
Place and Profit. The idea behind this is community involvement on the part of horizon is clearly too long. Each year
that a company can only be sustainable employees. Writing articles, therefore, corporate management sets
when the five Ps are developed in appearances on radio or television and target levels per division for each
conjunction. Disregard for one or more giving speeches are also activities that objective. European management then
of the five will endanger the long-term serve to promote sensitivity and translates these into target levels for the
existence of the company. awareness. various European managers.
2.2 Objectives The seventh objective, closing the Table 1 presents an example of the
The strategy of Interface is to loop of material flows, is the most overall European target levels and the
achieve sustainable entrepreneurship consequent target levels for Sales in
ambitious one of all. A cyclical flow
by the year 2020. Interface will regard Southern Europe and for Operations in
originates when a product, after being
itself as a sustainable enterprise when the Netherlands. The table only
used, serves as input for a new
the following seven objectives are presents targets in percentage terms.
production process and is thus re-used. However, there are also quality-related
achieved 2: For a chemical product such as targets. An example of such a target is
l Eliminate waste carpeting this cannot yet be realised in the preparation of a plan for the
l Benign emissions a profitable way with current development of carpet tiling produced
l Renewable energy reducing the technology. Interface therefore wants from corn.
energy demands while substituting to realise the cycle in phases. One of 2.4 Performance measurement
non-renewable sources with the most recent developments is the use systems
sustainable ones of organic yarns that are produced from
Table 1 not only presents targets but
l Resource-efficient transportation, corn, potatoes or soybeans.
also actuals. These are measured using
with transport of information instead Next to the above seven objectives, the various performance measurement
of people and products wherever which relate mainly to the four Ps of systems that Interface has developed.
possible People, Process, Product and Place, The financial reports are essentially no
l Redesign commerce there is the fifth P, that of Profit. For different from reports at other
l Sensitivity hookup sustainable enterprise, this is companies. They do, however, include
indispensable. Profit-related objectives aspects that are specifically linked to
l Closing the loop
include operating income, profit centre corporate sustainability such as
The first four objectives speak for contribution and cash flow. Ecopoints and Quest.
themselves, but the next three call for
some explanation. The fifth objective,
redesign commerce, aims at supply of
Interface services instead of products
only. An example of this is carpet lease,
where, instead of a one-off delivery,
Interface provides carpeting, cleaning,
replacement and removal services for
an agreed period. The company in fact
takes total responsibility for the entire
life of the carpeting. In that way the
carpeting, a product that does not easily
degrade, will not end up in the garbage
dump, since Interface can arrange for
As to the sixth objective, sensitivity
hookup for all stakeholders to natural
672 the management accountant, September, 2008
IFAC Article

Ecopoints is a grading system that

relates to objectives associated with the
Ps of Process and Planet. The activities
that generate points can be quite varied.
Production sites, for example, can work
on improving their production
processes. In order to earn points, a plan
must be submitted in advance to
Interface Research. This laboratory unit
examines the feasibility of the plan and
determines the number of points that
can be earned. The production site
implements the plans, and Interface
Research then conducts an audit to
determine whether the intended
improvement has been achieved. When shows that the Quest score has a the objectives.
this is the case, the points are granted. weighting of 16% in the bonus A performance measurement system
There are also simpler ways to earn potential of the Director of Dutch consists of target levels and actuals of
points. For example, video conferencing Operations. performance measures. Targets are
equipment is available at the larger Each month, targets and actuals are specific goals or aspirations for
company sites. Such equipment measured and reported in line with the performance measures, while actuals are
eliminates the need of air travel and the performance measurement systems the measured values. Using a
consequent environmental burden. That described in the previous section. The performance measurement system,
leads to Ecopoints. score at the end of the year determines managers can compare targets and
Quest measures waste, thus what percentage of the bonus potential actuals. According to the theory of
focusing on the Ps of Place and Profit. is actually paid out. In the example, the Simons, they can thus monitor the
The goal is to reduce the amount of Director of Sales for Southern Europe implementation of strategy.
waste by 10% each year, in particular has achieved 80% of the targets. The The quality of the performance
from the production process. Employees bonus to be paid is thus 80% of the measurement system is decisive for the
can also submit ideas to cut waste, a bonus potential of 55%, thus 44% of extent to which it is useful for the
feature that reminds of Japanese quality salary.
circles. Figure 2 is an example of a Quest implementation of strategy. Bouwens
Strategy And Performance and Van Lent 1 identify three quality-
Measurement Systems: related criteria for performance
2.5 Linking to variable compensation
Outline Of The Theory measures:
The performance measurement
We have just described how l Timeliness. After a manager has
systems are linked to variable
compensation. Some. thirty managers Interface has put performance taken a decision, a certain amount
fall under the European bonus plan. measurement systems into place. This of time passes before the effect of
This group consists of the European section presents a brief outline of the that decision is noticeable. Only
executive directors, their direct reports theory of performance management. then can the result be made visible
and a number of managers in strategic The relationship between strategy and in the performance measurement
functions. Table 2 sets out how this performance measurement systems is system. In a timely performance
bonus plan works for three managers clearly set out by Simons 5. A measurement system, a minimum
from different disciplines. company's strategy indicates how value amount of time passes between the
For each manager participating in is created, and also which objectives moment when a result is noticed and
the bonus plan, a bonus potential is the employees must keep in mind in the measurement and reporting via
determined at the time of assignment, order to ensure that such value actually the measurement performance
expressed as a percentage of the comes about. In order to monitor value system.
manager's salary. The weightings of the creation, the objectives must be stated l Accuracy. In an accurate
individual performance measures are in terms of performance measures. performance measurement system,
then determined. For example, Table 2 These are measurable interpretations of the measurements are a reliable

the management accountant, September, 2008 673

IFAC Article

reflection of the performance of the

manager, and they are objective and
l Sensitivity. In a sensitive
performance measurement system
there is a strong relationship
between the efforts of the manager
and the performance measure.
When the manager ignores an
objective or pays great attention to
it, this is reflected in the performance
A good performance measurement
system thus provides timely, accurate
and sensitive insight into the various
performance measures.
relevant to corporate sustainability, European management. Based on these
The theory of performance namely: reports, the various management layers
measurement systems is especially
l Completeness. Corporate discuss actions to be taken. A poor
applied in companies that define their
sustainability calls for a value Quest score for Operations in Europe
strategy and added value in financial
concept with multiple dimensions. last year led in this way to revision of
terms such as share value. A well-known
A complete performance the quality system in the factories,
category of performance measurement
measurement system sets targets which resulted in a significantly higher
systems for which this applies is the
and measures actual performance in score.
Balanced Scorecard 3. In this particular
terms of each of these dimensions. Production and selling processes in
tool, non-financial aspects may well be It stimulates balanced improvement
included in the performance measures, the carpeting industry have a
across their full range. throughput time of many months,
but the prime intent of the Balance
Scorecard is to see the ultimate effect, In summary, a good performance whereas reports are produced monthly.
via cause-and-effect relationships, in measurement system for corporate The Interface performance
sustainability consists of a complete measurement system thus scores high
terms of financial measures.
collection of performance measures, and on timeliness.
In corporate sustainability, the it provides timely, accurate and
strategy and added value are not set Accuracy
sensitive insight into each of these
out strictly in financial terms. It applies Targets and actuals are determined
the principle of balanced development and reported both at local and division
Assessment level, leading to proper insight into the
in a variety of aspects. A well-known
example of a multidimensional value In this last section the quality of the performance of the individual managers.
concept is the theory of the Triple performance measurement system of The financial reports are reviewed by
Bottom Line 4. This theory assumes Interface is assessed in terms of the the accountant, while the Quest and
balanced development of ecology quality criteria described in section 3: Ecopoints reports are reviewed by
(Planet), social capital (People) and timeliness, accuracy, sensitivity and Interface Research, the independent
completeness. laboratory of the US parent. This
economy (Profit).
When the European performance ensures the objectivity of the reports.
A value concept with various
measurement system of Interface is The Interface performance
dimensions has consequences for the
assessed on the basis of the quality measurement thus scores high on
determination of performance measures
criteria mentioned in section 2, this leads accuracy.
that are to be included in the
to the following conclusions. Sensitivity
performance measurement system.
Therefore, in addition to the Timeliness The extent to which corrective
requirements of timeliness, accuracy Each month, no later than the fifth actions lead to actual improvement of
and sensitivity, I wish to add one more working day, actuals for the previous performance depends on the position
quality criterion that is particularly month aremeasured and reported to of the manager. The Sales Director for

674 the management accountant, September, 2008

IFAC Article

Southern Europe, for example, is able to terms of the dimensions that are Sources
exert direct influence on Operating reflected in the five Ps. For each P one
1 Bouwens, J. and L. van Lent (2002):
Income by pricesetting or increasing or more objectives have been defined.
Score Keeping: when is one
sales. The Director of Dutch Operations Each year targets are agreed for these
can impact the Quest scores by performance measure not enough?,
objectives, and each month the actuals
producing less waste or by closing Reader Management Accounting in
are measured. All objectives are
contracts for sustainable energy. In the Management Control. Atlanta.
considered in the level of variable
direct functions there is a close compensation. European management 2 Interface Research, The Interface
relationship between the actions of the is thus stimulated to consider all Sustainability Brief, Atlanta 2003
manager and actual performance. This objectives. The Interface performance
is different for the supporting functions. 3 Kaplan, R. and A. Atkinson,
measurement system scores high
The Manager of IT Development might Advanced Management
therefore on the criterion of
contribute most to the objectives by Accounting, Upper Saddle River
closing the department, thereby 2000
Summarising the above, the
eliminating the related fixed expenses. 4 O’Riordan, T., Environmental
European performance measurement
But this would be dysfunctional Science for Environmental
system is timely, accurate and complete.
behaviour since that is likely to lead to Management, Harlow 2000
Improvements are possible as to
lower scores on other performance
sensitivity, in particular in the 5 Simons, R., Performance
measures. The relationship between the
supporting functions. On the whole it Measurement and Control Systems
actions of the manager and actual
is a useful system. It measures progress for Implementing Strategy, Upper
performance is less clear for the indirect
in the implementation of strategy and Saddle River 2000
enables the managers to adjust where
The Interface performance system necessary. The performance Lineke Sneller is Director of IT &
scores high on sensitivity for the direct measurement system is one of the Financial Accounting for Interface
functions andinadequate for the factors that have enabled Interface to Europe and Asia Pacific. Interface is the
supporting functions. global market leader in the production
make substantial progress during the
Completeness. past ten years on the road to corporate and sale of carpet tiles, best known in
Interface describes its strategy in sustainability. Europe under the Heuga brand name.

Contd. from Page 670

associated with arbitrary goals and Deming, W. Edwards. New Economics Kaplan, Robert and David Norton.
targets, but also give management for Industry, Government, and “Using the Balanced Scorecard as a
important feedback about the behaviour Education. Cambridge: Massachusetts Strategic Management System.” Harvard
and current performance of important Institute of Technology, Center for Business Review. January-February 1996.
processes essential for monitoring Advanced Engineering Study, 1994. Shewhart, Walter. Economic Control of
progress associated with the Hart, Roger W. “Six Sigma and the Quality of Manufactured Product. New
organization’s strategy. Process charts Future of the Quality Profession.” York:D. Van Norstrand Company, Inc.,
and Six Sigma can significantly improve Quality Progress. June 1988. 1931.
an organization’s chance for Wheeler, Donald. Understanding
Kaplan, Robert and David Norton.
implementing a successful BSC Variation: the Key to Managing Chaos.
“Balanced Scorecard: Measures that
initiative. Knoxville: SPC Press, 1993.
Drive Performance.” Harvard Business
References Review. January-February 1992. Larry B. Weinstein, Ph.D, is an associate
Castellano, Joseph F. and Harper Kaplan, Robert and David Norton. professor at Wright State University in
Roehm. "The Problem with Managing “Linking the Balanced Scorecard to Dayton, Ohio. Joseph F. Castellano is a
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the management accountant, September, 2008 675

676 the management accountant, September, 2008
the management accountant, September, 2008 677
Accounting Standard

comprises cash on hand and demand

IAS 7, deposits. Cash equivalents are short-
term, highly liquid investments that are
readily convertible to known amounts
Statement of Cash Flows of cash and which are subject to an
insignificant risk of changes in value.

- A Closer Look Fundamental Principle in IAS 7

All enterprises that prepare financial
statements in conformity with IFRSs are
K.S.Muthupandian* required to present a statement of cash
flows. The statement of cash flows

n June 1976, the International providing users of financial statements analyses changes in cash and cash
Accounting Standards Committee with a basis to assess the ability of the equivalents during a period. Cash and
(IASC) issued the Exposure Draft enterprise to generate cash and cash cash equivalents comprise cash on hand
E7, Statement of Source and equivalents and the needs of the and demand deposits, together with
Application of Funds. In October 1977, enterprise to utilize those cash flows. short-term, highly liquid investments
the IASC issued IAS 7, Statement of The economic decisions that are taken that are readily convertible to a known
Changes in Financial Position. In July by users require an evaluation of the amount of cash, and that are subject to
1991, the IASC issued Exposure Draft ability of an enterprise to generate cash an insignificant risk of changes in value.
E36, Cash Flow Statements. Based on and cash equivalents and the timing and Guidance notes indicate that an
the comments received, the IASC certainty of their generation. investment normally meets the
issued revised IAS 7, Cash Flow Scope definition of a cash equivalent when it
Statements in December 1992, which An enterprise should prepare a has a maturity of three months or less
supersedes 1977 version of IAS 7. The statement of cash flows in accordance from the date of acquisition. Equity
effective date was fixed as January 1, with the requirements of this Standard investments are normally excluded,
1994. On September 6, 2007, the and should present it as an integral part unless they are in substance a cash
International Accounting Standards of its financial statements for each equivalent (e.g. preferred shares
Board (IASB) changed the title of IAS 7 period for which financial statements are acquired within three months of their
from Cash Flow Statements to Statement presented. Users of an enterprise's specified redemption date). Bank
of Cash Flows as a consequential financial statements are interested in overdrafts which are repayable on
amendment resulting from revisions to how the enterprise generates and uses demand and which form an integral part
IAS 1, Presentation of Financial cash and cash equivalents. This is the of an enterprise's cash management are
Statements. case regardless of the nature of the also included as a component of cash
Objective enterprise's activities and irrespective and cash equivalents.
The objective of IAS 7 is to require of whether cash can be viewed as the Classification of cash flows
the presentation or provision of product of the enterprise, as may be the The statement of cash flows shall
information about the historical changes case with a financial institution. report cash flows during the period in
in cash and cash equivalents of an Enterprises need cash for essentially the the following classification:
enterprise by means of a statement of same reasons however different their
(1) Operating activities:
cash flows, which classifies cash flows principal revenue-producing activities
might be. They need cash to conduct (2) Investing activities:
during the period according to
operating, investing, and financing their operations, to pay their obligations, (3) Financing activities:
activities. Information about the cash and to provide returns to their A model statement of cash flows is
flows of an enterprise is useful in investors. Accordingly, IAS 7 requires given as annexure.
all enterprises to present a statement of Operating activities
*M.Com., AICWA and Member of Tamil cash flows.
Nadu State Treasuries and Accounts Service, Operating activities are the main
Definitions revenue-producing activities of the
presently working as Treasury Officer,
Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu. Cash flows are inflows and outflows enterprise and other activities that are
Email: of cash and cash equivalents. Cash not investing or financing activities, so
678 the management accountant, September, 2008
Accounting Standard

operating cash flows include cash (a) the direct method, whereby major non-cash transactions. The operating
received from customers and cash paid classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash flows section of the statement of
to suppliers and employees. Cash flows cash payments are disclosed; or cash flows under the indirect method
from operating activities are primarily (b) the indirect method, whereby would appear something like this:
derived from the principal revenue- profit or loss is adjusted for the effects Profit before interest and income xxx
producing activities of the entity. of transactions of a non-cash nature, taxes
Therefore, they generally result from the any deferrals or accruals of past or Add back depreciation xxx
transactions and other events that enter future operating cash receipts or Add back amortisation of goodwill xxx
into the determination of profit or loss. payments, and items of income or Increase in receivables xxx
The amount of cash flows arising from expense associated with investing or Decrease in inventories xxx
operating activities is a key indicator of financing cash flows. Increase in trade payables xxx
the extent to which the operations of Interest expense xxx
Direct Method
the entity have generated sufficient Less Interest accrued but not yet xxx
cash flows to repay loans, maintain the The direct method shows each major
operating capability of the entity, pay class of gross cash receipts and gross
Interest paid xxx
dividends and make new investments cash payments. The operating cash
Income taxes paid xxx
without recourse to external sources of flows section of the statement of cash
flows under the direct method would Under the indirect method, the net
appear something like this: cash flow from operating activities is
Examples of cash flows from determined by adjusting net profit or
operating activities are: Cash receipts from customers xxx loss for the effects of:
(a) cash receipts from the sale of goods Cash paid to suppliers xxx
Cash paid to employees xxx (a) changes during the period in
and the rendering of services; inventories and operating
Cash paid for other operating
(b) cash receipts from royalties, fees, receivables and payables;
expenses xxx
commissions and other revenue; (b) non-cash items such as
Interest paid xxx
(c) cash payments to suppliers for Income taxes paid xxx depreciation, provisions, deferred
goods and services; Net cash from operating activities xxx taxes, unrealised foreign currency
(d) cash payments to and on behalf of Under the direct method, gains and losses, undistributed
employees; information about major classes of profits of associates, and minority
(e) cash receipts and cash payments of gross cash receipts and gross cash interests; and
an insurance enterprise for payments may be obtained either: (c) all other items for which the cash
premiums and claims, annuities and (a) from the accounting records of effects are investing or financing
other policy benefits; the enterprise; or cash flows.
(f) cash payments or refunds of income (b) by adjusting sales, cost of sales Alternatively, the net cash flow from
taxes unless they can be specifically (interest and similar income and interest operating activities may be presented
identified with financing and expense and similar charges for a under the indirect method by showing
investing activities; and financial institution) and other items in the revenues and expenses disclosed
(g) cash receipts and payments from the income statement for: in the income statement and the
contracts held for dealing or trading changes during the period in
(i) changes during the period in
purposes. inventories and operating receivables
inventories and operating receivables
and payables.
Some transactions, such as the sale and payables;
of an item of plant, may give rise to a Investing activities
(ii) other non-cash items; and
gain or loss which is included in the Investing activities are the
(iii) other items for which the cash
determination of net profit or loss. acquisition and disposal of long-term
effects are investing or financing cash
However, the cash flows relating to such assets and other investments not
transactions are cash flows from included in cash equivalents. The
investing activities. Indirect Method separate disclosure of cash flows arising
An entity shall report cash flows The indirect method adjusts accrual from investing activities is important
from operating activities using either: basis net profit or loss for the effects of because the cash flows represent the extent

the management accountant, September, 2008 679

Accounting Standard

to which expenditures have been made for forward contracts, option contracts and An entity shall report separately
resources intended to generate future swap contracts except when the major classes of gross cash receipts and
income and cash flows. The aggregate contracts are held for dealing or trading gross cash payments arising from
cash flows arising from acquisitions and purposes, or the receipts are classified investing and financing activities.
from disposals of subsidiaries or other as financing activities. Investing and financing
business units shall be presented Financing activities transactions that do not require the use
separately and classified as investing of cash or cash equivalents shall be
Financing activities are activities
activities. excluded from a statement of cash flows.
that result in changes in the size and
Examples of cash flows arising from composition of the contributed equity Such transactions shall be disclosed
investing activities are: and borrowings of the entity. The elsewhere in the financial statements in
(a) cash payments to acquire property, separate disclosure of cash flows a way that provides all the relevant
plant and equipment, intangibles and arising from financing activities is information about these investing and
other long-term assets. These important because it is useful in financing activities.
payments include those relating to predicting claims on future cash flows Interest and dividends received and
capitalised development costs and self- by providers of capital to the entity. paid may be classified as operating,
constructed property, plant and Examples of cash flows arising from investing, or financing cash flows,
equipment; financing activities are: provided that they are classified
(b) cash receipts from sales of property, (a) cash proceeds from issuing consistently from period to period
plant and equipment, intangibles and shares or other equity instruments; Cash flows arising from taxes on
other long-term assets; income are normally classified as
(b) cash payments to owners to
(c) cash payments to acquire equity or acquire or redeem the enterprise's operating, unless they can be
debt instruments of other enterprises specifically identified with financing or
and interests in joint ventures (other investing activities.
than payments for those instruments (c) cash proceeds from issuing
debentures, loans, notes, bonds, For operating cash flows, the direct
considered to be cash equivalents or method of presentation is encouraged,
those held for dealing or trading mortgages and other short or long-term
borrowings; but the indirect method is acceptable.
(d) cash repayments of amounts Foreign currency cash flows
(d) cash receipts from sales of equity or
debt instruments of other enterprises borrowed; and Cash flows arising from transactions
and interests in joint ventures (other (e) cash payments by a lessee for in a foreign currency shall be recorded
than receipts for those instruments the reduction of the outstanding in an entity's functional currency by
considered to be cash equivalents and liability relating to a finance lease. applying to the foreign currency
those held for dealing or trading amount the exchange rate between the
Presentation of the Statement of Cash
purposes); functional currency and the foreign
currency at the date of the cash flow.
(e) cash advances and loans made to Key principles specified by IAS 7 The cash flows of a foreign subsidiary
other parties (other than advances and for the preparation of a statement of shall be translated at the exchange rates
loans made by a financial institution); cash flows are as follows: between the functional currency and the
(f) cash receipts from the repayment of Information about the cash flows of foreign currency at the dates of the
advances and loans made to other an entity is useful in providing users of cash flows. Unrealised gains and losses
parties (other than advances and loans financial statements with a basis to arising from changes in foreign
of a financial institution); assess the ability of the entity to currency exchange rates are not cash
(g) cash payments for futures contracts, generate cash and cash equivalents and flows. However, the effect of exchange
forward contracts, option contracts and the needs of the entity to utilise those rate changes on cash and cash
swap contracts except when the cash flows. The economic decisions that equivalents held or due in a foreign
contracts are held for dealing or trading are taken by users require an evaluation currency is reported in the statement of
purposes, or the payments are of the ability of an entity to generate cash flows in order to reconcile cash
classified as financing activities; and cash and cash equivalents and the and cash equivalents at the beginning
(h) cash receipts from futures contracts, timing and certainty of their generation. and the end of the period.

