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INTRODUCTION

Economical generation of large scale electrical energy is a major challenge at the global scale,
particularly in developing countries like India. Nuclear energy is predominantly showing a great
potential towards economic production of electricity. In this context, Government of India (UCIL-
Uranium Corporation of India Limited) started the Uranium mining from its ore at Tummalapalle,
Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh. Uranium mining may discharge particulates (PM10, TSP) and
gaseous pollutants (CO, SOx, NOx, etc.) into the atmosphere through the usage of machinery,
burning of fuel, ore transportation, chemicals usage, constructional works, etc. This causes the
degradation and drastic changes in the environment through air pollution. Hong-di et al., reported
that the particulate concentration were high at heavily traffic area. presence of these pollutants in
high concentration can cause health and respiratory problems to the human . In order to study the
relative risk of the increased concentrations, various researchers [13- 10] have developed different
air quality indexes (AQI). Secord et al., has been used an improved, next generation, sanitary index
allowing to assess air quality. Combined Air Quality Index (CAQI) and Zscores are important
indicators to understand the variation of the air quality. Further, it assists in data interpretation for
decision making processes related to pollution mitigation measures and air quality management.
CAQI is a tool, which calculates the overall air quality with respect to the criteria pollutants PM10,
TSP, SOx and NOx and the measurements are converted into non dimensionless number using
Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (INAAQS).The Zscores provides the zonal air
quality in the study area. The CAQI is exclusively designed based on Indian climatic conditions
and concentration ranges of pollutants. Estimation of air quality indices for this particular region
has not been reported so far, and therefore, the objective of current study is to estimate the air
quality at Tummalapalle Uranium mining site and its surrounding Villages within 30 km radial
distance from the mine using CAQI and Z scores. The CAQI and Z scores are calculated using
the concentration of pollutants PM10 TSP, SOx and NOx.
In India and elsewhere coal remains a primary source of energy. The development of various
industries has a cascading effect on demand. With the rapid rate of growth of industries, future
demand will continue to be high. However, the utilization of coal may be limited by environmental
disruption, including deterioration of air quality due to the emission of suspended particulate
matter (SPM), SO2 and NOx from various mining operations. The magnitude and impact depend
on the methods, scale and concentration of mining activities, and the geological and
geomorphological setting. In India, coal production will have to be increased to meet the energy
demand at the rate of 2025 Mt/year (Kumar, 1995). Underground mining impacts directly on the
health of those working underground, but opencast mining creates wider air-quality deterioration
due to dust and gaseous pollutants in and around the mining complexes. Opencast mining (OCM)
dominates coal production in India due to ease of extraction. At the time of nationalization, total
coal production was 75 Mt the share of OCM was 20%. By 1996 when total coal production was
274 Mt, its share was about 70% and this is set to increase. In OCM, a massive overburden will
have to be removed to reach the mineral deposits. This will require excavators, transporters,
loaders, conveyor belts etc., resulting in massive discharge of fine particulates from the overburden
material. (Ghose, 1989). The volume and variety of air-borne dust particles will increase in direct
consequence. Over-exploitation of coal is causing degradation of the environment and appropriate
management is needed. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the impact on air quality due to mining
and to suggest proper abatement measures for control of air pollution.

The link between environmental issues and the development is one of the leading issues of the
present time. The development progression has customarily been accompanied by rapid increases
in energy demand (Kaygusuz, 2012). Different sources of energy, from fossil fuels to nuclear,
pollute the environment in different ways and at different levels (Omer, 2008). Presently, energy
is largely produced by burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas (Veziroglu and Sahin,
2008). Among all these energy sources, coal is a crucial resource, most abundantly present, and is
also the cheapest source of energy (Franco and Diaz, 2009). Coal provides 29.6% of global primary
energy needs, generates 42% of the world's electricity, and global coal consumption has increased
by 46% during 2001 to 2010 (World Coal Association, 2011). In order to meet the energy
requirement, the overall coal production and coal mining have tremendously increased in India,
which ranks third among top ten coal producing countries (World Coal Association, 2011).
The present study was conducted over a period of two years to quantify the spatial and seasonal
variations in air pollutant concentrations around coal mining areas of Jharia coalfield, situated in
Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state in India. To identify the contribution of different activities in
the mining area on air pollutant concentrations, PCA was performed. Heavy metal concentrations
in PM10 were also estimated to understand their variations related with different mining activities.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:


