You are on page 1of 37

Aircraft Engines

Cheuk Man Sin


(200929370)

AVIA 2000: Aircraft 1


Dr. Hu Li
1st December 2016

Word count: 2150


i. Abstract

The aim of building the MW54 engine is to study the structure of turbojets
and compare with turbofans and turboprops.

By testing the engines, the efficiency regarding thrust generated, fuel


consumption are determined.

The above experiment show turbojets has a lower efficiency than turboprops
as it has a higher fuel consumption.

By considering the key parameters affecting propulsion, this shows the


suitable operating conditions for best engine performance.

2
Table of Contents
Page
i. Abstract 2
1. Introduction 4
2. Experimental Method 10
3. Analysis of WREN MW54 engine 15
3.1 Structure and Configuration 15
3.1.1 General arrangement in MW54 engine 15
3.1.2 Air intake 16
3.1.3 Compressor 18
3.1.4 Combustion Chamber 21
3.1.5 Turbine 24
3.1.6 Exhaust nozzle 25
3.1.7 General comparison with commericial gas turbine engine 27
3.2 Propulsion Generation 28
3.3 Efficiency 30
3.4 Key parameters affecting engine performance 34
4. Conclusion 36
5. References 37

3
1. Introduction
The main discussion in this report is on turbojets, turbofans and turboprops
in commercial use.

They share a similar theory in propulsion: ambient air is being accelerated in


the engine, so thrust produced as equation (1) (NASA, 20151):

=
(1)
where means rate of exhaust flow,
means exhaust velocity,
means rate of air flow into the engine,
means intake velocity of air

By Newtons third law, the force of exhaust air is acting backwards so thrust
will be generated in the opposite direction. Aircraft then have a forward moving
force (Rolls-Royce plc, 1996).

An MW54 engine is used to study turbojets, because of the similar structure


as turbojets but in a miniature size (Gas Turbine Builders Association, 2015). Figure 1
and table 1 shows the structure and specification of MW54.

Gas Turbine Builders Association. 2015. MW54. [Online]. [Accessed 28 October 2016]. Available
from: http://gtba.co.uk/
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2015. General Thrust Equation. [Online].
[Accessed 28 October 2016]. Available from: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/
Rolls-Royce plc. 1996. The Jet Engine. 5th ed. Derby: Rolls-Royce plc.

4
Figure 1a

Shaft

Exhaust
Inlet Centrifugal Combustion Turbine
nozzle
Compressor Chamber

Figure 1b

Figure 1. MW54 engine structure. Figure 1a shows the structure of the engine
while figure 1b is the schematic diagram of the engine (Gas Turbine Builders
Association, 2015).

5
Table 1. General Specification of MW54 for this experiment, including the
specification when engine operating at maximum thrust. (Gas Turbine Builders
Association, 2015).

Diameter 89mm
Length 179mm including exhaust cone
Thrust 67N at 160,000 rpm
Max revs 160,000 rpm
Weight 780 g
Fuel consumption 210ml/min at max thrust

Turbofans and Turboprops have similar structures as turbojets but have


additional components shown in figure 2.

Turbofans have extra fans install at the compressors front and the back of the
turbines, increasing the mass of airflow with air bypass (Olympics Corporation,
20162). It is a more efficient engine than turbojets due to the minimal air entering
combustion chamber with the bypass air retains the mass flow.

Turboprops have a propeller and reduction gearbox installed in front of the


compressors (NASA,2015). Thrust is mainly generated by the propeller, rather than
air acceleration. Turbines extract energy to turn the propeller via the reduction
gearbox. Propellers are aerofoils mounted in 900 relative to the airflow. Instead of
lift, the reaction force is thrust. It is not as popular as turbofans because of lack of
efficiency at high airspeed shown in figure 3.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2015. Turboprop engines. [Online]. [Accessed 28
October 2016]. Available from: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/
Olympics Corporation. 2016. Visual Inspection of Commerical Jet Engines. [Online]. [Accessed 28
October 2016]. Available from: http://www.olympus-ims.com

6
Figure 2a

Figure 2b

Figure 2. Structure of turbofan engines (Olympics Corporation, 2016) as


shown as figure 2a while figure 2b shows the structure of turboprop engines (Crane,
D.,20023)

Crane, D. 2002. A Pilot's Guide to Aircraft and Their Systems (General Aviation Reading series).
United States: Aviation Supplies & Academics.

