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# October 14, 2017: ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY (Part 1)

## Analytic Geometry deals with geometric problems using coordinates system

thereby converting it into algebraic problems.

## I. RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM

Also known as Cartesian Coordinates System.

abscissa P (5,3)

ordinate

Point O is the origin and has coordinates (0,0). The x-coordinate or abscissa
is always measured from the y-axis while the y-coordinate or ordinate is
always measured from the x-axis. The point P has 5 and 3 as abscissa and
ordinate respectively.

## a. Distance between two points

d ( x2 x1 )2 ( y2 y1 )2

## b. Distance between two points in space

d ( x2 x1 )2 ( y2 y1 )2 ( z2 z1 )2

## III. SLOPE OF A LINE (m)

y2 y1
tan
x2 x1
Since slope, m tan

y2 y1
m
x2 x1
For parallel lines:
m1 m2
For perpendicular lines:
1
m2
m1

m2 m1
tan
1 m2 m1

Ax1 By1 C
d
A2 B 2

## Use: + if B is positive and the point is

above/right of the line
+ If B is negative and the point
is below/left of the line
If otherwise

## For lines, Ax By C1 0 and Ax By C2 0

C1 C2
d
A2 B 2

VII. LINES

Equations of Lines:

a. General Equation

Ax By C 0
b. Point-Slope Form

y y1 m( x x1 )

c. Slope-Intercept Form

y mx b

d. Two-Point Form

y2 y1
y y1 ( x x1 )
x2 x1

e. Intercept Form

x y
1
a b