The present study was carried out in Jharia coalfield (JCF), located in Dhanbad district of
Jharkhand state of India, between latitudes 23 39' to 23 48' N, longitudes 86 11' to 86 27' E and
222 m above mean sea level (Figure 1a). JCF is the most exploited coalfield because of available
metallurgical grade coal reserves. This coalfield is engulfed with about 70 mine fires, spread over
an area of approximately 18 km2. For air quality monitoring, four monitoring sites namely Ena
colliery, Dhansar, Bastacolla and Bhagatdih were selected in different directions and distances in
coal mining area of JCF (Figure 1a). A reference site, Central Institute of Mining and Fuel
Research (CIMFR), was also selected for comparing the air quality, situated at six km in north
direction from Jharia (Figure 1a). The characterization of monitoring sites is detailed in Table 1.
Table 1. Details of different sites, their location and activities in Jharia coalfield

S.No. Site Location Activities

Mining activities, coal handling plant, vehicular


movement, transport on paved and unpaved
Ena road, haul road and exposed dump/exposed pit
1. colliery Ena project coal mine surface.
Mining activities, coal handling plant, vehicular
movement, transport on paved road and
Dhansar project coal unpaved road, haul road, exposed dump and
2. Dhansar mine industrial activity.
Near (Approximately
1 km) Kushtour coal Vehicular movement, transport of coal,
3. Bhagatdih mine domestic coal burning and residential activities.
Near (Approximately Vehicular movement, transport of coal,
1 km) Bastacolla coal domestic coal burning and residential activities.
4. Bastacolla mine Good plantation, institutional area.
8 km away (NE) from
5. CIMFR JCF Good plantation, institutional area.
The region experiences subtropical climate. It is cool during winter season from November to
February. The month of May has been the hottest. It remains hot until the monsoon outbreaks,
towards the middle of June. With the setting of rains, the temperature falls and humidity rises. The
rainy season continues from July to October. The dominant wind directions in the area are SE/SSE
with low calm conditions (5.3%). Dominant wind speed generally ranges between 4 to 6 m
h1 (Figure 1b). The variation of meteorological parameters in the area is given in the Supporting
Material (SM) (Figure S1).

Air pollution is one of the most important parameters to be considered in preparing environmental
impact assessment (EIA) report of mining projects (Canter, 1977). A fact-finding survey was
conducted to evaluate the impact on air environment in a large opencast project of Bharat Coking

MONITORING OF PARTICULATE AND GASEOUS POLLUTANTS


The air quality monitoring for SPM, SO2 and NO2 was done at different study sites for two
consecutive years from 20102011, while PM2.5 and PM1.0 were monitored only during 2011. The
gaseous pollutants were analyzed through wet chemistry method using portable gas samplers
(Precision Instruments Ltd., India) once in a fortnight at each site for eight hours from 09:00 to
17:00 h. To determine the SO2 concentration in ambient air, sample was collected by drawing air
at flow rate of 1.2 L min1 through absorbing solution of 0.04 M potassium tetra chloromercurate
(K2HgCl4). A dichloro sulphitomercurate complex thus formed and reacted with sulphamic acid
(0.6%), pararosaniline and formaldehyde (0.2%) to form intensely colored pararosaniline methyl
sulphonic acid. The absorbance of the solution was measured at 560 nm using UVVIS
spectrophotometer (Model 2450, Shimadzu Corporation,Japan) by following the improved method
of West and Gaeke (1956).

For NO2, sample was collected by drawing air at a similar flow rate through a mixture of 0.4%
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 0.1% sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). The concentration of nitrite ion
(NO2) produced during sampling was determined colorimetrically by reacting the nitrite ion with
phosphoric acid, sulfanilamide, and N(1naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDA)
and measuring the absorbance of highly colored azodye at 540 nm using a UVVIS
spectrophotometer (Model 2450, Shimadzu Corporation, Japan) by the method described and
modified by Jacobs and Hochheiser (1958).