7
Figure 3. Propulsive efficiency of turboprop, by-pass turbojet and pure
turbojet engines. Turboprop has the highest efficiency at lower airspeed than
turbojet engines. (Rolls-Royce plc, 1996)

8
There are many parameters to determine engines performance. Table 2
categorises in terms of engine components.

Table 2. A summarized table to determine the engine performance by


categorising in terms of engine components. Part with arrow is the equation to
calculate the specific parameter (Rolls-Royce plc, 1996).

Engine Parameter Explanation and equations


Component
General Propulsive efficiency A conversion efficiency of kinetic energy
(i.e. engine as of air into propulsive power when air
a whole) passes through engine.


Thermal efficiency A conversion efficiency of chemical
enery in fuel to kinetic energy of air


Overall efficiency Combination of propulsive and thermal
efficiency
Specific fuel consumption Fuel consumbed per unit of time and
thrust force
Compressor Compressor efficiency Amount of turbines mechanical energy
that leads to increase of pressure from
compressor rotation
Compressor pressure ratio Ratio of pressure at compressor outlet
and inlet


Air mass flow rate Airflow volume that compressor is able
to process within one second
Combustion Combustion efficiency Ratio of heat released from combustion
Chamber to heat available from the fuel


Total Pressure Loss Ratio of pressure at combustion chamer
outlet and inlet


Stable operating range Maximum fuel/air ratio that to ensure
flame stability (i.e. flame is not extinct)
Temperature Distribution The outlet temperature should be as
large as possible while not exceeding the
limit of turbine tolerable temperature,
and in a even distribution to prevent the
damage of turbine discs
Turbine Turbine efficiency Rate of actual turbine power to
theoretical maximum power

9
2. Experimental Method
The kit in figure 4 with components in figure 5 are used to build the engine.

Figure 4. The kit set of WREN MW54 engine before assembly with the
assembly and operation manual.

10
Exhaust
Shaft Diffuser
nozzle
cone tunnel

Centrifugal compressor
with shaft
Combustion
Nozzle guide vane chamber

Figure 5. The engine components, with the major components of the engine
are annotated.

The first step is fixing the shaft tunnel, compressor case front and intake cone
into the diffuser, align the compressor case front and intake cone as figure 6.

Inlet cone

Case front

Diffuser

Shaft
tunnel

Figure 6. The structure of the engine after inserting the diffuser with inlet
cone, diffuser and shaft tunnel as annotated.

11
The combustion chamber then fitted beneath the part just built as figure 7.

Combustion
chamber

Dilution holes

Figure 7. The structure of the engine after inserting the combustion chamber
as annotated.

With the nozzle guide vane is fixed beneath the combustion chamber, then
the outer case was fitted. Lastly, the lube pipe is installed with tee fittings as figure 8,
for fuel to be pumped into the engine. Also, the exhaust cone is fixed as figure 9.

12
Tee fittings
Fuel pipe line

Figure 8. The top view of engine inlet. The tee fittings are installed with the
fuel pipe line as annotated.

Outer case

Exhaust cone

Figure 9a Figure 9b

Figure 9. Finished product. Figure 8a shows the horizontal view of the engine
with outer casing and exhaust cone while figure 8b shows top down view of the
engine.

13
The pre-built engine was tested in the configuration as figure 10 to measure
its performance under different throttle settings. By connecting RPM sensors and
exhaust gas temperature sensor to the engine, the data was sent back to computer
instantly as figure 11 shows.

Exhaust gas
temperature sensor

RPM sensor

Figure 10. The engine test configuration with the annotated RPM sensor,
exhaust gas temperature sensor.

