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Geology of
tung Chung
and Northshore
Lantau Island
1:5 000 Sheets 9-SE-A 9-SE-B
Offshore Part Sheets 9-NE-D 10-NW-A 10-NW-B 10-NW-C &
10-NW-D & Study of Oround Conditions at Tung Chung New Town
.J. Sewell & P.A. Mirk

Oeotechnical Engineering Office

Civil Engineering Department
EONO MONO July 2002
Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

First published July 2002

ISSN xxxx-xxxx

Prepared by:

Geotechnical Engineering Office

Civil Engineering Department
Civil Engineering Building
101 Princess Margaret Road
Homantin Kowloon
Hong Kong

Cover: Oblique aerial view of Tung Chung New Town from above Chek Lap Kok taken in June 1998.

This publication is available from:

Chief Geotechnical Engineer/Planning

Geotechnical Engineering Office
Civil Engineering Department
Civil Engineering Building
101 Princess Margaret Road
Homantin Kowloon
Hong Kong


This report and associated 1:5 000-scale maps specifically relate to development areas in the vicinity of
Tung Chung New Town and parts of proposed development areas for Northshore Lantau Island.

The report forms part of the published results of a programme of systematic geological mapping of Hong
Kong that began in 1982. It complements geological information contained in the Hong Kong Geological
Survey Memoir No. 6 - Geology of Lantau District and in two Hong Kong Geological Survey Sheet Reports
(No. 2 - Geology of Chek Lap Kok and No. 4 - Geology of North Lantau Island and Ma Wan). These
reports have greatly enhanced our understanding of the stratigraphy structure and geological history of
Hong Kong's rocks. At the same time they have allowed a geological database necessary for the continuing
economic development of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to be established and developed.

The mapping programme was undertaken by the Hong Kong Geological Survey which is a section of the
Planning Division of the Geotechnical Engineering Office Civil Engineering Department. The section was
led by Dr C.J.N. Fletcher and the Division was under the direction of Dr R.P. Martin during the mapping
project reported here. The report was subsequently written and compiled by Dr R.J. Sewell and Mr P.A.
Kirk at which time the section was led by Dr S.D.G. Campbell and the Division was under the direction of
Mr H.N. Wong.

The 1:5 000-scale onshore geological survey of Tung Chung was conducted by Mr P.A. Kirk who also
managed a consultancy on behalf of the Territory Development Department and undertaken by members of
the British Geological Survey to study complex ground conditions at Tung Chung New Town. Some of the
information from the consultant's study is incorporated in this report. Much helpful advice and review comments
were also given by GEO colleagues including Mr K.W. Lai and Dr X.C. Li.

The Survey benefitted from the co-operation of many organizations and individuals. In particular the co-
operation of Mott Macdonald (Hong Kong) Ltd Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd the Airport Authority
Electronic and Geophysical Services Ltd and Cosine Ltd. is gratefully acknowledged.

This report and the accompanying map sheets will be of interest and value to earth scientists engineers
planners developers and educators.

R. K. S. Chan
Head of the Geotechnical Engineering Office
July 2002



Title Page 1
Foreword 3
Contents 5
Map and Report Series Notes 9
Chapter 1 Introduction 11
Location and Physiography 11
Previous Work 12
Complex Ground Conditions at Tung Chung 12
The Northshore Lantau Development Feasibility Study 12
Offshore Geophysical and Marine Ground Investigations 14
Purpose and Scope of Study 14
Data Sources 14
Chapter 2 Outline of Geology 1
Chapter 3 Palaeozoic Sedimentary Rocks 23
San Tin Group (Carboniferous) 23
Classification and Distribution 23
Lok Ma Chau Formation 23
Yuen Long Formation 23
Tolo Harbour Formation (Permian) 24
Chapter 4 Mesozoic Sedimentary and Volcanic Rocks 25
Tai O Formation 25
Tsuen Wan Volcanic Group 25
Yim Tin Tsai Formation 25
Lantau Volcanic Group 26
Chapter 5 Intrusive Igneous Rocks 28
Classification and Distribution 28
Major Intrusions 28
Granite 28
Lantau Granite 29
Chek Lap Kok Granite 29
Quartz Monzonite 30
Tong Fuk Quartz Monzonite 30
Minor Intrusions 31
Feldsparphyric Rhyolite 31
Porphyritic Microgranite 32
Quartzphyric Rhyolite 32
Aplite 32
Quartz Veins 33
Mafic Dykes 33

