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Contents

1. INTRODUCTION
1. MEDIAN
2. ALTITUDE
3. CENTROID
4. ORTHOCENTRE
2. TYPESOFTRIANGLES
1. ACUTETRIANGLE
2. RIGHTTRIANGLE
3. OBTUSETRIANGLE
4. EQUILATERALTRIANGLE
5. ISOSCELESTRIANGLE
6. SCALENETRIANGLE
3. PERIMETERANDAREAOFTRIANGLE
1. PERIMETEROFATRIANGLE
2. AREAOFATRIANGLE
4. SIMILARITYANDCONGRUENCYOFTRIANGLES
1. SIMILARTRIANGLES
2. CONDITIONSFORSIMILARITYOFTRIANGLES:
3. SPECIALCASEOFARIGHTTRIANGLE
4. CONGRUENTTRIANGLES
5. CENTRES,RADIUSANDCIRCLESINTRIANGLES
1. CIRCUMCENTRE
2. INCENTRE
6. THEOREMSRELATEDTOTRIANGLES
1. APOLLONIUSTHEOREM
2. ANGLEBISECTORTHEOREM
3. BASICPROPORTIONALITYTHEOREM(BPT)
4. THEOREMOF306090TRIANGLE
5. THEOREMOF454590TRIANGLE

TRIANGLES

1. INTRODUCTION

Atriangleisaclosedfigureboundbythreenonparallelcoplanarstraightlines.Ithasthreenon
collinearvertices(A,BandCforexample)whicharetheintersectionpointsofthesethreelines(AB,
BCandCA)knownasthesidesofthetriangle.

InthegivenABC,thelengthsofthesidesoppositetotheanglesA,BandCarebyconvention
referredtoasa,bandc.ACDisoneoftheexterioranglesofthetriangle.Everytrianglehassix
exteriorangles,twoateveryvertex.

Propertiesoftriangles:

Sumofthethreeinterioranglesis180.

mA+mB+mC=180

Measureofexteriorangleisequaltothesumofthemeasuresoftworemoteinteriorangles.

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mACD=mA+mB

Sumofthethreeexterioranglesis360.

Sumofthelengthsofanytwosidesismorethanthatofthethirdside.

a+b>c

b+c>a

c+a>b

Differenceofthelengthsofanytwosidesislessthanthethirdside.

|ab|<c

|bc|<a

|ca|<b

Sideoppositetothegreatestangleisthelongest,andsideoppositetothesmallestangleisthe
shortest.

IfA>B>Cthena>b>c

Inatriangleatleasttwoanglesareacute,i.e.lessthan90.

Example1:
Whatisthenumberofdistincttriangleswithintegralvaluedsidesandperimeter14?

[CAT2000]

(1)6 (2)5 (3)4 (4)3

Solution:

Letthesidesofthetrianglebea,bandcthen,

a+b>c.

a+b+c=14

Possiblesetsofsidesare(4,4,6),(5,5,4),(6,5,3)and(6,6,2).

4trianglesarepossiblewithintegralsidesandperimeter14.

Hence,option3.
1. MEDIAN

Alinejoiningthemidpointofasidewiththeoppositevertexisknownasmedianforthatside.

2. ALTITUDE

Aperpendiculardrawnfromavertextotheoppositesideisknownasaltitudeforthatside.

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3. CENTROID

Atrianglehasthreemedians.Allthethreemediansintersecteachotheratacommonpoint.Thispoint
ofintersectionisknownasthecentroid,whichdividesthethreemediansintheratioof2:1(2
towardsthevertexand1towardstheside).

4. ORTHOCENTRE

Atrianglehasthreealtitudes.Allthethreealtitudesintersecteachotheratacommonpoint.Thispoint
ofintersectionisknownastheorthocentre.

IntheABCabove,mBOC=180mA

2. TYPESOFTRIANGLES

Trianglesareclassifiedonthebasisoftheiranglesandsidesasfollows.