Figure 11. Readings from the computer, with RPM and exhaust gas
temperature readings.

14
3. Analysis of WREN MW54 engine
To understand turbojets thoroughly, the analysis is in terms of its
configuration, propulsion generation, efficiency and the key parameters affect its
performance.

3.1 Structure and Configuration


3.1.1 General arrangement

MW54 is a single-shaft turbojet with a single spool of centrifugal compressor,


single stage of axial turbine and an annular combustion chamber as figure 12 (WREN
Turbines Ltd, 20004).

Axial Turbine
Spool

Annular combustion
Diffuser chamber
Centrifugal compressor

Figure 12. MW54 engine cut through view, with structure annotated on the
diagram.

WREN Turbines Ltd. 2000. Plans for the MW54 Gas Turbine. 2nd ed. Rotherham: WREN Turbines
Ltd.

15
3.1.2 Air intake

Figure 13 shows the air intake of MW54. It is in a conical shape; with an


irregular cross-sectional area (i.e. decreasing then increasing) as figure 13.

Air intake

Figure 13. MW54 air intake, showing the shape of air intake and the inlet
cone.

The air intake is to provide the suitable amount of air for combustion. Also, it
can ensure the air will enter in a uniform pattern to provide uniform compression.
(Hnecke, 20035).

The converging area of air intake will draw large amount of air as figure 14,
because it can increase the air velocity and according to the continuity equation as
equation (2) (Crane D.,2002), shows the increase of velocity will increase mass flow:

= (2)

where means mass flow,


means air density,
means air velocity,
means cross sectional area of the inlet

Hnecke, K. 2003. Jet Engines: Fundamentals of Theory, Design and Operation. 6th ed. Osceola:
Motorbooks International Publishers.

16
Figure 14. The impact of a converging air inlet (Hnecke, 2003). It will be able
to increase the amount of airflow into the engine.

As the mass flow remains constant, the diverging area will reduce the air flow
velocity. Therefore, the air flow will be more evenly distributed for compression.

17
3.1.3 Compressor

MW54 has a single-stage centrifugal compressor, consists of an impeller,


diffuser vane and diffuser as figure 15. They are disjointed at a suitable distance to
prevent aerodynamic buffeting (Ahmed, 2008).

Diffuser vane

Impeller Diffuser

Figure 15. MW54 centrifugal compressor configuration, with annotated


position of impeller, diffuser vane and diffuser.

Compressors are to increase the total air pressure and energy. The impeller
rotates at high speed, therefore a significant amount of air is directed towards the
engine (Ahmed, 20086). Also, the centrifugal force of the impeller cause air flows in a
radial direction outwards from the centre to the tip. This results in the growth of air
pressure and velocity, allowing airflow to be quickly discharged.

Diffuser vanes align with impeller as a divergent duct in figure 16. This will
convert the kinetic energy of air to pressure (Rolls-Royce plc, 1996). Also, as air flows
in a radial direction, the flow need to be straightened to be directed into the
combustion chamber. This is achieved by the diffuser, to change the flow direction
by 900. (Hnecke, 2003).

Ahmed, F. 2008. Aircraft Propulsion and Gas Turbine Engines. Oxford: Taylor & Francis.

18
Figure 16. The diffuser vane forms a divergent duct to lower the velocity of
air and increase the pressure.

To summarise, pressure increase in the impeller slightly while diffuser


increases the pressure further (Hnecke, 2003) as figure 17.

Figure 17. The change of velocity and pressure in rotor (i.e. impeller) and
diffuser (Rolls-Royce plc, 1996). Impeller increases both pressure and flow velocity
while diffuser only increases the pressure.

19
3.1.3.2 Compressors - differences with commericial gas turbine engines

Unlike MW54, commercial gas turbine engines commonly use multistage


axial compressor, though some turboprops are still using centrifugal compressors.
An axial compressor contains rotors and stators, increasing the pressure gradually by
varying air velocity. Table 3 summarises the advantages and disadvantages of both
types of compressors. With multistage design, axial compressor can eliminate the
disadvantages of centrifugal compressors.

