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propositional logic.

A proposition is a simple declarative

statement that is either true or false but

not both.

Discrete Mathematics

FORMAL LOGIC

Discrete Mathematics

1 2

Which of the following statements are Letters are used to denote propositions, in

called propositions? formal notation, the letters p, q, r, and s

1. Washington, D.C., is the capital of the (plus the letters subscripted with natural

United States of America. numbers, such as p1, q2, and r127) are

2. Toronto is the capital of Canada. called propositional letter. Propositional

3. 1 + 1 = 2.

letters are similar to Boolean (logical)

4. 2 + 2 = 3

variables. The truth value of a proposition

5. What time is it?

is true, denoted by T, if it is a true

6. Read this carefully.

proposition and false, denoted by F, if it is

7. X + 1 = 2

a false proposition.

8. X + y = z

3 4

1

Since the English Language is often Truth tables are especially valuable in the

ambiguous, and the meaning of the words determination of the truth values of

can vary from context to context, English propositions constructed from simpler

translations of the symbols applied in propositions.

propositional connectives cannot define

their meanings precisely. A precise

definition of each symbol used in

propositional connectives is given by a

truth table. Truth tables are used to

display the relationships between the

truth values of propositions.

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

5 6

Negation operator ()

The negation of a proposition (p) can P P P P

operation of the negation operator on a T F 1 0

proposition. The negation operator

constructs a new proposition from an Logical truth table displays the

existing proposition. relationship using the binary bits 0 & 1,

It is commonly called the not operator. T(1) & F(0)

7 8

2

Example 1. What is the negation of the Conjuction operator ()

proposition p, if the proposition p denotes The conjunction of propositions is

today is Friday. commonly called the AND operator

denoted by p q (p and q). The

Example 2. What is the negation of the proposition is true when both p and q are

proposition p, if the proposition p denotes true and is false otherwise.

You are older than 16years old.

9 10

Truth table for the conjunction of Example 3. What is the conjunction of the

propositions (AND) propositions p q where p is the

proposition today is Friday and q is the

P Q PQ P Q PQ proposition it is raining today.

F F F 0 0 0

F T F 0 1 0 Example 4. What is the conjunction of the

T F F 1 0 0

propositions p q where p is the

T T T 1 1 1

proposition You are a computer science

major and q is the proposition You are a

freshman.

11 12

3

Disjunction operator () Truth table for the disjunction of

The disjunction of propositions is propositions (OR)

commonly called the OR operator

P Q PQ P Q PQ

denoted by p q (p or q). The proposition

F F F 0 0 0

is false when both p and q are both false F T T 0 1 1

and true otherwise. T F T 1 0 1

T T T 1 1 1

13 14

disjunction corresponds to one of the two The exclusive or (XOR) of propositions p

ways the word or is used in English, and q, denoted by p q, is the

namely, in an inclusive way. A disjunction proposition that is true when exactly one

is true when either of the two propositions of p and q is true and is false otherwise.

in it is true or when both are true. For The other way the word or is used in

instance, the inclusive or in a statement, English, in an exclusive way. For instance,

Students who have taken calculus or a statement says Soup or salad comes

computer science can take this class. with entre.

15 16

4

Truth table for the exclusive or of Conditional or Implication ()

propositions The implication p q is the proposition

that is false when p is true and q is false

P Q PQ P Q PQ

and true otherwise. In this implication p is

F F F 0 0 0

called the hypothesis (or antecedent or

F T T 0 1 1

T F T 1 0 1

premise) and q is called the conclusion (or

T T F 1 1 0

consequence).

17 18

in mathematical reasoning, thus, a wide q whenever p

variety of terminology is used to express

a necessary condition for p is q

p q. Some of the common ways of

expressing this implication are: q follows from p

if p, then q a sufficient condition for q is p

p implies q

if p, q

p only if q

p is sufficient for q

q if p

q is necessary for p

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

19 20

5

In mathematical reasoning implication is Truth table for the implication of

considered in a more general sort than in propositions

English. The mathematical concept of an

implication is independent of a cause-and- P Q PQ P Q PQ

F T T 0 1 1

and conclusion. The definition of an

T F F 1 0 0

implication specifies its truth values; it is T T T 1 1 1

not based on English usage.