680 the management accountant, September, 2008

Accounting Standard

Disclosures The separate disclosure of cash *cash advances and loans made to
An entity shall disclose, together flows that represent increases in customers and repayments thereof
with a commentary by management, the operating capacity and cash flows that Conclusion
amount of significant cash and cash are required to maintain operating IAS 7 permits the comparison of the
equivalent balances held by the entity capacity is useful in enabling the user information on the performance of
that are not available for use by the to determine whether the enterprise is various companies because it eliminates
group and shall present a reconciliation investing adequately in the the effect of using diverse accounting
of the amounts in its statement of cash maintenance of its operating capacity. procedures for the same transactions
flows with the equivalent items reported An enterprise that does not invest and economic events.
in the balance sheet. adequately in the maintenance of its Appendix
There are various circumstances in operating capacity may be prejudicing
Statement of Cash Flows for Year Ended
which cash and cash equivalent future profitability for the sake of current
31 March …..
balances held by an enterprise are not liquidity and distributions to owners.
Cash flows from operating activities:
available for use by the group. Examples Reporting Cash Flows On A Net Basis
Net profit before tax -
include cash and cash equivalent Cash flows arising from each of the
balances held by a subsidiary that Adjustment for:
following activities of a financial
operates in a country where exchange institution may be reported on a net Depreciation -
controls or other legal restrictions apply basis: Profit/loss on sale non-current
when the balances are not available for (a) cash receipts and payments for assets -
general use by the parent or other the acceptance and repayment of Interest expense -
subsidiaries. deposits with a fixed maturity date; Operating profit before working
Additional information may be (b) the placement of deposits with capital changes -
relevant to users in understanding the and withdrawal of deposits from other *Increase in inventory -
financial position and liquidity of an
financial institutions; and *Increase in receivables -
enterprise. Disclosure of this
information, together with a (c) cash advances and loans made *Increase in payables -
commentary by management, is to customers and the repayment of Cash generated from operations -
encouraged and may include: those advances and loans.
Interest paid -
(a) the amount of undrawn Cash flows from investing and
Dividends paid -
borrowing facilities that may be financing activities should be reported
gross by major class of cash receipts Tax paid -
available for future operating activities
and major class of cash payments Net cash flow from operating
and to settle capital commitments,
except for the following cases, which activities -
indicating any restrictions on the use
of these facilities; may be reported on a net basis: Cash flows from investing activities:
(b) the aggregate amounts of the *cash receipts and payments on Purchase of non-current assets -
cash flows from each of operating, behalf of customers (for example, receipt Proceeds of sale non-current assets-
investing and financing activities and repayment of demand deposits by Net cash used in investing activities -
related to interests in joint ventures banks, and receipts collected on behalf
Cash flows from financing activities:
reported using proportionate of and paid over to the owner of a
property) Proceeds, issue of shares -
*cash receipts and payments for Proceeds, issue of 10% loan
(c) the aggregate amount of cash
items in which the turnover is quick, the notes (also redemption) -
flows that represent increases in
operating capacity separately from amounts are large, and the maturities Net cash flow from financing
those cash flows that are required to are short, generally less than three activities -
maintain operating capacity; and months (for example, charges and Net increase in cash and cash
collections from credit card customers, equivalents -
(d) the amount of the cash flows
and purchase and sale of investments) Cash and cash equivalents 1 April ….-
arising from the operating, investing
and financing activities of each reported *cash receipts and payments Cash and cash equivalents
industry and geographical segment. relating to fixed maturity deposits 31 March ….. -

the management accountant, September, 2008 681

Accounting Standard

4. Resulting conclusion has been

Judgment and Indian drawn in Section V.
II. Prelude to the Indian Accounting

Accounting Standards Standards

Let us have a look to the parts of
Statements of Accounting Standards
Ayan Majumdar* which may, in any way, cover up the
Accounting standards issued by different authoritative bodies help to minimise judgment/standards connections.
and eliminate confusions and misunderstanding. Even then the accountants In order to make the standards
have to apply their ability and skill to judge properly what measures should be popular and to educate the users and
adopted by them in tackling a particular problem. So, it cannot be denied that members, a cautious attitude has been
there is a close relation between judgment and accounting standards. An noted in the Preface and in some of the
endeavour has been made in this paper to establish judgment categories and the Accounting Standards. The words of
caution as mentioned in the Preface
number of evidences of the selected Indian Accounting Standards that fall under
are :
these categories. A comparison between the U.S. and Indian judgment/standards
relationship has also been shown here. However, it has been shown that Indian In the initial years, the standards will
Accounting Standards cannot be implemented without the aid of proper judgment. be recommendatory in character (para
In order to remove controversy arising out of implementation of standards or in
exercising a judgment a proposal for establishing an ‘accounting court’ may be The above noted pronouncement
made. has also been mentioned at the
beginning of some of the Accounting
Introduction in tackling a particular problem. So, it Standards exempli gratia AS-1, AS-2,
cannot be denied that there is a close

he subject matter of this paper AS-3, AS-7, AS-8, AS-9 and AS-10 in a
is based on judgment. Judgment relation between judgment and slight varied form.7 It may be noted here
in a general sense refers to accounting standards. that the phrase ‘initial years’ does not
decision making on any subject matter The purpose of preparing this paper signify what should be the actual span
to be dealt with. The term ‘accounting is to show a relation between Indian of time. Perhaps this may lead to the
judgment’ may be used in the sense that Accounting Standards and judgment. question of judgment. However, those
the decision to be taken by an In doing so a suitable comparison has standards have been made mandatory
accountant on a particular matter based been made between U.S. and Indian either for all enterprises or for some
on his choice. evidences of the judgment/standards selected category of enterprises.
The standard setting bodies of relationship. The above relationship as In addition to the above some of the
different countries, both developed and evidenced in the U.S.A. has been based Accounting Standards do have a caveat
developing, have taken up the on the work of Mason and Gibbins. at the end. For example :
responsibility for reporting standards Again, the categories of judgment that
had been used by them have also been Any change in the accounting
for their respective countries to fulfil the
taken up in a slight varied from for the policies which has a material effect in
need for some standardised set of rules
purpose of this study.4 The discussions the current period or which is
and principles. The standards issued
that will be followed here are specified reasonably expected to have a material
by different authoritative bodies help
in the following lines: effect in later periods should be
to minimise and eliminate confusions
and misunderstanding and also to 1. The prelude to the Indian disclosed (AS-1, para 26).
strengthen the doctrine of disclosure. Accounting Standards has been Examples of standards which have
Moreover, comparability and uniformity discussed in Section II so as to have also similar caveat at the end are AS-5
in accounting may be achieved with the a better understanding of judgment/ (para 32), AS-6(para 19), AS-17 (para 54)
help of these standards. standards relationship. etc. The phrase ‘material effect’ may
In spite of the above efforts the 2. The establishment of judgment again direct us to raise the question of
question of judgment may arise in categories and the number of judgment.
dealing with accounting standards. The evidences of the selected Indian While disclosing ‘Compliance with
accountants have to apply their ability Accounting Standards that fall the Accounting Standards’ in the
and skill to judge properly what under these categories have been preface it has been stated there that
measures should be adopted by them shown in Section III. the members of the Institute, in
3. Section IV has shown a comparison performance of their duty, should
*Lecturer, Accounting & Finance, Dept. of between the U.S. and Indian ensure that the Accounting standards
Commerce, St. Xavier’s College, Kolkata. judgment/standards relationship. are properly implemented. In case of any

682 the management accountant, September, 2008

Accounting Standard

deviation from the standards it has been TABLE-1

…….. it will be their duty to make Serial AS No Title
adequate disclosures in their audit
reports so that the users of financial
statements may be aware of such 1. 1 Disclosure of Accounting Policies
deviation (Preface para 6.1). 2. 3 Cash Flow Statements
But, the nature of ‘adequate 3. 4 Contingencies and Events Occurring After the Balance
disclosure’ has not been explained in Sheet Date
the standard. Therefore, a judgment
might have to be made in respect of it. 4. 8 Accounting for Research and Development
III. Establishment of judgment 5. 11 Accounting for the Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange
Categories Rates
In this Section a relation between 6. 14 Accounting for Amalgamations
judgment and Accounting Standards
7. 15 Accounting for Retirement Benefits in the Financial
will be made. In doing so nine Indian
Accounting Standards have been Statements of Employers
selected. The Standards are identified 8. 22 Accounting for Taxes on Income
in Table-1. The wording of these nine 9. 26 Intangible Assets
Indian Standards has been reviewed in
detail and categorised according to the and No. 17 both having the same As Mason and Gibbins believed
norms stated later on. captions. Also, reference may be made that the pronouncements selected by
Mason and Gibbins had chosen five here that ‘Cash Flow Statements’ (AS- them had fulfilled the three criteria, as
APB Opinions and six EASB 3 of ASB) and ‘Accounting for already referred to, it may be taken for
statements.8 They had selected those Amalgamations’ (AS-14 of ASB) are granted that the nine selected Indian
eleven APB pronouncement and FASB almost similar to ‘Statement of Cash standards would also by and large fulfil
statements based on the following Flows’ (FASB Statement No. 95) and the said criteria. In addition, the selected
criteria: ‘Business Combinations’ (APB bases would facilitate a comparison
Opinion No. 16) respectively. It may be between ASB standards on the one
(i) the pronouncements that dealt with noted here that the coverage of the hand and pronouncements by APB and
a broad issue extensively ; subject matters of Indian standards and
(ii) the pronouncements that were not FASB on the other.
U.S. pronouncements taken as
limited to specific industry; surrogate to each other may be either To establish the judgment/
(iii)the pronouncements had not been wider or narrower in some of the cases. standards relationship four categories
substantially superseded. Even the way of presentation and the on the basis of sentences or complete
They believed that the pronounce- approach to the subject-matter may not phrases have been selected for this
ments selected by them were be alike to each other. But, in essence, paper. This is a slight varied form of
representative of those meeting the they are not far from each other. what had been contemplated by Mason
above criteria. TABLE-2
Accounting Standards, that will be dealt
Serial APB Opinions/ Title
with in this paper, may be treated as
similar or almost similar to the nine out No FASB Statements
of eleven APB opinions and FASB 1. APB 22 Disclosure of Accounting Policies
statements that had been chosen by 2. FASB 95 Statement of Cash Flows
Mason and Gibbins. Table-2 shows
those nine APB opinions and FASB 3. FASB 5 Accounting for Contingencies
statements selected for the study. 4. FASB 2 Accounting for Research and Development Costs
In order to find out the nature of 5. FASB 52 Foreign Currency Translation
similarity between Indian Standards and
U.S. pronouncements it may be referred 6. APB 16 Business Combinations
to here that ‘Disclosure of Accounting 7. FASB 87 Employers’ Accounting for Pensions
Policies’ (AS-1 of ASB) and ‘Intangible 8. FASB 96 Accounting for Income Taxes
Assets’ (AS-26 of ASB) qualify for
similar nature of APB Opinion No. 22 9. APB 17 Intangible Assets

the management accountant, September, 2008 683

Accounting Standard

and Gibbins.9 They had selected five Judgment is required to select one (ii) Reasonable care has been taken in
categories of judgment /standards from alternatives and no guideline has the selection of number of items in
connections in place of four which have been provided in the standards for judgment/standard connections.
been considered here. Again, selecting which alternative is preferable Even then a few more connections
judgment/standards relationship has or desirable in place of another. Again, might have been observed which
been established for the related judgment is needed in the selection of may be omitted here.
standards as a whole,i.e., no division an applicability of a disclosure or format It must be admitted, therefore, that
between ‘Standards’ and ‘Other in particular circumstances. For Example: the above idea may not be treated as
wording’ has been made as against what In preparing the transferee out and out objective. There may still
had been done by them. In such a case company’s financial statements, the remain the scope of variation of opinion.
there is a possibility that similar views assets and liabilities of the transferor In fact, this may be treated as a
may be expressed in both ‘Standards’ company should be incorporated at their suggestive effort.
and ‘Other wording’ in some selected existing carrying amounts or, Table -3 shows the results of the
standards. As a result, duplication in alternatively, the consideration should above analysis. The total number of
counting in the number of items of be allocated to individual identifiable judgment/standards connections are
judgment/standards connections might assets and liabilities on the basis of their found to be 137 in nine selected Indian
have occurred. For Example : fair values at the date of amalgamation standards. These connections whether
Where the market value of the (AS-14, para 36). found in the main parts of the standards
assets given up can not be reliably C. Need for judgment in case of using or in the other parts of the
assessed, such assets may be valued phrase pronouncements were analysed and
at their respective net book values Phrase refers to here using words shown in the Table without segregating
(Other wording : para 14, Standard : like ‘significant’, ‘generally’, ‘usually’, them. Out of 137 connections majority
para 40, AS-14). of them were claimed by B, C and D.
‘clearly’, etc. For example :
Regarding the nature of judgment 6
However, it may be presumed that Estimates of the useful life of an items out of nine Indian standards
there might be little impact in case of intangible asset generally become less represent the use of terms like judgment,
comparison between Indian and U.S. reliable as the length of the useful life choice etc. It may be said, therefore, that
standards in connection with the increases (AS-26, para 66). ASB is conservative enough to direct
number of items in each category of D. Need for judgment in respect of the the users to apply their own judgment
judgment/standards relationship. This Nature of Standard or choice. But, in case of categories B,C
is owing to the fact that the number of and D the number of judgment/
Judgment requires while applying
judgment/standards connections may standard connections are 42, 46 and 43
the sentence mentioned in the standard
increase proportionately in case of respectively. So, it is clear that the
in specific circumstances even when
findings of both the countries. each word may be clear enough. For nature of judgment of Indian standards
The selected categories of example : qualifies for either selection from
judgment/standards relationship and alternatives, using phrase or nature of
The identifiable assets and the standard itself. However, it is
one example of each category are liabilities may include assets and
presented below: apparent from the above that Indian
liabilities not recorded in the financial Accounting Standards can not be used
A. Positive mentioning of words like statements of the transferor company without the application of considerable
‘Choice’ or ‘Judgment’ (AS-14, para 12). amount of judgment.
Terms like ‘choice’, ‘judgment’ or The above selection of category IV. Comparison between the U.S. and
‘management’s judgment’ are used in classifications or number of items in Indian Judgment/Standards
this category. For Example: each category may have to face the Relationship
In some cases, the classification of following criticisms.
The number of items of U.S.
a foreign operation as either a non- (i) In the decision of selecting category Judgment/standards connections
integral foreign operation or an integral coding, opinions may vary, i.e., one based on the four categories mentioned
foreign operation of the reporting may be inclined to include a earlier has been presented in Table 4. It
enterprise may not be clear, and particular connection in a category may be noted here that the judgment/
judgment is necessary to determine which may be different from that standards connections have been
appropriate classification (AS-11, para what has been identified here. completely based on the analysis of
20). Mason and Gibbins.10 The total number
B. Need for judgment in case of *
This particular category had been of judgment/standards relationship
selecting from alternatives or segregated into two categories by Mason were found to be 188 in the nine selected
applicability of an element :* and Gibbins U.S. pronouncements. It is interesting
684 the management accountant, September, 2008
Accounting Standard

to note that out of 188 connections TABLE -3

and D and FASB 87 alone claimed 45% COUNTING STANDARDS
of the total judgment/standards
connections. Therefore, as surmised by Sl. AS Title No. of items of Judgment Categories
Mason and Gibbins it may be pointed No. No. A B C D Total
out that U.S. Accounting standards also 1. 1 Disclosure of Accounting 1 2 8 5 16
can not be applied without the Policies
application of suitable judgment.
2. 3 Cash Flow Statements - 5 7 6 18
Now, it is the time to compare the
judgment/standard connections 3. 4 Contingencies and Events
between U.S. pronouncements and Occurring After the 1 3 7 2 13
Indian standards. The results of such a Balance Sheet Date
comparison have shown in Table-5. The 4. 8 Accounting for Research - 1 2 1 4
averages, i.e., mean of the data of the and Development
two countries showed that each U.S.
5. 11 Accounting for the Effects
Categories C and D are 72% and 102%
of Changes in Foreign 1 7 5 1 14
higher than the corresponding Indian
categories; while the mean of U.S. Exchange Rates
categories A and B stand 83% and 40% 6. 14 Accounting for - 8 - 7 15
of the corresponding Indian categories. Amalgamations
The Standard deviation cannot be the 7. 15 Accounting for Retirement
sole basis for comparing two or more
Benefits in the Financial - 7 9 5 21
distributions. It is difficult to know the
Statements of Employers
dispersion of a set of data until the
standard deviation, the mean and how 8. 22 Accounting for Taxes on - 4 2 4 10
the standard deviation compares with Income
the mean are known. What is needed is
a relative measure, i.e., coefficient of TABLE-4
variation, that will give a feeling for the STATEMENT SHOWING INCIDENCE OF JUDGMENT IN U.S. ACCOUNT-
magnitude of the deviation relative to ING PRONOUNCEMENTS
the magnitude of the mean. So far as
the Categories A, B, C and D are Sl. APB Opinions/ TitleNo. of items of Judgment Categories
concerned, the variability of U.S. No. FASB Statements A B C D Total
observations are A-1.60, B-2.21, C-2.39 1. APB 22 Disclosure of 4 1 2 4 11
and D-1.57 times respectively higher Accounting Policies
than Indian observations and taken the 2. FASB 95 Statement of - 5 15 11 31
total number of observations together Cash Flows
the variability is 2.90 times more. It may
3. FASB 5 Accounting for - 2 1 6 9
be concluded, therefore, that the Contingencies
variation of U.S. judgment/standards
connections is significantly higher than 4. FASB 2 Accounting for
India. Research and - - 1 2 3
Development Costs
The reasons for this state of affairs
may be the outcome of several factors. 5. FASB 52 Foreign Currency 1 1 7 8 17
Disparity in local customs, environment Translation
etc. on the one hand and dissimilar 6. APB 16 Business Combinations - 1 3 8 12
nature of existing laws, e.g., Income Tax
Act, Companies Act, etc. of the two 7. FASB 87 Employers’ Accounting - 6 40 38 84
countries on the other may be for Pensions
attributed to the reasons for such 8. FASB 96 Accounting for - 1 10 6 17
variability. In addition, the policy of the Income Taxes
standard setters may also result in such
deviation. Now, it may be said that the 9. APB 17 Intangible Assets - - - 4 4
mean, standard deviation and Total 5 17 79 87 188

the management accountant, September, 2008 685

Accounting Standard

coefficient of variation of judgment/ TABLE-5

standards relationship of both the STATEMENT SHOWING COMPUTATION OF DATA
countries may vary, but it cannot be
denied that at least there exists the said Category/ Country Mean Standard Deviation Coefficient of variation
relationship. Category A
V. Conclusion U.S. 0.556 1.257 226.274
The foregoing discussion makes us India 0.667 0.943 141.421
to believe that there is a close tie Category B
between judgment and Indian U.S. 1.889 2.025 107.182
Accounting standards. If that be the India 4.667 2.261 48.445
case, it can be emphatically said that Category C
Indian standards cannot be U.S. 8.778 11.998 136.685
implemented without the aid of proper India 5.111 2.923 57.187
judgment. Now, it is important to decide Category D
whether those accounting standards U.S. 9.667 10.328 106.841
which do not concede to the application India 4.778 3.258 68.199
of judgment are to be prescribed. If such Total
standards are presented the
U.S. 20.889 23.662 113.274
accountants may face with the
situations mentioned below. India 15.222 5.940 39.022
Supposing that the enforcement of made11. The justification and validity of and Recommendations, New York,
accounting standards without the the controversies arising out of 1978, p. 16
exercise of judgment is strictly adhered situations just mentioned may be 3. Report of the National Commission on
to in the working of the accountants, in brought to the aforesaid court. The party Fraudulent Financial Reporting, New
that case the accounting principles will concerned, in order to present ‘a true York, October, 1989, p.47.
become too much rigid. As a result, the and fair view’ of accounting, would 4. Mason, A.K. and Gibbins, M., op.cit.,
accountants will become a tool in the have to prove that the procedures pp. 18-19.
hands of the standard setters and their followed by him are preferable to those 5. Kapadia, G.P., “History of the
creative faculty will not find any scope for which controversies arise. However, Accounting Profession in India”, The
for its application and development. the establishment of such a court in Institute of Chartered Accountants of
India, 1972, pp. 170-324.
Accountants will lose their initiative in India will contribute to the growth of
further development of accounting and 6. Roy, G.D., “India’s Bid for Construction
accounting. It may not be out of point
of Accounting Standards”, Indian
that would cause the principles of here to mention that the accounting Journal of Accounting, Vol. XV, June &
accounting to be mechanical for court in the Netherlands failed to December, 1985, Part- I, p.45.
working under certain fixed processes. achieve the objective for which it had 7. Compendium of Accounting Standards,
Therefore, it may be suggested for the been set up. After going through the 1997, The Institute of Chartered
development of accounting principles case history of the court Klaassen (1980) Accountants of India, New Delhi.
and for the growth of accounting theory observed that the court “makes its 8. Mason, A.K. and Gibbins, M., op.cit.,
that the accountants may be left free to judgment only on the specific p.17.
work according to their own judgment circumstances of each case” and 9. Ibid., pp. 18-19.
and skill. Furthermore, standards in remarked that “This makes the 10. Ibid., p. 20
question should be such that would be Enterprise Chamber an inadequate 11. Spacek, Leonard, “Draft of a Bill That
flexible enough and would go a long vehicle for the development of Would Create a United States Court of
way to all-round development of accounting standards”. 12 Notwith- Accounting Appeals”, in A Search for
accounting. standing the fact, it is believed that the Fairness in Financial Reporting to the
From the above it is clear that the shortcomings of the court are not due Public, Chicago, Arthur Andersen & Co.
accountants might have the experience to its incompetence rather it demands 1969, pp. 576-582. Also see Majumdar,
of facing with the above situations if Debabrata, “Legal Parameters of
removal of defects inherent. Accounting”, The Management
there is imposition of too much of References : Accountant, ICWA November 1972, pp.
regimentation. In order to remove 1. Mason, A.K. and Gibbins, M., 661-662.
controversy or to eradicate disputes “Judgment and U.S. Accounting 12. Klaassen, Jan, “An Accounting Court :
arising out of implementation of Standards”, Accounting Horizon, The Impact of the Enterprise Chamber
standards or in exercising judgment, a A.A.A., June, 1991, pp. 14-24 on Financial Reporting in the
proposal for establishing an 2. The Commission on Auditors’ Netherlands”, The Accounting Review,
‘accounting court’ may, therefore, be Responsibilities, Report, Conclusions April 1980, p. 337.

686 the management accountant, September, 2008

the management accountant, September, 2008 687

Knowledge Assets: An in complex market situation, giving

importance on its evaluation and
measurement aspects.

Underestimated Attribute Knowledge Assets: Concept &


to be Identified & Accountants define an asset as a

stock from which a number of future
services are expected to flow.