Table 3. Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal and


axial compressors (Hnecke, 2003).

Centrifugal compressor Axial compressor


Advantages Higher compressor pressure Deliver higher mass flow
ratio per stage (MW54: 2.65 and large compressor
(WREN Turbines Ltd, 2000) pressure ratio, as it can
Lower cost to construct built up to 16 stages
Smaller and lighter Airflow in parallel to the
engine, therefore eliminate
centrifugal flow, leading to
a higher efficiency
Smaller cross-sectional
area produces less drag
Disadvantages Centrifugal force increases Bigger and heavier
the flow resistance, leading Low compressor pressure
to lower efficiency and flow ratio per stage,
separation approximately 1.1
It can only built up two
stages due to the above
reason, therefore has a
lower overall pressure ratio

20
3.1.4 Combustion Chamber

MW54 has an annular combustion chamber as figure 7. Figure 18 shows a cut


through view of the combustion chamber and compared with the schematic of
annular combustion chamber on GE CJ610 engine.

Fuel nozzle
Diffuser vane
Annular combustion
chamber Primary combustion zone

Turbine

Figure 18a

Figure 18b

Figure 18. A comparision of annular combustion chamber on MW54 engine


in figure 18a. The blue arrows representing the airflow into the engine and the
dotted line shows the fuel flow. Figure 18b shows the schematic diagram of annular
combustion chamber in GE CJ610 engine (Hnecke, 2003).

21
Combustion chamber is to increase the energy of air as heat, providing a
high-energy airflow to the turbine by injecting fuel for combustion (Hnecke, 2003).

Fuel is pumped at high pressure from the fuel nozzle to the primary
combustion zone. However, to achieve a correct air/fuel ratio, only a small portion of
the air is needed. To achieve this and maintain high flame stability (Rolls-Royce plc,
1996), the amount of air need to be apportioned at different stages as figure 19. This
explains the dilution holes in figure 7 increases size from compressor to turbine.

At the beginning of combustion process, the flame is unstable if a significant


amount of air entering the burner. It is also hard to start ignition. Therefore, there is
only a small proportion of air entering primary combustion zone and via the dilution
holes. Then, as the flame getting stable in the middle part of the engine and fuel
keeps pumping from the fuel nozzle, the temperature within the zone is increasing,
so a larger amount of air can be inputted to ensure complete combustion and
cooling the airflow. Before approaching turbine, dilution holes have the largest area,
so a large amount of air can be input into the combustion zone for reducing the
turbine entry temperature, thus protecting the turbine from heat. Air also flow
around the spool to cool down the combustion chamber.

Figure 19. Apportionate airflow in the combustion chamber to maintatain


flame stability, suitable fuel/air ratio throughout the combustion process and cooling
down the combustion zone (Hnecke, 2003).

22
3.1.4.2 Combustion Chamber - differences with commericial gas turbine engines

Compare with commercial gas turbine engines; MW54 has the same type of
combustion chamber. There are other types of combustion chambers, including can-
type as figure 20 or can-annular type (Ahmed, 2008). If aircraft deploys can-annular
combustion chamber, more than one can need to be applied. By comparing with
annular combustion chamber, which the single combustion zone surrounds the
spool, can saves up 25% of weight more than can-type and achieve an even
combustion.

Figure 20. A schematic diagram of can-type combustion chamber (Hnecke,


2003).

23
3.1.5 Turbine

The single stage of axial turbine in MW54 consists in the sequence of


stationary nozzle guide vane and rotating turbine disc as figure 21.

