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CALCULATION SHEET

Project Dissertation Made By HaN


Location Date

Design Notes and Assumption

1. Design Soil Parameters are listed below:

Soil Layer MD ALL


Unit Weigth, (kN/m3) 15 19
2
Vertical Coefficient of Consolidation, c v (m /yr) 1.3 2
2
Horizontal Coefficient of Consolidation, c h (m /yr) 2.6 4
Compression Ratio, CR 0.29 0.11
Recompression Ratio, RR 0.029 0.011
Overconsolidation Ratio, OCR 1 1
Coefficient of Secondary Compression (OC), C 0.6% 0.5%
Coefficient of Secondary Compression (NC), C 1.5% 1.0%
Thickness of Soil Layer, H (m) 26 10
Length of Drainage Path, H dr (m) 26 5

2. Design Information are listed below:

Mean Sea Level, MSL = 1.2 mPD


Seabed Level, SBL = -3 mPD
Final Formation Level = 5.5 mPD
Surcharge Level = 11.5 mPD
Future Imposed Load = 20 kPa
w= 10.25 kN/m3

3. Adopted Fill Parameters are listed below:

Bulk Unit Weight, Logarithmic Creep


Type of Fill Material
fill (kN/m3) Compression Ratio,
Type A Untreated 0.65%
Type B/D Treated 0.20%
19
Surcharge Treated 0.20%
Rock Fill (Average) 0.20%

4. Design details of prefabricated vertical drain are listed below:

Equivalent Radius of Prefabricated Drains, r w = (100 + 4)/


= 33.10 mm
Drain Spacing, D = 1.0 m
Equivalent Drain Spacing, d ' = 1.05D = 1.05 m (Triangular Pattern)
n = d '/(2r w) = 15.9

By Vertical Drain Theory - Barron (1948),


Consolidation Ratio by Vertical Drain, U h = 1 - exp[-8T n/F (n )]
where F (n ) = n 2/(n 2-1) x ln(n ) - (3n 2-1)/(4n 2) = 2.03
Primary Consolidation
Assumed Corrected Corrected
Primary Initial Excess Time for Time for Total Effective Primary Calculated Primary
Formation Consolidation Sub-layer Initial Effective Pore Water Time for Vertical Radial Stress Consolidation Consolidation
Stress Pressure Increment Overall Degree of Settlement Remarks
Level Settlement Thickness Construction Drainage Drainage Settlement
FL s p(a) v'(fill)(7) Hi z vo' u o(8) t tv th v' Consolidation s p(4) sp
Stage (mPD) (m) (kPa) Soil Strata Sub-layer (m) (mPD) (kPa) (kPa) (Months) (months) T v(5) (months) T h(6) U v(1) U h(2) U f(3) (kPa) U overall(10) (m) (m) Notes:
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.18
(1)
: U v = 1 - [ 2/M 2 x exp[-M 2T v] where M = (/2)(2m +1) and m =0 to
(2)
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.07 : U h = 1 - exp[-8T n/F (n )]
(3)
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.04 : U f = 1 - (1 - U v)(1 - U h)
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.03
(4)
: Primary Consolidation Settlement = CR x H i x log[( vo' + v')/ vo']
1: Fill to 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.02
(5)
: T v = c vt v/H dr2
+2.5mPD & MD 84.2 1.5 0.0002 0 0.00 5.2% 0% 5.2% 4.4 5%
2.5 2.6 84.2 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 3 0.02 0.45 - (6)
: T h = c ht h/H dr2
Install Band
(7)
Drain 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.02 : v'(fill) = (FL - MSL ) + (MSL - SBL + s p(a)) '
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.02
(8)
: u o = v'(fill) - v'
(9)
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.01 : v' = v'(fill) - (1 - U f)u o
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.01
(10)
: U overall = v'/ v'(fill)
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 84.2 1.5 0.01 0 0 11.5% 0% 11.5% 9.7 12% 0.03
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.58
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.32
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.22
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.17
2:
5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.14
Completion MD 84.2 2.5 0.0004 0.5 0.10 5.4% 32% 35.6% 30.0 36%
2.5 2.6 84.2 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 4 0.12 1.92 -
of Band Drain
Installation 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.10
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.09
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.08
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.07
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 84.2 2.5 0.0167 0 0 14.6% 0% 14.6% 12.3 15% 0.03
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.71
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.42
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.31
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.24
3: MD 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.20 2.6 ->
MD 84.2 3 0.0005 1 0.20 5.4% 54% 56.5% 47.6 57%
Consolidation 2.5 2.6 84.2 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 4.5 0.17 2.61 Recalculation is
to 50% 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.15 not required
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.14
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.12
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.11
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 84.2 3 0.02 0 0 16.0% 0% 16.0% 13.5 16% 0.04
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.83
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.52
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.39
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.32
5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.27
4: Fill to MD 105.9 0.25 0 0.25 0.05 5.0% 18% 22.1% 71.0 46%
5.5 4 153.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 5 0.23 3.34 -
+5.5mPD
7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.21
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.19
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.17
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.15
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 140.0 0.25 0.0017 0 0 6.3% 0% 6.3% 22.3 15% 0.06
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.92
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.60
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.47
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.39
5: MD 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.33 4 ->
MD 105.9 0.75 0.0001 0.75 0.15 5.1% 44% 46.9% 97.3 63%
Consolidation 5.5 4 153.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 5.5 0.29 3.98 Recalculation is
to 50% 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.26 not required
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.24
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.21
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.20
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 140.0 0.75 0.005 0 0 8.6% 0% 8.6% 25.5 17% 0.07
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.99
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.66
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.52
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.44
5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.38
6: Fill to MD 113.2 0.25 0 0.25 0.05 5.0% 18% 22.1% 122.3 58%
8.5 4 210.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 6 0.34 4.49 -
+8.5mPD
7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.30
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.28
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.25
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.23
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 185.0 0.25 0.0017 0 0 6.3% 0% 6.3% 37.2 18% 0.10
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 1.14
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.80
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.65
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.56
7: MD 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.49
MD 113.2 2.25 0.0004 2.25 0.44 5.4% 83% 83.9% 192.3 91%
Consolidation 8.5 4 210.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 8 0.44 5.64 -
to 90% 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.40
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.37
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.34
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.32
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 185.0 2.25 0.015 0 0 13.9% 0% 13.9% 51.2 24% 0.13
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 1.16
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.82
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.67
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.58
5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.51
8: Fill to MD 75.2 0.25 0 0.25 0.05 5.0% 18% 22.1% 208.9 78%
11.5 4 267.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 8.5 0.46 5.86 -
+11.5mPD
7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.42
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.39
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.36
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.33
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 216.3 0.25 0.0017 0 0 6.3% 0% 6.3% 64.8 24% 0.16
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 1.21
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.86
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.71
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.62
9: MD 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.55
MD 75.2 1.25 0.0002 1.25 0.25 5.2% 62% 64.0% 240.4 90%
Consolidation 11.5 4 267.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 9.5 0.50 6.25 -
to 90% 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.45
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.42
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.39
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.37
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 216.3 1.25 0.0083 0 0 10.5% 0% 10.5% 73.9 28% 0.17