The SPM was collected for eight hour from 09:00 to 17:00 h by drawing air at a flow rate of
1.1 m3 min1 through Whatman glass fiber filter (20.4 cm 25.4 cm) using a high volume sampler
(Model APM 415, Envirotech, India). The difference of weight of filter before and after sampling
was used to calculate PM10 concentration and SPM concentration was calculated by adding the
concentration of particulate collected through hopper. Eight hourly monitoring of PM1.0 and
PM2.5 was also done by portable aerosol spectrometer (Model 1.109, Grimm technology Inc.,
USA).

The air pollution index (API) is a measure of the ratio of the pollutant concentration in ambient air
to the national standards of the pollutants. API was calculated by the formula given by Rao and
Rao (1989).

METAL ANALYSES

For the analysis of heavy metals in PM10, glass fiber filter paper was digested in HNO3 and
HClO4 solution at a ratio of 9:4 according to the methodology by Gaidajis (2003). The extracted
solution was filtered and washed by double distilled water and stored in inert glass until analyzed
by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Model AAnalyst 800, PerkinElmer, USA). Heavy
metal concentrations were quantified from twelve replicates filter papers representing different
months in a year and the data were shown as annual average.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES
Obtained data were processed for statistical analyses including threeway multivariate analysis of
variance for examining the effects of site, season, year and their interactions on different
parameters. In order to identify sources of air pollutants and heavy metals in PM 10 at study sites,
PCA was conducted by the Varimax rotated factor matrix method, based on the orthogonal rotation
criterion with Kaiser normalization. CA on API was utilized to group the sites based on the
similarity between them. Rescaled distance cluster combine (RDCC) was employed to compute
the distance among monitoring stations and the clustering method between group linkage based
on the Zscores standardized transformation. All the statistical analyses were performed by using
IBM SPSS Statistics 16 software and all the presentation was done using SigmaPlot 11.0 (Systat
Software, Inc) software.
QUALITY CONTROL ANALYSIS
The wet chemistry methods for SO2 and NO2 monitoring were standardized with automatic
SO2 photometric analyzer (Model 319, Kimoto, Japan) and chemiluminescence NO/NOX analyzer
(Model 200E, Teledyne Instruments, U.S.), respectively. Precision and accuracy of heavy metal
analysis was assured through repeated analysis of samples against National Institute of Standards
and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM 1570) for all the heavy metals. The results
were found within 2% of the certified values. Quality control measures were taken to assess
contamination and reliability of data. Blank and drift standards (Sisco Research Laboratories Pvt.
Ltd., India) were run after five determination to calibrate the atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
The coefficients of variation of replicate analysis were determined for different determinations for
precision of analysis and variations below 10% were considered correct.

Results and Discussion


Assessment of air quality monitoring data showed that all particulate and gaseous pollutants (SPM,
PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0, SO2 and NO2) and API showed significant spatial and seasonal variations
during both the years of monitoring (Figures 2 and 3; see the SM, Table S1). Concentrations of all
types of particulate matters were at the highest during winter followed by summer and rainy
seasons at all the sites (Figures 2and 3). Similar trends were reported for particulate matter from
different areas of India such as Jharia coalfield (Ghose and Majee, 2000b), Sambalpur region,
(Chaulya, 2004), RaniganjAsansol area (Reddy and Ruj, 2003) and around Dhanbad city (Jain
and Saxena, 2002). SPM concentrations varied significantly between sites and seasons (see the
SM, Table S1). Among the sites, the higher concentrations of SPM were observed at Ena, Dhansar,
Bhagatdih and Bastacolla situated near active mining locations. SPM concentration exceeded the
prescribed limit of NAAQS (500 g m3; CPCB 1995) of India during winter at Ena, Dhansar an
Bhagatdih and during summer season at Ena and Dhansar (Figure 2). Coal dust is reported as the
major pollutant in the air of open cast coal mining areas (Vallack and Shillito, 1998). The primary
source of fugitive dust at fully operational surface mine may include overburden (OB) removal,
blasting, mineral haulage, mechanical handling operations, mineral stockpiles and site restoration
(Appleton et al., 2006).

