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Harmattan Semester, 2012



The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental
inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is consistent with the
modern definition of engineering, exploiting basic mechanical principles to develop
useful tools and objects.

The phrase engineering science appeared at the beginning of the eighteenth century, a full six
decades earlier than the appearance of the phrase social science. Engineering science,
together with research and development, shifted into high gear after World War II.

Engineering means the science and art of designing, investigating, supervising the
construction, maintenance or operation of, making specifications, inventories or appraisals of,
and consultations or reports on machinery, structures, works, plants, mines, mineral deposits,
processes, transportation systems, transmission systems and communication systems or any
other part thereof.

Science generally is a state of knowing or possessing knowledge that is sufficient generally,

clearly conceptualized and systematized, critically examined and empirically tested. It
addresses not only what is but also what can be, because it goes beyond cataloging facts to
supporting contrary-to-fact hypotheses. Natural sciences concern with what can be under
physical laws. Engineering sciences add the constraint of utility and ask what can be of
use under physical laws and other practical constraints. An engineering science delineates the
underlying principles and mechanisms for a broad type of artificial system with physical bases
susceptible to deliberate design and control, for instance systems that effectively utilize heat.

Utilitarian considerations open a new dimension in engineering science. Questions

regarding what for, how to, and how good, which are usually absent in the contents of natural
science, become central to the contents of engineering science. They are represented
by functional concepts. Engineers investigate not only a system's physical structures but also its
functions, or the services that it delivers to some external environment. Structures and
functions are of course interrelated, but specific studies can emphasize one or the other.
History based on Revolution

The history of engineering can be roughly divided into four overlapping phases, each marked by
a revolution:

Pre-scientific revolution: the pre-history of modern engineering features ancient master

builders and Renaissance engineers such as Leonardo da Vinci.
Industrial revolution: From the eighteenth through early nineteenth century, civil and
mechanical engineers changed from practical artists to scientific professionals.
Second industrial revolution: In the century before World War II, chemical, electrical,
and other science-based engineering branches developed electricity,
telecommunications, cars, airplanes, and mass production.
Information revolution: As engineering science matured after the war,
microelectronics, computers, and telecommunications jointly produced information

Engineering before the Scientific Revolution

The forerunners of engineers, practical artists and craftsmen, proceeded mainly by trial and
error. Yet tinkering combined with imagination produced many marvelous devices. Many
ancient monuments cannot fail to incite admiration. The admiration is embodied in the name
engineer itself. It originated in the eleventh century from the Latin ingeniator, meaning one
with ingenium, the ingenious one. The name, used for builders of ingenious fortifications or
makers of ingenious devices, was closely related to the notion of ingenuity, which was captured
in the old meaning of engine until the word was taken over by steam engines and its like.
Leonardo da Vinci bore the official title of Ingegnere Generale. His notebooks reveal that some
Renaissance engineers began to ask systematically what works and why

Engineering the Industrial Revolution

The first phase of modern engineering emerged in the Scientific Revolution. Galileos Two New
Sciences, which seeks systematic explanations and adopts a scientific approach to practical
problems, is a landmark regarded by many engineer historians as the beginning of structural
analysis, the mathematical representation and design of building structures. This phase of
engineering lasted through the First Industrial Revolution, when machines, increasingly
powered by steam engines, started to replace muscles in most production. While pulling off
the revolution, traditional artisans transformed themselves to modern professionals. The
French, more rationalistic oriented, spearheaded civil engineering with emphasis on
mathematics and developed university engineering education under the sponsorship of their
government. The British, more empirically oriented, pioneered mechanical engineering and
autonomous professional societies under the laissez-faire attitude of their government.
Gradually, practical thinking became scientific in addition to intuitive, as engineers developed
mathematical analysis and controlled experiments. Technical training shifted from
apprenticeship to university education. Information flowed more quickly in organized meetings
and journal publications as professional societies emerged.

Engineering the second industrial revolution

The second industrial revolution, symbolized by the advent of electricity and mass production,
was driven by many branches of engineering. Chemical and electrical engineering developed
in close collaboration with chemistry and physics and played vital roles in the rise of chemical,
electrical, and telecommunication industries. Marine engineers tamed the peril of ocean
exploration. Aeronautic engineers turned the ancient dream of flight into a travel
convenience for ordinary people. Control engineers accelerated the pace of
automation. Industrial engineers designed and managed mass production and distribution
systems. College engineering curricula were well established and graduate schools
appeared. Workshops turned into to laboratories, tinkering became industrial research, and
individual inventions were organized into systematic innovations.