Figure 21. Turbine in MW54 consists of a turbine disc and nozzle guide vane,
fron left to right (Tripod, 20167)

By extracting part of the energy from the high-pressure air, turbine can drive
the compressors and the related accessories unit. The airflow will be expanded to a
lower pressure and temperature with higher velocity (Hnecke, 2003) because the
flow path of nozzle guide vanes decreases in between blades at the vanes exit.
Therefore, the airflow will generate a maximum torque force on the rotating blades,
which the force will be high enough to turn the compressor (Ahmed, 2008). The
blades are twisted to ensure the velocity is constant along the blade, for better
turbine efficiency.

3.1.5.2 Turbine - differences with commericial gas turbine engines

Commercial engines also use axial turbine as to maximise the mass flow rate
(Hnecke, 2003). Centrifugal turbines are possible, but it takes up more space.

The major difference of turbine is in turboprops. Turbine in turboprops is


designed for rotating the propeller, but it is designed to rotate the compressors in
turbojets or fan in turbofans.

Tripod. 2016. MW54 turbine disc and nozzle guide vane. [Online]. [Accessed 10 November 2016].
Available from: http://erezz.tripod.com/

24
3.1.6 Exhaust nozzle

Figure 22 shows the cut through view of the convergent exhaust nozzle of
MW54.

Figure 22. Cut through view of the exhaust nozzle. With a decreasing cross-
sectional area, it shows the exhaust nozzle is a convergent nozzle.

Converging nozzle can convert internal energy of the air to kinetic energy
(Rolls-Royce plc, 1996). From equation (1), the increase of exhaust velocity will
increase the thrust generated.

3.1.5.2 Exhaust nozzle - differences with commericial gas turbine engines

Commercial engines also use convergent nozzle as they do not exceed


supersonic speeds. The only difference is whether it is low-bypass or high-bypass
exhaust nozzle as figure 23, which applicable on turbofans (Ahmed, 2008).

Low-bypass exhaust will mix the exhaust gas and bypass air in one nozzle
while high-bypass exhaust will have double nozzles.

25
Figure 23a

Figure 23b

Figure 23. A comparison of bypass exhaust system (Rolls-Royce plc, 1996),


which figure 23a shows the high-bypass exhaust while figure 23b shows the low-
bypass exhaust. The blue arrows represent the bypass airflow and red arrows
represent the exhaust gas flow.

26
3.1.7 General comparison with commericial gas turbine engine

MW54 shares a similar material usage with other engines. Compressors


commonly apply light material (Ahmed, 2008), like titanium and aluminium, to
minimise the weight. Combustion chamber and turbine will apply materials with
good thermal resistivity, like nickel, as the temperature within the burner is high, so
prevent damaging the components is necessary. However, the mass of these
materials is heavy.

However, commecial gas turbine engines have multi-stage compressors and


turbines and operate more than one spool (Hnecke, 2003), like GE CJ610. It
provides a better pressure ratio to generate more thrust: 13.1 kN (GE Aviation,
20158), compared with MW54 only generates 67N.

GE Aviation. 2015. The CJ610 Engine. [Online]. [Accessed 28 October 2016]. Available from:
http://www.geaviation.com

27
3.2 Propulsion Generation

Equation (1) shows thrust is a force, determined by mass and acceleration.


However, thrust is generated including the increase of pressure (Hnecke, 2003) as
equation (3).

= + ( ) (3)

where means rate of exhaust flow,


means exhaust velocity,
menas exhaust pressure,
menas inlet pressure,
means the area of exhaust nozzle,
means rate of air flow into the engine,
means intake velocity of air

Figure 24 shows how the velocity and pressure varies within the engine. By
comparing the exhaust and inlet, velocity and pressure has increased. Therefore,
from equation (3), it shows thrust is generated.

Thrust is generated starting from the compressors. Compressors increase the


total pressure and energy of air by compressing the air. When air is mix with fuel in
combustion chamber for combustion, the energy of air further increased as heat
(Hnecke, 2003).

Consequently, the sufficient energy level of air allows the turbine to extract
energy to turn the compressors. Air is expanded, so air velocity increases in turbine
and exhaust nozzle.

28
Figure 24. Diagram showing how the temperature, axial velocity and total
pressure changes through the process of thrust generation in a single spool turbojet
engine (Rolls-Royce plc,1996).

