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Table 1.

The Hazard and Effects Management Process summarised


HEMP Stage Objective of Stage Result of HEMP Source of Information Tools & Techniques available
Identification of To identify, the hazardous events (consequences) List of potential hazardous Individual knowledge Brainstorming
hazards and to be avoided, to identify the hazards, threats and events Group knowledge Hazard Identification. HAZID (EP 95-0312)
effects escalation factors which might contribute to that List of potential hazards Contractor knowledge Health Risk Assessment. HRA (SHSEC Sept. 94)
hazardous event. List of potential threats Established activity documentation (business HRA and exposure evaluation for chemical agents (SHSEC 95)
List of potential Escalation reports, inspections, audits, incident Human Factors (EP 95-0324)
Factors. investigations etc.) Environmental Assessment. EA (EP 95-0370)
Specialist reports (HAZAN, HAZID, SAFOP Soil and Groundwater Guides (EP 95-0385, 0386, 0387).
etc.) Social Impact Assessment (EP 95-0371)
Specialist tools (QRA, HAZID, etc.) Hazard and Operability Study. HAZOP (EP 95-0313)
HSE Cases FIREPRAN (EP 95-0350)
Task Hazard Control Sheets SAFOP (DEP)
Generic hazard and effects listing (TSE/1) Job Hazard Analysis. (EP 95-0311)
EP 95-0300 Tripod Beta (EP 95-0321)
Tripod Delta (EP 95-0320)
Evaluation of risk To assess the risks to health, safety and For each hazardous event, HSE Risk Matrix Most of the above techniques, plus:
environment from the identified hazardous events hazard, threat, escalation factor Incident Reports HSE Risk Matrix
by consideration of; an evaluation of: PDOTRACK Quantitative Risk Assessment. QRA (EP 95-0352)
1. The likelihood of occurrence; The probability of HSE Info Tool Historical records (EP 95-1020, PDOTRACK, QRA Datasheets E&P Forum)
2. The severity of exposure. occurrence QRA Datasheets (E&P Forum) Consequence Analysis as in:
Risks are to be assessed against established and The severity of exposure Oman Legislation Physical Effects Modelling (EP 95-0314)
demonstrably effective controls (barriers). List of appropriate standards HSE Standard Manual (HSE/96/01) Environmental Dispersion Models (Monitoring air quality; EP 95-0376;
which are in place and enforced EP 95-0000 series Monitoring water quality; EP 95-0381)
List of hazardous events for International Standards (BSi, API, ISO etc.) Oil Spill Trajectory Models
which standards are not in place Risk Assessment Models for Contaminated Soil (Environmental quality
or not acceptable. standards for soil and groundwater; EP 95-0385; Setting priorities for
contaminated soil and groundwater; EP 95-0387)
Groundwater models
Recording of To record the results of the identification and Hazard Registers THESIS software (TSE/1) THESIS software
hazards and evaluation stage for those hazardous events where Activity Specification Sheets WHIMS (BOS/7) WHIMS software
effects risk is significant;, so that; Task Specification Sheets HSE-MS
1. The information can be communicated to Task Hazard Control Sheets. HSE Case
others; Specifications
2. A record exists when challenged by
inspection or audit.
Comparison with To establish the gap between the risk as evaluated A list of unacceptable risks HSE Risk Matrix
Objectives and in previous stages and acceptable risk as defined in ranked against severity of
Performance Company standards. exposure and likelihood of
Criteria occurrence.
Risk Reduction To reduce the residual risk to as low as reasonably New standards to be in place and HSE Risk Matrix HSE-MS
Criteria practicable enforced HSE-MS (HSE/97/02) EP 95-0100
Guidelines (HSE/97/05) EP 95-0300
2.3.4 HSE Risk

To apply HEMP effectively, the HSE risk presented by the hazard and its effect must be known. Risk is a
combination of two components, frequency and consequence. Risk management requires either a reduction in the
frequency with which something occurs or a reduction in the consequence if it does occur. In PDO the tool against
which risk is assessed is the HSE Risk Matrix shown in Figure 3.

Consequence Increasing Probability


A B C D E

Rating Assets People- People- Environment Never heard Incident heard Incident heard Incident Incident
Health Safety of in EP of in EP of in PDO happens <5 happens >5
Industry Industry times per year times per year
in PDO in that location
0 No No Injury No Injury No effect
damage
1 Slight Slight Slight Slight effect
Damage Injury Injury
2 Minor Minor Minor Minor effect
Damage Injury Injury
3 Local Major Major Localised
Damage Injury Injury effect
4 Major Single Single Major effect
Damage Fatality Fatality
5 Extensive Multiple Multiple Massive
Damage Fatality Fatality effect
Figure 3. The Basic HSE Risk Matrix

The matrix plots frequency of occurrence along the top as five separate columns ranging from A to E. Consequence
is plotted down the side of the matrix as six separate rows ranging from 0 to 5. The consequence descriptions are
expanded upon further in HSE/97/01. Risk therefore plots within the matrix as a combination of probability and
consequence. This is known as the risk classification. For example A1 is a lower risk classification than C3. Within
Company operations levels of risk have been predefined and these are shown in Figure 4.