Left scale: percentage of households with electricity and radio; right scale: number of telephones
and registered passenger cars per one thousand population in the United States. Electrification of
factories and industries proceeded more rapidly than the residential service shown here. Telephone
service appeared earlier but spread slower; only 78 percent of households had service in 1960, when
the nation boasted 408 telephones per thousahd population, because a third of these were business

Source: Census Bureau, Historical Statistics of the United States , tables 716, 783, 872.
Right scale: Numbers of students attending electrical (EE), mechanical (ME), and chemical (ChE)
engineering courses in American universities, (Haber, 1971: 63, 370). The numbers in years from 1882-
1890 include only students in MIT and Cornell, which were the earliest and largest universities offering
courses in electrical engineering. In both, notice the effects of the depression in the early 1930s and
wars in the late 1910s and early 1940s.

Sources: L. H. Haber, The Chemical Industry: 1900-1930 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), pp.
63, 370. R. Rosenberg, The origin of EE education. IEEE Spectrum 21(7): 60-8, 1984.

Engineering the information age

Research and development boomed in all fields of science and technology after World War II,
partly because of the Cold War and the Sputnik effect. The explosion of engineering research,
which used to lagged behind natural science, was especially impressive, as can be seen from
the relative expansion of graduate education. Engineering was also stimulated by new
technologies, notably aerospace, microelectronics, computers, novel means of
telecommunications from the Internet to cell phones. Turbojet and rocket engines propelled
aeronautic engineering into unprecedented height and spawned astronautic
engineering. Utilization of atomic and nuclear power brought nuclear engineering. Advanced
materials with performance hitherto undreamed of poured out from the laboratories of
materials science and engineering. Above all, microelectronics, telecommunications, and
computer engineering joined force to precipitate the information revolution in which
intellectual chores are increasingly alleviated by machines.

To lead the progress of these sophisticated technologies, engineers have remade themselves
by reforming educational programs and expanding research efforts. Intensive engineering
research produced not only new technologies but also bodies of powerful systematic
knowledge: the engineering sciences and systems theories in information, computer, control,
and communications. Engineering developed extensive theories of its own and firmly
established itself as a science of creating, explaining, and utilizing manmade systems. This
period also saw the maturation of graduate engineering education and the rise of large-scale
research and development organized on the national level.

So far the physical sciences physics and chemistry have contributed most to technology.
They will continue to contribute, for instance in the emerging nanotechnology that will take
over the torch of the microelectronics revolution. Increasingly, they are joined by biology,
which has been transformed by the spectacular success of molecular and genetic biology.
Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary field, drawing knowledge from biology, biochemistry,
physics, information processing and various engineering expertise. The cooperation and
convergence of traditional intellectual disciplines in the development of new technology is the
trend of the future.
History Based on Engineering Discipline

Engineering is one of the oldest professions in the world. Around 2550 BC, Imhotep, the first
documented engineer, built a famous stepped pyramid of King Zoser located at Saqqarah
shown below. With simple tools and mathematics he created a monument that stands to this
day. His greatest contribution to engineering was his discovery of the art of building with
shaped stones. Those who followed him carried engineering to remarkable heights using skill
and imagination. Vitruvius' De archiectura was published 1AD in Rome and survived to give us a
look at engineering education in ancient times.

Pyramid of King Zoser at Saqqarah

Military Engineering

The first engineers were military engineers, combining military and civil skills. During periods of
conflict the engineers made and used instruments of war such as catapults, battering rams,
towers, and ramps to aid in attacking their enemies' forts & encampments and also to defend
their own. During the periods of peace, they were involved in many military and civil activities
such as building fortifications for defence against further attacks, roads, bridges, aqueducts,
canals and cathedrals. The construction and hydraulics techniques used by the medieval
engineers in China, Japan, India and other regions of the Far East were far more sophisticated
than those of the medieval European engineers.

