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9/23/2016 CharacteristicsofDiodes,BJT,MOSFET

CharacteristicsofDiodes,BJT,MOSFET
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SemiconductorMaterials:

Conductor:Thetermconductorisappliedtoanymaterialthatwillsupportagenerousflowofchangewhena
voltagesourceoflimitedmagnitudeisappliedacrossitsterminals.Conductorisamaterialcapableof
carryingelectriccurrent(mobilechargecarriers).

Example:Electrons,ions,etc.

Insulator:Aninsulatorisamaterialthatoffersaverylowlevelofconductivityunderpressurefromanapplied
voltagesource.Insulatorsisamaterialwithnoorveryfewfreechargecarriers.

Example:Quartz,mostcovalentandionicsolids,plastics,etc.

Asemiconductorisamaterialthathasaconductivitylevelsomewherebetweentheextremesofaninsulator
andconductor.

Example:GermaniumGe,siliconSi,GaAs,GaP,InP,etc.

NegativeTemperatureCoefficient:Thoseparametersdecreasingwiththetemperaturehavenegative
temperaturecoefficient.

Energygap(Eg):

Mobility(): Thoseparametersincreasingwithtemperaturehave
positivetemperaturecoefficient.

DiffusionCurrent:Diffusionisdefinedasthemigrationofchangecarriesfrom
higherconcentrationtolowerconcentration.Duetothisnonuniformconcentration,
therecanexistacurrentcalleddiffusioncurrent.Thediffusioncurrentdependson
concentrationgradient.

DiffusionCurrentDensity(J):

Inptype:

Inntype:

whereDpandDnarecalleddiffusionconstants.

DriftCurrent:Inopencircuit,continuouslygradedsemiconductordiffusioncurrentexists.Butnetcurrentiszero.So
thereexistdriftcurrentinoppositedirectionofdiffusioncurrenttocancelit.

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Tohavedriftcurrentexistsapotentialinternallygenerated.Thisindicatesthatnonuniformdopingofbarresultsin
theinducedvoltage.

EinsteinsRelation:Inasemiconductor,thisrelationgivestherelationshipbetweendiffusionconstant,mobilityand

thermalvoltage.

VT=KTandis26mVat27oC

PotentialDifferenceandJunctionPotential

Thepotentialdifferencebetweenanytwopointsofnonuniformlydopedbardependsonconcentrationatthosetwo
points:

Where,V21=Thepotentialdifferencebetweenpoints1and2,VT=Thermalvoltage,andVj
=Junctionpotential.

Junctionpotential(Vj):

Forgermanium:Vj=0.2to0.3V
Forsilicon:Vj=0.6to0.7V

FermiLevel:Fermienergyisdefinedastheenergypossessedbythefastest
movingelectronat0K.

FermiDiracFunction:TheFermiDiracfunctionofametalorsemiconductoris
givenbyFermiLevelinntypeSemiconductor:Where,EC=Maximumenergy
ofconductionband,EV=Maximumenergyofvalenceband,andEF=Fermienergy
ineV.

FermiLevelinptypeSemiconductor:

where,NA=Concentrationofacceptorions,ND=Concentrationofdonorions,andNC
=Materialconstantandcanbeconsideredasafunctionoftemperaturem=Massof
electron,mn=Effectivemassofelectron,andh=Planckconstant=6.6251034Js

Characteristicsofdiodes

IdealDiode:

Anidealdiodemaybeconsideredasmostfundamentalnonlinearelement.
Anidealdiodeissimplyapnjunctionwherethechangefromptypetontype
materialisassumedtooccurinstantaneously.

Siliconandgermaniumdiodesexhibitacutinvoltageof0.6Vand0.2V
respectivelyintheircharacteristiccurvesandthusapproximatecloselytheideal
diodeinthisrespect.
ThePeakInverseVoltage(PIV)isthehighestreversevoltageadiodecanwithstandbeforebreaking
downandpermittingcurrenttoflowinthereversedirection.