Consequence Increasing Probability


A B C D E
Rating Assets People- People- Environment Never heard Incident heard Incident heard Incident Incident
Health Safety of in EP of in EP of in PDO happens happens
Industry Industry several times several times
per year in per year in
PDO that location
0 No No Injury No Injury No effect
damage
1 Slight Slight Slight Slight effect
Damage Injury Injury
2 Minor Minor Minor Minor effect
Damage Injury Injury
3 Local Major Major Localised
Damage Injury Injury effect
4 Major Single Single Major effect
Damage Fatality Fatality
5 Extensive Multiple Multiple Massive
Damage Fatality Fatality effect
Figure 4. The HSE Risk Matrix as defined by the HSE-MS.

Level of risk
Discretionary
Low
Medium
High
Extreme

All action to reduce risk should result in the risk classification decreasing either in consequence (e.g. C4 to C3) or in
probability (e.g. C4 to B4). How much effort to expend will be based upon cost benefit analysis. . HSE risk is
discussed in more detail in Appendix IV.
2.4 HEMP in the Contract Management Plan

The Contract Management Plan (CMP) is described fully in HSE/97/02. This section considers those major aspects
of the CMP where HEMP must be effectively applied if the CMP is to achieve its objectives. For each aspect,
which part of HEMP to consider is shown in bold type.

2.4.1 Contract Strategy

This is a preparatory step in which the approach to managing the contract is decided upon. The decision to be taken
at this stage is who will be responsible for executing HEMP? If a hands on approach is chosen, the responsibility
for effective application of HEMP at all stages rests with the Contract Holder. If a hands off approach is taken, the
responsibility of the Contract Holder for executing HEMP ends after the HSE Specification is completed and then
moves to the contractor. However, the Contract Holder still remains responsible for the effectiveness of the
contractor application of HEMP at all stages.

2.4.2 Contract Scope and Definition


Major hazards should be identified and recorded for inclusion in the HSE assessment. During this phase, the
Contract Holder should perform a preliminary identification of the hazards and effects, and record this in a note to
file.

2.4.3 HSE Assessment


The HSE risk relating to the identified major hazards should be assessed and methods for reduction of that risk
agreed. HEMP should focus on:

Identifying those hazards which can be eliminated from the workscope;


Quantification of the residual HSE risk in the workscope after established standards have been applied;
Reduction in the residual risk to as low as reasonably practicable by introduction of risk reduction
measures;
Specifying as a contractual requirement risk reduction methods as essential controls and clarification of
when these should be in place;
Providing the contractor with the necessary information to get a full understanding of the hazards involved
in the workscope.

The following parties should contribute to the hazard assessment:

Contract Holder;
The planned activity supervisor(s);
An HSE adviser;
A representative of the department that the asset holder for the area/facility in which the contractor will be
operating.

The aspects of HEMP to be considered are:


Identification 1.Identification of hazards and effects
Assessment 2. Evaluation of risks
Assessment, Control 4. Comparison with objectives and performance criteria
Control, Recovery 5. Establishment of risk reduction measures
2.4.4 HSE Specification

The HSE specification is the result of the Contract Holder applying HEMP. It contains requirements identified
during the HEMP process. To be effective it should relate to HSE Policy, HSE Objectives, HSE Targets and HSE
Standards. Specified performance indicators should then be used to measure compliance to these standards. The
aspect of HEMP to be considered is:
Control, Recovery 5. Establishment of risk reduction measures

2.4.5 Preliminary Contract HSE Plan


In response to the HSE Specification, the contractor should develop a Contract HSE Plan which details how the HSE
risk should be minimised. It should cover the contract phases from mobilisation to demobilisation and clearly
indicate the policy, procedures and standards to be adopted during each phase of the contract. The Contract HSE
Plan should demonstrate the contractors understanding of the requirements stated in the HSE Specification and
indicate how the contractor should achieve compliance.

The Contract Holder should at this stage be looking for evidence that the contractor using their specialist skills has
applied HEMP independently of the requirements of the HSE Specification with the result that the Contract Holders
application of HEMP has either been:

Confirmed and therefore endorsed as adequate in scope and content by the contractor;
Challenged by the contractor, with alternatives and improvements proposed.

The HSE kick-off Meeting or an HSE Workshop can be used to establish the contract