Civil Engineering

Civil engineering is the oldest of the main disciplines of engineering. The first engineering
school, the National School of Bridges and Highways in France, was opened in 1747. John
Smeaton was the first person to actually call himself a "Civil Engineer". These civil engineers
built all types of structures, designed water-supply and sewer systems, designed railroads and
highways, and planned cities. In 1828 the world's first engineering society came into being,
the Institution of Civil Engineers in England.
Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical engineering was the second branch of engineering to emerge in the last part of the
1700s. The invention of the steam engine was the starting point for the Industrial Revolution.
All types of machinery were being developed now and so a new kind of engineer, one dealing
with tools and machines, was born. Mechanical engineers received formal recognition in 1847
with the founding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in England.

Electrical Engineering

Knowledge of electricity grew slowly during the 1800s: the original electric cell was invented by
Alessandro Volta in 1800, the Gramme dynamo and electric motor were invented in 1872, the
transistor and the vacuum tube appeared by the mid 1900s and by the end of the 1900s
electrical and electronics engineers outnumbered all the other types of engineers in the world.

Chemical Engineering

In the 1800's, industry started using more and more chemical processes in many areas such as
metallurgy, food production and textiles. At the end of the 19th century, the increased use of
chemicals in the manufacturing industry eventually created a new industry, an industry whose
main function was the production of chemicals. The new chemical engineer was involved in the
design and operation of these new chemical producing plants.

Around 1900, the term "Chemical Engineer" was being used, but it wasn't until the
development of the petroleum industry that chemical engineering became recognized as a
unique engineering discipline.

As the art and science of production, engineering transforms nature to serve large
numbers of people. To transform nature effectively requires knowledge in natural
science; to serve people adequately requires knowledge about socioeconomic factors.
Internally, engineering has three aspects: engineering science, design and development,
and management and organization. Externally, it is closely allied with natural science on
the one hand and industry on the other. Together they constitute the main engines
of technology.


Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world

to protect the safety, well-being and other interests of the general public, and to define
the licensure process through which an engineer becomes authorized to
provide professional services to the public.
The professional status and the actual practice of professional engineering is legally
defined and protected by governments. In some jurisdictions only registered or licensed
engineers are permitted to use the title engineer or to practice engineering. Another
earmark that distinguishes a licensed engineer is the authority to take legal responsibility
for engineering work. Only a licensed engineer can sign, seal or stamp technical
documentation such as reports, drawings, and calculations for a study, estimate,
valuation; design; analysis and execute/supervise engineering works. Only he/she can
approve tenders/bids/contracts/bills/payments/valuations and do engineering valuation
of buildings structures; machines; plant; factory; process; components; land property.

Becoming an engineer is a widely varied process around the world, where Engineering is a
regulated profession, there are specific procedures and requirements for obtaining license
to practice, or registration from a government or License-granting authority acting on its
behalf and as in other regulated professions, engineers are subject to regulation by these


In Nigeria, the registration or licensure of professional engineers and engineering practice

is performed by the Council for the Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN). COREN,
was established by Decree 55 of 1970 and amended by Decree 27 of 1992, now the
"Engineers (Registration) Act, CAP E11 of 2004" Law of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The
Act establishes COREN as a statutory body of the Federal Government empowered to
regulate and control the training and practice of engineering in Nigeria and to ensure and
enforce the registration of all engineering personnel (i.e. Engineers, Engineering
Technologists, Engineering Technicians, and Engineering Craftsmen) and consulting firms
wishing to practice or engage in the practice of engineering.

Main Duties of COREN

1. Caters for engineering disciplines, many of which have their practitioners greater in
number than those of most professional regulatory.
2. Registers FIVE cadres of engineering personnel, Engineers, Engineering
Technologists, Engineering Technicians, Engineering Cratsmen, and Engineering
Consulting Firms with each having its own Association, i.e.:
a. Nigerian Society of Engineers
b. Nigerian Association of Engineering Technologists
c. Nigerian Institute of Engineering Technicians
d. Nigerian Association of Engineering Craftsmen, and
e. Association of Consulting Engineers of Nigeria (ACEN)
3. Accredits engineering courses in the universities, polytechnics/ college of
technology, technical colleges both within and outside Nigeria.
4. Organizes and supervises the post-graduate practical training of newly graduated
engineering personnel.