Chapter 6 Structure 34

Folds 34

Faults 34

Photolineaments 36

Joints 36

Chapter Metamorphism and Alteration 39

Thermal Metamorphism 39

Hydrothermal Metamorphism 39

Chapter 8 Superficial Deposits and Weathering 40

Classification and Distribution 40

Onshore Superficial Deposits 41

Slope Debris 41

Alluvial Sediments 41

Beach Deposits 42

Intertidal Deposits 42

Offshore Superficial Deposits 42

Tung Chung Formation 42

Chek Lap Kok Formation 43

Sham Wat Formation 45

Hang Hau Formation 45

Weathering 4

Chapter 9 Complex Ground Beneath the Tung Chung Reclamation 48

Introduction 48

Tung Chung Study 48

Data Sources 50

Developing the Geological Model 50

Xenoliths 50

Weathering 50

Karst 51

Complex Ground Conditions at Site 3


Laminated Deposits 52

Diamict 52

Sand and Gravel 52

Model for Formation of Karst Deposits at Site 3


Ground Investigation Techniques 53

Implications of the Revised Geological Model 55

Complex Ground Conditions in Areas Adjacent to Tung Chung 55

Chapter 10 Economic Geology 5

Non-metalliferous Minerals 5

Metalliferous Minerals 5

Construction Materials 58

References 59

Index 62

Lexicon of Terms Used for Drillcore Logging and Surface 64
Mapping at Tung Chung Lantau Island Hong Kong by M.R.
Gillespie A.J. Humpage and R.A. Ellison

List of Tables
1 Grain-size Description and Classification of Rocks and Superficial 10
Deposits in Hong Kong

2 Summary of the Onshore and Offshore Stratigraphy of the District 18

3 Whole-rock Major- and Trace-element Geochemistry for Representative 20

Rock Types in the Tung Chung District. Major Oxides in wt% Trace
Elements in ppm

List of Figures

1 Location Map of Major Infrastructure Developments Related to Tung Chung 11

New Town and Northshore Lantau Island

2 Traverses Undertaken During 1968 1988-89 and 1991-92 Field Surveys 13

3 Locations of Boreholes Drilled for Tung Chung New Town and Northshore 15
Lantau Island Infrastructure Developments

4 Locations of Seismic Lines around Northshore Lantau Island 16

5 Simplified Onshore Geology of the District 19

6 Simplified Seabed Sediment Map of the District 22

Generalized Classification and Nomenclature of Selected Major and Minor 28

Intrusive Rocks (after Le Maitre 1989)

8 Principal Structural Features of Tung Chung and Northshore Lantau Island 35

9 Contoured Pole Plots of Joints Measured for All Rock Types on Tung Chung 3
and Northshore Lantau Island (after Woods 1993). a) Sha Lo Wan to Hau
Hok Wan b) Hau Hok Wan to Tin Sam c) Tung Chung to Lau Fau Sha
d) Lau Fau Sha to Kei Tau Kok and e) Kei Tau Kok to Pak Mong

10 Schematic Section Showing the Relationship between Superficial Deposits 40

and the Different Environments of Deposition

11 Location Map Showing the Distribution of the Tung Chung Formation 44
Determined from Interpretation of Gravity and Borehole Data (Modified after
Kirk et al. 2000)

12 Distribution and Isopachs (in Metres) of the Hang Hau Formation 46

13 Location Map of Part of the Tung Chung East Reclamation Potentially 49

Underlain by Complex Geological Conditions

14 Examples of Different Interpretations of Problematic Materials Encountered in 51

Boreholes Drilled at various locations at Site 3 of the Tung Chung East

15 Schematic Representation of the Development of Karst Deposits Beneath 53

Tower 5 Site 3 Tung Chung East Reclamation (after Figure 6 in Fletcher et
al. 2000)

16 Simplified Averaged Rockhead Models (Top of Grade III or Lower) for 54

Offshore Parts of the District Based on 3-D Modelling of the Terrain
Corrected Bouguer Anomaly (after EGS 1999a 1999b)

1 Volcanotectonic Map of Hong Kong (c.146 Ma) Showing the Distribution of 56

the Tung Chung and Ma On Shan Marble Subcrops and Major Faults that
Were Active During Emplacement of Rocks Belonging to the Lantau Volcanic
Group and Kwai Chung Suite (Modified after Kirk 2000).

