You are on page 1of 3

October 14, 2017: ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY (Part 1)

Analytic Geometry deals with geometric problems using coordinates system


thereby converting it into algebraic problems.

I. RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM


Also known as Cartesian Coordinates System.

Second Quadrant First Quadrant

abscissa P (5,3)

ordinate

Third Quadrant Fourth Quadrant

Point O is the origin and has coordinates (0,0). The x-coordinate or abscissa
is always measured from the y-axis while the y-coordinate or ordinate is
always measured from the x-axis. The point P has 5 and 3 as abscissa and
ordinate respectively.

II. DISTANCE FORMLA

a. Distance between two points

d ( x2 x1 )2 ( y2 y1 )2

b. Distance between two points in space

d ( x2 x1 )2 ( y2 y1 )2 ( z2 z1 )2

III. SLOPE OF A LINE (m)

y2 y1
tan
x2 x1
Since slope, m tan

y2 y1
m
x2 x1
For parallel lines:
m1 m2
For perpendicular lines:
1
m2
m1

IV. ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES

m2 m1
tan
1 m2 m1

Where: m2 and m1 are slopes of lines 2 and 1, respectively.

V. DISTANCE BETWEEN A POINT AND A LINE

For the line, Ax By C 0 :

Ax1 By1 C
d
A2 B 2

Use: + if B is positive and the point is


above/right of the line
+ If B is negative and the point
is below/left of the line
If otherwise

VI. DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL LINES

For lines, Ax By C1 0 and Ax By C2 0

C1 C2
d
A2 B 2

VII. LINES

Equations of Lines:

a. General Equation

Ax By C 0
b. Point-Slope Form

y y1 m( x x1 )

c. Slope-Intercept Form

y mx b

d. Two-Point Form

y2 y1
y y1 ( x x1 )
x2 x1

e. Intercept Form

x y
1
a b