Registration as Engineers
Subject to the Act of the Law of Federal Republic of Nigeria, a person shall be fully
registered under this Act if;

i. He has attended a course of training approved by the council.

ii. The course was conducted at an institution so approved, or partly at one such
institution and partly at another or others.
iii. He holds a qualification so approved i.e. B.Eng, B. Tech. etc
iv. He holds a certificate of experience issued in pursuance of the Act
v. He has completed a minimum of two years approved post-graduate training and
has passed or is exempted from professional interview
vi. In the case of craftsman, he has completed a minimum of two years working
experience in his trade and submits an acceptable certificate of experience and has
completed his second year of industrial pupilage in an approved establishment.

Note: a person shall also be entitled to be fully registered if he satisfy that he is of good
character, holds a qualification granted outside Nigeria and for the time being accepted by
the Council and that the country in which the qualification was granted, he was under no
legal disability in the practice of engineering coupled with sufficient practical engineering

Titles to be used by registered persons

1. A registered engineer shall use the abbreviation "Engr" before his name.
2. A registered engineering technologist shall use the abbreviation "Engn. Tech" after
his name.
3. A registered engineering technician shall use the abbreviation "Tech" after his
4. A registered engineering craftsman shall use his full title with his trade in bracket
under his name.
Benefits of a registered Engineer
A registered engineer is one who has the professional license to practice engineering
profession. The professional engineer license gives a measure of competency, reliability, and
professionalism. Here are a few specific reasons why becoming a professional engineer.

1. Legal Needs: Engineers are just like any other highly skilled profession in that they are
governed by specific rules and regulations. Numerous engineering jobs both in private
industry and in governmental organizations legally require that a professional engineer
fill them. This is because a Professional engineer license is needed in order to legally
practice and provide engineering services. One of the biggest requirements along these
lines is that only a registered professional engineer can stamp recognized engineering
documents for public and professional customers. This is a formal seal issued by the
practicing engineers state board (such as COREN) and can be used on things such as
computer assisted drawing (CAD) designs, structural evaluation reports, equipment
settings sheets, or development proposals.

2. Career Progression: The fact of the matter is that an engineering license might be a
major boost in helping you climb the corporate ladder in any company. This is true
whether your job path goes on a traditional technical route or if you aspire to join the
managerial ranks. The reasoning behind all of this is that a lot of employers in the
aforementioned industrial sectors require a job applicant to be a Professional Engineer
for senior engineering jobs. These roles usually have substantial project responsibilities
and often times will need to have someone with the ability to stamp documents. This
insures quality control and standard industry practices. Another great benefit for
Professional Engineers is that some companies provide bonuses or salary increases for
acquiring a license. The license can provide numerous advantages which is why
someone with it can increase their value to their company.

3. Highlights Expertise and Credibility: Finally, there is a level of prestige that comes with
being a professional engineer. In such highly specialized and technical industries,
professional engineers have a level of respect from colleagues in their professional
circles. The Professional Engineer credential is something that shows you have the
knowledge and competency to be an engineer. It shows you have legitimate working
experience, that you practice continual learning, and that you act in an ethical manner.
Like anything else, more skins on your wall help with credibility.

Professional bodies are made up of groups of likeminded professionals (engineers) with

knowledge on engineering of various disciplines that oversee the quality of products produced,
the practice of engineering and to protect the interest of public. Professional bodies can also be
referred to as professional associations, professional societies or professional organizations.
These professional bodies also promote exchange of knowledge where professionals used to
generate ideas and share amongst themselves to improve the engineering industry.

Professional societies are created to actively promote professionalism in engineering. Their

main aim is to provide professional licensing and accreditation standards. Apart from licensing,
accreditation / certification standards, defining codes of ethics and defining disciplinary actions
for violation of the codes, professional bodies have responsibilities of providing ethical
leadership for its members and for the wider society regarding the use of artifacts.
Engineering professional bodies are non profit making organizations.

