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INTRODUCTION TO CALCULUS ASSESSMENT

(Good for 1 hour and 30 minutes)

1. How many days pass in a given place between noon local time on June 24 and noon
local time of October 2 of any given year?

2. Convert the following decimal numerals to Roman numerals.


(a) 200
(b) 201
(c) 209
(d) 210

Figure 1.

3. What set does the small, dark-shaded triangle marked P represent in Fig. 1? What set
does the dark-shaded, irregular, four-sided figure marked Q represent?

4. If you consider all the possible intersections of two sets in Fig. 1, which of those
intersection sets are empty?

5. Is the universal set a subset of itself? Is it a proper subset of itself?

6. What is the intersection of these two sets? What is their union?


A = {1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, ...}
G = {1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, ...}

In set A, the denominator of the fraction increases by 1 as you go down the list. In set G,
the denominator doubles as you go down the list. All the numerators in both sets are
equal to 1.

7. List all the subsets of {1, 2, 3}.

8. The number 3 is odd. If a number n is divisible by 3 without a remainder, does that


mean n must be odd?

9. Find out whether or not 901 is a prime number.

10. Simplify and compare these expressions:

(a + b c) + (a b + c)
and
a + (b c) + (a b) + c

11. Evaluate the following expression:

4 + 32 / 8 (2) + 20 / 5 / 2 8

12. Start with the integer 15, multiply by 45, then divide that result by 25, then multiply that
result by 9, then divide that result by 81, and finally multiply that result by 5. What do you
end up with?

13. On the absolute temperature scale, the coldest possible temperature is 0, defined in
units called kelvins. On this scale, pure water at sea level freezes at 273 kelvins and boils
at 373 kelvins (to the nearest kelvin). Based on this information, what is the ratio of the
absolute temperature of the boiling point to the absolute temperature of the freezing
point, expressed in lowest terms between two integers?

14. Is the fraction 231/230 in lowest terms? If not, reduce it to lowest terms.

15. Write the following decimal expressions as combinations of integers and fractions. Reduce the
fractional part to lowest terms.

(a) 4.7
(b) 8.35
(c) 0.02

16. Which of the following quantities can we reasonably suspect is irrational?

(a) 163/4
(b) (1/4) 1/2
(c) (27) 1/3
(d) 271/2

17. What is the cardinality of


(a) The set of even natural numbers?
(b) The set of naturals divisible by 10 without a remainder?
(c) The set of naturals divisible by 100 without a remainder?
(d) The set of naturals divisible by any natural power of 10 without a remainder?

18. Consider this equation in real variables x and y:

36x + 48y = 216

How can we simplify this so it has the minimum possible number of symbols (variables and
digits)?

19. Using the product of sums rule, multiply out the product (x + y)(x y).

20. For what real-number values of x is this equation true?

x + 4 = 2x

21. For what real-number values of y is this inequality true?

y/2 4y + 7

22. For what real-number values of z is this inequality true?

z/(3) 6z + 6

23. Imagine that we have a motorboat with a maximum water speed (the speed relative to
the water its floating on) of 18 miles per hour (mi/h). We make a trip upstream from
our cabin to our cousins cabin, a distance of 18 miles (mi), running the boat at top
speed all the way. The trip takes 1 hour and 12 minutes (1 h 12 min). We would expect
it to take exactly 1 h if there were no current in the river. But the current, which we
were fighting, slowed us down. How fast was the river flowing? Assume that the river
flowed at the same speed all during our journey.
24. Imagine that you and I were once members of Internet Network Alpha, which had
60,000 members. We were not totally honorable characters, you and I. We conspired
to send a mass e-mail message (also called spam) to every single one of the 175,000
members of Internet Network Beta. Let A be the set of all members of Alpha at that
time, and let B be the set of all members of Beta. Suppose that we had the latest
programs to defeat antispam software in other peoples computers, so we succeeded in
our dubious quest. Every single member of Beta got our message. What sort of mapping
did we carry out from set A to set B? What was the maximal domain? What was the
essential domain? What was the co-domain? What was the range? (Note: As a result of
our behavior, we were kicked out of Internet Network Alpha, a punishment which, we
realize today, was well deserved.)