Quantified Accordingly, knowledge assets are

defined as: “stocks of knowledge from
which services are expected to flow for
Today knowledge is considered as a key strategic asset for many corporations a period of time that may be hard to
and organizations. Still it is one of the least understood attribute, lacking formal specify in advance.” (Boisot, 1998, p.3).
recognition by the accounting system and often receives less attention than it Physical assets have a limited life
deserves. Knowledge and its corollary human capital have no formal place on because of wear and tear, but knowledge
the balance sheet. assets may last forever. Such assets
Key-words: Knowledge assets; Intangible assets; Intellectual capital; Human have open-ended value, and they are
capital; Knowledge management. non-linear also with respect to the
effects they produce.
Subhajit Ghosh* Knowledge assets are the
knowledge regarding markets,
Introduction & Background Virtually every business in the world
products, technologies and
faces the same fundamental problem:

mergence of the service society organizations, that a business owns or
after the last world war brought maintenance of their competitive edge
through the application and formation needs to own and which enable its
increased realization of role of business processes to add value and
employees’ knowledge and creativity in of knowledge. The plain unvarnished
truth is that, in many companies, much generate profits. Boisot (1998) notes that
adding value to the company. Attempts knowledge assets are manifested in
to capitalize company investments in of the operating knowledge is tacit
(undocumented); this tacit knowledge terms of technologies, competences and
people on the balance sheet in the 1970s
can easily be lost through retirement or capabilities
failed because of measurement
problems. The subject gathered attrition. Knowledge workers with key The traditional factors of
increased interest more recently in the competitive and proprietary knowledge production like land, labor and capital
1990s, with the rapid emergence of are literally stolen away by competitors. are governed by the ‘law of increasing
information and communication And, without the ability to organize, returns’. Knowledge assets may be
technologies (ICT), as information store, retrieve and manage it, much hard- distinguished from the traditional
systems designers attempted to capture won knowledge leaves with them. In factors of production – in that they are
employees’ implicit and explicit fact, in most industries, there is no governed by what has been described
knowledge in “corporate memory”. It objective means to measure knowledge. as the ‘law of increasing returns’. Every
was recognized, that in contrast to the We do not identify knowledge except unit of knowledge used effectively
knowledge of individual employees, in highly subjective terms. Much of results in a marginal increase in
such corporate memory does form part what we call knowledge is really performance.
of a company’s capital. Accordingly, information. The much referenced, ill-
defined knowledge asset has no clear In spite of the increasing importance
“knowledge” has become a key
objective definition, except to imply that of knowledge-based assets in national
production factor, however the financial
it contributes in some way to the value performance, most countries still assess
accounts are still dominated by
of the company. In truth, knowledge is their performance based on traditional
traditional factors of production,
including buildings and machinery. the asset bearing component of human factors of production. Today’s
Hence, there is an imperative need for capital. Knowledge and the measurement systems are limited in their
developing an understanding of “Knowledge Asset” are essential to the capability to measure knowledge
“knowledge asset”, or the so-called demonstration of the value of people in embedded in the human resources,
intangible assets. our business model. With this backdrop although there is some agreement on
an attempt has been made to analyze measuring other categories of
*Research Scholar, Department of the innovative role of knowledge assets knowledge, including patents and
Commerce, University of Calcutta essential to gain competitive advantage trademarks.
688 the management accountant, September, 2008

Constituents of knowledge assets: The knowledge asset combines a the ability to operate effectively is not
Knowledge assets can be thought of a number of factors which can be sufficiently demonstrated by patents or
subset of dispositions to act, or objectively proven by the observation copyrights. Ownership of a patent is not
‘potential for action’ (Malhotra, 2004; and accomplishment of a specific set of objective proof that the company can
Malhotra 2002a; Malhotra 2000a; criteria. Accomplishment is represented effectively or efficiently produce the
Malhotra 2000d) embedded in by the realization of a discrete set of product.
individuals, groups, or socio-physical behaviors, called tasks, which, when Finally, there must be economic
systems with future prospects of value employed by an individual, or group, value. It is fundamental that the proof
creation. National knowledge assts are results in a measurable outcome that of the knowledge asset lies neither in
the “intangible” assets of a country adds value to the corporation. the ownership of the patent or the value
that have significant implications for There are four conditions that are of the accomplishment of production.
future national growth and future value required to verify the existence of a The proof is the combined elements of
of the country to various stakeholders. knowledge asset. These conditions or human knowledge assets, and their
There is growing realization about criteria are: contribution to the value of the product,
knowledge management (KM) as the l Creation of a set of graphical or service, delivered to the customer.
enabler of innovation and learning procedure guides which will permit Unless we can include the knowledge
(Malhotra 2000c; Malhotra, 2000d) as a nominally trained worker to asset and human capital on the balance
well as national gross domestic product perform the task, or tasks, sheet to offset investment (as we do
(GDP) (Malhotra 2000b; Malhotra, 2003c). independently and without further with other corporate assets), our ability
If we want to distinguish between assistance. to justify knowledge asset and human
physical assets and knowledge assets capital will always be problematic.
l Observation of correct job
we will have to differentiate between Unless formally recognized by the
performance, which is proof of Financial Accounting Standards Board
data, information and knowledge. accomplishment. (FASB), and reflected in the Generally
Data: Unrelated bits of corporate l Quantification of the value of the Accepted Accounting Principles
business content. accomplishment, as represented by (GAAP), the financial and accounting
Information: Data to which context an economic measure. systems will continue to work against
has been added. Everything external to l Verification by an independent, such mission.
the mind is Information.
certified assessor. Types of Knowledge Assets
Knowledge: Knowledge is a
In most current financial Knowledge assets are the bases of
uniquely human attribute. It exists only
measurement and valuation model, an the knowledge-creating processes.
in one’s mind. Information is
asset is typically a tangible object There is a definite relationship between
transformed into knowledge through
which, through appreciation or knowledge assets and knowledge
the application of intelligence,
depreciation, accrues value to the creation. The knowledge creation
integration, and synthesis.
corporation. A Patent, or copyright, is process is a subunit that depends on
Performance: Knowledge applied to an example of an intangible asset that is the nature of tasks it performs.
a measurable accomplishment that adds considered intellectual capital. The Knowledge assets are firm-specific
value to the corporation. knowledge asset is the tangible resources that may facilitate knowledge
representation of the corporations creation from both the static and
“know-how,” and is prima facie proof dynamic perspectives. For the former,
of corporate competence. It represents knowledge assets provide precious
the competence of the corporation. The information and knowledge that are easy
It shows the logical progression of
sum total of these knowledge assets is to share and articulate. Based on this
content types and their relationship to
the human and intellectual capital of the information, individuals solve the
improved organizational performance.
company. One of the major reasons for problems and then develop new
Data, information, and knowledge all
the failure of newly acquired knowledge through the action of
have value in that they contribute to
businesses is that the purchaser does problem solving. From the dynamic
improved performance and corporate
not recognize that its intellectual capital perspective, knowledge assets provide
profit. Thus data becomes information
is at risk, since it resides in a limited a context, method, or environment that
and as intelligence, integration and
number of employees. The loss of these facilitates social interaction among
synthesis occur, information is
key knowledge assets (both the individuals and organization to
transformed into knowledge.
individuals and the knowledge they transform knowledge between tacit and
Identification Criteria of a Knowledge represent) could render the corporation explicit knowledge. Therefore, in order
Asset incapable of performing. It is true that to facilitate a certain type of knowledge

the management accountant, September, 2008 689


creation process effectively, we have to and employees of the organization. For process-oriented, since the knowledge
adopt appropriate knowledge assets. In example, brand equity represents the that routine KAs manipulate is know-
this context we may subdivide perceptions of customers. Another how or procedural knowledge. In order
knowledge assets in the following example includes concepts or designs, to formulate routine KA, organizational
categories: which are perceived by the members of members share, integrate, and
1. Experiential knowledge assets: the organization. continuously exercise routine practices
Conceptual knowledge assets to form certain patterns of thinking and
Experiential knowledge assets action. Since interaction and
consist of the tacit knowledge that is usually have tangible forms and are
easier to articulate. Conceptual KAs coordination among organizational
built through working experience among members is critical in conducting routine
employees. This knowledge also can be contains issues such as what products
need to be developed and the specific KA, the task domain of routine KA is
shared between the members of broad.
organization and its customers, design features that need to be
suppliers, and affiliated firms. Other designed in the products. Conceptual Role of Knowledge Assets
examples of experiential knowledge KAs try to facilitate the tasks with low The role of deploying the
assets are skills and know-how that are task variability but greater specialization. knowledge assets within an
acquired and retained by individuals 3. Systemic knowledge assets: organization to create competitive
from their working experiences. There advantage becomes more crucial as:
Systemic knowledge assets consist
are four other types of experiential of systematized and packaged explicit l The marketplace is increasingly
knowledge assets. The first one is knowledge, such as explicitly stated competitive and the rate of
emotional knowledge such as care, love, technologies, product specifications, innovation is rising, so that
and trust. The second one is physical manuals, and documented and knowledge must evolve and be
knowledge such as facial expressions packaged information about customers assimilated at an ever faster rate.
and gestures. Energetic knowledge is and suppliers. Legally protected l Corporations are organizing their
the third type of experiential knowledge intellectual properties such as patents businesses to be focused on
assets such as senses of existence, and licenses also fall into this category. creating customer value. Staff
enthusiasm, and tension. The last type Since systemic knowledge assets are functions are being reduced as are
is rhythmic knowledge such as visible and tangible, they can be management structures. There is a
improvisation and entrainment. The transferred easily. Most of the need to replace the informal
contents of experiential knowledge knowledge management focuses on knowledge management of the staff
assets are usually difficult to grasp, systemic knowledge assets, e.g. function with formal methods in
evaluate, and trade, but they play a intellectual property rights. In addition, customer aligned business
critical role in gaining a sustainable systemic KAs facilitate dynamic processes.
competitive advantage to a firm. Thus interaction in which individuals units l Competitive pressures are reducing
the main purpose of experiential KAs is of knowledge are combined and the size of the workforce which
to facilitate the tasks that have focused exchanged through communication and holds this knowledge.
domain, because the main concern of collaboration across different functional
experiential KAs is to share skills and l Knowledge takes time to experience
groups. The definition of combination
know-how of individuals. In addition, and acquire. Employees have less
is converting explicit knowledge into and less time for this.
with the help of experiential KAs, the more complex and systemic sets of
tasks that are process-oriented become explicit knowledge. In order to convert l There are trends for employees to
easier to achieve. The reason is that the knowledge, explicit knowledge is retire earlier and for increasing
experiential KAs provide “know-how” collected from inside or outside the mobility, leading to loss of
or procedural knowledge, which belongs organization and then combined, edited, knowledge.
to the category of process-oriented or processes to form new knowledge. l There is a need to manage increasing
tasks. For example, experiential KAs complexity as small operating
4. Routine knowledge assets:
include experiences, skills, care, trust, companies a re trans-national
facial expressions, enthusiasm, tension, This type of asset consists of the
sourcing operations.
and so on. knowledge that is embedded and
regulated in the actions and practices l A change in strategic direction may
2. Conceptual knowledge assets: of a firm. Know-how, working practices, result in the loss of knowledge in a
Conceptual knowledge assets organizational culture, and specific area. A subsequent reversal
consist of explicit knowledge articulated organizational routines for carrying out in policy may then lead to a renewed
through images, symbols and day-to-day business are examples of requirement for this knowledge, but
languages. They are the assets based routine knowledge assets. The task the employees with that knowledge
on the perceptions held by customers domain of routine KA is basically may no longer be there.
690 the management accountant, September, 2008

Measuring Knowledge Assets and In this model, there are four that is the property of individual
Intellectual Capital components of intellectual capital: members. It includes organizational
Knowledge asset measurement market capital (also denoted as capital and customer capital [also
relates to the valuation, growth, customer capital); process capital; known as market capital]. Unlike human
monitoring and managing a number of human capital; and renewal and capital, structural capital can be owned
intangible increasingly important for development capital. While financial by the nation and can be traded.
business success. Managers of capital reflects the achievements of the Structural Capital = Market Capital +
enterprises and national economies are past; intellectual capital represents the Organizational Capital
trying to find reliable ways for hidden potential for future growth. The
Market Capital: This component of
measuring knowledge assets to value chain according to Edvinsson and
intellectual capital is referred to as
understand how they relate to future Malone (1997, p. 11) expresses the
customer capital to represent the value
performance. various components of market value on
embedded in the relationship of the firm
the basis of the following model:
The terms knowledge capital and with its customers. In the context of
intellectual capital are used side by side. Market Value = Financial Capital + intellectual assets, it is referred to as
They include an organization’s Intellectual Capital market capital to signify the market and
unrefined knowledge assets as well as Financial Capital: Financial capital trade relationships within the global
wealth generating assets whose main is an indicator of a nation’s past success markets with its customers and its
component is knowledge. Unless and achievements. The valuation of the suppliers. Indicators of market capital
effectively utilized and applied, assets as they appear on a traditional include outgoing tourism, openness to
knowledge assets may not necessarily balance sheet does not reflect the real foreign cultures, international events
yield any returns in terms of financial value as assessed by the global market. and language skills. Such core
performance measures. In other words, This component of the nation’s balance capabilities create a basis for assessing
“knowledge assets, like money or sheet is based upon past performance the country’s attractiveness from the
equipment, exist and are worth and statistical data that express the rate perspective of international clients.
cultivating only in the context of of change in tangible assets. Such Organizational Capital: It includes
strategy… you cannot define and factors include gross domestic product national capabilities in the form of
manage intellectual assets unless you (GDP), dollar exchange rate, external hardware, software, databases,
know what you are trying to do with debt, unemployment, productivity rates organizational structures, patents,
them” (Stewart 1997). within various sectors of the national trademarks, and everything else of
So measurement of KAs creates the economy, breakdown of exports nation’s capabilities that support
need to measure intellectual capital. A according to industries, and inflation. individuals’ productivity through
few popular methods of assessment of The key determinants of hidden or sharing and transmission of knowledge.
intellectual capital are as follows: intellectual capital are human and Organizational capital consists of two
structural capital. Thus: components: process capital & renewal
1. Skandia Navigator:
Intellectual Capital = Human Capital + and development capital.
Skandia, a Swedish company
Structural Capital Organizational Capital = Process Capital
developed its first internal intellectual
Human Capital: Human capital is the + Renewal & Development Capital
capital report based on the
measurement model proposed by combination of knowledge, skill, Process Capital: This component
Edvinsson and Malone (1997) in mid- innovativeness, and ability of the represents the country’s intellectual
80s. In Skandia’s view, intellectual individuals to meet the tasks at hand, assets that support its present activities
capital denotes intangible assets including values, culture and including sharing, exchange, flow,
including customer/market capital; philosophy. This includes knowledge, growth and transformation of
process capital; human capital; and wisdom, expertise, intuition, and the knowledge from human capital to
renewal and development capital. The ability of individuals to realize tasks and structural capital. Such assets include
value of intellectual capital is goals. Human capital is the property of information systems, laboratories,
represented by the potential financial individuals, it cannot be owned by the technology, management attention and
returns that are attributable to these organization or nation. The key procedures. Indicators of process
intangible or non-financial assets. indicators of human capital are capital include communications and
education, equal opportunities, culture, computerization, education, agriculture,
The Skandia model attempts to
health, crime etc. management, employment, develop-
provide an integrated and comprehe-
Structural Capital: Structural capital ment of service sector and absorption
nsive picture of both financial capital
signifies the knowledge assets that of immigrants.
and intellectual capital and it describes
the framework of intellectual capital as remain in the company when it doesn’t Renewal and Development Capital:
a complement of financial capital. take into consideration human capital Renewal and development capital

the management accountant, September, 2008 691


reflects the country’s desire and ability focus perspectives: (1) financial (COGS) minus fixed costs (assets) minus
to improve and renew itself in order to perspective; (2) customer perspective; administrative costs to get a profit:
progress. Early identification of (3) internal process perspective; (4) Revenue
changes in the dynamic business learning perspective. The indicators are
–Variable costs
environment and their translation into based on the strategic objectives of the
business opportunities contributes to firm. –Fixed costs
the nation’s future growth and 3. Intangible Assets Monitor: This –Administrative costs
performance. Six key indicators of such model was developed by Sveiby (1997) = Profit
capital are - national expenditure on based on the premise that people are In a factory, we can cut our variable
civilian R&D, scientific publications in the only true agents in business and all and administrative expenses if we wisely
the world, registration of patents, work aspects of structure, internal and invest in assets, up to a point. A better
force employed in R&D, start-up external, are embedded in human factory means that each unit of raw
companies and biotechnology actions. Management selects indicators material is more efficiently converted to
companies. based on the strategic objectives of the a product. This conversion from variable
In the context of the intellectual capital firm to measure four aspects of creating costs to fixed assets is like applying an
assessment, while financial capital value from intangible assets by growth, assembly line to an auto manufacturing
reflects the achievements of the past, renewal, efficiency and stability. plant. Similarly today, investing in
l Process capital and market capital V. Accounting for Knowledge Assets systems and technology should make
are components upon which Accounting for Knowledge: In a knowledge workers more efficient.
nation’s present operations are traditional simplified income statement, But due to diminishing returns, at
based; we have revenues minus variable costs some point, adding more plant and
l Renewal and development capital
Figure 1: Components of Intellectual Capital
determines how the nation prepares
for the future; and, (Based upon Edvinsson & Malone, 1997)
l Human capital lies at the crux of
intellectual capital. It focuses upon
capabilities, expertise and wisdom
of the people and represents the
necessary lever that enables value
creation from all other components.
2. Balanced Scorecard: The
Balanced Scorecard (Kaplan and
Norton, 1992, 1996, 2000) aims to balance
the traditional perspective of
accounting for intangibles by adding
four perspectives related to: innovation
and learning, business process
improvement, customer relationships Figure 2: Financial Capital and Intellectual Capital
and value creation in financial and (based upon Edvinsson & Malone, 1997)
intangible terms. It has focus on both
financial objectives as well as building
of capabilities and acquiring intangible
assets for future growth. The scorecard
attempts to seek balance between
external measures for shareholders and
customers, and internal measures of
critical business processes, innovation
and of learning & growth. Balance is
also sought between relatively objective
outcome measures and subjective/
judgmental measures of performance. A
company’s performance is measured
with indicators covering four major
692 the management accountant, September, 2008

machinery (or computer systems) won’t does not contribute to adding value. It A Unit of Knowledge: Theoretically,
help if there aren’t enough people or includes anything that distracts us from dividing the knowledge earning by the
resources to take advantage of them. It the work. These expenses include going total equity of the company we can get
seems that the amount of money spent to the file room, making copies, the value of a unit of knowledge.
on information systems as a ratio to distributing paper, looking for lost files The problem with trying to affix a value
staff should have some relevance to the etc. to knowledge units is:
value of knowledge. Net Knowledge Worth:
l There is no gold standard to help
In an information factory a request, Net worth is the total tangible
usually with some relevant information determine value.
assets minus liabilities.
from a customer is the raw material. l Knowledge can be easily
A company’s profit is created from
Application of knowledge with staff and the work we do. Some of that work is on duplicated, but a second piece of
information resources will add value to plant and equipment, some is created the same knowledge has little value.
it and makes it sellable. from raw materials, the rest is knowledge l Knowledge can lose value rapidly
Staff—people—have now become in the heads of the staff and knowledge or even convert to a large liability in
current assets rather than the traditional in repositories (books, computers, etc.). a short period of time.
variable costs of the factory. They are “Knowledge earnings” = Annual l Knowledge is not easily convertible
assets because they are converting cost of technology + knowledge (staff to other currencies (language
information to knowledge. They are still costs) – knowledge expenses – barriers).
“current” since they may, at any time, operating profit
win the lottery and move. Information To evaluate and to protect
The value of knowledge is the knowledge assets we should;
is the raw material and the systems that amount of money left over after we have
contain information are the fixed assets. i) look at how much knowledge is
taken out materials, operating expenses, captured and reused versus stuck in
The more we invest in fixed assets, the and time wasted on non-productive
more concentrated will be our variable peoples heads proposition, through
tasks. Most of the money a company
assets that can be applied to produce operating knowledge ratio.
makes is because it knows how to make
profit. money. Knowledge earnings at the end Operating Knowledge Ratio =
If staff and systems are creating of an accounting cycle become Company Net worth/ Fixed assets
knowledge assets, then an “expense” knowledge equity. Fixed knowledge assets/Staff costs

Models For Measuring Knowledge Assets (At a Glance)

Models Strengths Weaknesses

Skandia Navigator These models allow The strengths of these
Edvinsson and Malone measurement closer to measures that make them
(1997) actual inputs, processes, particularly effective can
outcomes and reporting can also be interpreted in terms
therefore be faster. They are of weaknesses of efficiency.
particularly suitable to the Contextual influences that
Balanced Scorecard task of ‘detection and facilitate more corrective
Kaplan and Norton correction of errors’ in policy responses make
(1992, 1996, 2000) aligning the inputs and comparison across different
outcomes. The indicators contexts somewhat
capture contextual nuances challenging. Rich data that
and result in ‘rich’ data yield insightful observations
Intangible Assets Monitor analysis of which can on in-depth analysis may
Sveiby (1997) provide useful insights for not be efficient in terms of
policy making. quick analysis and may not
easily yield a single
‘standard’ numeric or
financial composite index.
the management accountant, September, 2008 693

ii) try to convert knowledge to a fixed l Determination of location of worse and useless because it may
long-term asset (a system) rather than a knowledge within the enterprise. lead to incorrect judgments and
variable short-term asset (a person). l Consolidation of separate areas into decisions. So the pool of knowledge
iii) develop appropriate and secure one theme to avoid knowledge must be constantly reviewed,
places to put and store our information duplication. replenished and reappraised if
and knowledge. knowledge asset value is to be
l All expertise in a critical business
iv) write down knowledge to maintained and enhanced.
area is tied into an individual rather
convert current asset knowledge to than the enterprise system to work l Finding the right tools- Tools that
fixed asset knowledge. out a new knowledge-based organize, search and alert workers
v) locate as many kinds of application to enable the company to new information are the
knowledge as we can through process to gain a competitive advantage. foundation of a successful
mapping or ISO certification to make l Identification of form of knowledge.
knowledge management system.
knowledge assets more efficient Workers need to find the precise
· To locate the sources of knowledge-
vi) reduce operating expenses by information they need, quickly and
internal or external, structured or
applying business process efficiently, which requires a suite of
unstructured, paper-based or
reengineering (BPR) and cutting out integrated, intelligent information
time wasting activities. tools.
l To look for the opportunities, such
vii) apply workflow technologies l Selection of trained & alert workers
as improved internal communication
where an assembly line mentality will to cope up with additions in the
be appropriate. through the creation of an enterprise
knowledge collection- they will
portal, improved customer service,
viii) get the assets to where they are refine suggested additional topics
reduced margins and faster time to
needed most through good network based on training and learn to adapt
market for new product
design, and accessible infrastructure. to the user’s unique needs.
ix) protect and keep staffs as they l Knowledge maintenance and
l Determination of the tangible,
are means of production in an measurement- Just as other assets
monetary benefits as well as
information age. are audited, a knowledge
intangible benefits such as improved
x) understand the role of HR and IT management plan must regularly be
staff morale, better interaction etc.
as HR (current assets) and IT (fixed reviewed, evaluated, tested to
assets) seldom seem to work together l To identify the challenges and enhance and maximize knowledge
to solve company problems. obstacles- Identifying the obstacles asset value.
(like lack of understanding and
VI. Maximizing the Knowledge Asset Conclusion
meaning of information or mixed
Value within the Enterprise Knowledge assets represent a firm’s
messages from different levels in the
To maximize the knowledge asset competences and capabilities that are
value within the organization the organization etc) at this stage helps
the organization solve problems deemed essential for economic growth,
following issues are important:
before they occur. competitive advantage, human
l Description of KAs - Knowledge development and quality of life.
assets described in terms of tangible l Development of collective
responsibility-Individuals or Knowledge-creating process may be
data, applications, people or a facilitated effectively by adopting an
combination of these. Information groups may believe that they are
more valuable if they retain appropriate tool or context, i.e.
described in physical, tangible terms
knowledge instead of sharing knowledge assets. The effectiveness of
is easier to access than a worker’s
knowledge. Workers need to be a knowledge creation process depends
tacit knowledge. The initial plan
reassured that their contributions on the circumstances under which it is
should identify how previously
are recognized and benefit used. However in spite of the existing
inaccessible, tacit knowledge can be
translated into explicit, accessible everyone. A culture of collective measurement tools time has come to
knowledge. responsibility has to be develop some future knowledge asset
communicated, embraced and measurement framework based upon
l The better way to describe the value
rewarded. more sophisticated understanding of
of KAs–combination of separate
human capital and social capital.
sources into one function- based l Constant refinement of knowledge:
description. out-of- date information can be Contd. on Page 704