1. ACUTETRIANGLE

Atriangle,inwhichallthethreeanglesareacute,isknownasanacuteangledtriangleorsimply
acutetriangle.

2. RIGHTTRIANGLE

Atriangle,inwhichoneangleisarightangle,isknownasarightangledtriangleorsimplyright
triangle.

Inarighttriangle,ABC,AC2=AB2+BC2

(ThisisknownasthePythagorasTheorem)

APythagoreantripletisasetofthreepositivewholenumbersa,b,cthatarethelengthsofthesides
ofarighttriangle.

SomePythagoreantriplets:

3,4,5 5,12,13 7,24,25

8,15,17 9,40,41

11,60,61 12,35,37 16,63,65

20,21,29 28,45,53

Example2:
Aladderleansagainstaverticalwall.Thetopoftheladderis8mabovetheground.Whenthebottom
oftheladderismoved2mfartherawayfromthewall,thetopoftheladderrestsagainstthefootof
thewall.Whatisthelengthoftheladder?

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[CAT2001]

(1)10m (2)15m (3)20m (4)17m

Solution:

Letthefootoftheladderbexmetresawayfromthefootofthewall.

Now,thelengthoftheladderwillbe=x+2

(x+2)2=x2+82

Onsolving,weget,x=15

Lengthofladder=15+2=17m

Hence,option4.

Example3:
Aladder25metreslongisplacedagainstawallwithitsfoot7metresawayfromthefootofthewall.
Howfarshouldthefootbedrawnoutsothatthetopoftheladdermaycomedownbyhalfthe
distanceofthetotaldistanceifthefootisdrawnout?

[IIFT2008]

(1)6metres (2)8metres

(3)8.75metres (4)Noneoftheabove

Solution:

Theinitialpositionoftheladderisasshownbelow:

ByPythagorastheorem,

Thefinalpositionwouldbe:

Thefootmustbedrawnoutbyapproximately227=15metres

Hence,option4.

3. OBTUSETRIANGLE

Atriangle,inwhichoneangleisobtuse,isknownasanobtuseangledtriangleorsimplyobtuse
triangle.

REMEMBER

SidesofABCarea,bandcsuchthata,b<c

ifc2=a2+b2thenABCisarighttriangle
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ifc2<a2+b2thenABCisanacutetriangle

ifc2>a2+b2thenABCisanobtusetriangle.

Example4:
Considerobtuseangledtriangleswithsides8cm,15cmandxcm.Ifxisaninteger,thenhowmany
suchtrianglesexist?

[CAT2008]

(1)5 (2)21 (3)10 (4)15 (5)14

Solution:

Weknowthatforanobtusetriangleofsidesa,bandc(wherecisthelargestside),

a2+b2<c2

Wealsoknowthatforatriangle,a+b>c

Thesepresentuswithtwolimitingcases.

Let8cmand15cmbetheshortersides.Thevalueofthelargestside(x)mustbegreaterthan

Thepossibleintegervaluesofxare18,19,20,21and22cm.

Wecannotconsidervaluesfrom23onwardsbecause8+15=23andthisviolatesthesecond
condition.

Now,considerthecasewhere15cmisthemeasureofthelargestside.

Thevalueoftheremainingside(x)mustbelessthan

Thepossibleintegervaluesare12,11,10,9and8cm.

Wecannotconsidervalueslessthan8because

7+8=15andthisviolatesthesecondcondition.

Thus,wehave10possiblevaluesforx.

Hence,option3.

Example5:
Howmanydifferentlyshapedtrianglesexistinwhichnotwosidesareofthesamelength,eachsideis
ofintegralunitlengthandtheperimeterofthetriangleislessthan14units?

[XAT2009]

(1)3 (2)4 (3)5

(4)6 (5)Noneoftheabove.

Solution:
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Lettherebeatrianglewithsidesa,bandc,wherecisthelargestside.