List of Plates

1 Steeply-dipping and Deformed Fine-grained Metasandstone and 24

Carbonaceous Metasiltstone of the Lok Ma Chau Formation Exposed on Tsz
Kan Chau (1588 2085)

2 Altered Silicified Banded Coarse Ash Crystal Tuff Exposed on Pok To Yan 26
(1350 158)

3 Fine- to Medium-grained Lantau Granite from a Borehole South of Ha Law 29

Wan (1131 116)

4 Thin Section of Fine- to Medium-grained Lantau Granite from Pak Sha Tsui 30
Tung Chung (HK 9236 1131 1698); XPL

5 Fine-grained Chek Lap Kok Granite from Tin Sam (HK 9252 0945 109) 30

6 Fine-grained Porphyritic Tong Fuk Quartz Monzonite from Sha Lo Wan (HK 31
1006 0812 1633)

Thin Section of a Mafic Dyke from Hau Hok Wan (HK 923 1156 12) 33

8 Tung Chung Wan from the Northwest Showing Quaternary Superficial Deposits 43
Composed of Intertidal Deposits in the Foreground and Beach Deposits and
Alluvial Deposits in the Background. (Photo taken on 5.12.1989)

Map and Report Series Notes

This report describes the geology of central Lantau Island in the vicinity of Tung Chung New Town and
the offshore parts of the North Lantau coast between Chek Lap Kok and Yam O. The report should be read
in conjunction with the 1:5 000-scale Geological Maps 9-SE-A and 9-SE-B (revised 2002). The 1:20 000-
scale Geological Map Sheet 9 (Chek Lap Kok) and Memoir 6 Geology of Lantau Island also include
relevant information on the geology of the area.

This report forms one of a series that records findings of the Hong Kong Geological Survey. An index of
the 1:5 000-scale Geological Maps to which this report relates is shown below.

The symbols for major rock units on the maps have been revised from the first edition maps in order to be
consistent where possible with the symbols used in the recently published 1:100000-scale geological map
(Sewell et al. 2000). A prefix is used to indicate the age of the rocks followed by lower-case letters to
indicate: (i) the group where appropriate and/or (ii) the formation name. Prominent stratigraphic beds within
the Mesozoic volcanic succession are indicated by a lower-case letter (or letters) denoting the dominant

The symbols for superficial deposits on the maps comprise a prefix to indicate the age of the sediments
followed by superscripted lower-case letters to indicate environment of deposition and upper-case letters to
indicate material. Ages of the sediments are interpreted as Pleistocene (Qp) Holocene (Qh) and Quaternary
undivided (Q). The environments of deposition seen in the district are interpreted to be colluvial (Df) alluvial
(a) beach (b) intertidal (i) and marine (m). The materials of colluvium (Df slope debris) include boulders
cobbles gravel sand and silt. The materials of alluvial beach intertidal and marine environments are
dominantly sand (S) and mud (M).

Onshore superficial deposits are not generally considered mappable if less than 2 m thick. This minimum
thickness is also used as a mapping criterion for offshore sediment.

Most place names referred to in the text are shown on Figure 2. Grid references cited for specific localities
are based on the Hong Kong 1980 Metric Grid as shown on the 1:5 000-scale Geological Maps. Eight-figure
references indicate positions to the nearest 10 m with Eastings followed by Northings eg 2200 2230.

All onshore and offshore levels and depths are reduced to Hong Kong Principal Datum (PD) which is
1.2 m below Mean Sea Level and 0.15 m above Admiralty Chart Datum.

Samples in the SAR-wide rock collection archived by the Hong Kong Geological Survey are prefixed HK
followed by the serial number eg HK 982.

Boreholes are generally referred to by the drilling contractor's number followed by the Geotechnical
Information Unit (GIU) accession number or Works Order number (WO) for the relevant ground investigation
report eg 5SW32/13464. The GIU is located in the Civil Engineering Library of the Civil Engineering
Department and is maintained by the Geotechnical Engineering Office Civil Engineering Department.

The system used in this report for grain-size description and classification is summarized in Table 1.

Table Grain Size Description and Classification of Rocks and Superficial Deposits in 0ong Kong

Solid Rocks
Deposits Sedimentary Pyroclastic Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks
Rocks Rocks Acid Acid-Intermediate Intermediate Basic Other Foliated Other

Boulders Pyroclastic
200 Sedimentary Agglomerate
Cobbles Pegmatite
60 Breccia, Very


Coarse Conglomerate Coarse

20 Quartz Quartz Gabbro Quartzite,
Gravel Medium Lapilli- Tuff Coarse Syenite Schist Marble,
6 Syenite Monzonite
Fine Medium Granite Granodiorite Hornfels,
2 Fault
Coarse gouge,
0.6 Coarse Ash
Sand Medium Sandstone Fine Lamprophyre Fault
0.2 Tuff
Microgabbro breccia
Fine Aplite, Micro-
Microgranite granodiorite
Silt Siltstone Very
Mud Mudstone Fine, Rhyolite Dacite Quartz Trachyte Quartz Andesite Basalt Mylonite,
Ash Tuff
Aphanitic Trachyte Latite Phyllite
Clay 0.002 Claystone Rhyodacite