694 the management accountant, September, 2008

Admission to Membership
Advancement To Fellowship M/1651 M/22725 C/o. M/s. Prize Petroleum Co.
Date Of Advancement : Shri Dilip Kumar De, Shri Ketan Kishore Ltd., B-504-505, Millennium
20th July 2008 BSC, FICWA Rukhmaiya, BCOM, FICWA Plaza, Sector-27,
4D, Kashi Bose Lane, 205, Giridwar, Mathuradas Gurgaon 122002
M/23161 Kolkata 700006 Road, Next to Punjab National
Shri Ratan Kumar Singh, Bank, Kandivali (West), M/20614
BSC(HONS), FICWA M/16541 Mumbai 400067 Shri Rupen Basu Mallik,
206, Lalitha Towers, Meter Shri Abhijit Banerjee, MCOM, FICWA
Factory Road, New Sastry BCOM(HONS), M/23220
14A, Radhanath Mallik Lane,
Nagar, (Nr. Seeta Ramaiah MCOM, FICWA Ms. Madhuvanti Sameer Sathe,
Towers), Hyderabad 500018 Kolkata 700012
Pankhatuli Road, Pathakbagan, MCOM, FICWA
Hooghly 712103 ‘Renuka’, Plot No. 44,
M/17407 Patwardhan Baug, Erandwana, M/21113
Shri Anjeev Kumar Jain, Pune 411004 Shri Mukesh Kumar Gupta,
Shri George Samuel, Tower-9, Flat No. 301, Sushant
D-18, Subhash Market, M/23344
Tagore Garden Extn., BSC, BCOM, FICWA
Ms. Radhika Kasturirangan, Estate, Sector 52,
New Delhi 110027 C/15, Dudhsagar Dairy
BCOM, FICWA Gurgaon 122002
Colony, Highway Road,
Piping Centre, B.H.E.L.,
M/21349 Mehsana 384002
80, G.N. Chetty Street, M/23208
Shri H. L. Mukunda, T. Nagar, Chennai 600017 Shri Hiranya Kumar Mohanty,
“CHANDANA”, No. 2103/22, Shri C. S. Hanumantha Rao,
M/8541 Ferro Chrome Plant, Ferro
2nd ‘A’ Railway Parallel Road, BA, FICWA
Shri Niranjan Patra, Chrome Project, Jajpur Road,
Kengeri Satellite Town, 12, C.S. Rathnasabhapathy
BSC, FICWA Jajpur 755020
Bangalore 560060 Street, Cooperative ‘A’ Black Diamond Apartments -
Colony, K.K. Pudur, III, 53F, Trimurty Nagar,
M/15014 Coimbatore 641038 M/11075
Nagpur 440022
Shri Rama Kant Mishra, Shri N. Ganesan, BSC, FICWA
MA, MCOM, LLB, FCS, M/20745 302, Gopalakrishnadhama
MBA, FICWA Shri Ravindra Kumar Apartments, #55, 6th Main,
Shri Nagarajan Narayanan,
C/o. Shri B. D. Shukla, Srivastava, BCOM, FICWA 15th Cross, Malleswaram,
K-49, Kranti Nagar, Sector - N.E.VI/165, Kursi Bangalore 560003
524, 41st Cross, 8th Block,
Bilaspur 495001 Road, Aliganj, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560082
Lucknow 226024 M/18543
M/8202 Shri Amitava Das,
Shri Maniar Girikrishna S., M/12090
M/22571 Shri R. Subramanian, BTECH(HONS), FICWA
Shri Madhu P. Nainan, BCOM, FICWA 60/113, H. P. Dutta Lane,
102, Shree Vastu Pooja CHS
BCOM, FCA, FICWA Raman & Associates, Cost Gold Gardens,
Ltd., 1st Floor, Behind Manish
1-D, Ashok Towers, Accountants, Old No 17, New Kolkata 700033
Park, Rajmata Jijabai Road,
11-A, Palm Avenue, No. 38, Sripuram,
Pump House, Andheri (E),
Mumbai 400093 Kolkata 700019 Tirunelveli Junction, M/19378
Tirunelveli 627001 Shri Manish Bhagvandas
M/19230 M/7207 Analkat, MCOM, FICWA
Shri Madhu Bharat Chadha, Shri Aniruddha M/22760 R-6, Vardhman Krupa Flats,
BCOM, FICWA Mukhopadhyay, BSC, FICWA Shri Vijay Narendrabhai Darji, B/H, Sarvodaya-2, Near
Flat No.7, The Retreat, 100/4, 57, N.K. Ghosal Road, MCOM, FICWA Satadhar Society, Sola Road,
Gidney Park, Salisbury Park, P.O. Kasba, Kolkata 700042 C/o. Shri C. Venkateshwara Ahmedabad 380061
Pune 411037 Rao, 8-3-231/72/A/2, Shri
M/6278 Krishna Nagar,
M/21846 Shri Jitander Kumar Gupta, M/11780
Near Church, Yousufguda,
Shri Challa Madhukar, BCOM(HONS), MCOM, Shri Pradip Kumar Jana,
Hyderabad 500045
202, Unnathi Citadel, 24th Chief Financial Officer, CMC M/23030 NHPC Ltd., O/o. Executive
Main, JP Nagar V Phase, Next Limited, PTI Bldg., 5th Floor, Shri Umesh Chandra Agrawal, Director R-III, DP-3,
to IDBI Bank, Parliament St., BCOM(HONS), ACA, ACS, Sector-V, Salt Lake,
Bangalore 560078 New Delhi 110001 FICWA Kolkata 700091

the management accountant, September, 2008 695

Admission to Membership

M/10845 Rangaraja Puram Main Road, 5B/15A, N.I.T., M/20457

Shri Srinivasan Raghavan Kodambakkam, Faridabad 121001 Ms. Sejal Bhupendra Shah,
Veeravanallur, Chennai 600024 BCOM(HONS), FICWA
BTECH(MET.ENGG.), M/7338 Sejal B. Shah & Co., 326, Shivaji
MBA(FIN), FICWA M/21864 Shri S. Gopalakrishnan, Nagar, N.M. Joshi Marg, Lower
Dy. General Manager (F & A), Shri Ojas Surendra Vora, MSC, MBA, FICWA Parel (E), Mumbai 400013
National Highways Authority BCOM, FICWA 102-Sri Thangam Nagar I,
of India, G-5 & 6, Sector-10, A-1/14, Scindia Society, Pavalathampalayam, M/17757
Dwarka, New Delhi 110075 Sir M.V. Road, Andheri (E), Kathirampatti-Post,
Shri R. Anbu Thirunavukkarasu,
Mumbai 400069 Erode 638107
M/12124 BSC, FICWA
Shri Ashok Kumar Phukan, M/22045 1, Solai 2nd Street, Aynavaram,
BSC(HONS), LLB, FICWA Shri Sivadasan Arakkan, Chennai 600023
Shri Dattatreya,
Deputy Registrar (F & A), BCOM, FICWA
Dibrugarh University, P.O. Chief Accounts Officer, Kerala M/23301
No. 52, 1st Floor, 3rd Main,
Dibrugarh University, Tourism Devlopment Corpn. Shri Siva Subramanian,
3rd Cross, 3rd Block, Javaraiah
Dibrugarh 786004 Ltd., Mascot Square, Vikas BCOM, FICWA
Gardens, Thyagarajanagar,
Bangalore 560028 Bhavan P.O., 5303, Nandi Park, Gotikere,
M/20024 Trivandrum 695033 Bangalore 560083
Shri Abhijit Roy,
Shri Ashok Kumar Maganlal M/15593 M/22488
Lecturer of Commerce, Dept. Shri Ramabadran Rajendran,
Desai, BCOM, MA, ACWA, Shri Vallurupalli Srinivasa Rao,
of Commerce, Coochbehar BSC, LLB, MFM, FICWA
College, 2, Kalighat Road, FCMA, FICWA BCOM, FICWA
Vice President (Accounts), Flat No. 106, Ramu Towers,
Coochbehar 736101 109, Parsell Square,
Shipping Corpn. of India, 245, A.C. Guards, H. No. 10-2-6,
Madam Cama Road, Hyderabad 500004
M/12862 Ontario-M1B 2A5, Canada
Mumbai 400021
Shri Santosh Sarkar,
BCOM, FICWA M/6403 M/13506
A-4, Sona Apartments, Shri Kali Kinkar Sarkar, Shri Subhendu Sekhar Daw,
Shri Lakhpat Rai Goyal,
237, R. N. Guha Road, MCOM, LLB, FICWA BSC, FICWA
Kolkata 700074 “Renu-Lipi”, Aradanga, S. S. Daw & Associates, 12B,
Manager (Finance &
Asansol 713303 Accounts), Power Grid Chandra Nath Chatterjee St.,
M/11097 (2nd Floor), Bhowanipur,
Corporation of India Ltd.,
Shri Santanu Kumar Saha, M/22611 Kolkata 700025
B-9, Qutab Institutional Area,
BCOM, FICWA Shri Mahendra Singh, Katwaria Sarai,
Saha & Associates, 35-J, MCOM, LLB, FICWA New Delhi 110016 M/22705
Raja Naba Krishna St., Shukla Vihar Colony (Para), Shri Ranatosh Majumdar,
Kolkata 700005 Near Para Police Chowkey, M/6518 BCOM(HONS), FICWA
Hardoi Ring Road, Shri Rajapeta Satyanarayana, Kalyani Apartment, Flat No.
M/14094 Lucknow 226017 MCOM, FICWA ‘GB’, 302/1, N.S.C. Bose Road,
Dr. B. Venkatachalam,
BCOM, MBA(FIN.), Chief Manager (Finance & Kolkata 700047
M/8736 Accounts), Lubrizol India Pvt.
Shri G. Satyananda Rao, Ltd., 9/3, Thane Belapur Road, M/10044
No. 57, 2nd Main, I Block,
BCOM, FICWA Turbhe, Navi Mumbai 400705 Shri Thomas Mathew,
BEL Layout, Vidyaranyapura,
D-6, BDL Township,
Bangalore 560097 BCOM(HONS), FICWA
Bhanur 502305 M/15527 B-2, Monalika Apts., Old
M/22719 Shri Vikas Digambar Peshave, Station Bazar,
Shri Rajesh Prasad, M/22874 MCOM, FICWA
Bhubaneswar 751006
BSC, FICWA Shri Bolisetti Gopala Krishna B-12, Saket Apartment,
Manager (Fin. & Acctts.), Murty, BCOM, FICWA Patwardhan Baug, Erandavana,
H. No. 2-62/B/102/96, Behind M/12092
JSW Steel Limited, Pottaneri, Pune 411052
Sri Sai Residency, Shri Pradip Harilal Desai,
Mecheri, Mettur Taluk,
Madhuranagar, Pragatinagar, BCOM, LLB, FICWA
Salem 636453 M/20602
Hyderabad 500072 Shri Ashwin Madhusudan P.H. Desai & Co. 29-A, Govt.
M/8087 Solanki, BCOM, FICWA Servants’ Society, B/H
Shri Ramanathan Sankar, M/2338 D/104, Koyna, Shantivan, Near Navrangpura Municipal Market,
MCOM, FICWA Shri Hari Kishan Bhatia, National Park, Borivli-East, Navrangpura,
14/6, “Thiruvenkata Agam”, BA, FICWA Mumbai 400066 Ahmedabad 380009

696 the management accountant, September, 2008

Admission to Membership

M/9769 M/26968 6, Madhuban Nagari, Behind M/26984

Shri Rajeev Uppal, Shri Perunduru Vijaya Bhaskar, BOI Officers Qrts., Nr. Sharda Shri K. Vivek Kamath,
ADMN.), ACS, FICWA Plot No. 34 A & B, Flat No. Solapur 413004 B-406, Lake Side Raheja Vihar,
AG-1/141-A (DDA MIG 407, Park View Residency, Off Chandioli Farm Road,
Flats), Vikas Puri, Rajeev Nagar Colony, M/26977 Powai, Andheri (East),
New Delhi 110018 Hyderabad 500045 Shri Jinu John Jacob, Mumbai 400072
M/26969 Plot No. SRA 72A, Souhurdha M/26985
Shri Anindamoy Paul Biswas, Nagar, Vazhakala, Shri H. Krishnan,
Shri Shivannarayana
Garlapati, BCOM,
6, Selimpur Road, Ernakulam 682021 Plot No. 2C1 & 2C2, Flat No.
Kolkata 700031 G3, Aadhi Kailash Flats, Ambal
#69, Ist Cross, I Main, I M/26978
Block, Near Sai Mandir, Nagar, 23rd Street, Keelkattalai,
M/26970 Shri Pramod Kumar Jena,
Thyagarajanagar, Chennai 600117
Shri Suhas Sunderlalji Bohra, BSC(HONS), AICWA
Bangalore 560028 Flat No. B-II-06, NALCO
22/1735 MHB Colony, Gorai Nagar, P.O. E. Co. Railway,
M/5702 C. S. Pur, Bhubaneswar Shri Sanjay Kumar Kasliwal,
Road, Borivali (West), BSC, AICWA
Shri Mehendi Sultanali Mumbai 400091
Chandani, BCOM(HONS), M/26979 158-A, Alkapuri Colony,
FICWA Shri Subhash Jajoo, Habibganj,
M/26971 Bhopal 462024
5-A, Silver Jubilee Bldg., Shri Santanu Chatterjee, BCOM(HONS),
Fidai Baug, S.V. Road, ACA, AICWA
Andheri (West), Satyam Co-op. Hsg. Society,
9, Dwarik Mukherjee Road,
Flat No. 2/2/A, 9-B, Bechulal Shri C. Dilip Kumar,
Mumbai 400058 Behala, Kolkata 700034
Road, Near CIT Road, BSC, AICWA
Padmapukur, Kolkata 700046 EWS-2066, M.P. Housing Board,
M/11739 M/26972
Light Industrial Area, Near Ganga
Shri Ajeet Kumar Gupta, Ms. Tapasi Das,
M/26980 STD., Ambedkar Chowk,
Shri Manindra Kumar, Bhilai 490026
K-2/B, Saket, “Ananda AAhar”, West High
New Delhi 110017 Court Road, Dharampeth, F-31, Ambuja Cements M/26988
Nagpur 440010 Colony, Daburji, Lodhimajra, Shri Abhay Kumar,
M/8385 Ropar 140113 BCOM(HONS), AICWA
Shri Sudhir Padmakar M/26973
Shri Anand Nandkishor Rajendra Chatra Bhawan, Room
Kulkarni, BCOM, M/26981 No. 75, 34A, Ratu Sarkar Lane,
LLB, FICWA Deshmukh, MCOM, AICWA Shri Pakkam Krishnan
“Aditya” 149-14/1, Ganesh Kolkata 700073
B-18, Icchamani, Mayur Kesavan, BCOM, AICWA
Colony, Kothrud, Nagar, Dhayri, Pune-Sinhgad 63, Washer Man Street,
Road, Pune 411041 M/26989
Pune 411038 Chintadripet,
Shri Mahesan Kasirajan,
Chennai 600002
Admission To Associateship C/o. S.P. Subramanian 20/19
Shri V. S. Ganesh, M/26982
Date Of Admission : Customs Colony,
BSC, AICWA Shri Madhavan Kesavan,
20th July 2008 19, 2nd Street (East), Chennai 600015
Bryant Nagar, Old No. 3, New No. 13/2,
M/26966 Tuticorin 628008 M/26990
Second Street, Annamalai
Shri Dharmesh Shirish Nagar, West Mambalam, Shri Indranil Mazumder,
Anjaria, BCOM, AICWA M/26975 Chennai 600033 BCOM, AICWA
29-B, Laxman Apts., Azad Shri Anup Kumar Gupta, Jr. Manager (Finance) Steel
Lane, Andheri (West) BA, AICWA M/26983 Authority of India Ltd., Branch
Mumbai 400058 C/o. Hotel Kaveri Kali Manda Ms. Mugdha Yogesh Keskar, Sales Office, Surya Sen Sarani,
Road, Gandhi Chowk, MCOM, AICWA Durgapur 713208
M/26967 Giridih 815301 A-1404 Royale Neelkanth M/26991
Shri Sumanta Nath Bhunia, Palms, Near Tatvadnyan Shri Ornab Mookherjee,
BCOM(HONS), AICWA M/26976 Vidyapeeth, Behind Cinemax, BCOM(HONS), AICWA
P-861/1 Lake Town, Block-A, Shri Ingale Sunil Govind, Kapurbawdi, 30, Banerjee Para Lane, Dhakuria,
Kolkata 700089 BCOM, FCA, AICWA Thane (West) 400607 Kolkata 700031

the management accountant, September, 2008 697

Admission to Membership

M/26992 M/27000 M/27008 M/27016

Shri Debasis Mohanty, Shri Sathiraju Girajala, Shri Kanhaiya Kumar Singh, Shri Karthik R.,
S/o. Basant Kumar Mohanty Flat No. 107, Janapriya Hills Vill- Teotha, P.O. 315, Prasanth Nagar, West Fort,
Mahima Nagar, Nayabazar, Apts., Dattatreya Colony, Maharajganj, Dist- Siwan, Trivandrum 695023
Cuttack 753004 Asifnagar, Maharajganj 841238
Hyderabad 500028 M/27017
M/26993 M/27009 Ms. Priya Krishnamoorthy,
Shri Harshad B. Patel, M/27001 Shri Sirisha Kumar Sahoo, BCOM, AICWA
BCOM, AICWA Shri M. Raja Rajeswaran, BCOM(HONS), AICWA A-1, 11, 29th Street, Nanganallur,
8-B, Suvas Apartment 68 F BCOM, AICWA Qr.No. I-3/7, N.H.D.C. Ltd., Chennai 600061
Nepean Sea Road, No. 4, Devi Illam, 7th Street, Urja Vihar, Siddhwarkut, Dist-
Mumbai 400006 1st Cross, Vaishnavi Nagar, Khandwa, Siddhwarkut M/27018
Rly. Carshed Complex Post, 450554 Shri Eravelil Augustine Antony
M/26994 Chennai 600109 Mary, BA, AICWA
Shri S. Raghupathy,
M/27010 House No. IV/794A,
BSC, AICWA M/27002
T 3 Raasi Enclave, No. 30, Shri Sridhar Setty, Koorippalam,
Shri Rajesh Kumar Sogarwal, BCOM, AICWA Kochi 682002
18th Avenue, Ashok Nagar, BCOM, MBA, AICWA
Chennai 600083 #904, 1st Floor, 3rd B Cross
House No. 2629 Sector - 16, 9th A Main, 1st Block, H R B M/27019
Faridabad 121002 Shri Sujit Menon,
M/26995 R Layout, Kalyan Nagar,
Shri D. K. Ravindran, Bangalore 560043 BCOM, AICWA
M/27003 “Shreyas” 59/1, III Cross,
BCOM, AICWA Shri Kamlesh Sankhla,
Flat No. F2, Vijayalakshmi M/27011 Marappa Thota, J. C. Nagar,
BCOM, MBA, AICWA Bangalore 560006
Flats, Plot No. 5, Veeramani Shri Ajay Anand,
Flat No. A-032, Ashiana
Street, Periyar Nagar Extn. II, BA, AICWA
Greens, Bhiwadi,
Madipakkam, 10, Pulteney Close, M/27020
Alwar 301019
Chennai 600091 Isleworth, Middlesex, Shri Badri Kumar Mehta,
M/26996 22, TT Place, L.H.M.C.
Shri Avneet Kaur, Shri Manish Kumar Sinha,
M/27012 Residential Complex, Opp.
Ms. Monica Gupta, Kalawati Saran Children
17/1, Gurdwara Road, Flat No. 8, Plot No. 9, Shree
BCOM(HONS), AICWA Hospital, New Delhi 110001
Karanpur, Prasanna Hsg. Society,
Bhibewadi, 25/66, Shakti Nagar,
Dehradun 248001 M/27021
Pune 411037 Delhi 110007
Shri Francis Xavier Nelson Leo,
Shri Adinarayana Reddy M/27005 M/27013
386, Street No. 8, “K” Block,
Pedinekalua, AICWA Shri Rammani Sarkar, Shri Shambhu Sharan Jha,
Mahipalpur, New Delhi 110037
No. 41, Devinagar Colony, MCOM, AICWA BA(HONS), AICWA
R. K. Puram, 9C, Khudiram Basu Road, C/o. Prabhash Kumar Jha H.
Nabagram (Konnagar), M/27022
Secunderabad 500056 No. 16, Madangir Village, Shri Manik Lal Nayak,
Hooghly, New Delhi 110062
Nabagram 712246 MCOM, AICWA
M/26998 Gali No. 2, Shakti Nagar,
Shri R. Rajarajan, M/27014
M/27006 Rewari 123401
BCOM, AICWA Shri Kannan B.,
New No. 14A, Old No. 194A, Shri Gyan Chand Singhvi,
Flat - F2, Podchendu Villa, BCOM, AICWA
Imperial Residency Flats, Shri Sandeep Kumar Pandey,
Sainagar Third Main Road, Chief General Manager
29/235-B, Janatha Road, MCOM, AICWA
Virugambakkam, BGH Exim Ltd.,
DBZ-S-140, Ward-12A, Vytilla, Cochin 682019 502, Ahlcon Apartments, Sector-
Chennai 600092
Gandhidham 370201 3 Vaishali,
M/27015 Ghaziabad 201010
Shri K. Venkata Rama Subba M/27007 Shri Pardeep Kumar Khaneja,
Reddy, BCOM, Shri Ashit Kumar Saha, MCOM, MBA(FIN.), M/27024
78, Devdoot Apartment, 198, Alipore Road, H. No. 964/6, Partap Chowk, Lalvilla, Vallamkulam-P.O.,
D-Block, Vikaspuri, P.O. Nimta, Belghoria, Punjabi Ram Lila Wali Gali, Thiruvalla, Dist- Pathanamthitta
New Delhi 110018 Kolkata 700049 Rohtak 124001 Vallamkulam 689541