Itisgiventhattheperimetermustbelessthan14.

a+b+c<14 (i)

Now,sumoftwosidesisgreaterthanthethirdsideinanytriangle.

c<a+b

c+c<a+b+c<14

2c<14

c<7

Hence,wetakevaluesofcfrom1to6,andcheckifwecanfindaandbthatsatisfies(i).Thesevalues
aretabulatedbelow:

c a,b
4 3,2
5 2,4
5 3,4
6 2,5
6 3,4
Thus,thereare5suchtriangles.

Hence,option3.

Here,wewilldiscusssomeformulae:

1. Inanacutetriangle,ABC

AC2=AB2+BC22BCBD

whereADistheperpendicularfromthevertexAtothesideBC.

Explanation:

InADB,AB2=AD2+BD2(byPythagorastheorem)

Hence,AD2=AB2BD2 (i)

Similarly,inADC,AC2=AD2+DC2(byPythagorastheorem)

Hence,AD2=AC2DC2 (ii)

From(i)and(ii)wehave,

AC2DC2=AB2BD2

AC2=AB2+DC2BD2 (iii)

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Now,DC2=(BCBD)2=BC2(2BCBD)+BD2

Puttingthisvalueinequation(iii)wehave,

AC2=AB2+BC2(2BCBD)+BD2BD2

Hence,AC2=AB2+BC22BCBD

Example6:
PQRisanacutetriangle.PSQR.FindQR,if

PQ=10cm,PR=17cmandQS=6cm.

Solution:

Asseenabove,inPQR,PSQR.

PR2=PQ2+QR22QRQS

(17)2=(10)2+QR22QR6

LetQR=x

(17)2=(10)2+x22x6

x212x289+100=0

x212x189=0

Solvingthis,weget,x=21

Thus,QR=21cm

2. Inanobtusetriangle,ABC

AC2=AB2+BC2+2BCBD

whereADistheperpendiculardrawnfromvertexAtoextendedsideBC.

Explanation:

UsingPythagorastheoreminrighttrianglesADBandADC,weget

AD2=AC2DC2=AB2BD2

AC2=AB2+DC2BD2

Now,DC2=(BD+BC)2=BD2+(2BCBD)+BC2

AC2=AB2BD2+BD2+(2BCBD)+BC2

AC2=AB2+BC2+2BCBD

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4. EQUILATERALTRIANGLE

Atriangle,inwhichallthethreesidesareequalinlength,isknownasanequilateraltriangle.Allthe
threeanglesofanequilateraltriangleareequalto60.

Example7:
Ifa,b,carethesidesofatriangle,and

a2+b2+c2=bc+ca+ab,thenthetriangleis

[CAT2000]

(1)equilateral (2)isosceles

(3)rightangled (4)obtuseangled

Solution:

a,b,carethesidesofatriangle.

Itisgiventhata2+b2+c2=bc+ca+ab

Thisispossibleonlyifa=b=c

i.e.,thetriangleisequilateral.

Hence,option1.
5. ISOSCELESTRIANGLE

Atriangle,inwhichtwosidesareequalinlength,isknownasanisoscelestriangle.Inanisosceles
triangle,twoanglesoppositetoequalsidesareequal.

Inthegivenfigure,sidesABandACareequalandthusmB=mC.

Conventionally,pointAisknownasthevertexandsideBCasthebase.

REMEMBER

Anequilateraltriangleisalsoanisoscelestriangle,butanisoscelestriangleisnotnecessarilyan
equilateraltriangle.

6. SCALENETRIANGLE

Atriangle,inwhichallthethreesidesareofdifferentlength,isknownasascalenetriangle.Ina
scalenetriangle,allthethreeanglesareofdifferentmeasure.

3. PERIMETERANDAREAOFTRIANGLE

1. PERIMETEROFATRIANGLE

Thesumofthelengthsofthethreesidesofatriangleisknownastheperimeter.Soforatrianglewith
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sidesa,bandc

Perimeter(P)=a+b+c

2. AREAOFATRIANGLE

Case1:Lengthsofthesides(a,bandc)aregiven.