25. Sketch a graph of the equation y |x 1|

26. Find an equation for the line in Cartesian (x, y) coordinates that passes through the two points (2,
8) and (0, 4).

27. The sum of two numbers is 44. Their difference is 10. What are the two numbers?

28. Imagine that you and I are traveling in a car on a level highway at constant speed. Im
the driver. There are no other vehicles or living things in sight. You throw a baseball
straight out in front of the car. The ball strikes the pavement at 135 miles per hour (mi/h).
Then you throw another baseball directly backward, exactly as hard as the first one. The
second ball hits the highway, moving opposite to the direction of the car, at 15 mi/h.
(The ball is not only moving backward relative to the car; its also moving backward
relative to the pavement!) How fast am I driving? How fast do you hurl the baseballs
relative to the car? Forget about the possible effects of wind and gravity. Heres a hint:
Feel free to draw diagrams.
Figure 2.

29. Refer to Fig. 2. What is the equation of line L in slope-intercept form?

30. Refer to Fig. 2. What is the equation of line M in slope-intercept form?

31. Determine the values of x, y, and z.

4x + 2y 3z = 5
2x 5y z = 1
3x + 6y 7z = 0

32. Put the following three-by-three linear system into the proper form for conversion to
matrix notation:

x=yz7
y = 2x + 2z + 2
z = 3x 5y + 4

33. Write the set of equations represented by the following matrix:

34. Factor the following quadratic. Then find the roots and state the solution set. Heres a
hint: The coefficients and constants in the factors are all integers.
x2 10x 25 0

35. Draw an approximate graph of the quadratic equation:

y = (x 3)(4x 1)

36. Determine all the rational roots of the equation stated:

2x5 3x3 2x + 2 = 0

37. The power gain of an electronic circuit, in units called decibels (abbreviated dB), can be
calculated according to this formula:

G 10 log (Pout/Pin)

where G is the gain, Pout is the output signal power, and Pin is the input signal power,
both specified in watts. Suppose the audio input to the left channel of high-fidelity
amplifier is 0.535 watts, and the output is 23.7 watts. What is the power gain of this
circuit in decibels? Round off the answer to the nearest tenth of a decibel.

Figure 3.

38. What are the x and y coordinates of the points shown in Fig. 3?
39. Determine the distance of the point (4,5) from the origin in Fig. 3. Using a calculator, round off
the answer to three decimal places.

Figure 4.

40. Determine the coordinates of the midpoint of line segment L in Fig. 4. Express the
values in fractional and decimal form.

41. Determine the coordinates of the midpoint of line segment M in Fig. 4. Express the
values in fractional and decimal form.

42. Approximately how many radians are there in 1? Use a calculator and round the
answer off to four decimal places, assuming that 3.14159.

43. Sketch a graph of the function y sin x as a dashed curve in the Cartesian xy plane.
Then sketch a graph of y 2 sin x as a solid curve. How do the two functions compare?

44. The Pythagorean formula for the sine and cosine is

sin2 + cos2 = 1
From this, derive the fact that
sec2 tan2 = 1
45. Determine the type of conic section the following equation represents, and then draw
its graph:

x2 + 9y2 = 9

46. Determine the type of conic section the following equation represents, and then draw
its graph:
x2 y2 + 2x + 2y = 4

47. Following is an equation in the standard form for a hyperbola:

(x 1) 2/4 ( y + 2) 2/9 = 1

First, find the coordinates (x0,y0) of the center point. Then determine the length a of
the horizontal semi-axis and the length b of the vertical semi-axis. Next, sketch a graph
of the curve. Finally, work out the equations of the lines representing the asymptotes.

48. Plot a rectangular-coordinate graph of the function we get when we raise 10 to the
power of 1/x. The curve is represented by the following equation:

y = 10(1/x)

What is the domain of this function? What is its range? Include all values of the domain
from 10 to 10.

49. Sketch a graph, and state the domain and the range, of the difference function:

h () = sin cos

50. Using a calculator, plug in n 2, n 6, n 10, and n 20 to informally illustrate that

and therefore that

Work out the partial sums to obtain decimal quantities. Round off your results to five
decimal places when you encounter repeating or lengthy decimals.