3.2.1 Propulsion - differences with commericial gas turbine engines

Turboprops generate thrust differently from turbojets and turbofans.


Turbojets and turbofans generate thrust by large acceleration of small mass of
airflow, while turboprops generate thrust with large mass of airflow with smaller
acceleration.

29
3.3 Efficiency

By testing the engines with the procedures in section 2, this will determine
the engine performance. Table 4 and figure 25 compares MW54 turbojet and
turboprop performance, regarding exhaust gas temperature, thrust and fuel
consumption. I would like to acknowledge experimental officer, Mr Chris Brier, for
preparing the data.

This data can symbolise the performance of turbojets, turbofans and


turboprops. It is hard to compare MW54s performance with commercial gas turbine
engine, due to its difference in sizes and rotational speed.

Table 4. Data table of both MW54 Turbojet and turboprop engine, comparing
the exhaust gas temperature (EGT), thrust generated at the exhaust and fuel
consumption (FC) agaist the throttle position as a percentage of maximum thrust.
Data are corrected to three significant figures.

Wren MW54 Turbo Jet

Throttle position RPM EGT (C0) Thrust (kg) FC (g/min)


18% 48,000 572 1.08 50
38% 78,600 536 1.93 80
60% 104,600 548 3.26 120
85% 160,400 658 8.72 240

Wren MW54 Turbo Prop

Throttle position RPM EGT (C0) Thrust (kg) FC (g/min)


18% 47,300 432 0.51 36
38% 72,000 444 2.50 62
60% 101,100 464 7.28 102
85% 137,000 610 12.0 152

30
Exhaust Gas Temperature on Turbojet and Turboprop Engine
Exhaust Gas Temperature(C0) 700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
18% 38% 60% 85%
Throttle position (% of max thrust)

Turbojet Turboprop

Figure 25a

Amount of thrust generated on Turbojet and Turboprop Engine


14

12

10
Thrust (kg)

0
18% 38% 60% 85%
Throttle position (% of max thrust)

Turbo jet Turboprop

Figure 25b

31
Fuel Consumption on Turboiet and Turboprop Engine
Fuel consumption (g/min) 300

250

200

150

100

50

0
18% 38% 60% 85%
Throttle position (% of max thrust)

Turbojet Turboprop

Figure 25c

Figure 25. 3 charts comparing the exhaust gas temperature, thrust generated
and fuel consumption against throttle settings as figure 25 a,b,c. In general, turbojet
has a higher figure in exhaust gas temperature and fuel consumption than turboprop
engine, while turboprop has a higher amount of thrust generated than turbojet
engine.

The higher the throttle setting, the higher the exhaust gas temperature,
amount of thrust and fuel consumption, because throttle controls the amount of
fuel flow into the engine.

The higher fuel flow will increases thermal energy of air in combustion and
exhaust temperature. Turbojets have a higher temperature than turboprops;
because turboprops only generates 10% of thrust by the exhaust.

Thrust hugely depends on the engine speed in turbojets (Hurt, 20129). The
change of pressure in turbojets depends on the square of compressor rotational
speed. This increase means the shaft rotational speed need to be doubled, to
produce the same amount of thrust as turboprops, showing turbojets requires more
work to generate thrust than turboprops.

Hurt, H. 2012. Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators, New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.

32
Turbojets has a higher fuel consumption than turboprops in all settings, due
to turbojets generate thrust from using the energy of hot gas. To ensure the thermal
energy of air stays high, large amount of fuel is injected. However, to calculate fuel
efficiency, specific fuel consumption calculation should be applied. Unfortunately,
there is no data on horsepower, so it is not possible to compare their efficiencies.

To conclude, turbojets generates lower thrust but requires more fuel,


contributing to the higher exhaust gas temperature than turboprops.

33
3.4 Key parameters affecting engine performance

Engine performance determined by amount of thrust. Equation (3) shows the


key parameters affecting it: mass of air flow, airspeed, pressure in inlet and exhaust.
Table 5 summarises the factors affect thrust generation.