Case2:Lengthofthebaseandaltitudeisgiven.

whereb=baseandh=heightoraltitudetothebase.

Example8:
Findtheareaofatrianglewithsides3,4and5cm.

Solution:

A=6cm2

Alternatively,

SincethesidesofthegiventrianglemakeaPythagoreantriplet,itisarighttriangle.Considerthe
sides3and4asbaseandheightrespectively,thentheareacanbecalculatedas,

Case3:Lengthsoftwosides(aandb)andtheincludedangle()isgiven.

Inthiscase,altitude(h)=bsin

Herewewilldiscusssomespecialcases:

1. Equilateraltriangle

wherea=lengthofanyside.

Inanequilateraltriangle,theperpendicularbisector,median,altitudeandanglebisectorarethesame.

2. Isoscelestriangle

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Here,

UsingPythagorastheorem,inAOB

AB2=BO2+AO2

Example9:
Findtheareaofatrianglewithtwosidesmeasuring4cmeachandtheanglebetweenthemequalto
60.

Solution:

Alternatively,

Sincethegiventriangleisisosceles,henceitstwoanglesareequal.Inthiscase,thesetwoangleswill
be60,thusthetriangleisanequilateraltriangleandtheareacanbecalculatedas:

Example10:
Euclidhasatriangleinmind,Itslongestsidehaslength20andanotherofitssideshaslength10.Its
areais80.Whatistheexactlengthofitsthirdside?

[CAT2001]

(1) (2)

(3) (4)

Solution:

Lettheperpendicularonthelongestsidefromtheotherverticesbeh.

h=8

Theperpendicularhastwotrianglesonitstwosides.Onitsleft,thereisonewithahypotenuseof10.
Ifthetwosidesare10and8,thethirdonemustbe6.

Thebaseoftheothertriangleis206=14

Thetwosidesbeing8and14,thehypotenusemustbe

Hence,option1.

Alternatively,

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Letthethirdsideofthetrianglebex.

AreaofTriangle=

AreaofTriangle=80

Usingoptions,weget,x=

(900260)160=102400

Hence,option1.

Example11:
TheinternalbisectorofanangleAinatriangleABCmeetsthesideBCatpointD.AB=4,AC=3
andA=60.ThenwhatisthelengthofthebisectorAD?

[CAT2002]

Solution:

Inatrianglewithsidesaandbandtheincludedangletheareaisgivenby

Hence,option1.

REMEMBER

Equilateraltrianglehasthemaximumarea,outofallthetriangleswithgivenperimeter.

Equilateraltrianglehastheminimumperimeter,outofallthetriangleswithgivenarea.

4. SIMILARITYANDCONGRUENCYOFTRIANGLES

1. SIMILARTRIANGLES

Twotrianglesaresaidtobesimilariftheircorrespondinganglesareequal.Thenotationusedfor
similarityis.

Intheabovefigure,ABCissimilartoDEF(i.e.ABCDEF)becausemA=mD,mB=mEand
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mC=mF

2. CONDITIONSFORSIMILARITYOFTRIANGLES:

1. AAATEST

Ifintwotrianglesallthecorrespondinganglesareequal,thenthetwotrianglesaresimilar.

Corollary:Ifintwotrianglestwocorrespondinganglesareequal,thenthetwotrianglesaresimilar.

Thisisduetothefactthatwhentwopairsofanglesareequalthenthethirdpairwillalwaysbeequal.

2. SAStest

Ifanangleofatriangleisequaltoanangleoftheothertriangleandthecorrespondingsidesincluding
thisangleareinthesameproportion,thenthetrianglesaresimilar.

Inthegiventriangles,AC:DF=BC:EFand

mC=mF.Hence,ABCDEF.

3. SSStest

Ifallthecorrespondingsidesoftwotrianglesareinthesameproportion,thenthetrianglesaresimilar.

whererisknownastheratiooflinearmeasurement.