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SemiconductorDiode:

Thetwotypesofmaterialntypeandptypearechemicallycombinedtoforma
pnjunction.
Aregionnearthejunctioniswithoutanyfreechargeparticlescalleddepletion.
Thecharacteristicsofanidealdiodearethoseofaswitchthatcanconduct
currentinonlyonedirection.

BiasingofaDiode:

Theelectricfieldacrossthejunctionhasafixedpolaritycalled
barrierpotentialorheightofthebarrier.
Apopularsemiconductordeviceisformedusingapnjunction
calledpnjunctiondiode.
NoAppliedBias(VD=0V):Intheabsenceofanappliedbias
voltage,thenetflowofchargeinanyonedirectionfora
semiconductordiodeiszero.
ForwardBias(VD>0V):Inforwardbiasedcondition,
majoritycarrierscarrythecurrent,whenappliedvoltage
approachesbarrierpotential.Thedepletionregionreduces
asforwardbiasincreases.

ReverseBias:Ontheotherhandinreversebiasedcondition,thedepletionregionwidensandminority
carrierscarrythecurrentcalledreversesaturationcurrentdenotedas/o.

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BreakdowninDiode:

Ifreversebiasedvoltageincreases,ataparticularvoltagebreakdownoccursduetoacceleratedminority
chargeparticles.Thisiscalledavalancheeffect.
Foraheavilydopeddiode,electricfieldacrossthedepletionregionissointensetopulltheelectronsoutof
valencebands.ThiseffectiscalledZenereffect.

SemiconductorDiode:

Thetwotypesofmaterialntypeandptypearechemicallycombinedtoformapnjunction.
Aregionnearthejunctioniswithoutanyfreechargeparticlescalleddepletion.
Thecharacteristicsofanidealdiodearethoseofaswitchthatcanconductcurrentinonlyonedirection.

BiasingofaDiode:

Theelectricfieldacrossthejunctionhasafixedpolaritycalledbarrierpotentialorheightofthebarrier.
Apopularsemiconductordeviceisformedusingapnjunctioncalledpnjunctiondiode.
NoAppliedBias(VD=0V):Intheabsenceofanappliedbiasvoltage,thenetflowofchargeinanyone
directionforasemiconductordiodeiszero.
ForwardBias(VD>0V):Inforwardbiasedcondition,majoritycarrierscarrythecurrent,whenapplied
voltageapproachesbarrierpotential.Thedepletionregionreducesasforwardbiasincreases.
ReverseBias:Ontheotherhandinreversebiasedcondition,thedepletionregionwidensandminority
carrierscarrythecurrentcalledreversesaturationcurrentdenotedas/o.

BreakdowninDiode:

Ifreversebiasedvoltageincreases,ataparticularvoltagebreakdownoccursduetoacceleratedminority
chargeparticles.Thisiscalledavalancheeffect.
Foraheavilydopeddiode,electricfieldacrossthedepletionregionissointensetopulltheelectronsoutof
valencebands.ThiseffectiscalledZenereffect.

ImportantCurrentsinDiodew.r.t.Forwardbiased:

Inforwardbiasedcondition,thediodecurrenthasfourcomponents.

Ipp=currentduetoholesinpside
Inn=currentduetoelectronsinnside
Ipn=currentduetoholesinnside
Inp=currentduetoelectronsinpside

Allarefunctionsofdistancefromthejunction.
Atthejunction,atx=0thetotalcurrentIis:I=Ipn(0)+Inp(0)

VoltageCurrentCharacteristics:

Theproportionofcurrentduetoelectronsandholesvarieswiththedistanceinsidethediodebutsumofthe
currentscarriedbyelectronsandholesatanypointinsidethediodeisalwaysconstant,equaltototalforward
diodecurrent.
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Thegraphofcurrentagainstvoltageappliedtoadiodeis
calledVIcharacteristics.

StaticandDynamicResistance:

ThestaticresistanceissimplytheratioofDCvoltage
acrossthediodetotheDCcurrentflowingthroughit.