21 22

There are some related implications that Example 5. The implication p q is denoted

can be formed from the implication p q. as If today is Thursday, then I have a test

The proposition q p is called the today.

converse of p q. Inverse of the implication (p q)

The inverse of the proposition p q is the If today is not Thursday, then I dont have a

test today.

proposition p q.

Converse of the implication (q p)

The contrapositive of p q is the

If I have a test today then today is

proposition q p.

Thursday.

Contrapositive of the implication (q p)

If I do not have a test today then today is not

Thursday.

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

23 24

6

Biconditional or Equivalence () Truth table for the biconditional of

The biconditional p q is the proposition propositions

that is true when p and q have the same

truth values and is false otherwise. P Q PQ P Q PQ

Note that the biconditional p q is F F T 0 0 1

precisely true when both the implications F T F 0 1 0

p q and q p are true. Due to this, the T F F 1 0 0

terminology p if and only if q is used for T T T 1 1 1

this biconditional. Other common ways of

expressing the proposition p q are: p

is necessary and sufficient for q and if p

then q, conversely.

25 26

Example 6. Let proposition p denotes Tom Example 7. Translate the following English

eats herbed halibut and q denotes sentence into a propositional/logical

Kathie eats key lime pie interpret the expression.

following connectives in English You cannot ride the roller coaster if you are

statement: under 4 feet tall unless you are older than 16

a. p

years old.

b. p q

Example 8. Translate the following English

c. p q

sentence into a propositional/logical

d. p q expression.

e. (p) (q) You can access the internet from campus

f. P (q) only if you are a computer science major or

you are not a freshman.

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

27 28

7

Logic and bit operations Computer bit operations correspond to the

A bit can be used to represent a truth logical connectives. By replacing true by 1

value, since there are two truth values and false by 0 in the truth tables for the

namely true and false. As is customarily operators (OR), (AND) and (XOR)

done, the bit value 1 is used to represent for the corresponding bit operations are

true and a bit 0 to represent false. A obtained. Information is often represented

variable called Boolean variable if its value using bit strings, which are sequences of

is either true or false. zeroes and ones.

29 30

A bit string is a sequence of zero or more AND of the bit strings 0110110110 and

bits. The length of this string is the 1100011101.

number of bits in the string. Bit operation

on strings can only be performed on

strings having the same length (equal

number of bits in a string) and its result is

also a bit string of the same length. The

same propositional connective symbols

are used in bit operation like , and to

represent the bitwise AND, bitwise OR and

bitwise XOR.

31 32

8

Logic Gates In describing computer circuits, a

At the basic level, computer memory has specialized notation for propositional logic

two states, which are identified as the two is used. Special physical devices, called

logical values or Boolean values of T and gates, implement the AND (), OR () and

F. Computer operations are thought of as NOT/Negation () operations. A set of

being composed of operations on these gates to represent a circuit is called

Boolean values and hence, as operations combinational circuit or combinatorial

of propositional logic. network.

33 34

NOT gate AND gate NOR gate NAND gate

35 36

9

Truth table for the NOR Gate Truth table for the NAND Gate

P Q (P Q) P Q (P Q)

F F T F F T

F T F F T T

T F F T F T

T T F

T T F

P Q (P Q) P Q (P Q)

0 0 1 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 1 1

1 0 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 1 0

37 38

P Q (P Q) A set of gates used to represent certain

F F T propositional logic is called a

F T F

combinatorial circuit or network. The

gates represent an operation and the

T F F

wires going through are the operands.

T T T

Using the logic gates, a combinatorial

P Q (P Q) circuit is, roughly the analogue of a

0 0 1 formula. The Boolean circuit

0 1 0 (combinatorial circuit) for the formula,

1 0 0

1 1 1

39 40

10

Combinatorial Circuit Combinatorial Circuit

41 42

(using a truth table) of a light bulb that is

controlled by two switches.

43 44

11

Tree They are useful in constructing networks

It is a connected undirected graph that with the least expensive set of telephone

contains no simple circuit. Since a tree lines linking distributed computers. Trees

cannot have a simple circuit, a tree can be used to construct efficient codes

cannot contain multiple edges or loops. for storing and transmitting data. Trees

Therefore any tree must be a simple can model procedures that are carried out

graph. Trees are particularly useful in using a sequence of decisions. This makes

computer science. It is often used to trees valuable in the study of sorting

construct efficient algorithm for locating algorithms.

items in the list.