The concentrations of SO2 were high around coal mine areas compared to CIMFR in all the season
and in both years (Figure 3). Threeway ANOVA analysis showed that variations in
SO2 concentrations were significant between the sites and seasons, yearly variations were,
however, not significant (see the SM, Table S1). The seasonal trend of SO2 concentration
(winter>summer>rainy) can be explained by the chemistry of SO2. It is directly emitted (fossil fuel
combustion, industrial processes) and then lost from the atmosphere through dry deposition at the
surfaces or oxidation to sulfate (Pio and Feliciano, 1996). Oxidation of SO2 in the atmosphere can
occur homogeneously in the gas phase and aqueous phase (raindrops), heterogeneously on the
surfaces of particles or combinations of all three (FinlaysonPitts and Pitts, 1986). Rates of
oxidation of SO2 were suggested to be higher in summer than in winter, while dry deposition
velocity was found to be higher in winter than summer (Pio and Feliciano, 1996). Wind speed, air
masses and height of mixing layer also govern SO2concentration (Pio and Feliciano, 1996). The
concentration of SO2 at Ena, Dhansar, Bhagatdih and Bastacolla exceeded the prescribed limit of
NAAQS India (80 g m3) during winter in 2011. The lowest concentration of SO2 in rainy season
may be attributed to washout by rain as rainfall was about more than 90% during rainy season (see
the SM, Figure S1). High SO2 at Ena and Dhansar sites may be ascribed to active mine fires near
Ena colliery and hardcoke industries in the Dhansar region. Because of the easy availability of
coal as the cheapest energy source (World Coal Association, 2011), frequent use of coal for
domestic purposes is also the reason of high SO2 concentration in the area.
Three PCs with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 were extracted with 79.1% cumulative variance for
coal mining areas. The relationships between the principal component and the chemical
compounds are indicated by the factor loadings and related to the source emission composition.
All the source categories for the coal mining area have distinct characteristics, and hence assigned
on the basis of marker species. High loadings for SPM, PM10, SO2, PM2.5, PM1.0, Ni and Cu in
PC1 indicate coal mining (SPM, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0), coal burning and active mine fires (SO2,
Ni and Cu) as major sources. Most of the variance of PM10, SO2, PM1.0, Ni and Cu appeared in
PC1, providing evidence for mining operations, coal burning and active mine fires. The maximum
percent variance (53.71%) for this PC suggests that these operations are the major sources of
pollutants in this area. In PC2, the direct vehicular sources can be identified by high loadings of
NO2, Pb, Cd and Cr. Pb and NO2 are good vehicular markers (Dubey et al., 2012). Cd and Cr have
significant contributions from crudeoil combustion and metallurgical units housed in the
industrial areas and vehicular emissions (Tasdemir et al., 2006). One of the most important sources
of Cd, Cr and Pb in the urban environment is road traffic. There is a small distance in position of
Pb in three dimensional space from the group having Cd, Cr and NO2, suggesting that Pb has more
than one significant source in the coal mining area. The PC3 with 7.54% total variance shows
highest loadings for Fe, Mn and Zn. This revealed close association of Fe and Mn, mainly
contributed by earth crust/windblown soil/coal fly ash (Quiterio et al., 2004).
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
As the 3rd largest economy in the world with more than a billion people, the supply of power in
India can scarcely keep up with demand. Across the country, households and industry suffer from
regular power cuts, while more than 400 million lack access to even this unreliable supply. Given
the energy scenario, the need to expand power generation capacity and deliver more electricity for
India is immediate. To meet the growing electricity demand, the expansion of the coal-fired
thermal power plants (TPPs) is the most likely scenario, which consequently also leads to an array
of environmental and health impacts. Our last assessment, found significant impacts from the
existing fleet of coal fired TPPs including between 80,000 and 115,000 deaths annually due to
exposure linked their particulate emissions in 2011-12. Keeping that in perspective, this study is
an attempt to help rationalize the discourse around expansion of coal power generation - with the
goal of presenting the likely impacts of planned future coal-fired TPPs and the likely benefits of
more stringent environment regulations on human health. The following things are found are
follows:
1. Coal generation capacity grows 300% - The total installed capacity is expected to increase three
times from 159 GW in 2014 to 450 GW in 2030; under the proposed list of power plant projects.
Largest (three fold) expansions are expected in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh,
Bihar, and Jharkhand, all of which have coal reserves. A two fold expansion is expected in the
states of Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Naidu, and Uttar Pradesh.
2. Coal consumption increases 200-300% - The total coal consumption is estimated to increase 2-
3 times from 660 million tons/year to 1800 million tons/year; accordingly the CO2 emissions from
1,590 million tons/year to 4,320 million tons/year.
3. Air emissions at least double through 2030 - The PM, SO2, and NOx emissions will at least
double in the same period. Most of the planned plants are supercritical- and ultra TPPs, which tend
to utilize less coal per MWh of electricity generated. With no emission regulations in place for
SO2 and NOx, these are assumed uncontrolled and allowed to release through the elevated stacks
for dispersion.
4. 100% increase in health impacts - The total premature mortality due to the emissions from coal-
fired TPPs is expected to grow 2-3 times reaching 186,500 to 229,500 annually in 2030. Asthma
cases associated with coal-fired TPP emissions will grow to 42.7 million by 2030.
5. Limited emission standards for power plants - India currently has no standards for either SO2
or NOx both of which drive a large portion of the estimated these health impacts in the form of
secondary suphates and secondary nitrates. Technology improvements worldwide have made
electricity generation more efficient and hence cleaner and safer for the environment. Establishing
standards, especially for SO2 and NOx, at par with those observed in USA, EU, and China, and
mandating the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems like limestone injection during the
combustion process, wet FGD using limestone scrubbing, and high efficiency regeneration, could
reduce the annual premature mortality by at least 50% every year.
6. Set emission standards - Immediate introduction of emission standards for SO2, NOx, and