698 the management accountant, September, 2008

Admission to Membership

M/27025 M/27033 M/27041 M/27049

Shri Ramachandran Shri Subramony Shri Narender Singh Hinwar, Ms. Sucharita Halder,
Vadukkoot, BCOM, AICWA Venkiteswaran, MCOM, BCOM, MBA(FIN), BCOM, AICWA
A 403, Sanskar,Neelam Nagar, MFM, ACS, AICWA AICWA 4/C Bompas Road,
Phase-II Mulund (E), TC-37/1050, “Gokul”, Asra- 108, Kilokari Village, Kolkata 700029
Mumbai 400081 48, Ayya Vadhyar Street, Near Maharani Bagh,
Fort, Trivandrum 695023 New Delhi 110014 M/27050
M/27026 Shri R. Srinivasan,
Shri Umesh Sagta, M/27034 M/27042 MCOM, AICWA
MCOM, AICWA Shri Subhajit Banerjee, Shri Sachin Bishnoi, 1A, G3, Sripriya Manasa Flats,
G-1001, Neelpadam-I, BCOM(HONS), AICWA BCOM, AICWA V. V. Koil Street, Chinmaya
Sector-5, Vaishali, Plot No. 21, Block-AH, H. No. 555, Srinath Nagar, Nagar, Chennai 600092
Ghaziabad 201012 Sector-II, Salt Lake City, Street No. 3, Jwalapur,
Kolkata 700091 Hardwar 249407 M/27051
M/27027 Shri Abhik Kusari,
M/27035 M/27043 MCOM, AICWA
Shri Santhosh Kumar V.,
Shri Ranjan Misra, Shri Cherukuru Raghu, 28/9, Mahendra Banerjee Road,
BCOM(HONS), FCA, BCOM, AICWA Behala, Kolkata 700060
Kariparambil House, Opp.
AICWA No. 14, Devaraj Nagar, Opp.
Union L.P. School, S R M
E-973, Saraswati Vihar, IVPM., Navalpur Post, M/27052
Road, Ernakulam,
Delhi 110034 Ranipet, Vellore Dist., Shri Shital Jhunjhunwala,
Kochi 682018
Ranipet 632402 BCOM(HONS), ACA, AICWA
M/27036 1-2-300, Gagan Mahal Road,
M/27028 Shri Kartik Subramanian, M/27044 Hyderabad 500029
Shri Kalloo Sahu, BCOM, ACA, AICWA Shri Dharmendra Bansilal
BCOM, AICWA 9/4, Kuppuswamy Street, Mehta, BCOM, M/27053
B 1/25, Gali No. 2, New Lotus Apartments, T. Nagar, ACA, AICWA Shri Rangarajan Krishnakishore,
Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600017 803, Acropolis, MSC, ACA, AICWA
New Delhi 110096 Light House Hill Road, Flat 105, AL Yamama Tower,
M/27037 Mangalore 575001 AL Qasba’a Street, Majaz Area,
M/27029 Shri Ranjan Kumar Gupta, Corniche, Sharjah, U A E
Shri Gagnendu Sharma, BSC, AICWA M/27045
BCOM(HONS), AICWA 12/A, Jagat Roy Chowdhury Shri Balasubrahmanyam M/27054
233, Indra Garden, Rajinder Road Barisha, Sivalenka, BCOM, AICWA Ms. Chaitali Damodar
Nagar Indl. Area, Mohan Kolkata 700008 C/o. M A Prasad D. No. 2-4- Sahasrabuddhe, BCOM, AICWA
Nagar, Ghaziabad 201007 16, Mydhili Street, Srinagar, E-1103, Sainath Tower, Near
M/27038 Kakinada 533003 Neelam Nagar Phase-II, Jain
M/27030 Shri Sandeep Prasad, Temple, Mulund (East),
Ms. Alaknanda Sen, BCOM(HONS), AICWA M/27046 Mumbai 400081
BCOM(HONS), AICWA 118-H, Pocket-4, Mayur Shri Sandipan Sarkar, BSC,
10/1/A, Lake Place, Vihar, Phase-I, AICWA M/27055
Kolkata 700029 Delhi 110091 C/o. P. C. Sarkar Hirapur, Shri Janardanan Krishnamurthy,
Durgamandir, Opp. to BCOM(HONS), AICWA
M/27031 M/27039 Agrasen Bhawan, Dhanbad No. 8, Bompas Road,
Ms. Aarti Ramakant Tripathi, Shri Ritesh Agarwal, 826001 Ground Floor,
BCOM, AICWA MCOM, PH.D, AICWA Kolkata 700029
A/40-A, Shanti Niketan, 12, North City, Pocket-B, M/27047
L B S Marg, Ghatkopar Near Kodesia Phatak, Shri Eknath Goutam, M/27056
(West), Mumbai 400086 Izzatnagar, Bareilly 243001 MCOM, AICWA Shri Divya Sharma,
134, Maliwada Phool Chowk, MCOM, AICWA
M/27032 M/27040 Burhanpur 450331 Plot No. 14, Swej Farm, Ganesh
Shri V. Balaji, BCOM, Shri Chandan Chatterjee, Nagar, Sodala,
MBA, AICWA BCOM, AICWA M/27048 Jaipur 302004
Plot No. 5092, Ram Nagar Choti-Raniganj, P.O. Shri Raghu Veera Sarma
North Extn., 7th Street, Raghunath Chowk, Via- Josyula, MCOM, AICWA M/27057
Madipakkam, Sitarampur, Dist- Burdwan, 23-11-9, Sri Ram Nagar, Shri Jaldu Venkata Soma Raju
Chennai 600091 Sitarampur 713359 Rajahmundry 533105 Gupta, BCOM, AICWA

the management accountant, September, 2008 699

Admission to Membership

Plot No. 8C, D. No. 24-128, M/27065 H. No. 9-145, H.M.T. Nagar, M/27081
Lathakunj Apartment, Shri Ketkar Neelakshi Nacharam, Shri Sohan Kumar Garg,
Bharani Colony, Sainikpuri, Chandrakant, Hyderabad 500076 BCOM, AICWA
Secunderabad 500099 MCOM, AICWA C/o. Swrajy Prakash Garg Vill-
30, Bldg. No. S-11, Ekata M/27073 Birpur, Dist- Sheopurkalan,
M/27058 Society, Indira Shankar Nagari, Shri Prakriti Ranjan Sahu, Sheopurkalan 476335
Shri Apte Chandrashekhar Paud Road, Kothrud BCOM(HONS), AICWA
Moreshwar, BCOM, AICWA Pune 411038 Road No. 22, Qrt. No. K2-10, M/27082
Flat No. C-1/11, Manibandh Telco Colony,
Shri Guru Charan Katta Rama
Complex, Opp. Nityanand M/27066 Jamshedpur 831004
Hall, Hingre Khurd, Shri Narhari Govindrao No. 33, Sree Hari Nivas, Pipeline
Pune 411051 Mallurwar, M/27074
Shri Ashok Kumar Patra, Main Road, O.T. Road,
C/o. Konal Sadan Near Gandhi Bangalore 560003
Shri Karve Shashank Jayram, B1/G1, IFFCO Township,
College, Yadopur Road,
BCOM, AICWA Musadia, P.O. Paradeep,
Gopalganj, Dist- Gopalganj, Dist- Jagatsinghpur, M/27083
189, Shukrawar Peth, Gopalganj 841428 Paradeep 754142 Shri Amay Hattangadi, AICWA
Patwardhan Wada, Near
601, Jamuna Sagar, 59/60 Shahid
Kelkar Museum, M/27067 M/27075 Bhagat Singh Road, Colaba,
Pune 411002 Shri Thirumalaiswamy Shri Bhagwani Pratap Mumbai 400005
Parthasarathy, Pinanlal, MCOM, AICWA
M/27060 BSC, ACS, AICWA Sector No. 27A, Plot No. 396, M/27084
Shri Rajaram Mohan Dev K., 9, New Colony, 8th Street, Pradhikaran, Nigdi, Ms. Nisha K. Jose,
BCOM, ACA, AICWA Adambakkam, Pune 411044 BSC, AICWA
5-535, Deepthi, Srinagar Chennai 600088
Colony, Chandanagar, A2-603, Ganga Hamlet,
Hyderabad 500050 Vimannagar, Pune 411014
M/27068 Shri Kiran Govindrao
Shri Avinash Choudhary, Kulkarni, MCOM,
M/27061 M/27085
Shri Duvvuri Sarveswara Rao, C-85, Prathmesh Nagari, Shri Rajeev Kumar Khanna,
MP-34, Palakmati Park,
BCOM, AICWA Deolai Road, Satara Parisar, BCOM, AICWA
Nehru Nagar,
Flat No. C-24, Steelmines Aurangabad 431005 Flat No. 2, Pocket-B 8,
Bhopal 462003
Complex, Srinagar Colony Sector - 4, Rohini,
Extn., Hyderabad 500073 M/27069 M/27077 Delhi 110085
Shri M. Chinnathambi, Ms. Tanjit Kaur,
Shri Susan Abraham, D 54/2, V O C Nagar, Police F-53 C, Second Floor, Shri N.J.R.V. Girish Kumar,
BCOM, LLB, ACS, AICWA Quarters, Ganapathy, GTB Apartments, MCOM, AICWA
11C, Sylvan Heights, Sylvan New Delhi # 977A/9, 8th Cross, 13th Main,
Coimbatore 641006
Heights Road, Chilavannoor, BSKJ Stage, Srinagar,
M/27078 Bangalore 560050
Kochi 682020 M/27070
Shri Madhab Chandra
Shri R. Giri, BCOM,
Mandal, BCOM, AICWA M/27087
M/27063 FCA, AICWA Block C/67, Kurla Camp,
Shri Rahul Anant No. 90, Arokiasamy Road (E), Shri Pratap Madhukar Pathak,
Ulhas Nagar, Thane 421004
Chincholkar, BCOM, R S Puram, BCOM, AICWA
AICWA Coimbatore 641002 B-103, Parmeshwari Paradise,
B/108, Prestige Classic, Near Shri Anjan Kumar Saha, Majiwade Village Road,
Chinchwad Station, M/27071 MCOM, AICWA Majiwade, Thane 400601
Chinchwad, Pune 411019 Ms. Shikha Gupta, 179E, Mayur Vihar Phase-I,
BCOM, MBA, AICWA Pocket-1, New Delhi 110091 M/27088
M/27064 D/o. Dinesh Kumar Gupta B- Ms. Vaani Polavarapu, BCOM,
Shri Abhishek Kiran Kannal, 31, Arjunpuri, Imali Ka Fatak, M/27080 AICWA
MCOM, AICWA Jaipur 302005 Shri Sandeep Kumar D/o. P S Prakasa Rao Plot No. 6-
127/3 Kamada Housing Aggarwal, BCOM, AICWA 59/1, Flat-301, Vikas Residency,
Society, Behind Hindustan M/27072 B-93A, IInd Floor, Ashoka Nr. Vidya Nursing Home,
Bakery, Chinchwadgaon, Shri Sistla Venkata Chandra Enclave-II, Sector-37, Chandanagar
Pune 411033 Sekhar, MCOM, AICWA Faridabad 121003 Hyderabad 500050

700 the management accountant, September, 2008

Admission to Membership

M/27089 M/27097 M/27105 Mamata Hospital Lane, MIDC,

Shri Chakka Ravikumar, Shri Shivaraj Namdeo Bhor, Ms. Sangita Shrirang Dombivli (E),
BCOM, AICWA BE(MECH), AICWA Kulkarni, BCOM, AICWA Thane 421203
Airforce Instt. of Dental EA-329, Maya Enclave, 9, Shriniwas Apartment,
Sciences, Airport Road, DDA Flats, Tarde Colony, Hingne (KH), M/27113
Bangalore 560007 New Delhi 110064 Sinhgarh Road, Shri C. Yamunapathi,
Pune 411051 BCOM, AICWA
M/27090 M/27098 C/o. Subash Bhattacharjee R.N.C.
Shri Vipin Kumar Sharma, Shri Deenbandhu Deshmukh, M/27106 Path, H. No. 14, Lachit Nagar,
BCOM, AICWA MCOM, AICWA Shri Narsingh Prasad, Guwahati 781007
698/2, Sector-5B, 13, Mewa Nursery, MCOM, LLB, AICWA
Gandhinagar, B/H. MRF C/o. Jag Prasad H. No. 535, M/27114
Nishatganj, Near Indira
Showroom, Keshaw Nagar, Shiva Colony, Shri Sunil Arora,
Flyover, Lucknow 226007
Gandhinagar 382005 (Infront of Sarswati Shishu BCOM, AICWA
Mandir), 6/195, Shivaji Nagar,
M/27091 Basti 272002 Gurgaon 122001
Shri Ramesh Srinivasan, Shri Addepalli Subramanya
Flat-2, “Gajanah”, New No. Plot No. 381, 6th Sector, 27th Shri Arup Bagui,
Shri Pradyumna Pattnaik,
6, Temple Avenue, Srinagar Street, K K Nagar, MCOM, AICWA
Colony, Chennai 600015 Chennai 600078 #38, 5th Cross, IInd Floor,
E-29, Sector-2,
Rourkela 769006 Royal Residency Layout,
M/27092 M/27100 BTM 4th Stage, IIMB Post,
Shri Sudhir Kumar Sharma, Shri Krishnarathnam Ganesh, M/27108 Bangalore
ACS,AICWA A-707, Sarojini Nagar, BCOM, AICWA M/27116
B - 4/100 Yamuna Vihar New Delhi 110023 Flat No. TC, 3rd Block, Shri Sanjaykumar A. Chavda,
Delhi 110053 Kamalakkannan Garden, MCOM, AICWA
M/27101 Vembuli Amman Koil Street, Flat No. 12, Ambika Bhuvan,
M/27093 Shri Rakshit Goyal, Virugambakkam, Patel Colony -2/3, Road No. 3/4,
Shri Ratan Kumar Sharma, BCOM, AICWA Chennai 600092 Jamnagar 361008
AICWA Plot No. 129, Sector-1,
Block-L, Flat No. 38C,DDA New Vidhyadhar Nagar, M/27109 M/27117
Flats, Nr. New Green Fields Jaipur 302023 Shri Samuel Diwakar Ms. Srabani Chatterjee,
School, Saket, Waghchourey, BSC, AICWA
New Delhi 110017 M/27102 BSC(HONS), AICWA H. No. 1689, Mamurpur (Near
Shri Shankar Lal Kumhar, A/1, Ashram Building, 40, Masjid), Narela,
M/27094 MCOM, ACS, AICWA Gokhale Road (N), Dadar, New Delhi 110040
Shri Buddhadev Saha, 403, Silver Coin Mumbai 400028
Appartments, Opp. Bhavans
C/o. Bimal Chandra Saha, M/27110 Shri Debdip Chatterjee,
School, Makarpura Road,
Mahendra Dutta Road, Dist- Shri Vineet Srivastava, BSC, AICWA
Vadodara 390009
North 24 Parganas, AICWA N-11, Vikramaditya Sarani,
Banipur 743233 B-417/1 Raja Ji Puram, Sector - 2 (B),
Lucknow 226017 Bidhannagar 713212
M/27095 Shri Sisir Kumar Koley,
Shri Mahboob Alam Usmani, BCOM(HONS), AICWA M/27119
MCOM, AICWA C/o. K K Sharma 3rd Floor, Shri Abhradip Dey,
Shri Lokendra Tiwari,
Vill.: Bibipur, P.S. Maduban, Rani Bagh, MCOM, AICWA BCOM, AICWA
Teh-Ghosi, Dist- Mau, U.P. New Delhi 110034 80/168, Pratap Nagar, 87/24 A. K. Mukherjee Road,
Bibipur Sanganer, Kolkata 700090
M/27104 Jaipur 302033
M/27096 Shri Krishna Kumar V. S., M/27120
Ms. Pooja Verma, MCOM, LLB, AICWA M/27112 Shri Bibhas Das,
BCOM(HONS), AICWA Dy. General Manager-Finance Ms. Harshada Vivek MCOM, AICWA
H. No. 19 Mc No. 243/28, Kennametal India Ltd., 8/9th Tongaonkar, Malsouth Colony, P.O. Mal
Jyoti Park, Mile, Tumkur Road, BCOM, AICWA Bazar, Dist- Jalpaiguri,
Gurgaon 122001 Bangalore 560073 A-6, Pratibimb, Plot RH-159, Jalpaiguri 735221

the management accountant, September, 2008 701

Admission to Membership

M/27121 AICWA Hardware Stores, Rangpur M/27144

Shri S. K. Gupta, C/o. Sahanoor Alam C-5/1, Road, P.O. Bara Atiabari, Shri Anil Xavier,
BSC(HONS), AICWA Santoshpur Station Pally, Dist- Cooch Behar MCOM, AICWA
Flat No. 7-C, Plot No. 30/2, P.O. Santoshpur, Cooch Behar 736135 Veliyanthara Puthen Veedu,
Ayodhya Enclave, Sector-13, Kolkata 700142 Maliyekal Lane, P.O. Thevara,
Rohini, New Delhi 110085 M/27137 Cochin 682013
M/27130 Shri Ramesh Chandra Sahoo,
M/27122 Ms. Parvatha Lakshmi MCOM, AICWA M/27145
Shri Jitendra Jenamani, Natarajan, MCOM, AICWA Asst. Manager (F & A) Shri Battini Santosh Babu,
BCOM(HONS), AICWA Flat No.7, 3rd Floor, 131/12 Paradeep Phosphates Ltd., MCOM, AICWA
C/o. Subhas Sarkar N.S.C. Bose Road, Bayan Bhawan, PT. JN 330, 2nd Block, 2nd Main,
Krishnapally Bandh Road, Kolkata 700040 Marg, Bhubaneswar 751001 Ayyappa Nagar, Devasandra,
Malda K.R. Puram,
M/27131 M/27138 Bangalore 560036
M/27123 Shri Manchukonda Nanda, Shri Srinivas Koushik
Shri K. G. Karthikeyan, MCOM, AICWA Garigipati, MCOM, AICWA M/27146
BCOM, AICWA Shri A. Srijith Kumar,
H. No. 4-12-111, Road No. 7 H.No. 35-77/11, Plot No. 29,
Plot No. 10, Rara Rajeswari BCOM, AICWA
Arunodaya Nagar, Brindavan Colony, Sainikpuri
Nagar (South), Plot 2602/11, Zebbaway,
Bhagyalatha, Post, Secunderabad 500094
Tirunelveli 627007 Gaborone, Botswana
Hyderabad 500070 M/27139
M/27124 M/27147
Ms. Narasimhan Krithiga, Shri Ranjit Singh, Shri N. Srinivasan,
Plot No. 9, Manikandan Shri Nilam Prasad, Ranjit Singh & Associates, 15/6, Seshadri Street, Srirangam,
Street, Ayyappanagar, BCOM(HONS), AICWA Near Student’s Cottage, P.P. Trichirappalli 620006
Madipakkam, 82/13, Jawpur Road, Dum Compound,
Chennai 600091 Dum, Kolkata 700074 Ranchi 834001 M/27148
Shri Ugresan Jena,
M/27125 M/27133 M/27140 BSC, AICWA
Shri Rajiv Kumar, Shri Ramesh Babu Shri Pokhraj Sharma, H-32, Sector-2, Executive Flat,
MCOM, AICWA Nallagopula, BCOM, AICWA Rourkela 769006
Flat No. 51, Lotus, Nelco MCOM, AICWA 35/D/2 Umesh Mukherjee
Gardens, Viman Nagar, Qtr. No. FBM-91, Central Road, Belghoria, M/27149
Pune 411014 Township, HAL Qrts., Nr. Kolkata 700056 Shri Parmeshwar Yadav,
Borewell Busstop, BSC(HONS), AICWA
M/27126 Marathahalli-P.O., M/27141 Quarter No. 795, Sector-3D,
Shri Nilay Kanti Maji, Bangalore 560037 Shri Sathisha, Bokaro Steel City,
BSC, AICWA BCOM, AICWA Bokaro 827003
L-6, Anasua Housing No.585, II Floor, I Block, III
Complex, Durgachak, Stage, UVCE Layout, M/27150
Shri Bomidika Dasharatha
Haldia 721602 Basaveshwara Nagar, Ms. Durga Reshmi M.R.,
Bangalore 560079 BCOM, AICWA
H. No. 10-01-99/3, Road No.
M/27127 39/5400B, “Uthram” Alappatt
4, Bhagya Nagar Colony, M/27142
Shri Sasanka Bhusan Mishra, Cross Road, Ravipuram,
Lingojiguda, Saroor Nagar, Shri Shankarakrishnan Cochin 682016
Plot No. 1168, Ratnakar Hyderabad 500035 Srinivasan, BCOM, AICWA
Bag-2 Tankapani Road, 705 B, Komarla Brigade M/27151
Bhubaneswar 751018 M/27135 Apts., Uttarahalli Main Shri Sujit Ray,
Shri Raja Ram, Road, BSC, AICWA
M/27128 BCOM, AICWA Bangalore 560061 15, Ocean Road, Dares Salaam,
Shri Atanu Kumar Mohanty, H. No. 16, Chals Raghunath, 451 P.O. Box,
BCOM(HONS), AICWA Mirzapur Road, Naini, M/27143 Tanzania
A-17, HIG, Palaspali, Allahabad 211008 Shri Soosally Thomas,
Bhubaneswar 751020 MSC, AICWA M/27152
M/27136 32/468 A, “TAJ”, Kailas Shri Vamsi Krishna Sreekakulam,
M/27129 Shri Goutam Roy, Nagar, Puthiya Road, BCOM, ACA, ACS, AICWA
Shri Md. Abdur Rasid BCOM, AICWA Palarivattom, 1-2-170/5, Rajamudhaliar Street,
Mandal, BCOM(HONS), C/o. Jitendra Nath Roy Janata Ernakulam 682025 Secunderabad 500003