Table 5. Factors affecting the engine performance, separated as sections


related engine and the environment (Hnecke, 2003).

Category Factors Explanation


Engine RPM RPM affects the rotational speed of
compressor, which affect the mass of
airflow and compression ratio
Exhaust nozzle size The smaller nozzle area will increase the
thrust generated by difference of
pressure. This specifically affects in
choked nozzle, as exhaust gas speed is
much higher than subsonic speed.
Fuel flow rate The higher the fuel flow, the higher the
heat energy generated in the
combustion chamber. This will increase
the exhaust pressure and velocity,
leading to more thrust.
Compressor bleed air This will reduce the mass of airflow for
propulsion, as part of the air is use for
cooling other components.
Water injection Injecting water will restore the power
by increasing the air density thus mass
of air flow.
Environment Temperature and Air density closely related to pressure
pressure and temperature. Low temperature and
high pressure will have a higher air
density, thus the mass of airflow.
Flight altitude The lower the altitude, the higher the
air density, meaning more air can be
used for propulsion thus higher the air
flow.
Airspeed - Momentum drag: The increase of
airspeed will reduce the difference
between exhaust velocity and inlet
velocity, thus reducing thrust.
- Ram effect: Compressibility of air at
high airspeed will increase airflow.
- The combined effect of airspeed and
ram effect is shown as figure 26.

34
Figure 26. The change of airspeed affecting the thrust generated due to ram
effect and momentum drag (known as velocity effect in this graph). The higher the
airspeed, the higher the ram effect and higher momentum drag. (Airliners.net,
200810)

Airliners.net. 2008. Ram effect and velocity effect on thrust generation. [Online]. [Accessed 28
October 2016]. Available from: https://www.airliners.net/

35
4. Conclusion
By using the MW54 engine kit, an MW54 turbojet was built to study the
structure, propulsive generation and efficiency.

Turbojets has a compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and exhaust to


generate thrust by increase the energy of air and produce acceleration.

Turboprops has similar configuration with turbojets, but different in


propulsive generation.

Turbojets has a higher exhaust gas temperature than turboprops, but has
higher fuel consumption.

Key parameters affecting engine performance includes engine work and


environment.

36
5. References
Ahmed, F. 2008. Aircraft Propulsion and Gas Turbine Engines. Oxford: Taylor &
Francis.

Airliners.net. 2008. Ram effect and velocity effect on thrust generation. [Online].
[Accessed 28 October 2016]. Available from: https://www.airliners.net/

Crane, D. 2002. A Pilot's Guide to Aircraft and Their Systems (General Aviation
Reading series). United States: Aviation Supplies & Academics.

Gas Turbine Builders Association. 2015. MW54. [Online]. [Accessed 28 October


2016]. Available from: http://gtba.co.uk/

GE Aviation. 2015. The CJ610 Engine. [Online]. [Accessed 28 October 2016]. Available
from: http://www.geaviation.com

Hnecke, K. 2003. Jet Engines: Fundamentals of Theory, Design and Operation. 6th
ed. Osceola: Motorbooks International Publishers.

Hurt, H. 2012. Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators, New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2015. General Thrust Equation.


[Online]. [Accessed 28 October 2016]. Available from: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2015. Turboprop engines. [Online].


[Accessed 28 October 2016]. Available from: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/

Olympics Corporation. 2016. Visual Inspection of Commerical Jet Engines. [Online].


[Accessed 28 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.olympus-ims.com

Rolls-Royce plc. 1996. The Jet Engine. 5th ed. Derby: Rolls-Royce plc.

Tripod. 2016. MW54 turbine disc and nozzle guide vane. [Online]. [Accessed 10
November 2016]. Available from: http://erezz.tripod.com/

WREN Turbines Ltd. 2000. Plans for the MW54 Gas Turbine. 2nd ed. Rotherham:
WREN Turbines Ltd.

37