WhilethedynamicresistanceisACresistanceanddefined
asratioofincrementalchangeinvoltagetothe
correspondingchangeincurrent.

TheVIcharacteristicsisgivenbytheequation(current
equationofadiode)

whenV>0,II=I0eV/nT

whenV<0,Is=I0

Fromthis,dynamicresistancecanbedeterminedas:

Forforwardbiased,Vmustbeconsideredpositivewhileforthe
reversebiased,Vmustbeconsiderednegative.Thisdependence
ofI0ontemperatureisgivenby:

where,m=2forGe,1.5forSiandVG0=0.785VforGe,1.21VforSi

Thechangeinvoltagewithrespecttotemperaturerequiredtokeep
diodecurrentconstantisgivenby,

where,n=1forGen=2forSi

Itis2.10mV/CforGeand2.3mforSiPractically,consideredas
2.5mV/Cforanydiode.WhilechangeinI0willrespectto
temperatureisgivenby,

Itis11%perCforGewhile8%perCforSi.Practically,itis
consideredasafterevery10Criseintemperature,diode
reversesaturationcurrentdoubleswhileitrisesby7%perC
riseintemperatureforanydiode.

where,(I0)2=ReversesaturationcurrentatT 2,and(I0)1=ReversesaturationcurrentatT 1

T=T 2T 1

TransitionandDiffusionCapacitance:

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Inreversebiasedcondition,duetochangewithrespecttovoltagethereexistsa
capacitiveeffectcalledastransitioncapacitancedenotedasCT.

where,W=widthofthecarrier,WisrelatedtobarrierpotentialVBbytherelation,
barrierpotential,

0and1arethepermittivityandrelativepermittivityrespectively.

Inforwardbiasedconditionalsothereexistsacapacitiveeffectcalledasdiffusioncapacitancedenotedas
CD.

Where,t=meanlifetimeforholesCD>>CT

ZenerDiode

AZenerdiodeisapnjunctionoperatedinthereversebiasedmodetotakeadvantageofitssharplydefined
breakdownvoltage.

TheZenervoltageVZisspecifiedatsometestvalueofcurrentIZT,at
whichthediodewillexhibitsomedynamicimpedance:

ThisdependupontheZenervoltageofthediodeandthelevelofZenercurrent.

Operation:

AZenerdiodemaybeusedtoregulatetheloadvoltageatthevalueVZbyactingasabypassvalueto
counteractlinevoltageorloadcurrentvariations.

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Diodeshavingabreakdownvoltagebelowabout6VrelyonthetrueZenereffect(highelectricfieldmoves
electronsfrombonds),whiletheavalancheeffectisresponsibleforreversecurrentabove6V.
Zenerdiodeshaveatemperaturecoefficient,ZwhichgenerallyisnegativeforVZbelowabout6Vbut
positiveabove6V,andisexpressedinpercentofVZperC,withthechangeinZenervoltagegivenbythe
equation.

ZenerRegulator:

WhenZenerdiodeisforwardbiased,itworksasadiodeanddropacrossitis
0.7V.
Whenitworksinbreakdownregion,thevoltageacrossit
isconstant(VZ)andthecurrentthroughdiodeisdecided
bytheexternalresistance.
Thus,Zenerdiodecanbeusedasavoltageregulatorin
theconfigurationshowninfigure.
TheloadlineofthecircuitisgivenbyVs=IsRs+VZ.
TooperatetheZenerinbreakdownregionVsshould
alwaysbegreaterthanVZ,Rsisusedtolimitthecurrent.

Transistor

Transistorisathreeterminaldevicehavingterminal
i.e.,emitter,base,collector.
Itisbasicallyasemiconductordeviceusedtoamplify
andswitchelectronicsignalsandelectricalpower.
Transistorsarethreeterminalactivedevicesmadefromdifferentsemiconductor
materialsthatcanactaseitheraninsulatororaconductorbytheapplicationof
asmallsignalvoltage.
Thetransistorsabilitytochangebetweenthesetwostatesenablesittohave
twobasicfunctions:switching(digitalelectronics)oramplification(analogue
electronics).