702 the management accountant, September, 2008

Admission to Membership

M/27153 44, A/6/15, Blue Grotto 49/26, Reheman Building, Flat No. 60, Himalaya Apts., 61
Shri Prem George, Society, LIC Colony, Borivali 2nd Floor, Elphinstone Road, I.P. Extension, Patparganj,
BCOM(HONS), AICWA (West), Mumbai Mumbai 400013 New Delhi 110092
No. 14, 4th Street, DAE
Township, Kalpakkam, M/27161 M/27169 M/27176
Chennai 603102 Shri Nikhil Vilas Deshpande, Ms. Pragya Virender Ms. Sonia Sharma,
M/27154 118/7, Mahesh BCOM, AICWA Z-489, Timarpur, Opp.
Shri Brahmadevara Avinash, Society,Bibwewadi, H. No. 25, Sector-15 A, B D Estate,
MCOM, ACS, AICWA Pune 411037 Noida 201301 Delhi 110054
R.B.III, 1301/1 Railway
Quarters, Mettuguda, M/27162 M/27170 M/27177
Secunderabad 500017 Shri Aseem Dhru, AICWA Ms. Sangita More, Ms. Sarita , AICWA
301, Oyster, 19th Road, BCOM, AICWA NU-56C, Pitam Pura,
M/27155 T.P.S. Next to Beams 1A, Apurba Mitter Road, “ Vishakha Enclave,
Shri Giridhari Mandal, Hospital, Khar (West), A.M. Enclave “, New Delhi 110088
BCOM, AICWA Mumbai 400052 Flat No. 2A, Kalighat,
East Bhuggaidih Colliery, Kolkata 700026 M/27178
Staff Colony 3 No., Near M/27163 Shri Dinesh Thapar,
Prag Ice Factory, P.O. Jharia, Shri Parmod Kumar Gulia, M/27171 BCOM(HONS), ACA, AICWA
Dhanbad, Jharia 828111 MCOM, MPHIL, AICWA Shri Chaganty Surya 601, Shweta Apartments, N M
H. No. 1280, Ward No. 21, Narayana Murthy, Kale Marg, Prabhadevi,
M/27156 Prem Nagar, MCOM, AICWA Mumbai 400028
Shri Govind Prasad,
Rohtak 124001 Qr. No. B-20, HAL
Township, Hindustan M/27179
House No. 46, HIG Colony,
M/27164 Aeronautics Ltd., H A L - Shri Nand Kishor Upadhyay,
Sector-4, Vaishali,
Shri Pitambar Jha, P.O., Hyderabad 500042 MCOM, AICWA
Ghaziabad 201010
BCOM, AICWA P-7/125, Sector-6, Rohini,
A-5, Jay Shakti Nagar M/27172 New Delhi 110085
Society, Behind Ram Nagar Shri Radhakrishnan
Shri Sumit Singh Basisth,
Minicipal School, Ram Nagar Kuttappan Nair, M/27180
No. 1, Vijalpore, BCOM, AICWA Shri Ulhaskumar Sidramappa
A2-73, Ashmita Jyoti CHS
Ltd., Marve Road, Malad Navsari 396450 191/2004, Sector-6, Kane Arakeri, BCOM, AICWA
(West), Mumbai 400095 Nagar, Antop Hill, Arakeri House, Chalukyanagar,
M/27165 Mumbai 400037 Solapur Road,
M/27158 Ms. Neeta Jagotra, AICWA Bijapur 586103
Shri Sachin Chaturvedi, House No. 1, Type-IV, M/27173
MCOM, AICWA Presidency Estate, Ms. Ankita Prabhakar, M/27181
C-S/101, BILT Officers Rashtrapati Bhawan, AICWA Shri Anindya Kumar Kundu,
Colony, BILT Graphic New Delhi 110004 House No. 113, Sector-7, BCOM(HONS), MBA, AICWA
Paper Products Ltd., 105, Pocket-H/17, Rohini, New 110/7, Kali Kundu Lane,
Pune-Solapur Highway, M/27166 Delhi 110085 Howrah 711101
Bhigwan, Tal:- Indapur, Shri Ashwani Khurana,
Pune 413105 BCOM(HONS), AICWA M/27174 M/27182
WZ-1755, Rani Bagh, Shri Kopparam Shri Gagan Bihari Pradhan,
M/27159 New Delhi 110034 Vasanthakumar Rajdeep, BSC(HONS), AICWA
Shri P.S.S. Chandra Sekhar, BCOM, AICWA B-108, Sector-3, Damanjodi,
BCOM, MBA(FIN.), M/27167 No. 10, Goutham Hsg. Co- NALCO Township,
AICWA Shri Ajay Kumar, op. Society, R B I Layout, Koraput 763008
Palace Shiv Sagar, Bldg. No. BCOM, AICWA kothnoor, Dinne Main Road,
68, B-Wing, Flat-1001, Road H. No. 294-E, Pocket-II, J. P. Nagar 7th Phase, M/27183
No. 13, Tilaknagar, Chembur Mayur Vihar, Phase-I, Bangalore 560076 Shri Dnyanesh Ramchandra Bhat,
Mumbai 400089 New Delhi 110091 AICWA
M/27175 Block No. 297, Bldg No. 25, Type
M/27160 M/27168 Shri Vijay Rawat, - III - A, RCF Colony, Nr. Golf
Shri Parag Vinodkumar Shri Dhaval Dhanji Lalan, BCOM(HONS), CMA, Club, Chembur,
Chokshi, BCOM, AICWA MCOM, AICWA AICWA Mumbai 400074

the management accountant, September, 2008 703

Admission to Membership

M/27184 D-201, Sainath Tower, Near M/27193 B-142, Apna Nagar, N.U. 3,
Shri Harshal Shrikant Darne, Neelam Nagar PH-II, Jain Padalkar Narendra Jagannath, Gandhidham, Dist- Kutch,
BCOM, AICWA Mandir, Mulund (East), BE, AICWA 18-B, Ulka Gandhidham 370201
C-11, Mahindra Hsg. Mumbai 400081 Nagari, Near Omkareshwar
Society, Shrikrishna Nagar, Mandir, Garikheda, M/27198
Borivali-East, M/27189 Aurangabad 431001 Ms. Munmun Chatterjee,
Mumbai 400066 Shri Sakalabattula Suresh, BCOM, AICWA
MCOM, MBA, AICWA M/27194 66, R.K. Ghosal Road,
M/27185 D. No. 50-48-11, P & T Chapalamadugu Syam Kolkata 700042
Shri Manoj Gupta, Colony, P.O. Prasad, BA, AICWA
BCOM(HONS), AICWA Seethammadhara, Flat No. 8, I.D.L. Colony, M/27199
Bungalow No. 56, H.P. Visakhapatnam 530013 West Desai Nagar, Shri Balakrishna Panigrahi,
Nagar (East), Vasinaka, Sonaparbat, BA(HONS), AICWA
Mahul Road, Chembur, M/27190 Rourkela 769016 C/o. Shri J.S. Balasubramaniam,
Mumbai 400074 Ms. Meenakshi Aggarwal, No. 6/30, Ground Floor,
BCOM(HONS), AICWA M/27195 Mugappair West, Chennai
M/27186 House No. 1544, Sector 7E, R. Srinivasan, 600037
Shri Gaikwad Ravindra Faridabad 121006 MCOM, AICWA
Anna, MCOM, AICWA C/o. Zile Singh Ground Floor, M/27200
B 25/12, Shri Gurukrupa M/27191 91A-1, Prateek Market, Ms. Basanti Sahu, MA(ECON),
CHS., Sector-48, Nerul, Shri Deepak Malpani, Munirka, AICWA
Navi Mumbai 400706 BCOM, AICWA New Delhi 110067 Accounts Executive, BPL Ltd.,
House No. 186A, Sector 11D, Dynamic House, No. 64, Church
M/27187 Faridabad 121006 M/27196 Street,
Shri Iswar Chandra Kundu, Sirisha Alapati, Bangalore 560001
Plot No. 491, Nuasahi, Arcot Sreekanth, BSC, D/o. A.S. Murthy MIG-9/2, M/27201
Nayapalli, AICWA Pithapuram Colony, Ms. Renu Dahiya,
Bhubaneswar 751012 #154, 2-G-1, Reliance Cluster, Visakhapatnam 530003 MCOM, AICWA
Gruhalakshmi Layout, House No. 2015/A, Sector 47/B,
M/27188 Kamalanagar, M/27197 Chandigarh 160047
Shri Ajay Prabhakar Palay, Bangalore 560079 Shivendra Kishore,

Contd. from Page 694

References Perspective”, Journal of MIS, 18(1). Knowledge-Creating Company, Oxford:
l James B. Rebitzer, Lowell J. Taylor Oxford University Press.
l Alavi, M. and Leidner, D. (2001), (2006), “When Knowledge Is an l Spender, J. C. (1996), “Making
“Review: Knowledge Management and Asset:Explaining the Organizational Knowledge the Basis of a Dynamic
Knowledge Management Systems: Structure of Large Law Firms”, IZA Theory of the Firm”, Strategic
Conceptual Foundations and Research Discussion Paper No. 2353. Management Journal, (17).
Issues”, MIS Quarterly. l Jerome J. Peloquin (2001), “An Essay l Shih-Wei Chou, Mong-Young He
l Becerra-fernandez, I. and Sabherwal, R. On Knowledge As A Corporate Asset (2004), “Facilitating Knowledge
(2001), “Organizational Knowledge Building the case for Human Capital”. Creation by Knowledge Assets”,
Management: A Contingency The Performance Paradigm. Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii
Perspective”, Journal of Management l Nahapiet, J. and Ghoshal, S. (1998), International Conference on System
Information Systems. “Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, Sciences.
l Brian Tuemmler (2003, 2004), and The Organizational Advantage”, l Yogesh Malhotra (2000), “Knowledge
“Knowledge Assets”, Courtesy of Academic Management Review, 23(2). Assets in the Global Economy:
AIIME-DOC Magazine. l Nonaka, I. (1994), “A Dynamic Theory Assessment of National Intellectual
l Davenport, T. H., et al., 1998, of Organizational Knowledge Capital”, Journal of Global Information
“Successful knowledge management Creation”, Organization Science, 5(1). Management.
projects”, Sloan Management Review, l Nonaka, I. and Konno, N. (1998), “The l Yogesh Malhotra (2003), “Measuring
Vol. 39. Concept of “ba”: Building a Foundation Knowledge Assets of a Nation:
l Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., and Segars, of Knowledge Creation”, California Knowledge Systems for Develpoment”,
A. (2001), “Knowledge Management: Management Review, 40(3). Martin J. Whitman School of
An Organizational Capabilities l Nonaka, I, and Takeuchi, H. (1995), The Management, Syracuse University. q

704 the management accountant, September, 2008

Commodity Futures

Problems and Prospects of market-margin”, farmers can as well

lodge the title pertaining to the
underlying commodity with the
Commodity Futures exchange / clearing corporation.
Objectives of the Study:

Market in India This research paper is focused on

the following objectives:
A futures contract is an agreement to purchase / sell the commodity at a specific Ø To present the nature problems of
price and on a specific future date. These are traded in commodity futures commodity price pattern for
exchanges where the counterparty risk is taken over by the exchange itself. managing commodity price risk.
Unlike in the stock market derivatives, the settlement in the commodity derivative
Ø To analyze the importance of
markets is often accomplished through physicaldelivery of the underlying asset.
commodity derivative markets in
Dr. V. Gangadhar* India.
Ø To examine the role of commodity
G. Naresh Reddy**
futures trading in India.
Introduction: tobacco / coffee. Uncertainty in Ø To study the impediments for the
commodity prices also affects the debt development of commodity futures

eveloping countries have been
exporting commodities for servicing capacity of the traders and the trading in India.
producer -farmers of the commodity.
earning foreign exchange as well Ø To suggest the measures for the
as income. According to the pragmatic This indirectly makes the cost of their
development of commodity futures
estimates primary commodities account debt prohibitively high, leading to
trading in India.
for 68 percent of exports of low-income increased cost of production. Even the
availability of credit may at times Nature and Problem of Commodity
and developing countries, while it is 44
become difficult, particularly for farmers Prices:
percent in case of high income and
developed countries. In the recent past, whose earlier debt remained Primary commodity prices and their
the share of commodity exports from outstanding owing to a previous year’s markets are known to behave differently
developing countries has declined, but price disaster. The price-risk associated from those of the manufactured goods
it is still quite high. The dependency on with commodities is also known to or services. Theoretical analysis
a few commodities for income impact Government revenue. Uncer- suggests that commodity prices will fall
generation evidently exposes the tainty associated with national revenues relative to others because of the
traders and producers to commodity ultimately makes the planning exercise
inelastic demand. Thus, the real income
price uncertainties in the global markets. of the Government puzzled. Such risk
of the commodity producers falls
The variations in commodity prices even impacts the Government’s debt-
because inelastic demand prevents them
affect even the traders who are servicing ability.
from offsetting price movements with
otherwise known to operate on tight Meaning of Futures Contract: volume changes. The prime reason for
margins. For instance, a trader who A futures contract is an agreement extra volatility in commodity prices is
purchased tobacco or coffee from local to purchase / sell the commodity at a the presence of natural shocks that are
farmers with an intention to export faces specific price and on a specific future not predictable and mostly relate to the
enormous risk if the international prices date. These are traded in commodity previous year’s production or
collapse before he sells his stock of futures exchanges where the consumption decisions. A reduction in
counterparty risk is taken over by the
supply that can result in shocks, will
exchange itself. Unlike in the stock
*Convener, ICET-2006, Professor of lead to a sharp increase in price,
Commerce and Business Management, market derivatives, the settlement in the
followed by a slow or rapid reduction
Kakatiya University, Warangal-506 009. commodity derivative markets is often
depending on the nature of the
**Lecturer, Department of Commerce & accomplished through physicaldelivery
of the underlying asset. Secondly, to commodity. Commodity price cycles
Business Management, University Arts &
Science College, Subedari, Kakatiya meet the margin requirements either mostly have flat bottoms with
University, Warangal-506001. under “initial margin” or “mark-to- occasional sharp peaks.

the management accountant, September, 2008 705

Commodity Futures

The following are four important borrower by insuring his revenue were organized in Mumbai under the
commodity price problems: from future price fluctuations auspices of “East India Cotton
a) Short-term fluctuations: These and thus, his loan repaying Association” in 1921. Simultaneously,
are common among the agriculture capacity increases; several exchanges were set up in major
products, either within a year due c) These are market neutral and the agricultural centres in North India
to seasonal variations or from year premiums are determined by before the World War broke out and
to year because of abnormal weather markets. they were mostly engaged in wheat
variations and conditions. futures until it was prohibited in 1921.
d) Comparatively commodity deriva-
The existing exchanges in Hapur,
b) Medium- term changes: As seen tives operating expenses are
Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Bhatinda, etc.,
often in oil or other mineral markets, relatively lower; and
were established during this period.
responding to multi-year business e) Secured prices help the farmers to The Government of India has banned
cycles in the world economy. make appropriate decisions about trading in commodity futures in the year
c) Permanent changes: These are allocation of resources. 1966 in order to have an effective control
affecting one or a few countries Development of Commodity Futures over the fluctuations of prices of
owing to technological changes or Market in India: agricultural and essential commodities.
the discovery of new technology As a result of this, all the commodity
India has a long history of trade in
which alters competitiveness. exchanges went out of business and
commodity derivatives; this sector
d) Long-term declining commodity remained underdeveloped due to many traders started resorting to
prices: Normally, the behavior of control, regulation and intervention of unofficial and informal trading in
commodity prices will be short-term Government for many years on futures. On the recommendation of the
in the nature and show sudden rise commodities prices. The production, Khusro Committee in 1980, Government
or fall and this asymmetric behavior supply and distribution of many reintroduced futures trading on some
tends to impose costs on any agricultural commodities are still selected commodities including cotton,
scheme meant for balancing price governed by the state and forwards & jute, potatoes, etc. As a part of
fluctuations. All these expose futures trading are selectively Economic Reforms, the Government of
producers to the dual problem of introduced with stringent controls. Free India has appointed an expert
lower returns and higher risks. trade in many commodity items is committee on forward markets under the
Managing Price Risk Through restricted under the Essential chairmanship of KN Kabra in the year
Commodity Derivatives: Commodities Act, 1955 and Agriculture 1993. The committee has submitted the
The slow withdrawal of govern- Productive Marketing Committees Acts report in 1994 and recommended for the
ments from market stabilization activities of various State Governments. reintroduction of futures, with a wider
resulted in a search for new alternatives, The “Bombay Cotton Trade coverage and scope to more agricultural
and thus derivatives entered into the Association” has set up the first commodities. In order to give thrust on
commodity markets. Commodity commodity exchange in India and agricultural sector, the National
derivative instruments aimed at making formally organized futures trading in Agricultural Policy 2000 envisages
commodity prices and revenue more cotton in 1875. Subsequently, many external and domestic market reforms
predictable, rather than stabilizing them. exchanges came up in different parts of and dismantling of all controls and
They simply remove price uncertainty the country for futures trading in regulations on agricultural commodity
for commercial transactions and thereby various commodities. The “Gujrati market. It also proposed enlargement of
reduce uncertainty in revenues. Trading Vyapari Mandali” came into existence coverage of futures market to reduce
in Commodity Derivatives has following in 1900, which has undertaken futures the wide fluctuations in commodity
advantages over price stabilization trading in oilseeds for the first time in prices and for hedging the risk arising
schemes hitherto regulated by the the country. The “Calcutta Hessian from price fluctuations.
Government: Exchange Ltd” and the “East India Jute Present Scenario of Commodity
a) Transfers of risk from domestic Association Ltd” were set up in 1919 Futures Market:
markets to global markets; and 1927 respectively for futures trade In the Budget speech delivered on
b) Increases credit worthiness of a in raw jute. Futures trading in cotton 28th February 2002, the then Finance
706 the management accountant, September, 2008
Commodity Futures

Minister announced expansion of of South India, Connoor (Tamil Nadu), a. National Commodity & Derivatives
futures and forward trading to cover all and SGI Commodity Exchanges, Exchange (NCDEX): It was
agricultural commodities. This was Mumbai. While the first two exchanges commenced operations only in
followed by the removal of prohibition will trade in Sugar and Tea respectively, December 2003 and in the four
of futures trading on 27 (out of 81 items) the SGI commodity Exchange will deal months ended March 2004, the
of oilseeds, oils and their cake in August with Soya Bean, Groundnut, their oils exchange achieved a turnover of Rs.
2002. Subsequently, in February 2003, and oil cakes. 1,490 crore and in the first half of
the Government removed the 2004-05 its turnover is increased to
There were 25 exchanges
prohibition on the remaining 54 Rs. 54,011 crore. Its contribution to
functioning in India as on 31st March,
commodities also under the Forward total turnover is 1.8 percent and 37.6
2004, of these three viz., National Multi-
Contract (Regulation) Act, 1952, thus percent in the year 2003-04 and the
Commodity Exchange of India Ltd.,
removing the statutory hurdles on first half of 2004-05 respectively.
(NMCE) Ahmedabad, National
futures trading in general and the b. National Board of Trade (NBOT):
Commodity & Derivatives Exchange
agricultural sector in particular. The The commodity futures trading on
Ltd., (NCDEX) Mumbai and Multi
Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act this exchange was commenced on
Commodity Exchange Ltd., (MCX)
1956 was also amended in August 2003 2001 before the commencement of
Mumbai are national exchanges. The
to provide for commodity derivatives. trading in three national exchanges.
Soon thereafter, the Forward Markets other remaining 22 exchanges are
Its proportion to total turnover of
Commission granted permission to three regional exchanges. All the national
derivatives is 100%, 88.3%, 65.6%
National Multi Commodity Exchanges, exchanges are demutualized,
and 35.5% from the first year of the
viz., National Multi-Commodity managed by a Board comprising
study to the first half of the last year.
Exchange of India Ltd. (NMCE), independent directors, adopt screen
This downward trend shows the
Ahmedabad, National Commodity & based trading system and daily mark to
importance of national exchanges in
Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), and market margin system.
the commodity derivatives market.
Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX), Pattern of Commodity Futures Trading
c. Multi-commodity Exchange (MCX):
Mumbai. The ‘National Status’ was in India:
This exchange commenced
given to these exchanges so that they The third component of organized operations in November 2003,
would be automatically permitted to trading of standardized products in the during the first four months the
conduct futures trading in all country is in the commodity futures exchange achieved a turnover of Rs.
commodities subject to clearance of market. In recent years, these markets 2,456 crore and it increased to Rs.
bye-laws and contract specifications by have drawn upon the success of 30,695 crore in the first half of 2004-
the FMC. While the NMCE,
nationwide electronic trading on the 05. Its contribution has increased
Ahmedabad commenced futures
equity market, and three new exchanges from 3.0% to 21.4% for its ten months
trading in November 2002, MCX and
have come about: NCDEX, MCX and period of commencement.
NCDEX, Mumbai commenced
NMCE. The NCDEX has setup 505 d. National Multi-commodity
operations in October/December 2003
terminals in 138 centers, MEX has setup Exchange (NMCEX): It is the first
763 terminals in 132 centers and NMCE to commence operations among the
Presently, futures trading3 permitted has setup 346 terminals at 96 centers.
in all the commodities. Trading takes national exchanges. This exchange
These terminals facilitate pooling up of is reported to be the only commodity
place in about 78 commodities through orders from across the country and feed
25 Exchanges/Associations (Table-3). exchange in the world to have
them to the computerized order system received ISO 9001:2000 certification
Besides, this Forward Markets
to match them. This has offered from British Standard Institution
Commission has also given in principle
transparency in price discovery. (BSI). It commenced futures trading
approval to NSC InfoTech Ltd.,
Hyderabad, United Planters Association We observed the following trends in 24 commodities on 26th November,
and pattern of commodity derivatives 2002. Turnover is increased from Rs.
The options’ trading in commodity trading in India over a short period of 4,572 crore to Rs. 23,842 crore in the
derivatives is prohibited by the Government its launching in India and Table-2 year 2003-04 and it decreased to Rs.
of India. presents the relevant data. 7,943 over the study period.