Mercury for all the coal-fired TPPs.
7. Mandate FGD at the plant level - Regulating emissions at the plant level by mandating FGD
operations for all the existing, the newly commissioned, and the planned TPPs in India, to benefit
from the associated reduction in the ambient PM pollution.
8. Practice rigorous monitoring - Introduction of protocols to continuously monitor emissions at
all stacks and make the data available to pollution control authorities, civil society, and the public,
for further analysis, scrutiny of the emission loads, and verifications. At present, there is absolutely
no data available publicly on emissions or the ambient concentrations surrounding the TPPs. The
larger TPPs are supposedly equipped with continuous stack monitors; however this information is
not open. Ensure transparency - Use of information to enforce the emission and pollution standards
as necessary, pending the introduction of emission standards and protocols to release monitoring
data.
9. Improve EIA protocols The environment clearance procedures require self-assessment for
only 10km radius of the TPPs; whilst the impacts are observed at much greater distances,
considering the minimum stack height for a 500MW TPP is 275m.
Mining and pollution
The production process that modern mining entails has the potential to affect the environment in
several ways, e.g. through acid rock drainage, contamination of ground and surface water, and
emission of air pollutants. Acid rock drainage (ARD) occurs when sulphide minerals are exposed
to air and water, for example during soil removal in mining operations. Sulphides oxidize and form
an acid effluent (sulfuric acid) which in turn leaches other metals from existing rocks. The resulting
drainage can become very acidic and contain a number of harmful metals. In turn, this can have
severe impacts on surrounding water bodies. ARD is considered as the most serious environmental
problem for the mining industry (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000, section 3-2).
Mining operations can also affect water quality when waters (natural or wastewater) infiltrate
through surface materials into the groundwater and pollutes it with contaminants such as metals,
sulphates and nitrates. Wastewater may also contain sediments that increase surface water turbidity
and reduces oxygen and light availability for aquatic life. In the case of gold, the use of cyanide
and mercury creates an additional hazard. Cyanide is used in large-scale mining and re-processed,
but some is discarded in tailings and there is a risk of spillages into surface waters. Mercury is
used in artisanal mining and it is usually released into surface water or vaporized during the
refining process. Finally, mining activities produce several air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides,
sulphur oxides and particulate matter.These emissions are akin to any fuel-intensive technology
and similar to the ones associated to industrial sites, power plants, and motor vehicles. The main
direct sources of air emissions are diesel engines for haulage, drilling, heating and cooling, among
others. Additionally, the process of blasting, crushing and fragmenting the rocks, followed by
smelting and refining generate substantial aerial emissions in large-scale open pit mining. In the
case of Ghana, there is substantial evidence, ranging from anecdotal to scientific, that gold mining
is associated with high levels of pollution. Most studies focus on gold mining areas in the Western
Region such as Tarkwa, Obuasi, Wassa West and Prestea.
For example: Amegbey and Adimado (2003) and WACAM (2010) document at least eleven
accidents with cyanide in mining areas (such as spills and release of cyanide-bearing tailings).
Pollution, however, extends beyond cyanide spills. Armah et al. (2010) and Akabzaa and Darimani
(2001) document heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater near Tarkwa. The levels of
pollutants decrease with distance to mining sites. The authors also document levels of particulate
matter (PM10), an air pollutant, near or above international admissible levels. Serfor-Armah et al.
(2006) find high levels of arsenic in water and sediments near Prestea, while Tetteh et al. (2010)
find high levels of mercury and zinc content in the topsoil of towns in Wassa West. The levels of
concentration decrease with distance to mining sites, and extend beyond mining areas, probably
due to the aerial dispersion of metals from mining areas.
The available data, however, are sparse. There is, for example, no historical data of water or air
monitoring stations in mining regions that allow us to obtain direct measures of pollution. Only
recently, since 2009, Ghanas Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has started assessing, and
reporting, the environmental compliance of mines. The results are consistent with the academic
evidence previously mentioned. Of the operative gold mines studied, were red-flagged as failing
to comply environmental standards. These mines were considered to pose serious risks due to toxic
and hazardous waste mismanagements and discharge. In the empirical section, we use this
information to distinguish between polluting and non-polluting mines.
Pollution and agricultural productivity
An important feature of the gold mining industry in Ghana is that it is located in fertile agricultural
areas. For example, the Western region is also the main producer of cocoa, the most important
cash crop and agricultural export. In this context, the effect of pollution on agriculture becomes
extremely relevant. If pollution has a negative effect on agriculture, then mining can potentially
have a direct impact on rural income and living standards. So far, the economic literature has
disregarded this link. Other disciplines like natural and environmental sciences, however, have
widely documented the effect of pollutants (mostly airborne) on crop yields (Emberson et al., 2001;
Maggs et al., 1995; Marshall et al., 1997). These studies, mostly in controlled environments, find
drastic reductions in yields of main crops -e.g. rice, wheat, and beans- coming from the exposure
to air pollutants associated to the burning of fossil fuels, such as nitrogen oxides and ozone.
Depending of the type of crop, the yield reductions can be as high as 30 to 60%.
The potential for mining to affect plants is also acknowledged by environmental agencies. For
example, Environment Canada states that Mining activity may also contaminate terrestrial plants.
Metals may be transported into terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to mine sites as a result of releases
of airborne particulate matter and seepage of groundwater or surface water. In some cases, the
uptake of contaminants from the soil in mining areas can lead to stressed vegetation. In such cases,
the vegetation could be stunted or dwarfed