List of engineering societies

The major ones in Nigeria are;

COREN Council for Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria

NSE Nigeria Society of Engineers
NSChe Nigerian society of Chemical Engineers
ACEN - Association of Consulting Engineers of Nigeria
NIMechE Nigerian Institute of Mechanical Engineers

Other global engineering societies are;

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASSE American Society of Safety Engineers
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IIE Institute of Industrial Engineers
NSPE National Society of Professional Engineers
ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
AICE American Institute of Chemical Engineers
AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
SME Society of Manufacturing Engineers
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SWE Society of Women Engineers
MMMS Minerals, Metals and Materials Society
NSBE National Society of Black Engineers
MIRA Motor Industry Research Association
RIA Railway Industry Association
NOTE: There are also many student-run engineering societies, commonly at universities or
technical colleges such as NSBE- National Society of Black Engineers


Engineers code of conducts is a set of rules outlining the responsibilities of proper practices for
an individual (engineer). The engineers codes of conduct were adopted to protect and
safeguard the health, safety, welfare and property of the public.
Engineering is an important and learned profession. Engineers are expected to exhibit the
highest standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the
quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the services provided by engineers require honesty,
impartiality, fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health,
safety and welfare. Engineers must perform under a standard of professional behaviour that
requires adherence to the highest principles of ethical conduct.

Fundamental Code of conducts

Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall:

1. Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public.

2. Perform services only in areas of their competence.
3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.
4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.
5. Avoid deceptive acts.
6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the
honor, reputation, and usefulness of the profession.

Rules of Practice

1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public.
a. If engineers' judgment is overruled under circumstances that endanger life or
property, they shall notify their employer or client and such other authority as
may be appropriate.
b. Engineers shall approve only those engineering documents that are in
conformity with applicable standards.
c. Engineers shall not reveal facts, data, or information without the prior consent of
the client or employer except as authorized or required by law or this Code.
d. Engineers shall not permit the use of their name or associate in business
ventures with any person or firm that they believe is engaged in fraudulent or
dishonest enterprise.
e. Engineers shall not aid or abet the unlawful practice of engineering by a person
or firm.
f. Engineers having knowledge of any alleged violation of this Code shall report
thereon to appropriate professional bodies and, when relevant, also to public
authorities, and cooperate with the proper authorities in furnishing such
information or assistance as may be required.

2. Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence.

a. Engineers shall undertake assignments only when qualified by education or
experience in the specific technical fields involved.
b. Engineers shall not affix their signatures to any plans or documents dealing with
subject matter in which they lack competence, nor to any plan or document not
prepared under their direction and control.
c. Engineers may accept assignments and assume responsibility for coordination of
an entire project and sign and seal the engineering documents for the entire
project, provided that each technical segment is signed and sealed only by the
qualified engineers who prepared the segment.
3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.
a. Engineers shall be objective and truthful in professional reports, statements, or
testimony. They shall include all relevant and pertinent information in such
reports, statements, or testimony, which should bear the date indicating when it
was current.
b. Engineers may express publicly technical opinions that are founded upon
knowledge of the facts and competence in the subject matter.
c. Engineers shall issue no statements, criticisms, or arguments on technical
matters that are inspired or paid for by interested parties, unless they have
prefaced their comments by explicitly identifying the interested parties on
whose behalf they are speaking, and by revealing the existence of any interest
the engineers may have in the matters.
4. Engineers shall act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.
a. Engineers shall disclose all known or potential conflicts of interest that could
influence or appear to influence their judgment or the quality of their services.
b. Engineers shall not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than
one party for services on the same project, or for services pertaining to the same
project, unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed to by all
interested parties.
c. Engineers shall not solicit or accept financial or other valuable consideration,
directly or indirectly, from outside agents in connection with the work for which
they are responsible.
d. Engineers in public service as members, advisors, or employees of a
governmental or quasi-governmental body or department shall not participate in
decisions with respect to services solicited or provided by them or their
organizations in private or public engineering practice.
e. Engineers shall not solicit or accept a contract from a governmental body on
which a principal or officer of their organization serves as a member.
5. Engineers shall avoid deceptive acts.
a. Engineers shall not falsify their qualifications or permit misrepresentation of
their or their associates' qualifications. They shall not misrepresent or
exaggerate their responsibility in or for the subject matter of prior assignments.
Brochures or other presentations incident to the solicitation of employment shall
not misrepresent pertinent facts concerning employers, employees, associates,
joint venturers, or past accomplishments.
b. Engineers shall not offer, give, solicit, or receive, either directly or indirectly, any
contribution to influence the award of a contract by public authority, or which
may be reasonably construed by the public as having the effect or intent of
influencing the awarding of a contract. They shall not offer any gift or other
valuable consideration in order to secure work. They shall not pay a commission,
percentage, or brokerage fee in order to secure work, except to a bona fide
employee or bona fide established commercial or marketing agencies retained
by them.