45 46

graphs with the property that there is a

unique simple path between every pair of

vertices. In many applications of trees a

particular vertex of a tree is designated as

the root.

47 48

12

Example of trees Expression Tree

a It is a simple visual representation for

the way that a formula is built from

propositions and logical operators. A

proposition is represented by a single

node.

b c d

Representation for proposition p

e f g p

49 50

propositions and a logical operator, the

propositions are represented as nodes at (pq) r

the same level, then at a higher level, a

node represents the result of applying the

operator to the two propositions. The

(pq) r

nodes representing the propositions and

the node representing the result of the

operation are joined by lines. p q

p q

pq (pq) r

51 52

13

Expression tree Example 10. Determine the expression tree

for the following propositions and its truth

table.

a. (p q) r

b. p (q r)

c. ((p q) r) p

d. (q r) (p (q r))

e. p (p q)

f. ((p q) (p q)) ((p q) (p

q))

g. (((p q)) ((q r))) (((p

((s)))) (((r s) (q))))

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

53 54

circuit with its truth table and expression tree It is the type of step commonly used in

representing the following propositions. mathematical argument. The technique

a. ((p q) p) r replaces the statement with another

b. p (q r) statement having the same truth value.

c. p (q r)

Because of this, methods that produce

propositions with the same truth value as

d. (p q) (p r)

a given compound proposition are used

e. (p (p q))

extensively in the construction of

f. (((((p)) (q)) r) ((((q)) (r)) mathematical arguments.

s))

g. (p q r) (p q s) (p r s)

(p q s) (p q s)

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

55 56

14

Tautology Contradiction

In logic, a tautology is a formula which is In classical logic, a contradiction is the

true in every possible interpretation. a exact opposite of a tautology. It consists

tautology is a formula whose negation is of a logical incompatibility between two or

unsatisfiable. Meaning, it is a compound more propositions. It occurs when the

proposition that is always true, no matter propositions, taken together, yield two

what the truth values of the propositions conclusions which form the logical, usually

that occur in it. Unsatisfiable statements opposite inversions of each other.

are also known, formally, as

contradictions (compound proposition that

is always false).

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

57 58

A formula that is neither a tautology nor a the status of propositions that are neither

contradiction is said to be logically true under every possible valuation (i.e.

contingent. Such a formula can be made tautologies) nor false under every

either true or false based on the values possible valuation (i.e. contradictions). A

assigned to its propositional variables. contingent proposition is neither

The double turnstile notation is used to necessarily true nor necessarily false.

indicate that S is a tautology. The tee Propositions that are contingent may be

symbol is sometimes used to denote an so because they contain logical

arbitrary tautology, with the dual symbol connectives which, along with the truth

(falsum) representing an arbitrary value of any of its atomic parts, determine

contradiction. the truth value of the proposition.

59 60

15

The definition of tautology can be Verifying tautologies

extended to sentences in predicate logic, The problem of determining whether a

which may contain quantifiers, unlike formula is a tautology is fundamental in

sentences of propositional logic. In propositional logic. If there are n variables

propositional logic, there is no distinction occurring in a formula then there are 2n

between a tautology and a logically valid distinct valuations for the formula.

formula. Therefore the task of determining whether

or not the formula is a tautology is a

finite, mechanical one: one need only

evaluate the truth value of the formula

under each of its possible valuations.

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

61 62

One algorithmic method for verifying that Truth table for the compound proposition

every valuation causes this sentence to be (p q) p

true is to make a truth table that includes

every possible valuation. P Q PQ (P Q) P

p p F T F T

T F F T

P P P P

T T T T

F T T

T F T

63 64

16

Contradiction Truth table for the compound proposition

Truth table for the compound proposition (p (p q))

p p

P Q PQ P ( P Q) (P ( P Q))

F F F T F

P P P P

F T T T F

F T F

T F T T F

T F F

T T T T F

65 66

Truth table for the compound proposition Logical equivalence means that 2 different

(p q) compound propositions have the same

truth values in all possible cases. The

P Q PQ (P Q)

propositions p and q are considered

F F F T

F T T F

logically equivalent if p q is a tautology.

T F T F The notation p q denotes that p and q

T T T F are logically equivalent.