the management accountant, September, 2008 707

Commodity Futures

e. In the first half of 2004-05, all being traded so that the title of the this may soon as the FCRA 1952 is
commodity (national as well as goods can be transferred from one in the process of undergoing
regional) futures exchanges clocked individual to another without considerable changes, subject to
trading volume of Rs. 1.7 lakh crore. undertaking the physical delivery of parliament clearance.
This works out to be roughly one stocks. g) The market must be efficient
third of the Government of India’s b) An agency is to be set up to help with widespread awareness
Bond Market and one-tenth of the seller and buyer by grading the amongst various market players,
exchange trading on the equity stocks being offered by them for liquidity would increase further with
market. sale and certify its quality; grade so a well-diversified basket of
Impediments for Promotion of Futures that the buyer can be sure of buying commodities.
Trading in Commodity Exchanges: is required grade of commodity. h) The FMC does not have similar
Commodity futures market in India c) There must be a Clearing House powers as enjoyed by the CFTC in
is still not developed as compared to that takes care of the commodity the US. The FCRA 1952 is under the
other countries. The dominant political that is being traded in the derivative scanner of the present Government
ideology for control and regulation of exchanges and ensures that quality and its amendment is likely to
commodity market during early years is maintained till the stock under the bestow more powers on the FMC to
after independence dealt a severe blow traded contact is delivered to the regulate this market.
to development of futures markets in ultimate buyer, at a reasonable cost. i) The Union Finance Minister, in his
India. It is only after the onset of d) Commodities trading must be settled Budget-2005, has quoted for a
liberalization during 1991, the attitude in dematerialized form so that traders single regulatory regime. It will find
towards futures trading has changed from across the country can trade very difficult to tackle complexities
perceptibly and its potential benefits are on futures being certain of the in the socio-economic dimensions
now being acknowledged in the policy underlying commodity in terms of of this fledging commodity futures.
circles. The major problems afflicting the its quality, grade, quantity and j) Healthy competition is always
commodity markets are: its maintenance during the beneficial to catalyze the growth in
a) Poor infrastructure in the exchanges, intervening period. any market. In this case too, the
b) Lack of on-line trading facilities e) Banks can come forward to sanction Government has to take necessary
in the large number of exchanges, agriculture produce loans to farmers steps for the implementation of
c) Low level of awareness among against the pledge of warehouse online commodity trading on the
various stakeholders including receipts and futures contracts of regional exchanges also.
farmers, national derivative exchanges.
k) The market should be made more
They should also explore the
d) Strong presence of unofficial broad-based by allowing banks and
possibility of offering hedge
“havala” trading, FIIs to participate in commodity
prospects to farmers on a pooled
e) High operational costs, futures. Options should be allowed
basis, with banks as intermediaries
to be traded, as that will give one
f) Unfavorable/stringent trading between exchanges and farmers and
more efficient tool to the participants
parameters, thus pave the way for active futures
to apply various hedging strategies
g) Single commodity focus, and trading on agriculture commodities
for averting their price risks.
so that farmers can enjoy the benefit
h) Poor transparency in transactions.
of dependable price discovery well I) The regulator will need to develop
Suggestions: in advance to their planting and strong human resources
The following prerequisites are sowing season. management in the behavior of
certain to give a big boost to commodity f) The Forward Contracts underlying commodity exchanges.
futures trading in India: Regulations Act (FCRA) 1952 m) Competition between the
a) A negotiable document may be in doesn’t permit index based exchanges must be within the
demat form is to be created to products and these are traded framework of rules and the FMC
underlying asset of the futures on the commodity exchanges. But should ensure this.
708 the management accountant, September, 2008
Commodity Futures

Developing countries have large
exposure to commodity price risk. Their
exports are often concentrated in a few
primary commodities with positively
correlated price movements. The
dependency on a few commodities and
uncertain commodity prices exposes
such countries to uncertain revenues
and expenditures. This has varied
consequences such as affect to the
Government revenue, adverse impact on
commodity financing in terms of
increased cost of debt or no or low debt
due to poor credit worthiness, etc.
Liberalization of commodity markets and
WTO provisions have made the
Governments to withdraw their
intervention on commodity markets
through various modes of price control
and stabilization schemes. Thus,
derivative instruments in commodity
futures have become essential and they
are found to be more efficient in ‘price-
discovery’ and transferring the risk.
However, successful commodity
derivative trading calls. for appropriate
institutional support and awareness
among the commodity producers.
The future is certainly bright for the
Indian commodities market. Once the
much-awaited institutional partici-
pation enters the market, it will create
speculation, arbitration and hedging for
all kinds of players in the market.
Although, there is enough depth in the
market, large institutional participation especially in those commodities where Ø Economic and Political Weekly, July
would bring liquidity and better price India is a major producer or consumer. 30th, 2005, page No. 3364 to 3368.
discovery for all players, especially for Ø The Hindu Business Line, Monday,
the retail investors who can now look November 7th, 2005, page No. 7.
Ø Indian Economic Review, Vol. XXXIX,
at commodities as an investment option. No. 2, 2004, page No. 315 to 325. Ø The Hindu Business Line, Thursday,
If one adopts a disciplined approach, Ø Economic Survey 2004-05. November 10th, 2005, page No. 13.
commodities can give the returns on par Ø Chartered Financial Analyst, December, Ø The Hindu Business Line, Friday,
with the equities. As the market matures 2005, page No. 28 to 30. November 18th, 2005, page No. 13.
and deepens further, we can hope to Ø Financing Agriculture, October -
Ø The Hindu Business Line, Wednesday,
see the day very soon, when Indian December, 2005, Volume 37, No. 4, page
No. 2 to 51. December 14th, 2005, page No. 11.
commodities market will provide a
Ø The Hindu Business Line, February Ø The Economic times, Tuesday,
benchmark for traders worldwide, 13th, 2005, page No. 13. February 14th, 2006, pate No. 9.

the management accountant, September, 2008 709

Commodity Futures

710 the management accountant, September, 2008


Quality of Work Life of work life and suggested job enrichment

programme to correct the problems of
worker’s skill and abilities. Very few

Employees in Engineering studies could be cited in the context

human relations to review how good
relationships between superior and
Industry subordinate enhance quality of their
working life. Singh and Pestonjee (1974)
A survey on quality of work life (QWL) in engineering industry, various factors of studied the differential effect of
QWL and their correlation. supervisory behaviour on job
satisfaction those are under employee-
S.Varadaraj* oriented supervision.
Dr.R.Sellappan* * Encouraging employee partici-
pation is an idea everyone favours;
Introduction quality of work life and to pin-point
translating the idea into practice,
those dimensions where there is

bviously, without the efforts of however, steps on people’s toes (David
the workers, the other two predominance of favourable orientation
and those dimensions where there is and Edward, 1983). The evidence shows
economic factors of that opinions on working conditions
production, namely, land and capital, predominance of unfavourable
orientations of the employees towards have reservations with regard to several
would be useless. The crucial
certain aspects of work environment like central claims of the quality of work
importance of the workers in industry
wage, working condition, opportunities movement. Johnston (1975) supported
as a vital resource for the interest of the
for growth, etc. the studies which view that workers
business has been well recognized by
often value factors such as job interest
the Industrial Policy Resolution. Factors Determining Qwl
and good working conditions above
If a business enterprise has to The study intends to assess the pay. The perceived stress has been
achieve and maintain sound and quality of work life with emphasis on linked to job dissatisfaction, depressed
profitable operations, it has to recognize the factors such as, Nature of Job, Pay feelings, work absence, and turnover. It
the importance of its workers as human and Compensation, Development and is highest among women, especially
beings who enter the organization with Encouragement, Human Relation and
those working in service occupations
certain needs, wants, motives, Social Integration, Workers
(Wilkins & Beaudet, 1998).
expectancies and aspirations (Sangeeta Participation in Management, Working
Jain, 2004). In many ways, Quality of Condition, Occupational Stress, Rigidity in the work schedule will
Work Life (QWL) represents a blending Alternative Work Schedule, Grievance cause negative effect on the
of these very real concerns for human Procedure and Promotion Policy. performance of employees. A system
values in today’s society with of flexible working hours, also called
Related Studies
awareness that all individuals devote ‘Flexi Time’, to suit the convenience of
An abundance of studies pointed individual employees has often been
the greater part of their mature lives to
out that, employees perception pointed out as one of the techniques of
work, expanding time, energy and
regarding availability of influence and
physical and mental resources to this motivation. Studies of the personal
autonomy, economic compensation
endeavour. characteristics of those who have filed
interpersonal support, respectful
Objectives grievances, as contrasted with those
supervisory behaviour are important
who have not, revealed some
The purpose of this paper is to factors of general life satisfaction
differences. In general, those who filed
study the quality of work life of (Mehta, 1977). Few evidences are
grievances were younger, had more
employees of engineering industry and available to support the relationship
formal education, and got more wage
explore the relevant dimensions of between “economic factor and quality
of work life.” Kapoor (1967) found that increases (Thomas, 1986). Lawler (1973)
* Lecturer in Management, Gobi Arts &
wages were ranked first in importance indicated that the data from a number
Science College, Gobichettipalayam – 638 of studies show that problems or
453. by Indian workers because of
inflationary economy. Sirota (1973) concerns with promotion are factors
** Reader, HOD of Management, Gobi Arts
found that underutilization of worker’s that provide a major source of
& Science College, Gobichettipalayam – 638
453. skill and abilities cause low quality of dissatisfaction for employees.

the management accountant, September, 2008 711


Research Design the quality of work life needs 11.0 package and an unrotated factor
To determine the Quality of Work improvement. matrix was obtained. To decide when to
Life of the employees working in Data Analysis And Interpretation stop functioning so as to get the final
engineering industry, the author feels rotated matrix, the latent root criteria was
The findings of the study show that
that Exploratory Research is most applied i.e., only the factors having
most of the respondents are between
suitable. Data required for the study eigen values greater than 1 were
the age group of 41 and 50 years and
were collected from the employees of considered significant, and all the
are between 6th and 10th standard of
engineering concerns situated in factors with eigen values less than 1
educational qualification. About 50% of
Coimbatore district. Among 100 and odd were considered insignificant and
respondents are with the experience of
engineering concerns in Coimbatore discarded.
above 10 years in the present concern.
district, five were selected from different About 70% of respondents have the After the initial responses had been
blocks and from each concern adequate monthly income of above Rs.4000. fed into it, the package provided us with
number of respondents were selected Three fourth of the respondents are the descriptive statistics, correlation
according to the size of the concern. In having 3 and 4 dependent members and matrix, initial factor matrix, rotated factor
total 200 respondents were selected on most of them are coming to the matrix and component plot in rotated
the basis of stratified random sampling organization by the company vehicle. space to enhance its interpretability.
method. The above table shows that the
Factor analysis is used to study the
A structured, non-disguised major factors considered important by mean score for Nature of Job is maximum
interview schedule was prepared for the the respondents. Factor analysis with 3.68 points; Works Participation in
purpose of collecting the data. The applies an advanced form of correlation Management has 3.58 points followed
survey was preceded by a pilot study, analysis to the responses given by the by Human Relation and Social
conducted by interviewing a sample of respondents. If the response to a Integration with 3.54 points. The
10 respondents. Based on the result of number of statements is significantly standard deviation of the score ranges
the pilot study, some of the questions correlated, it is believed that the between 0.690 and 0.969.
were deleted and a few were modified. statement measures some factor The correlation matrix of the ten
The statistical tools used to common to all of them. variables pertaining to quality of work
interpret the data are Mean, Standard Likert’s scale was employed to life was computed. The factor Nature of
Deviation, Correlation and Factor determine scores, where respondents Job positively correlated with Human
Analysis. Based on the various were asked to rate each attribute on 5- Relation and Social Integration,
analyses the findings were drawn. point scale ranging from highly satisfied Workers Participation in Management
These findings may be helpful in to highly dissatisfied. The data so and Alternative Work Schedule and
deciding whether the existing quality of collected was subjected to Factor negatively correlated with Promotion
work life is congruent with the demands Analysis. The ten variables and the Policy with 5% significant level. Pay and
and expectations of the employees and points assigned to them by the Compensation is correlated with Human
are helpful to pinpoint the areas where respondents were analysed using SPSS Relation and Social Integration. Human
Relation and Social Integration is
Table No. 1 positively correlated with Workers
Mean Scores and Standard Deviation Scores for the factors of QWL Participation in Management and
significant at 5% level and correlated
S. No. Factors of QWL Mean S. D.
with Occupational Stress, Grievance
1. Nature of Job 3.68 0.856
Procedure and Promotion Policy and
2. Pay and Compensation 3.41 0.708 significant at 1% level. Grievance
3. Development and Encouragement 3.40 0.690 Procedure is positively correlated with
4. Human Relation and Social Integration 3.54 0.690 Workers Participation in Management
5. Workers Participation in Management 3.58 0.820 (5%) and Occupational Stress (1%)
6. Working Condition 3.55 0.810 The data consisting of ten variables
7. Occupational Stress 3.41 0.817 pertaining to quality of work life was
further subjected to principal
8. Alternative Work Schedule 3.38 0.716
component analysis. The eigen values,
9. Grievance Procedure 3.42 0.969
the percentage of total variance
10. Promotion Policy 3.32 0.918 explained by each component and the
712 the management accountant, September, 2008

Table No. 2
Correlation among the Factors of Quality of Work Life

Workers Participation in
Pay and Compensation

Grievance Procedure
Human Relation and

Occupational Stress
Working Condition
Social Integration
Development and

Promotion Policy
Alternative Work

Nature of Job


1 -0.028 0.096 0.157* 0.149* 0.069 -0.007 0.148* 0.065 -0.139*
Nature of Job
(0.695) (0.178) (0.026) (0.035) (0.329) (0.925) (0.036) (0.364) (0.050)

Pay and -0.028 0.019 0.157* 0.078 0.033 0.049 0.072 -0.001 0.137
Compensation (0.695) (0.788) (0.026) (0.269) (0.641) (0.487) (0.312) (0.986) (0.054)

Development and 0.096 0.019 0.050 -0.033 -0.013 0.016 -0.037 0.064 -0.063
Encouragement (0.178) (0.788) (0.479) (0.638) (0.854) (0.818) (0.601) (0.368) (0.378)

Human Relation and 0.157* 0.157* 0.050 0.170* -0.070 0.196** 0.108 0.238** 0.182**
Social Integration (0.026) (0.026) (0.479) (0.016) (0.327) (0.005) (0.126) (0.001) (0.010)

Workers Participation 0.149* 0.078 -0.033 0.170* 0.065 0.045 0.035 0.162* 0.103
in Management (0.035) (0.269) (0.638) (0.016) (0.360) (0.524) (0.620) (0.022) (0.147)

0.069 0.033 -0.013 -0.070 0.065 -0.065 0.088 0.096 -0.057

Working Condition 1
(0.329) (0.641) (0.854) (0.327) (0.360) (0.361) (0.217) (0.174) (0.423)

-0.007 0.049 0.016 0.196** 0.045 -0.065 -0.015 0.284** 0.127

Occupational Stress 1
(0.925) (0.487) (0.818) (0.005) (0.524) (0.361) (0.831) (0.000) (0.074)

Alternative Work 0.148* 0.072 -0.037 0.108 0.035 0.088 -0.015 -0.121 0.095
Schedule (0.036) (0.312) (0.601) (0.126) (0.620) (0.217) (0.831) (0.089) (0.180)

0.065 -0.001 0.064 0.238** 0.162* 0.096 0.284** -0.121 0.048

Grievance Procedure 1
(0.364) (0.986) (0.368) (0.001) (0.022) (0.174) (0.000) (0.089) (0.501)

-0.139* 0.137 -0.063 0.182** 0.103 -0.057 0.127 0.095 0.048

Promotion Policy 1
(0.050) (0.054) (0.378) (0.010) (0.147) (0.423) (0.074) (0.180) (0.501)

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
cumulative percentages of total variance order of their magnitudes. scree is observed by the break where
are given in the following table: The Cattell’s Scree Test was per- onwards the line or graphic curve
The well established criteria (Yesh formed by plotting the eigen values of shows a new start of a line or curve.
Pal, 1999) suggested for the retention a pertinent matrix. In case of principal The above figure shows the plotting of
and rotation of first four principal com- component analysis we graphically plot eigen values and the scree. The scree
ponents. These components accounted the eigen values of the correlation ma- starts from fifth eigen values onwards.
for an explanation of variation to the trix. On X-axis we take the eigen values Therefore, the estimated number of com-
extent of 17.24, 12.93, 12.48 and 10.60 and on Y-axis we plot the correspond- mon factors is four.
percent respectively in the descending ing magnitudes of eigen values. The
the management accountant, September, 2008 713

Table No. 3
Total Variance Explained

Extraction Sums of Squared Rotation Sums of Squared

Initial Eigenvalues
Loadings Loadings
% of Cumulative % of Cumulative % of Cumulative
Total Total Total
Variance % Variance % Variance %
1 1.724 17.241 17.241 1.724 17.241 17.241 1.001 10.014 10.014
2 1.293 12.930 30.171 1.293 12.930 30.171 1.001 10.010 20.024
3 1.248 12.482 42.653 1.248 12.482 42.653 1.001 10.010 30.034
4 1.060 10.601 53.253 1.060 10.601 53.253 1.001 10.008 40.042
5 0.979 9.794 63.047 0.979 9.794 63.047 1.001 10.008 50.051
6 0.919 9.193 72.240 0.919 9.193 72.240 1.000 10.005 60.055
7 0.826 8.261 80.501 0.826 8.261 80.501 1.000 10.003 70.058
8 0.720 7.200 87.701 0.720 7.200 87.701 1.000 10.001 80.058
9 0.649 6.485 94.186 0.649 6.485 94.186 0.998 9.977 90.035
10 0.581 5.814 100.000 0.581 5.814 100.000 0.996 9.965 100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. participation in the management is the
Figure No. 1 second factor influencing the quality of
Cattell’s Scree Test work life of employees. The third
important factor affecting the quality of
work life of employees is wage and
compensation. The alternative work
schedule is the fourth most significant
factor influencing the employees in the
engineering industry.
Based on the findings it is suggested
v the occupational stress is the area
where the organizations should take
all possible measures to improve.
The organizations may take steps
to reduce work stress by arranging
special sessions on yoga and
v the workers may be given
opportunity to convey their opinion
and suggestions for the
improvement of the organization by
means of workers participation in
The factor matrix as obtained in the It is clear from the above that the v a well defined pay and
principal component analysis was fur- occupational stress is the most compensation plan will help the
ther subjected to varimax rotation. The important factor affecting the quality of organizations in improving the
obtained results have been presented work life of employees in the morale of the employees and in turn
in the following table. engineering industry. The workers quality of work life.
714 the management accountant, September, 2008

Table No. 4
Rotated Component Matrix

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a Rotation converged in 6 iterations.
v the workers may also be provided regard to effect of these variables on Applied Psychology, 4(2), pp. 29-33.
with facilities such as alternative quality of work life. Mehta, P.(1977), “The Role of Worker Participation,’ Vikalpa,
work schedule, restroom, recreation 1976, 1(4), pp. 39-46 and “Employees Motivation and Work
References: Satisfaction in Public Enterprises,” Vikalpa, 2(3), pp. 233-36.
facilities, etc. David A. Nadler and Edward E. Lawler III(1983), “Quality of Sangeeta Jain(2004), “Quality of Work Life of Indian Industrial
Conclusion Work Life: Perspectives and Directions,” Workers,” in Arya, P.P. and Tandon, B.B. (Eds.), Human Resource
It may be concluded that quality of Organizational Dynamics, Winter, pp. 20-30. Development, Deep & Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi,
work life of an employees are related to Duxbury, L., & Higgins, C.(1998). “Work-life balance in pp. 419-31.
an individual’s expectation of different Saskatchewan: Realities and challenges.” Saskatoon: Government Singh, J. D. and Pestonjee, B. M.(1974), “Supervisory Behaviour
of Saskatchewan. and Job Satisfaction,” Indian Journal and Industrial Relations,
characteristics of the job and perception
Herrick, N. Q.(1981),, “The Means and end of the Work,” Human Col. 9(3), 407-16.
of how much is attained. The aspiration
Relations, July, Vol. (34)(7), pp. 611-32. Sirota, D.(1973), “Production and Service Personnel and Job
varies for various reasons from Enrichment,” Work Study, 22(1), January, pp. 9-15.
Johnston, R.(1975), “Pay and Job Satisfaction: A Survey of Some
individual to individual and with in the Research Findings,” International Labour Review, 111(5), May, Thomas R. Knight,(1986), “Feedback and Grievance Resolution,”
same individual at different times of age, pp. 441-49. Industrial and Labour Relations Review, July, pp. 585-98.
education, length of service. This Kapoor, S. D.(1967), “The Prepotency of Specific Motive Among Yash Pal(1999), “A principal component analysis approach to
accounts for the conflicting results with Indian Industrial Workers,” Journal of the Indian Academy of equity share pricing,” The Management Accountant, January.q

the management accountant, September, 2008 715

Letters to Editor


The profession of CMA has been examining the possibility of a modified scheme of maintenance of cost records and
conduct of cost audit and reporting. In an earlier article, (published in Management Accountant of September 2007 pages
705-706, on ‘A Draft of Cost Audit Report to Shareholders’, I had suggested a possible inclusion of a ‘Segmental Cost
It is time for the profession to formulate a “Costing Profit and Loss Account”, representing a “Summary Segmental
Statement” combined with a “Statement of Reconciliation of Cost and Financial Accounts.
The “Cost Audit Report to Shareholders will disclose the “Costing Profit and Loss Account” reconciled with the
financial accounts that will make entire corporate accounting integrated, inclusive and complete, a holistic approach,
comprehensive and supportive to companies for cost management and efficiency improvement. The summary statement will
not in any way compromise on confidentiality. It will also be transparent enough for companies to disclose information on
earning efficiencies by product groups.
I have given below a suggested format for the same. Members may consider the feasibility and practicability of using the
same and give their comments and suggestions for improvement, which can be recommended to the Central Government,
Members may send their responses to help improve the statement, or even replace it, within 30 days of (the month of
publication of this article).
(month/date .................................. (year).