EXPANSION OF MINING ACTIVITIES:


Channels In this simple framework, there are two main channel through which the expansion of
mining activities can affect farmers: pollution and competition for inputs. Pollution would imply
a reduction in agricultural productivity A. Note that because pollution affects the health of crops
either directly (e.g. leaf tissue injury or plant growth) or indirectly (e.g. reducing resistance to pests
and diseases), in the presence of pollution agricultural product would fall even if there is no change
in input use. Output could also decline due to a reduction in input use, for example, if prices for L
and M increase because of a greater demand from mines or a reduction in endowments, following
land grabbing and population displacement. This mechanism is similar in flavor to the Dutch
disease and, as discussed in the previous section, has been flagged as a concern in the case of
Ghana. The second of the arguments has been favored as an explanation for the perceived reduction
in agricultural activity, and an increase in poverty, in mining areas (Akabzaa, 2009; Aryeetey et
al., 2007). Either way, the competition for inputs would reduce agricultural output, even if
productivity remains unchanged. Because the two proposed channels have different empirical
implications, we can separate them by estimating the agricultural production function.
Furthermore, the analytical framework presented above informs how consumer-producer farmers
choose inputs in a way that can be used to guide the estimation of the production function.
Additionally, because agricultural output affects the budget constraint of farmers, the anaytical
framework shows that if the mining sector is reducing farmer productivity, agricultural incomes
should decrease and affect negatively consumption and poverty levels (which is simply
consumption relative to a threshold)