Fill to +11.5mPD


Fill to +8.5mPD


p (kPa)

Fill to +5.5mPD

Fill to +2.5mPD

Time (Months)

Time p ' U Settlement Remarks



(mths) (kPa) (m)
0 0 0% 0 -
3 84.2 5% 0.45 1: Fill to +2.5mPD & Install Band Drain
4 84.2 36% 1.92 2: Completion of Band Drain Installation
4.5 84.2 57% 2.61 3: MD Consolidation to 50%
Settlement (m)

5 153.5 46% 3.34 4: Fill to +5.5mPD


5.5 153.5 63% 3.98 5: MD Consolidation to 50%
6 210.5 58% 4.49 6: Fill to +8.5mPD

8 210.5 91% 5.64 7: MD Consolidation to 90%
8.5 267.5 78% 5.86 8: Fill to +11.5mPD
9.5 267.5 90% 6.25 9: MD Consolidation to 90%

Estimated Settlement at Reclamation Area (Band Drain @1.0m Triangular Pattern)


CALCULATION SHEET CALCULATION SHEET

Project Dissertation Made By HaN Project Dissertation Made By HaN

Location Date 05 Jul 2013 Location Date

Calculation of Residual Settlement 3. Settlement within reclamation fill

1. Residual Settlement due to primary consolidation The creep settlement of granular fill is modelled as a linear relationship with log time by the following
formula (Sowers et al, 1965):
As the effective stress increment in the marine deposit (MD) and alluvium silt/clay is greater than that due to s c = H log(t 2-t c)/(t 1-t c)]
future loading, the MD and alluvium silt/clay are considered over-consolidated. A rebound will occur after where t 2 = Time for residual settlement calculation = 50 yr
removal of surcharge loading. The change in settlement will then follow recompression curve when the t 1 = time at site handover = 2 yr
future imposed load (20kPa) is applied on the reclamation. t c = Time for completing fill placement or the construction period = 0.83 yr

Due to the primary settlement, the thickness of the reclamation fill


Effective stress due to self weight of marine mud (at centre of soil layers)
= [5.5 - (-3) + 6.25] = 14.75 m
= 13 x (15 - 10.25) = 61.8 kPa
Thickness of Type A untreated fill (from +2.5mPD to sea bed)
Effective stress due to self weight of marine mud and alluvium silt/clay (at centre of soil layers) = 5.5 m
= 26 x (15 - 10.25) + 5 x (19 - 10.25) = 167.3 kPa
Thickness of Type B/D treated fill
Primary Consoldiation Settlement = 6.25 m = 9.25 m

Effective stress due to fill Settlement within reclamation fill (Type A untreated fill)
= (5.5 - 1.2) x 19 + [1.2 - (-3) + 6.25] x (19 - 10.25) = 173.1 kPa = 5.5 x 0.0065 x log[(50-0.83)/(2-0.83)]
= 58 mm
Effective stress due to imposed load = 20 kPa
Settlement within reclamation fill (Type B/D treated fill)
Residual Settlement due to primary consolidation (MD) = 9.25 x 0.002 x log[(50-0.83)/(2-0.83)]
= 26 x 0.029 x log[(61.8+173.1+20)/(61.8+173.1)] = 30 mm
= 27 mm
4. Total Residual Settlement
Residual Settlement due to primary consolidation (Alluvium Silt/Clay)) = 27 + 3 + 233 + 75 + 58 + 30
= 10 x 0.011 x log[(167.3+173.1+20)/(167.3+173.1)] = 426 mm
= 3 mm

2. Settlement due to secondary consolidation

Seondary consolidation of a soil layer at a given time t is calculated using the following formula (Carter,
1996):
s s = C H olog[(t 2-t 0)/(t 1-t 0)]
where t 2 = Time for residual settlement calculation = 50 yr
t 1 = time at site handover = 2 yr
t 0 = Start of the time for secondary consolidation calculation = 0.42 yr

Settlement due to secondary consolidation (MD)


= 0.006 x 26 x log[(50-0.42)/(2-0.42)]
= 233 mm

Settlement due to secondary consolidation (Alluvium Silt/Clay)


= 0.005 x 10 x log[(50-0.42)/(2-0.42)]
= 75 mm