Forsimilartriangles,theratioofanycorrespondingsideswillbeequaltotheratiooflinear
measurement.Hence,theratiooftheperimeters,ratioofthecorrespondingaltitudes,ratioofthe
correspondingmediansetc.willbeequaltotheratiooflinearmeasurement.

Also,ratiooftheareasofthesetriangleswillbeequaltothesquareofratioofthelinearmeasurement.

REMEMBER

Allequilateraltrianglesaresimilartoeachother.

Example12:
Theareaofatrianglewithsidesx,yandzis10squareunits.Findtheareaofanothertrianglewith
sides3x,3yand3zunits.

Solution:

Sincetheratioofthesidesofthetwotrianglesisequal,theyaresimilartriangles.Hence,theratioof
areaswillbeequaltothesquareoftheratioofthelinearmeasurement.

Sincethesidesofthesecondtrianglearethreetimesthecorrespondingsidesofthefirsttriangle,the
areaofthesecondtrianglewillbeninetimes(32)theareaofthefirsttriangle,

i.e.910=90squareunits.

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3. SPECIALCASEOFARIGHTTRIANGLE

Incaseofarighttriangle(ABCforexample)ifwedrawaperpendicular(BD)fromthevertexB
containingtherightangletothehypotenuse,wegetthreetriangles,twosmaller(ADBandBDC)
andtheoriginalone(ABC).

Here,ABCADBBDC.

Ifwerepresenttheanglesoftheoriginaltriangleasx,90and(90x)thenthetwosmallertriangles
willalsohavethesamesetofthreeangles.

Example13:
InABCfromthefigureifAB=3cm,BC=4cmandAC=5cm,findthelengthofthe
perpendicularDB.

Solution:

ABCADB

DB=2.4cm

Alternatively,

AreaofABCconsideringABasheightandBCasbase=AreaoftriangleconsideringBDasheight
andACasbase.

BD=2.4cm

Example14:
Apieceofpaperisintheshapeofarightangledtriangleandiscutalongalinethatisparalleltothe
hypotenuse,leavingasmallertriangle.Therewasa35%reductioninthelengthofthehypotenuseof
thetriangle.Iftheareaoftheoriginaltrianglewas34squareinchesbeforethecut,whatisthearea(in
squareinches)ofthesmallertriangle?

[CAT2003ReTest]

(1)16.665 (2)16.565

(3)15.465 (4)14.365

Solution:

SinceDEisparalleltoAC,ABCissimilartoDBEbyAAAruleofsimilarity,

i.e.ABC~DBE

Whentwotrianglesaresimilar,theratiooftheirareasisequaltotheratioofsquaresoftheir
correspondingsides.

Area(DBE)=(0.65)2Area(ABC)
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Area(DBE)=0.422534=14.365

Hence,option4.

Example15:
ConsiderthetriangleABCshowninthefollowingfigurewhereBC=12cm,DB=9cm,CD=6cm
andBCD=BAC.WhatistheratiooftheperimeterofthetriangleADCtothatofthetriangleBDC?

[CAT2005]

(1)7/9 (2)8/9

(3)6/9 (4)5/9

Solution:

mBCD=mBACandBiscommontotrianglesABCandCBD.

ABCissimilartoCBD.

AB/CB=BC/BD=AC/CD

AB/12=12/9=AC/6

AB=16cmandAC=8cm

AD=ABBD=169=7cm

PerimeterofADC=7+6+8=21cm

PerimeterofBDC=9+6+12=27cm

Requiredratio=21/27=7/9

Hence,option1.

4. CONGRUENTTRIANGLES

Twotrianglesaresaidtobecongruentiftheircorrespondingsidesareequal.Thenotationfor
congruencyis.

Intheabovefigure,ABCiscongruenttoDEFbecauseAB=DE,BC=EFandCA=FD.Also,
whenthetrianglesarecongruent,theanglesofonetrianglearecongruenttothecorrespondingangles
oftheothertriangle.