Thenbipolartransistorshavetheabilitytooperatewithinthreedifferentregions:

ActiveRegionthetransistoroperatesasanamplifierandIc=.Ib
SaturationthetransistorisfullyONoperatingasaswitchandIc=I(saturation)
CutoffthetransistorisfullyOFFoperatingasaswitchandIc=0

BasicCharacteristicsoftheTransistor:

Atransistormaybecomparedlooselywithatriodeinthattheemittermaybethoughtofasanonheated
cathode,thecollectorasaplateandthebaseasagrid.
Since,atransistorconsistsofeitherpnpornpnslices,averysimplifiedmodelforbiasingpurposes
comprisestwodiodespointinginwardoroutwardrespectively.

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Thetransistorinputcharacteristicsisessentiallythatofaforwardbiasedjunction,withsomedependence
uponthetransistorsoutputvoltage.
ThecollectororoutputcharacteristicsforatransistorusedintheCEconfigurationhavethecollectorcurrent
versuscollectorvoltagecurvesslopingupwardslightlywithbasecurrentasthecontrollingparameter.
TheCEascurrentgain

VCE=constant .

InCB,ACcurrentgain

(VCB=constant)

andislessthanunity.

and

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IneitherCBorCEaction,majoritycarriersaresweptacrossthenarrow,lightlydopedbasetothecollector.This
currentiscontrolledbyarelativelysmallbaseinputcurrentthatistheresultoftheforwardbiasedbaseemitter
junction,whichaccountsfortheamplifyingactioninatransistor.

ThepermissibleoperatingareaofatransistorscharacteristicsaredefinedbyIc,maxthemaximumdissipation
hyperbolaandV(BR)CEO.
ForatransistorusedintheCBconfigurationthecollectorcharacteristicsconsistofpracticallyhorizontallines
ofICversusVCBwithIEasthecontrollingparameter.
ThereversesaturationcurrentinaCBconfiguration=ICBO=ICO,whileinaCEconfigurationitis=ICEO=(
+1)ICO

BJT(BipolarJunctionTransistor):

ABJTisacurrentcontrolleddevicei.e.outputcharacteristicsofadevicearecontrolledbybasecurrentand
notbybasevoltage.
BJTsconductusingbothminorityandmajoritycarriers,anditsthreeterminalshavecorrespondingnames
(base,emitter,andcollector).

tbasicallyconsistsoftwoPNjunctionsthebasecollectorandthebaseemitterjunctions.Amaterialcalled
thebaseregion,whichisathininterveningsemiconductor,separatesthesetwojunctions.
ItbasicallyconsistsoftwoPNjunctions,thebasecollectorandthebaseemitterjunctions.Amaterialcalled
thebaseregion,whichisathininterveningsemiconductor,separatesthesetwojunctions.
Amaterialcalledthebaseregion,whichisathininterveningsemiconductor,separatesthesetwojunctions.
BipolarJunctionTransistorsareextensivelyusefulinamplifyingdevices,becausecollectorandemitter
currentsareeffectivelycontrolledbythesmallcurrentatthebase.
BJTsbasicallyfunctionasregulatorsofcurrents.Asmallcurrentisregulatingalargercurrent.
InBJTbothholesandelectronsplaypartsinconduction.
TheinputcircuitofBJTisforwardbiasedandhencehaslowinputimpedance.ABJTusesacurrentintoits
basetocontrolalargecurrentbetweencollectorandemitter.
BJTgainischaracterizedbycurrentgain.
Bipolarjunctiontransistorisformedbyjoiningthreesectionsofsemiconductorswithalternativedifferent
doping.Themiddlesection(base)isnarrowandoneoftheothertworegions(emitter)isheavilydoped.The
otherregioniscalledthecollector.
TwovariantsofBJTarepossible:NPN(baseismadeofptypematerial)andPNP(baseismadeofntype
material).