Components of costs, nsv,

margins etc.
1. Material Direct / Indirect
2. Conversion costs/combined Dir
operating costs (See Notes) Ind
3. Total cost Dir
of production/operations Ind
4. Adjustments for (a) Dir
work-in-process Ind
(b) Finished goods Dir / Ind
5. Total Sales Costs of
Operations Dir / Ind
6. Selling distribution costs
(See Notes) Dir / Ind
7. Total costs of sales Dir / Ind
8. Net sales realisation
9. Margins (Profit A/cs)
10. % Value of margins
Segmental Profits) over
(a) Production value
(b) Sales value

716 the management accountant, September, 2008

Letters to Editor


Components of costs, nsv,

margins etc.
11. Adustments (not forming part
of cost statements) listed
Add (Specify)
d) etc
Deduct (Specify)
d) etc
12. Net margin / Profit
(as per Financial P&L A/c)
13. Total of all incidences of
Taxex & Levies included) in
above transactions
14. Percentage of tax indicences
a) Over Total Costs
b) Net Sales Value
1. Every company conducts its operations under specified distinct segments, categories, product groups etc, each of them termedthe ‘Product’ of the Company.
2. The summary statement is the aggregation of individual product statements, under each segment, details of which are audited and handed over to the company.
3. In the individual product statements ‘Margins’ are analysed product–wise by values, as well as in quantities by total and per unit of product, with percentages
of “Margins over production and sales values”, to facilitate evaluation of operational efficiency, product–wise and segment–wise.
4. The Summary Statement will form part of the “Cost Audit Report”, and published with the “Annual Report” and “Annual Accounts”.
5. Interested parties can obtain details, if any, following same procedure as prescribed for financial accounts.
6. ‘Costs’ and ‘Revernes’, relevant to each product and product segment of the company are included in the “Costing P&L A/c; others are shown separately in
the ‘Reconciliation’.
7. Conversion Costs can be further categorised as.
a) Electricity, fuel etc costs Dir
b) Employee Costs Dir
c) Factory overheads Ind.
d) Depreciation Dir
e) Administration overhbeads Factor/etc
8. Selling and Distribution costs can also be categorised into
a) Discounts
b) Commission on sale,
c) Freight, Insurance etc
d) Marketing overhead
e) Others (Specify)
9. Corresponding previous years figures can be indicated below current years figures within brackets
10. Cost Accounting standards can emenate from the above statement, as required.
The author is a former president of the Institute (1980-81) and is a Practicing Cost Accountant.

the management accountant, September, 2008 717

Book Scan

Advanced Accountancy-Volume-I divided into 15 chapters. “Accounting “Accounting for Investments” and
by for Partnership Firms-Fundamentals” “Accounting for Agricultural Farms” in
P. C. Tulsian has been aptly discussed in the a nutshell leaving a scope for further
Published by : introductory chapter. inputs for future editions.
Pearson Education Reconstitution of Firms - change in Finally, discussion on “Introduction
(Singapore) Pvt. Ltd. profit-sharing ratio, Admission of a to Government Accounts” is an elegant
Indian Branch, 482 F.I.E., partner. Retitement/Death of a partner feature of the book. Government
patparganj, Delhi-110092, India have been narrated exhaustively in Accounts are designed to contain both
First Indian Print, 2004 chapter 2, 3 and 4. Recommendations in capital and current Accounts and their
PP. (vii-xiii) 1.1 - 15.10 + Al - A4 Accounting standard 10, issued by inter-relationship. The author has tried
I.C.A.I. in chapter 2, calculation of to show how Government Accounts are
The present book adopts a fresh hidden goodwill in chapter 3, maintained in India. Codification of
and novel approach to the study of recommendations of accounting heads of accounts and treasury
Advanced Accountancy. It presents a standard 10 (AS 10) issued by ICAI, operations opens up a new outlook on
systematic and of-late discussion of application of section 37 of Indian the chapter.
Advanced Accountancy concepts, Partnership Act, 1932 in chapter 4 have The contents of the book are
principles and standards to get the been given due emphasis here. Students systematically arranged. Each chapter
students well-acquainted with the latest will be much benefitted from the study
coverage and to make it a logical and in the volume has been up-dated with
of these chapters. latest worked-out illustrations based on
analytical discipline worthy of
Accounting for Partnership Firms- the questions from different
occupying its rightful place.
Dissolution of a Firm and Partnership examinations to enable the students to
Although there is no dearth of books Insolvency, Piecemeal Distribution, sale grasp the subject-matter easily. At the
on the subject, yet in the recent of a firm and amalgamation of Firms end of each chapter, self-evaluation
publication of the book under review have been discussed logically and exercise containing true or false
entitled Advanced Accountancy - analytically. That a professional questions, short and long answer-type
Volume-I, Professor P. C. Tulsian approach worthy of occupying its and essay-type theoretical questions
attempted to present the subject-matter rightful place has been duly justified have been added except in chapter 2
in a simple, precise and student-friendly here. where long answer type/essay type
manner. The book is enriched with
The author has made an earnest questions are not properly allocated.
pedagogical features of contributing to
effort in the discussion of Accounts Adequate unsolved practical
the process of an easy comprehension
from Incomplete Records, various questions along with answers have also
of the subject leading to develop a
accounting problems have been duly been given at the end of each chapter
sound understanding of basic
compiled and these are expected to be to enable students to test their
Accounting principles, guideline of
very useful for the students. understanding of the subject. An
accounting standards and mechanics of
accounting process. The discussion of Accounting for interesting feature of this book is the
Branches, Accounting for Departments, use of latest professional views and
In the preface, the author has
Accounting for Hire-Purchase, techniques in theoretical discussions as
intimated that the book is primarily
Instalment and lease, etc. provides an well as in accounting treatments.
written to cope with the needs of the
indepth study of various accounting
students appearing in the C.A. The appendix deals with the
problems involved in these topics. The
Professional examination. It also important distinctions, important short-
discussion is simply fascinating.
provides useful guidance for students notes and other theoretical questions.
of B.Com. and intermediate standard of Insolvency Accounts of Non- It should have been necessary to point
professional courses like I.C.W.A. and Corporate Entities has been given due out the possible problems of more
I.C.S.I. Because of clarity and lucidity weightage here. advanced and complex nature and to
of language supported by relevant Accounting for construction mark these out with asteristics.
concepts and suitable illustrations at contracts, is, no doubt, a novel idea. It If in the concluding pages of the
appropriate places, the book is expected provides an easy way of understanding book, a glossary of useful technical
to be very much helpful for the students the activities involved in the industry terms in the arena of Advanced
concerned. and commerce.
Accounting, a selected bibliography
The contents of the book are The author have discussed and an alphabetical index could be
718 the management accountant, September, 2008
Book Scan

provided, the book would have been Accountancy, objectives and treatment are also nicely presented. The
more purposive. limitations of Cost Accountancy, issue as to how to decide whether to
The printing and get-up of the book Installation of a costing system, various process further after split or not has
deserves appreciation. cost concepts, Cost Audit, Cost Sheet, been highlighted here in a fascinating
– Dr. P. K. Basu etc. have been discussed in chapter one manner.
as per requirements of the students. In service Costing method of
Cost Accounting Chapter two relates to Accounting determining the costs of services have
by for Material cost. Here the author has been properly dealth with. To exemplify
Dr. P. C. Tulsian discussed material control, Inventory the system, Transport Costing, Boiler
Published by : control, ABC Analysis, Stock-levels House Power Costing, Canteen Costing,
S. Chand & Company Ltd. and selection of pricing methods in an etc. have been discussed here elegantly.
(An ISO 9001 : 2000 Company) elegant manner.
Ram Nagar, New Delhi-110055 In Integral and Non-Integral system,
First Edition - 2008 In the chapter Accounting for theoretical and practical aspects have
Price : Rs. 290.00 labour cost, discussions have been been elaborated judiciously.
PP 1.1 - 14.55 centred round on labour control, Reconciliation of cost and Financial
methods of wage payments, incentive Accounts are the indicators of the
Cost Accounting plays a very system, etc. very skillfully. accuracy of the cost recording system
significant role to-day in expanding While explaining Accounting for and are very easy to understand and
business, public bodies and other overheads, classification, appor- attractive for study.
organisations to ascertain cost, to tionment and allocation and accounting
control cost, to provide information for The last chapter Marginal Costing
treatment of under and over-absorption is an interesting chapter of the book. It
decision-making, to determine selling of overheads, treatment of some
price and to ascertain profit or loss. deals with conceptual framework but
specific items in Cost Accounts like management decisions have got to be
The outstanding features of this research and development expenses, re-informed in details. Students will be
edition are that changes, additions and training expenses, etc. have been benefited from this chapter in view of
alterations have been made in narrated in logical sequence in chapter ample illustrations and necessary
conformity with the changing four. diagrams.
requirements of the subject matter. It has
Next chapter deals with Activity The practical aspect of the book is
been written in a teach-yourself-style
Based Costing. It is a method of that each chapter begins with a set of
strictly following a student-friendly
approach and it serves as a tutor at charging overheads to cost objects on learning objectives. At the end of each
home. The coverage and pedagogical the basis of benefits derived from the chapter, true/false questions,
features of the book meet the particular indirect activity. Here the explanatory notes, theoretical and
requirements of all courses having author has discussed the chapter in a practical questions have been arranged
touch with Cost Accountancy. sketchy manner identifying the to develop the over-all knowledge of
appropriate cost drivers against various the students community.
The book under review has been
cost pools. The style and presentation of the
designed as a self-study text-book for
the students of B.Com. and partly The introduction of specific order book is “to-the-point approach”. It
M.Com. of all Indian Universities. costing-unit costing, job, batch and would have been better if the author
This book attempts to present contract costing, process costing I and had up-dated the volume with latest
concept and theories of Cost II elaborates how costs are accumulated worked-out questions and problems for
Accounting in a simple and lucid for determining costs in different B.Com. (Hons.) and M.Com. from
manner. Appropriate examples have industries. In Process Costing II, the different under-graduate and post-
been provided throughout the book for difference between FIFO method and graduate examinations of various
better understanding of the topics average method in case of equivalent universities.
discussed. production technique is worth-noting In comparison with volume, printing
The book is divided into fourteen for the students of academic and and knowledge-packed throught-
chapters. After an overview of Cost professional studies. provoking novel ideas, the book is
Accountancy as a subject, the topics Joint Products and By-products, reasonably priced.
like meaning and scope of Cost their apportionment and accounting – Dr. P. K. Basu

the management accountant, September, 2008 719

Regions & Chapters

EASTERN REGION Seminar on 26/06/2008 which was nos., mobile nos. and E-mail address and
inaugurated by Mr. Vasudev, Hon’ble Photo. The updated information in the
The following Office Bearers of EIRC of Commissioner of Central Excise & Directory will promote interaction
ICWAI have been unanimously elected Customs Pune II. Sanjay Bhargave, amongst our members and will serve a
for the year 2008-2009 in the Council CCM Pune & Ashok Nawal, RCM, great purpose in furtherance of the
Meeting of the Eastern India Regional Nashik were main speakers in the profession.
Council held on 8th August, 2008. technical Sessions. A. G. Anikhindi–
Chairman of chapter, stressed the need LUCKNOW CHAPTER
Debasish Saha Chairman
for increasing the use of Practising Cost Seminar on
Manas Kumar Thakur Vice Chairman Accountants in the Central Excise & Management Accountants-
Ajay Deep Wadhwa Secretary Service Tax matters at Govt. level. Challenges ahead
Pallab Bhattacharya Treasurer NORTHERN REGION A seminar on “Management
HOWRAH CHAPTER Accountants-Challenges ahead :
ALLAHABAD CHAPTER Valuation Management & International
Inauguration of Oral Coaching
Classes The following office bearers have Financial Reporting Standards” was
been elected for the year 2008-09 : held on 13/07/08 at ICWAI Bhawan,
Howrah Chapter organized the Gomti Nagar, Lucknow. The seminar was
inauguration of Oral Coaching Classes S. M. Anwar Hasan Chairman inaugurated by Chandra Wadhwa, ex-
for July 2008 Session at the Chapter Indrasen Singh Vice Chairman President ICWAI.
Premises ICWAI Bhawan on 28th July
Jawahar Lal Koery Secretary On this occasion the website of
2008. The students of Stage-1, Stage-2,
Stage-3, Stage-4 and Foundation P.S. B.S. Rao Joint Secretary Lucknow Chapter was inaugurated by
Course admitted for this Session were Naveen Chandra Treasurer the President. The website address of
addressed by the Faculty members and the LCCA is “”.
Office-Bearers of the Chapter. Soumitra FARIDABAD CHAPTER The Technical paper on valuations
Som, Chairman of the Chapter welcomed The following Members have been management was presented by BB Goel,
the participants and informed the elected unanimously for the year adviser (Cost), Ministry of Company
strategic role of Cost & Management 2008-09 : Affairs and A. K. Kapur Adviser (Cost),
Accountants as the financial leaders of Ministry of agriculture and on IFRS by
Achal Jain Chairman Balwinder Singh, CCM.
organizations in the globalized
economic scenario. C. M. Malpani Vice Chairman A. K. Kapur highlighted the salient
WESTERN REGION D. Patra Secretary features of techniques of valuations. He
Meenakshi Agarwal Treasurer said that business valuations using any
BARODA CHAPTER method should not be too high or too
JAIPUR CHAPTER low because that could be costly,
List of Members of Executive Committee
resulting in either overpayment or lost
for the year 2008-2009 : The following members were elected opportunities.
Y. S. Thakar Chairman office bearers for the year 2008-09 :
Balwinder Singh Practicing Cost
S. S. Puranik Vice Chairman Vinod Chittora Chairman Accountant & CCM deliberated on
& Secretary D. K. Gupta Vice-Chairman
K. Vasavada Treasurer “International Financial reporting
R. K. Bhandari Secretary Standards”. He gave a detailed
KALYAN AMBERNATH CHAPTER presentation on IFRS and linkage
S. N. Vijay Joint Secretary
Office bearers for the year 2008-09 : between IFRS and Indian GAAP.
Sanjay Jain Treasurer
D. M. Batthija Chairman While summing up the session,
Jaipur Chapter Members Directory Chandra Wadhwa, explained the role
G. B. Shamnani (V. C. Admn.) 2008 released which can be played by Cost &
M. R. Dudani (V.C.-P.D.) A “Members Directory 2008” of the Management Accountants in this vast
P. B. Patange Secretary members of Jaipur Chapter of ICWAI subject of valuations.
G. U. Keswani Treasurer was released in the 39th AGM of the Earlier, Sanjay Mehra, Chairman,
Chapter held on 8th June, 2008 and LCCA welcomed the dignitaries and the
KOLHAPUR-SANGLI CHAPTER distributed to the members present in paper writers and said that deliberations
One day Seminar on Service Tax, the meeting. The Directory contained will go a long way in updating the
Central Excise & Cenvat – Recent member’s Membership No. Academic/ professional knowledge of the members
Changes Professional Qualification their updated on these contemporary most wanted
The chapter organised one day office and residential addresses, phone subjects.

720 the management accountant, September, 2008

Regions & Chapters

Students & Faculty Meet with scope in non statutory field. Chapter welcomed the Speaker and the
President Report on Session Inaugural Function Members. Dattatreya, Chairman-PDC,
A student/faculty meet with July to Dec 08 introduced the Speaker to the members.
President was organized on 13th July The meeting ended with a vote of thanks
The Inaugural function of ICWAI
08 at Chapter premises. The meet was by N. Shiva Kumar, Secretary of the
course for the session starting from July
attended by approx 150 students of Chapter.
08 was held on 09th July 08 at ICWAI
LCC. and the Faculty members. The Bhawan, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow. The A. Professional Development Meet
students brought out their problems session was inaugurated by P. was held on 10th July 2008. T. A.
such as non-availability of study notes, Muthuswamy, Director (Finance) Shivakumar, Chief Finance Officer,
career opportunities, mandatory Scooters India Ltd. C. Sundramurthy M/s. DBOI Global Services Pvt. Ltd.
practical training, and non GM (Finance) Scooters India Ltd. and gave a lecture on Balanced Score Card.
responsiveness on problems of the past Chairman of LCCA was Guest of The meeting was well attended by our
students on the part of HQ etc. The ex Honour. Meritorious students were members and there was a live interaction
President Chandra Wadhwa replied their honoured by various awards (List at the end of the lecture. Y. H. Anegundi,
satisfaction. Faculty members stressed Enclosed) by the Chief Guest on this Chairman of the Chapter welcomed the
upon making training for faculty occasion. Speaker and the Members. Dattatreya,
members. The President replied that Chairman-PDC, introduced the Speaker
Earlier, Sanjay Mehra, Chairman
such training is already on the cards to the members. The meeting ended with
LCCA welcomed all the dignitaries,
and very soon it will be started. a vote of thanks by N. Shiva Kumar,
students and faculty members. The
Press Conference with President Secretary of the Chapter.
meeting was also attended by O. P.
ICWAI Saxena, Secretary, LCCA. A 3-day Training Programme was
A press conference was organized organized for the executives of M/s
Sunil Kumar Singh Director
at ICWAI Bhawan, Gomti Nagar, Karnataka Power Corporation Ltd., on
(Studies) LCCA, gave presentation on
Lucknow at 12.00 Hours on 13th July Maintenance of Cost Accounting
New Syllabus 2008 and explained the
08. Chandra Wadhwa, Ex President Records and Cost Accounting in Power
course contents and coverage,
ICWAI and Rakesh Bhalla, Secretary Sector from 2nd to 4th July 2008. The
coaching policy, mandatory training,
NIRC, Sanjay Mehra Chairman LCCA participants appreciated the conduct of
Modular training and others aspects of
and O P Saxena Secretary, LCCA the training programme.
the coaching.
addressed the print and TV media COIMBATORE CHAPTER
Ms. Seema Singh, Treasurer of
LCCA proposed the vote of thanks. The Cosmafest 2008 of the ICWAI
Chandra Wadhwa briefed the Press
SOUTHERN REGION Coimbatore Chapter was conducted on
about the Cost & Management
Saturday, the 9th August, 2008. Nearly
Accountancy profession, the Institute The Southern India Regional 110 students attended comprising
and the Lucknow Chapter. He explained Council of the Institute of Cost and ICWAI students and students from
the features of the recently signed MOU Works Accountants of India at its
with IGNOU. thirteen colleges in Coimbatore.
Meeting held on Sunday, the 27th July,
Practicing Cost Accountants Meet Session I : Inaugural Session
2008 elected the following Office bearers
On 13th July 08, a Practicing Cost for the year 2008-2009 : Chairman of the ICWAI Coimbatore
Accountants meet was organized with A. Om Prakash Chairman Chapter J. Sridhar, chaired the session
President. Approx. 20 Practicing Cost and welcomed the gathering. He
A.V.N.S. highlighted the increasing demand for
Accountants participated in the Nageswara Rao Vice-Chairman
meeting. Various points and future Cost and Management Accountants in
plans for enhancing the scope for Dr. I. Ashok Secretary the industrial sector.
practice were discussed in detail. K. L. B. R. Prabhakar Treasurer The Chief Guest for the inaugural
Prabhakar, Practicing Cost Accountant BANGALORE CHAPTER programme was Dr. S. P. Viswanathan,
and Past Chairman LCCA stressed upon Vice-President, KG Design Services. He
the quality of the report being submitted Professional Development Meet showed some rare and beautiful
by the practicing members to A Professional Development Meet clippings explaining the various
authorities. He added that it is the report was held on 26th June 2008. Y. Srivathsa, sequences of design in the aero space
which ultimately decides the need for Managing Director, M/s. Streamline industry especially designing vertical
practioners. He added that some Consulting, spoke on Supply Chain take-off helicopters and other aircrafts.
concrete steps needed to be taken in Management. The meeting was well Such high precision technology
this area. Most of the Cost Accountants attended by our members and there was demands severe complex design
stressed that equal focus be given to a live interaction at the end of the considerations where significant roles
non statutory work as there is a vast lecture. Y. H. Anegundi, Chairman of the exist for Cost Accountants. He
the management accountant, September, 2008 721
Regions & Chapters

mentioned the importance of cost Mrs. Meena Ramji, Secretary of the Chairman of Hyderabad Chapter of
management at the design, Product Coimbatore chapter delivered the vote ICWAI CMA G. Narayan Rao, while
Development and R & D stages and how of thanks. speaking on the Dispute Resolution
Cost Accountants could influence ICWAI Students Association Scheme 2008 indicated the details of the
decision-making and guide in achieving scheme and the procedure involved for
Target Costing. Dr. Viswanathan The meeting for the month of July,
making an application under the
answered enthusiastically several 2008 was held at the Chapter on 12th
scheme. Later R. S. Maheswari, IRS,
questions raised by the audience. instant. Mrs. Meena Ramji, Chapter
Joint Commissioner addressed the
Secretary was on the Chair. The meeting
Mr. Subramanyam, Head Master of participants on the scheme.
started off with a management game and
the Suburban Higher Secondary
all the students participated KOTTAYAM CHAPTER
School, Coimbatore who was adjudged
enthusiastically, followed by a
the Best Teacher of the State was
felicitated by our Chief Guest and discussion on the conduct of “COSMA The following office-bearers have
Chairman of ICWAI Coimbatore FEST 2008”, the annual festival for been elected office bearers for the year
Chapter. The vote of thanks was given students of Cost and Management 2008-09 :
by Secretary Mrs. Meena Ramji. profession to be held on 9th August, Benoy Varghese Chairman
2008. Treasurer S. Subbaraman and the
Session II Paper Presentation R. Jayachandran Vice Chairman
P. D. Committee Chairman V.
The welcome address of the second Mathanagopal were also present during Muraleedharan Pillai Secretary
session was given by the Students the programme to interact with the Jiji Varghese Treasurer
Association Chairman Mr. Shyam students. Report on the Faculty Meeting held on
Professional Development Programme 21st June 2008
Ten students made Paper
Presentation on : Brand building - Rise A meeting on the topic “EXIM A meeting of the Faculty Members
of Inflation - Fluctuations in foreign Policy & Its Implications” was held at of the TCCA was held on 21st June 2008
Exchange - Role of Cost Management the Chapter on the 19th July 2008. L. at the Chapter premises. K. C. Thomas,
Profession for Corporate Excellence Purandaran, Liaison Officer, Office of Chairman, TCCA presided over the
the Director General of Foreign Trade, function. P. S. Devakumar, Chairman,
Session III Quiz–Final Coimbatore spoke on the subject. The Coaching Committee welcomed the
The welcome address was given by meeting was chaired by Mr. P. K. gathering. K. C. Thomas, Chairman, in
Pranesh, Vice Chairman, Students Jayaram, Vice-Chairman of the chapter. his address spoke about the Revised
Association. The introduction of the speaker was syllabus, introduced with effect from 1st
The quiz competition final round given by the P. D. Committee Chairman January 2008 and the responsibilities of
turned out to be a lively one. The Quiz V. Mathanagopal and vote of thanks was Faculty Members to update their
Master G. Balasubramaniam, Secretary, given by Secretary Mrs. Meena Ramji. knowledge in tune with the contents of
Roots Multiclean Industries Ltd., was MoU for a Satellite Centre the Revised syllabus.
ably supported by our Committee N. P. Sukumaran, Past President of
Member R. Maheshwarn. The The Memorandum of Under-
standing between Coimbatore Chapter ICWAI in his special speech address
questions ranged from General
and KG College of Arts and Science, stressed the need for introducing new
knowledge, Identifying the logo, Guess
Coimbatore was signed on 28th July, techniques in the method of teaching.
the Personality, Rapid fire round,
Guessing the product brand through 2008 for starting a Satellite Centre at their He suggested introduction of Laptop
Dumb Charade. college premises. The ICWAI with LCD projector in class rooms for
foundation course will be offered to the effective teaching. He also proposed
Session IV Valedictory Session change in the present method of taking
students of KGISL as satellite centre of
Vice-Chairman P. K. Jayaram who Coimbatore chapter at their premises. feedback about faculty members, from
chaired session IV welcomed the students. He suggested that efficiency
gathering and the Chief Guest Dr. HYDERABAD CHAPTER of the faculty member should be judged
Keshivino Aram., Director, Shanthi from the number of students attending
Service Tax-Dispute Resolution
Asram, Coimbatore. Dr. Kezhivino Aram his/her classes.
gave inspiring talk explaining how a Scheme-2008 - 28.06.2008
professional could bring out a change Hyderabad Chapter of Cost All the faculty members were
in the society with empathy for the Accountants organized a lecture on provided with copy of Revised
under-privileged. Prizes for proficiency Dispute Resolution Scheme 2008 jointly syllabus.
in ICWAI examination and for winners with Hyderabad Chapter of ICSI on 28th K. Murali, Secretary, Trivandrum
of paper presentation, quiz etc., were June, 2008 Hyderabad for the benefit of Chapter of Cost Accountants, proposed
distributed. the members of both the Institutes. The vote of thanks.
722 the management accountant, September, 2008