REMEMBER

Congruenttrianglesaresimilar,butsimilartrianglesarenotnecessarilycongruent.

CongruencyoftwotrianglescanbeprovedbySSS,SAS,ASA,SAAtests.Also,incaseof
righttriangles,congruencycanbeprovedbyHypotenuseSidetest.

1. SSSTest

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Ifthreesidesofonetriangleareequaltothreecorrespondingsidesofanothertriangle,thenthetwo
trianglesarecongruent.

2. SAStest

Iftwosidesandtheirincludedangleofonetriangleareequaltothetwosidesandincludedangleof
anothertriangle,thenthetwotrianglesarecongruent.

3. ASAtest

Iftwoanglesandsideincludedbythemofonetriangleareequaltothetwoanglesandsideincluded
bythemofanothertriangle,thenthetwotrianglesarecongruent.

4. SAAtest

Ifasideandtwoanglesofonetriangleareequaltothesideandtwocorrespondinganglesofanother
triangle,thenthetwotrianglesarecongruent.

5. HypotenuseSidetest(forrighttriangles)

Incaseoftworighttriangles,ifonesideandhypotenuseofonetriangleisequaltoonesideand
hypotenuse.ofanothertriangle,thenthetwotrianglesarecongruent.

5. CENTRES,RADIUSANDCIRCLESINTRIANGLES

1. CIRCUMCENTRE

Inanytriangleallthethreeperpendicularbisectorsmeetatacommonpoint,whichisatanequal
distancefromallthethreevertices.Consideringthismeetingpointofperpendicularbisectorsasa
centreandthedistancefromthiscentretothevertexasradiuswecandrawacircle.Thiscirclepasses
throughallthethreeverticesandcircumscribesthetriangleandhenceisknownasthecircumcircle.
Thecentreofthiscircleisknownasthecircumcentreandtheradiusisknownasthecircumradius.

ThecircumradiusRisgivenbytheformula,

wherea,bandcarethelengthsofthesidesandAistheareaofthetriangle.

Inthefigurebelow,OiscircumcentreofthecircumcircleofABC.

Example16:
InatriangleABC,thelengthsofthesidesABandACequal17.5cmand9cmrespectively.LetDbe
apointonthelinesegmentBCsuchthatADisperpendiculartoBC.IfAD=3cm,thenwhatisthe
radius(incm)ofthecirclecircumscribingthetriangleABC?

[CAT2008]

(1)17.05 (2)27.85

(3)22.45 (4)32.25

(5)26.25

Solution:
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Weknowthatthearea(A)oftriangle(ABC)isrelatedtothecircumradius(R)andsidesofthe
triangleasfollows:

Where,

Hence,option5.

2. INCENTRE

Inanytriangleallthethreeanglebisectorsmeetatacommonpoint,whichisatanequaldistance
fromallthethreesides.Consideringthismeetingpointofanglebisectorsasthecentreandthe
perpendiculardistancefromthiscentretothesidesastheradius,wecandrawacircle.Thiscirclewill
touchallthethreesidesfrominsideandhenceisknownastheincircle.Thecentreofthecircleis
knownastheincentreandtheradiusisknownastheinradius.

Theinradiusrisgivenbytheformula,

wheresisthesemiperimeterandAistheareaofthetriangle.

InthegivenABC,

Example17:
FindcircumradiusandinradiusofABCifAB=6cm,BC=8cmandAC=10cm.

Solution:

InABC,a=BC=8cm,b=AC=10cmand

c=AB=6cm

Weknowthat(6,8,10)isaPythagoreantriplet.

REMEMBER

Inarighttriangle,themidpointofthehypotenusewillbethecircumcentreandthevertex
containing90anglewillbetheorthocentre.

Inanobtusetriangle,thecircumcentreandtheorthocentrelieoutsidethetriangle.

Inanisoscelestriangle,allthefourpointsviz.circumcentre,incentre,centroidandorthocentre
lieonthemediandrawnfromthevertexcontainedbyequalsidestothenonequalside.