Professional Obligations

1. Engineers shall be guided in all their relations by the highest standards of honesty and
a. Engineers shall acknowledge their errors and shall not distort or alter the facts.
b. Engineers shall advise their clients or employers when they believe a project will
not be successful.
c. Engineers shall not accept outside employment to the detriment of their regular
work or interest. Before accepting any outside engineering employment, they
will notify their employers.
d. Engineers shall not attempt to attract an engineer from another employer by
false or misleading pretenses.
e. Engineers shall not promote their own interest at the expense of the dignity and
integrity of the profession.
2. Engineers shall at all times strive to serve the public interest.
a. Engineers are encouraged to participate in civic affairs; career guidance for
youths; and work for the advancement of the safety, health, and well-being of
their community.
b. Engineers shall not complete, sign, or seal plans and/or specifications that are
not in conformity with applicable engineering standards. If the client or
employer insists on such unprofessional conduct, they shall notify the proper
authorities and withdraw from further service on the project.
c. Engineers are encouraged to extend public knowledge and appreciation of
engineering and its achievements.
d. Engineers are encouraged to adhere to the principles of sustainable
development1in order to protect the environment for future generations.
3. Engineers shall avoid all conduct or practice that deceives the public.
a. Engineers shall avoid the use of statements containing a material
misrepresentation of fact or omitting a material fact.
b. Consistent with the foregoing, engineers may advertise for recruitment of
c. Consistent with the foregoing, engineers may prepare articles for the lay or
technical press, but such articles shall not imply credit to the author for work
performed by others.
4. Engineers shall not disclose, without consent, confidential information concerning the
business affairs or technical processes of any present or former client or employer, or
public body on which they serve.
a. Engineers shall not, without the consent of all interested parties, promote or
arrange for new employment or practice in connection with a specific project for
which the engineer has gained particular and specialized knowledge.
b. Engineers shall not, without the consent of all interested parties, participate in or
represent an adversary interest in connection with a specific project or
proceeding in which the engineer has gained particular specialized knowledge on
behalf of a former client or employer.
5. Engineers shall not be influenced in their professional duties by conflicting interests.
a. Engineers shall not accept financial or other considerations, including free
engineering designs, from material or equipment suppliers for specifying their
b. Engineers shall not accept commissions or allowances, directly or indirectly, from
contractors or other parties dealing with clients or employers of the engineer in
connection with work for which the engineer is responsible.
6. Engineers shall not attempt to obtain employment or advancement or professional
engagements by untruthfully criticizing other engineers, or by other improper or
questionable methods.
a. Engineers shall not request, propose, or accept a commission on a contingent
basis under circumstances in which their judgment may be compromised.
b. Engineers in salaried positions shall accept part-time engineering work only to
the extent consistent with policies of the employer and in accordance with
ethical considerations.
c. Engineers shall not, without consent, use equipment, supplies, laboratory, or
office facilities of an employer to carry on outside private practice.
7. Engineers shall not attempt to injure, maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the
professional reputation, prospects, practice, or employment of other engineers.
Engineers who believe others are guilty of unethical or illegal practice shall present such
information to the proper authority for action.
a. Engineers in private practice shall not review the work of another engineer for
the same client, except with the knowledge of such engineer, or unless the
connection of such engineer with the work has been terminated.
b. Engineers in governmental, industrial, or educational employ are entitled to
review and evaluate the work of other engineers when so required by their
employment duties.
c. Engineers in sales or industrial employ are entitled to make engineering
comparisons of represented products with products of other suppliers.
8. Engineers shall accept personal responsibility for their professional activities, provided,
however, that engineers may seek indemnification for services arising out of their
practice for other than gross negligence, where the engineer's interests cannot
otherwise be protected.
a. Engineers shall conform with state registration laws in the practice of
b. Engineers shall not use association with a nonengineer, a corporation, or
partnership as a "cloak" for unethical acts.
9. Engineers shall give credit for engineering work to those to whom credit is due, and will
recognize the proprietary interests of others.
a. Engineers shall, whenever possible, name the person or persons who may be
individually responsible for designs, inventions, writings, or other
b. Engineers using designs supplied by a client recognize that the designs remain
the property of the client and may not be duplicated by the engineer for others
without express permission.
c. Engineers, before undertaking work for others in connection with which the
engineer may make improvements, plans, designs, inventions, or other records
that may justify copyrights or patents, should enter into a positive agreement
regarding ownership.
d. Engineers' designs, data, records, and notes referring exclusively to an
employer's work are the employer's property. The employer should indemnify
the engineer for use of the information for any purpose other than the original
e. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their
careers and should keep current in their specialty fields by engaging in
professional practice, participating in continuing education courses, reading in
the technical literature, and attending professional meetings and seminars.
Engineering Ethics