Example of logically equivalent compound

propositions

67 68

17

Example of a Logical Equivalence Table of Logical Equivalence

Truth table for the compound proposition Equivalence Name

(p q) and p q pTp Identity Laws

pFp

pTT Domination Laws

P Q P Q (PQ) P Q PQ pFF

F F F T T T T ppp Idempotent laws

ppp

F T T F T F F

p p Law of the excluded middle

T F T F F T F

(p p)

T T T F F F F (p) p Double negation law

(p (p q)) q Modus Ponens

((p q) p) q Modus Tolledo Ponens

69 70

((p q) (q r)) (p r) Law of Syllogism (p r) (r p) Contrapositive

pqqp Commutative laws (p (r q)) ((p r) q)

pqqp ((p r) (p r) p Contradiction

(p q) r p (q r) Associative laws ((p r) r) r Absorption Law

(p q) r p (q r) ((p r) r) r

p (q r) (p q) (q r) Distributive laws (p q) ((p q) (p q))

p (q r) (p q) (q r)

(p q) ((p q) (p q))

(p q) p q De Morgans laws (p F) (p)

(p q) p q

71 72

18

Prove that (p (p q)) p q Since (p p) F

(by the 2nd De Morgan Law) (p (p q)) F (p q)

(p (p q)) p (p q) By commutative law for disjunction

(by the 1st De Morgan Law) (p (p q)) (p q) F

(p (p q)) p [(p) q) By the identity law for F

(by the double negation law) (p (p q)) p q

(p (p q)) p (p q)

(by the 2nd distributive law)

(p (p q)) (p p) (p q)

73 74

A property or relationship between objects referred to as formulas. M(x, y), Q(x, y, z)

is called a predicate. A description of a and P(x) are referred to as atomic

predicate in logic is called a formula. A formula. From the given statement P(x) in

formula is a statement that is neither true example 1, the first part containing the

nor false. The following are examples of variable x is called the subject of the

predicates: statement. The second part is greater

a. P(x) denotes x > 3 than 3 is called the predicate since it

b. M(x, y) denotes x = y + 3 refers to a property that the subject of the

c. Q(x, y, z) denotes x + y = z

statement can have. The statement P(x)

is also said to be the value of the

propositional function P at x.

75 76

19

Once a value is assigned to the variable x, Statement may also involve more than

the statement P(x) becomes a proposition one variable as seen from the given

and has a truth value. statement in M(x, y) in example 2 of the

sample of predicates, the statement

Example 1. Let P(x) denote the statement

denoted by M(x, y) where x and y are

x > 3. What are the truth values of the variables and M is the predicate. When

propositions P(4) and P(2)? values are assigned to x and y, the

statement M(x, y) has a truth value.

Example 2. Let M(x, y) denote the

statement x = y + 3. What are the truth

values of the propositions M(1, 2) and

M(3, 0)?

77 78

sample 3 denoting the statement x + y = variables x1, x2, x3,, xn can be denoted

z. When values are assigned to the by P(x1, x2, x3,, xn).

variables x, y, z, this statement has a

truth value. A statement in the form P(x1, x2, x3,, xn)

Example 3. Let Q(x, y, z) denote the is the value of the propositional P at the

statement x + y = z. What are the truth n-tuple (x1, x2, x3, , xn), and P is also

values of the proposition Q(1, 2, 3) and called a predicate.

Q(0, 2, 1)?

79 80

20

Quantifiers The universal quantification states that

A Quantifier is a created proposition from the proposition P(x) is true for all values

a propositional function. The two types of of x in the particular domain called the

quantifiers are called the universal universe of discourse, given by the

quantification and the existential notation symbol (universal quantifier).

quantification. The universe of discourse specifies the

Universal Quantifier possible values of the variable x. The

Many mathematical statements assert notation x P(x) is expressed as

that a property is true for all values of a o for all x, P(x)

variable in a particular domain. o for every x, P(x)

81 82

When all the elements of the universe of Example 4. Let P(x) be the statement x +

discourse can be listed (i.e. x1, x2, x3,, 1 > x. What is the truth value of

xn) then it follows that the universal quantification x P(x), where the universe

quantification x P(x) is the same as the of discourse is the set of real numbers?

conjunction.

Example 5. Let Q(x) be the statement x <

P(x1) P(x2) P(x3) P(xn) 2. What is the truth of the value of

quantification x Q(x), where the universe

Since this conjunction is true if and only if of discourse is the set of real numbers?

