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- Maths - Triangle Formulae
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I. PLANE GEOMETRY

a. Angles

An Angle is formed by two rays which extend from a common point called

vertex.

> 90

< 90 90

270

Complementary angles two angles whose sum is a right angle (90)

Supplementary angles two angles whose sum is a straight angle (180)

Vertical angles angles formed by two intersecting lines. Vertical angles are

equal.

b. Circles

A Circle is a plane figure that is a locus of all points in the plane equidistant

from a given point, the center of the circle.

Sector bounded by two radii and an included arc.

Segment bounded by a chord and the arc subtending the chord.

A r 2 or A d2

4

diameter

where: r = radius

d = diameter

Circumference of a circle:

C 2 r or C d

Area of sector:

1 1

A rc r 2

2 2

where: is in radian

r 2

A

360

where: is in degrees

Area of segment:

c. Ellipse

Ellipse is a locus of a point which moves so that the sum of its distances to the

fixed points (foci) is constant and is equal to the length of the major axis.

Area of an ellipse:

A ab b

a a

where: a = semi-major axis

b = semi-minor axis b

d. Polygons

A polygon is a closed plane figure with three or more angles. There are many

sides as angles in a polygon. The term polygon comes from Greek words

poly meaning many and gonia meaning angle. Polygons are named

according to the number of sides or vertices.

3 Triangle

4 Quadrilateral or Tetragon

5 Pentagon

6 Hexagon

7 Heptagon

8 Octagon

9 Nonagon

10 Decagon

11 Undecagon

12 Dodecagon

1000 Chilliagon

n n-gon

Regular Polygon a polygon having all sides equal and all interior angles equal.

Convex Polygon a polygon having each interior angle less than 180.

Concave Polygon a polygon having one interior angle greater than 180.

Diagonal a line that connects two non-adjacent vertices.

n

Diagonals (n 3) S (n 2)180

2

e. Triangles

A triangle is a polygon with three sides. If three sides of a triangle are equal, it

is an equilateral triangle. An equilateral triangle is also equiangular. If two sides

are equal, it is an isosceles triangle. Scalene triangle is a triangle with no two

sides equal.

Acute triangle is a triangle with all interior angles less than a right triangle

(90). If one of the interior angles is greater than 90, it is regarded as an

obtuse triangle. If one interior angle is exactly 90, it is a right triangle.

f. Quadrilaterals

sides.

Trapezium a quadrilateral with no two parallel sides.

b = upper base

height = h

base = B

B = lower base

Trapezium Trapezoid

Area of a trapezoid:

1

A ( B b)h

2

g. Parallelograms

A right angled parallelogram is called a rectangle. A square is a rectangle with

all four sides equal.

A a2 A ab

Rhombus a rhomboid with all sides equal.

1 1

A bh d1d 2 A bh d1d2 sin

2 2

In the case of a rhombus, the value of = 90.

Additional Notes:

Complementary angles two angles whose sum is 90 or right angle.

Supplementary angles two angles whose sum is 180 or straight angle.

Explementary angles two angles whose sum is 360 or perigon.

II. PLANE TRIGONOMETRY

a. Solutions to Right Triangles

Trigonometric functions:

Opposite

1. sin

Hypotenuse

Adjacent

2. cos

Hypotenuse

Opposite

3. tan

Adjacent

Adjacent

4. cot

Opposite

Hypotenuse

5. sec

Adjacent

Hypotenuse

6. csc

Opposite

b. Pythagorean Theorem

a 2 b2 c 2

i. Law of Sines

a b c

sin A sin B sin C

a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A

b 2 a 2 c 2 2ac cos B

c 2 a 2 b 2 2ab cos C

1

tan ( A B)

a b 2

a b tan ( A B)

1

2

d. Trigonometric Identities

i. Reciprocal relations:

1 1

sin A csc A

csc A sin A

1 1

cos A sec A

sec A cos A

1 1

tan A cot A

cot A tan A

sin 2 A cos 2 A 1

1 cot 2 A csc 2 A

1 tan 2 A sec 2 A

cos( A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B

tan A tan B

tan( A B)

1 tan A tan B

cos( A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B

tan A tan B

tan( A B)

1 tan A tan B

cos 2 A cos 2 A sin 2 A

2 tan A

tan 2 A

1 tan 2 A

1

sin 2 A (1 cos 2 A)

2

1

cos 2 A (1 cos 2 A)

2

1 cos 2 A

tan 2 A

1 cos 2 A

vii. Functions of half angles:

A 1 cos A

sin

2 2

A 1 cos A

cos

2 2

A 1 cos A sin A

tan

2 sin A 1 cos A

1 1

sin A sin B 2sin ( A B) cos ( A B)

2 2

1 1

cos A cos B 2 cos ( A B) cos ( A B)

2 2

sin( A B)

tan A tan B

cos A cos B

1 1

sin A sin B 2 cos ( A B)sin ( A B)

2 2

1 1

cos A cos B 2sin ( A B)sin ( A B)

2 2

sin( A B)

tan A tan B

cos A cos B

2sin A cos B sin( A B) sin( A B )

2 cos A cos B cos( A B ) cos( A B )

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