Engineering ethics is the study of the moral issues and decisions confronting individuals and
organizations involved in engineering and the study of related questions about moral conduct,
character, ideals, and relationships of people and organizations involved in technological
development. Engineering ethics is a system of moral principles that apply to the practice of
engineering, setting the obligations by engineers to society, to their clients, and to the
Rights of Engineers can be categorized into three;
1. Human Rights
2. Employee Rights
3. Professional Rights

Human Rights
This includes;
a. Fundamental freedoms
Freedom of conscience and religion;
Freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the
press and other media communication;
Freedom of peaceful assembly;
Freedom of association

b. Democratic Rights that is the right to vote

c. Mobility Rights ( Leave, Stay)

d. Legal Rights
Life, liberty, security
Not to be arbitrarily detained, tortured

e. Equality Rights
No discrimination based on race, ethnicity, colour, religion, sex, age, mental or
physical disability

f. Language (2 official languages)

Employee Rights
a. Pursue outside activities
Includes political or special interest groups
Other employment pursuits
No right to harm or sabotage employer, on or off the job

b. Privacy
Unwarranted search, drug testing

c. Due process (fair treatment, process, appeal)

d. Non-discrimination that is extension of human right to employment environment

e. No harassment (sexual)
No physical, psychological attacks, coercion, abuse , provocation

Professional Rights
a. Right of professional conscience: professional conscience requires that the engineer can
make their own decisions and hence freely pose questions. This focus on the right to
exercise professional judgment in carrying out one's duties as an engineer and to exercise
this judgment in a moral and ethical manner.
b. Right not to participate or condone unethical activity.
c. Right to talk publicly about work, involved in professional organization but respecting
d. Right to professional recognition for their work and accomplishments. For example right
to speak about work (remember confidentiality) and receive external and internal
recognition (based on patents, promotion, e.t.c). Also, including fair remuneration.
e. Right of conscientious refusal
Refusal to participate in or condone unethical behaviour, activities based on
beliefs such as forging, lying bribery e.t.c.
Also includes right to protect public interests and safety

Note: these must not be abused

Responsibility Of Registered Engineers

The engineer recognizes that the greatest merit is the work, so exercise their profession
committed to serving society, attending to the welfare and progress of the majority. By
transforming nature for the benefit of mankind, the engineer must increase their awareness of
the world is the abode of man and his interest in the universe is a guarantee of overcoming
their spirit and knowledge of reality to make it fairer and happier. The engineer should reject
papers that are intended to harm the general interest, in this way avoid situations involving
hazards or constitute a threat to the environment, life, health and other rights of human
beings. It is an inescapable duty of the engineer to hold the prestige of the profession and
ensure its proper discharge; also maintain a professional demeanor rooted in the ability,
honesty, fortitude, temperance, magnanimity, modesty, honesty and justice, with the
consciousness of individual well-being subordinate to the good social. The engineer must
ensure the continuous improvement of their knowledge, particularly of their profession,
disseminate their knowledge, share experience, provide opportunities for education and
training of workers, provide recognition, moral and material support to the school where he
studied, in this way revert to the opportunities the company has received. It is the responsibility
of the engineer who carried out their work efficiently and supports the laws. In particular,
ensure compliance with the standards of worker protection provided by the law. As
professionals, engineers are expected to commit themselves to high standards of conduct.

Term paper Assignment will be given focusing on Role of engineers in transforming our
society. Considering Africa society.

Martin, Mike W. and Roland Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering, Third edition (New York:
McGraw-Hill 1996)
www.professional of ethics/index.html
P. & Gunn A. S. (1998), Engineering, Ethics, and the Environment. Cambridge University Press, New York