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September 30, 2017: Topics to be discussed.

I. PLANE GEOMETRY
a. Angles

An Angle is formed by two rays which extend from a common point called
vertex.

Different types of angles:

> 90

< 90 90

null angle acute angle right angle obtuse angle


270

straight angle reflex angle (>180) full angle or perigon

Adjacent angles two angles with a leg in common.


Complementary angles two angles whose sum is a right angle (90)
Supplementary angles two angles whose sum is a straight angle (180)
Vertical angles angles formed by two intersecting lines. Vertical angles are
equal.

b. Circles

A Circle is a plane figure that is a locus of all points in the plane equidistant
from a given point, the center of the circle.

Circumference the length of the perimeter of a circle.


Sector bounded by two radii and an included arc.
Segment bounded by a chord and the arc subtending the chord.

Area of a circle: tangent


A r 2 or A d2
4
diameter
where: r = radius
d = diameter
Circumference of a circle:

C 2 r or C d

Area of sector:

1 1
A rc r 2
2 2

where: is in radian

r 2
A
360

where: is in degrees

Area of segment:

A Area of sector - Area of triangle

c. Ellipse

Ellipse is a locus of a point which moves so that the sum of its distances to the
fixed points (foci) is constant and is equal to the length of the major axis.

Area of an ellipse:

A ab b
a a
where: a = semi-major axis
b = semi-minor axis b

d. Polygons

A polygon is a closed plane figure with three or more angles. There are many
sides as angles in a polygon. The term polygon comes from Greek words
poly meaning many and gonia meaning angle. Polygons are named
according to the number of sides or vertices.

Number of Sides Name


3 Triangle
4 Quadrilateral or Tetragon
5 Pentagon
6 Hexagon
7 Heptagon
8 Octagon
9 Nonagon
10 Decagon
11 Undecagon
12 Dodecagon
1000 Chilliagon
n n-gon

Regular Polygon a polygon having all sides equal and all interior angles equal.
Convex Polygon a polygon having each interior angle less than 180.
Concave Polygon a polygon having one interior angle greater than 180.
Diagonal a line that connects two non-adjacent vertices.

Number of diagonals of a given polygon: Sum of interior angles:

n
Diagonals (n 3) S (n 2)180
2

where: n = number of sides of the polygon

e. Triangles

A triangle is a polygon with three sides. If three sides of a triangle are equal, it
is an equilateral triangle. An equilateral triangle is also equiangular. If two sides
are equal, it is an isosceles triangle. Scalene triangle is a triangle with no two
sides equal.

Acute triangle is a triangle with all interior angles less than a right triangle
(90). If one of the interior angles is greater than 90, it is regarded as an
obtuse triangle. If one interior angle is exactly 90, it is a right triangle.

Egyptian triangle is a right triangle with sides equivalent to 3, 4 and 5 units.

Note: For the formulas for area of a triangle, refer to Trigonometry.

f. Quadrilaterals

A quadrilateral (also known as quadrangle or tetragon) is a polygon with four


sides.

Trapezoid a quadrilateral with two parallel sides.


Trapezium a quadrilateral with no two parallel sides.
b = upper base

height = h
base = B
B = lower base

Trapezium Trapezoid
Area of a trapezoid:

1
A ( B b)h
2

g. Parallelograms

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides are parallel.


A right angled parallelogram is called a rectangle. A square is a rectangle with
all four sides equal.

Area of square: Area of rectangle:

A a2 A ab

Rhomboid a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are not equal.


Rhombus a rhomboid with all sides equal.

Area of rhombus: Area of rhomboid:

1 1
A bh d1d 2 A bh d1d2 sin
2 2

Where: d1 and d2 = diagonals


In the case of a rhombus, the value of = 90.

Additional Notes:
Complementary angles two angles whose sum is 90 or right angle.
Supplementary angles two angles whose sum is 180 or straight angle.
Explementary angles two angles whose sum is 360 or perigon.
II. PLANE TRIGONOMETRY
a. Solutions to Right Triangles

Trigonometric functions:

Opposite
1. sin
Hypotenuse
Adjacent
2. cos
Hypotenuse
Opposite
3. tan
Adjacent
Adjacent
4. cot
Opposite
Hypotenuse
5. sec
Adjacent
Hypotenuse
6. csc
Opposite

b. Pythagorean Theorem

a 2 b2 c 2

c. Solutions to Oblique Triangles


i. Law of Sines

a b c

sin A sin B sin C

ii. Law of Cosines

a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A
b 2 a 2 c 2 2ac cos B
c 2 a 2 b 2 2ab cos C

iii. Law of Tangents

1
tan ( A B)
a b 2

a b tan ( A B)
1
2
d. Trigonometric Identities

i. Reciprocal relations:

1 1
sin A csc A
csc A sin A
1 1
cos A sec A
sec A cos A
1 1
tan A cot A
cot A tan A

ii. Pythagorean relations:

sin 2 A cos 2 A 1
1 cot 2 A csc 2 A
1 tan 2 A sec 2 A

iii. Sum of angles formulas:

sin( A B) sin A cos B cos A sin B


cos( A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B

iv. Difference of angles formulas:

sin( A B) sin A cos B cos A sin B


cos( A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B

v. Double angle formulas:

sin 2 A 2sin A cos A


cos 2 A cos 2 A sin 2 A
2 tan A
tan 2 A
1 tan 2 A

vi. Powers of functions:

1
sin 2 A (1 cos 2 A)
2
1
cos 2 A (1 cos 2 A)
2
1 cos 2 A
tan 2 A
1 cos 2 A
vii. Functions of half angles:

A 1 cos A
sin
2 2
A 1 cos A
cos
2 2
A 1 cos A sin A
tan
2 sin A 1 cos A

viii. Sum of two functions:

1 1
sin A sin B 2sin ( A B) cos ( A B)
2 2
1 1
cos A cos B 2 cos ( A B) cos ( A B)
2 2
sin( A B)
tan A tan B
cos A cos B

ix. Difference of two functions:

1 1
sin A sin B 2 cos ( A B)sin ( A B)
2 2
1 1
cos A cos B 2sin ( A B)sin ( A B)
2 2
sin( A B)
tan A tan B
cos A cos B

x. Product of two functions:

2sin A sin B cos( A B ) cos( A B )


2sin A cos B sin( A B) sin( A B )
2 cos A cos B cos( A B ) cos( A B )