SmallSignalModelsinBJTCircuitAnalysis:
Stepsforusingsmallsignalmodels:

DeterminetheDCoperatingpointoftheBJT(Thecollectorcurrent)
Calculatesmallsignalmodelparameters(gm,r,&r0forthisDCoperatingpoint)
EliminateDCsources(ReplaceDCvoltagesourceswithshortcircuits,ReplaceDCcurrentsourceswith
opencircuits)

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ReplaceBJTwithanequivalentsmallsignalmodel(Choosemostconvenientonedependingonsurrounding
circuitry)
Analyze

Fieldeffecttransistors(FET)

Thefieldeffecttransistor(FET)isatransistorthatreliesonanelectricfieldtocontroltheshapeandhence
theconductivityofachannelofonetypeofchargecarrierinasemiconductormaterial.
FET,orFieldeffectTransistor,alsocontrolsthecurrentbetweentwopoints,butitusesadifferentmethodto
theBJT.
Asthenamesuggests,FETsfunctionisdependentontheeffectsofelectricfields,andontheflow,or
movement,ofelectronsinthecourseofaparticulartypeofsemiconductormaterial.
FETsaresometimesreferredtoasunipolartransistors,basedonthisfact.
FETuseseitherholes(Pchannel),orelectrons(Nchannel),forconduction,andithasthreeterminals
source,drain,andgate,withthebodyconnectedtothesourceinmostcases.
Inmanyapplications,FETisbasicallyavoltagecontrolleddevice,duetothefactthatitsoutputattributesare
establishedbythefieldthatisdependentontheappliedvoltage.

MOSFETs

TheMOSFETsisafieldeffecttransistorinwhichthemetalgateisinsulatedbyaverythinoxidelayerfrom
thesemiconductorchannel.
BothdepletionandenhancementtypesofMOSFETareavailableintheformer,draincurrentmaybe
controlledbyeitherenhancingordepletingthechannelthatexistsbetweendrainandsource,butin
theenhancementtypedraincurrentflowsonlywhenachannelisinducedbyenhancingcarrier
concentration.
AdualgateMOSFET,asthenameimplies,providesameansofcontrollingdraincurrentthroughthe
applicationoftwoinputsvoltages,oneoneachgate,importantapplicationsofwhichincludeAGC,mixer
circuitsanddemodulation.
IntegralgateprotectioninadualgateMOSFETinvolvestwopairsofdiodesconnectedbacktobackbetween
eachgateandsource.Thesediodesclipandlimittheinputvoltagetotypically10V,therebyprotecting
againsthighstaticvoltagesthatmightpuncturetheverythinoxideinsulatinglayer.

ApplicationsofFETs

Intheadditiontohavingapplicationsinoscillatorcircuits,theFETjunctionorinsulatedgatetype,canbe
usedinthechannelohmicregionasavoltage.VariableResistor,(WR).Inthiscase,thedraintosource
resistancemaybemadevariableoveraverylargerangebytheapplicationofvoltagetothegate.
TheWRmaybeusedinanattenuatorcircuit,anAGCcircuit,achoppercontrolledDCamplifierorasolid
statevoltmeter,tomentionafewapplications.
ThefieldeffectdiodeisessentiallyaJFETwithitsgatetiedtothesourceinternallytoprovideatwoterminal
CurrentRegulatingDiode(CRD).
TheconstantcurrentofaCRDmaybeanywherebetween0.2mAand5mA,dependinguponthediode
selectedandismaintainedoveravoltagerangefromapproximately3Vto100V.
AlthoughthefieldeffectCRDhasmanyapplicationsinvolvingaconstantcurrentsourcerequirement,itcan
beusedtogoodadvantageinavoltageregulator,withazenerdiode,sincethevoltagevariationattheinput
willcauseessentiallynochangeinoutputvoltageorzenercurrent.

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