Inanequilateraltriangleallthefourpointsviz.circumcentre,incentre,centroidandorthocentre

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coincide.

Equilateraltrianglehasthemaximumarea,outofallthetrianglesthatcanbeinscribedina
givencircle.

Example18:
TriangleABDisrightangledatB.OnADthereisapointCforwhichAC=CDandAB=BC.The
magnitudeofangleDAB,indegrees,is:

[FMS2010]

(3)45 (4)30

Solution:

AsCisthemidpointofthehypotenuseAD,itisthecircumcentre.

AC=CD=BC

ButAB=BC

InBAC,AB=AC=BC

BACisanequilateraltriangle.

DAB=BAC=60

Hence,option2.
6. THEOREMSRELATEDTOTRIANGLES

1. APOLLONIUSTHEOREM

InABC,ADismedian,thenAB2+AC2=2(AD2+BD2),thisisknownasApolloniustheorem.

Example19:
Findthesumofthemediansofisoscelestriangle,whosesidesare10,10and12.

Solution:

InABC,a=BC=12cm,b=AC=10cmandc=AB=10cm

LetAD,BEandCFarethemediansofABC.

AB2+AC2=2(AD2+BD2)

(10)2+(10)2=2[AD2+(6)2]

200=2[AD2+36]

AD=8cm

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UsingAB2+BC2=2(BE2+AE2),weget

UsingAC2+BC2=2(CF2+AF2),weget

Example20:
IfDisthemidpointofsideBCofatriangleABCandADistheperpendiculartoACthen:

(1)3AC2=BC2AB2

(2)3BC2=AC23AB2

(3)BC2+AC2=5AB2

(4)Noneoftheabove

[IIFT2008]

Solution:

Thefigurewouldbeasshownbelow(notdrawntoscale).

Now,BD=DC,thenbyApolloniustheoreminABC,wehave,

AndinADC,wehave,

From(i)and(ii),weget,

Hence,option1.
2. ANGLEBISECTORTHEOREM

InABC,ifADistheanglebisectorforangleA,then:

or,

Example21:
InABC,ADistheanglebisectorsuchthatBDC,AB=5,andAC=10.

Solution:

InABC,ADisanglebisectorofA,then

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3. BASICPROPORTIONALITYTHEOREM(BPT)

InABC,iflineDEisparalleltosideBCthenitdividestheothertwosidesABandACinthesame
proportion.

InABCandADE,

Aiscommontoboththetriangles

mD=mB (DEisparalleltoBC)

mE=mC (DEisparalleltoBC)

HenceABCandADEaresimilartrianglesby

AAAtestofsimilarity.

Example22:
InABCfromthefigure,DEBC.DEdividessideABintheratio2:3.IfAE=4cm,findAC.

Solution:

InABC,DEBCandDEdividessideABintheratio2:3thenDEdividesACalsointheratio2:3.

EC=6cm

AC=AE+EC=4+6=10cm

REMEMBER

ConverseofBasicProportionalityisalsotrue.

SPECIALCASE:

Alinejoiningmidpointsoftwosidesinatriangleisparalleltothethirdsideandhalfofit.

So,ifAD=DBandAE=EC,then

DE||BCand

4. THEOREMOF306090TRIANGLE

Iftheanglesofatriangleareofmeasure30,60and90,then

Sideoppositeto30=Halfofthehypotenuse

Example23:
InABC,mACB=60,mABC=90andAB=9cm.FindthelengthsofsidesACandBC.

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Solution:

InABC,mACB=60,mABC=90

mBAC=30

BC=Sideoppositeto30=Halfofthehypotenuse

5. THEOREMOF454590TRIANGLE

Iftheanglesofatriangleareofmeasure45,45and90,then

Example24:
PQRisarighttrianglewithPQ=QR=10.FindtheperimeterofPQR.

Solution:

InPQR,mQPR=mQRP=45,mPQR=90

PerimeterofPQR=PQ+QR+PR

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