P(x1), P(x2), P(x3),, P(xn) are all true.

83 84

21

Existential Quantifier The notation x P(x) is also expressed as

Many mathematical statements assert o there is an x such that P(x)

that there is an element with a certain o there is at least one x such that P(x),

property. The existential quantification of o for some x P(x)

P(x) is the proposition there exist an

element x in the universe of discourse

such that P(x) is true, given by the

notation symbol (existential quantifier).

85 86

When all the elements of the universe of Example 6. Let P(x) denote the statement x >

discourse can be listed (i.e. x1, x2, x3,, 3. Write down the quantifier satisfying the

xn) then it follows that the existential statement.

quantification x P(x) is the same as the If P(x) is true where the universe of

disjunction. discourse is the set of real numbers.

Example 7. Let P(x) x + 1 = x. Express the

truth value of the quantification x P(x),

P(x1) P(x2) P(x3) P(xn) where the universe of discourse is the set of

real numbers.

Since this disjunction is true if and only if Example 8. Let P(x) denote x2 10. Express

at least one of P(x1), P(x2), P(x3),, P(xn) the truth value of the quantification x P(x)

is true. and the universe of discourse consists of the

positive integers not greater than 4?

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

87 88

22

Quantification with conjunction and When a quantifier is used on the variable

disjunction x or when a value is assigned to this

variable then the occurrence of this

Formula Translation

variable is bound. An occurrence of a

x (P(x) Q(x)) For some particular choice of x, both P(x) and variable that is not bound by a quantifier

Q(x) are true.

or set equal to a particular value is said to

x (P(x) Q(x)) For every choice of x, both P(x) and Q(x) are be free. All the variables that occur in a

true. propositional function must be bound to

x (P(x) Q(x)) For some particular choice of x, P(x) or Q(x) turn into a proposition. This can be done

or both are true.

using a combination of universal

x (P(x) Q(x)) For every choice of x, both P(x) or Q(x) or quantifiers, existential quantifiers and

both are true.

value assignments.

89 90

Formulas multiple quantifications of propositional

functions involving more than 1 variable.

Quantified Formula for 1 variable It is important to note that the order of

x (P(x) Q(x)) (x P(x)) (x Q(x)) the quantifiers is important, unless all the

x (P(x) Q(x)) (x P(x)) (x Q(x)) quantifiers are all universal quantifiers or

x (P(x) Q(x)) (x P(x)) (x Q(x)) all are existential quantifiers. These

(x P(x)) (x Q(x)) x (P(x) Q(x))

quantifiers are usually classified as nested

quantifiers.

91 92

23

Table of quantifiers for 2 variables Ex. Translate the statement Every student

in this class has studied calculus.

Formula Translation

Let the proposition S(x) denote x is in

xy P(x, y) P(x, y) is true for every pair x, y.

yx P(x, y) P(x, y) is true for every pair x, y. this class.

xy P(x, y) For every x there is a y for which P(x, y) is Let the proposition P(x) denote x has

true.

studied calculus.

xy P(x, y) There is an x for which P(x, y) is true for

every y.

xy P(x, y) There is a pair x, y for which P(x, y) is

true.

yx P(x, y) There is a pair x, y for which P(x, y) is

true.

93 94

Example 9. Translate the given statement Example 10. Assume that the universe of

into English expression. discourse for the variables x and y is the

x (C(x) y (C(y) F(x,y))) set of all real numbers. Express the truth

Let C(x) denotes x has a computer. value of the statement & prove that xy

F(x, y) denotes x and y are friends and the (x+y = y+x)

universe of discourse for both x and y is

Example 11. Assume that the universe of

the set of all students in school.

discourse for the variables x and y is the

Translation:

set of all real numbers. Express the truth

The statement says that for every student

x in the school, x has a computer or there value of the statement and prove that

is a student y such that y has a computer xy (x+y = 0)

and x and y are friends.

Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics

95 96

24

Example 12. Assume that the universe of

discourse for the variables x and y is the

set of integers. Using the proposition P(x,

y) that denotes x + y = 17. Confirm the

truth value and prove the following

statements by citing examples for,

a. xy (P(x, y)) is true.

b. yx (P(x, y)) is false.

Discrete Mathematics

97

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