UNIX Command Summary There are MANY commands available for you in a UNIX shell account.

A list of them follows (in no particular order). Remember, you can always read the manpage on each command for more information. ls ................. order logout ............. mkdir .............. rmdir .............. folders with files) rm ................. cd ................. man (command) ...... talk (user) ........ email address write (user) ....... (control-c to end) show directory, in alphabetical logs off system make a directory remove directory (rm -r to delete remove files change current directory shows help on a specific command pages user for chat - (user) is a write a user on the local system

pico (filename) .... easy to use text editor to edit files pine ............... easy to use mailer more (file) ........ views a file, pausing every screenful sz ................. send a file (to you) using zmodem rz ................. recieve a file (to the unix system) using zmodem telnet (host) ...... ftp (host) ......... archie (filename) .. file on a FTP site irc ................ lynx ............... gopher ............. tin, trn ........... connect to another Internet site connects to a FTP site search the Archie database for a connect to Internet Relay Chat a textual World Wide Web browser a Gopher database browser read Usenet newsgroups

passwd ............. change your password

....... tar . used up by folders chmod .............. system w ....... compiles source code gcc (file........ they're doing finger (emailaddr).. system best compression for UNIX files zip for IBM files combines multiple files into one un-arc'ers................. user df ......... system du ..strips CR's out of dos text files unix2dos (file) (new) ............ compiles C source into a file named 'a......... or vice-versa lharc..........chfn .................................... change your "Real Name" as seen on finger chsh .... and you may not find them on all UNIX machines..... bc .....adds CR's to unix text files Basic UNIX commands Note: not all of these are actually part of UNIX itself.... search for a string in a file show the last few lines of a file shows who is logged into the local shows who is logged on and what shows more information about a shows disk space available on the shows how much disk space is being changes permissions on a file a simple calculator make . But they can all be used on turing in essentially the same ................ lha ... lzh............ who ........ may not be on your dos2unix (file) (new) ......c) .... change the shell you log into grep ..................... tail .out' gzip ..... zip ...............

and characters there are in a file chmod options filename --. Usually text files compress to about half their original size. and when it was last modified. You can use /pattern to search for a pattern. Files y y y y y y y y y y ls --. Note that some of these commands are different on non-Solaris machines .compares files. There are many more options.tells you how many lines. See the emacs page. and execute permissions on your files.lists your files in 'long format'. emacs filename --. The default is that only you can look at them and change them.removes a file. so that they take up much less space. just as much as will fit on one screen.is an editor that lets you create and edit a file.compresses files. chmod o+r filename will make the file readable for everyone. diff filename1 filename2 --. or moves it into a different directory (see below) cp filename1 filename2 --.way. write. e. which you do not always want to see.copies a file rm filename --. but .see SunOS differences.cshrc file. by typing the command and hitting return. which contains lots of useful information. It is wise to use the option rm -i. You can make this your default by making an alias in your .shows the first part of a file.lists your files ls -l --. words. Note that for someone to be able to actually look at the file the directories it is in need to be at least executable. the exact size of the file. who owns the file and who has the right to look at it. which will ask you for confirmation before actually deleting anything. But you can also edit the command line (see the guide to More UNIX). and chmod o-r filename will make it unreadable for others again. For example. gives it a different name.lists all files.lets you change the read. including the ones whose filenames begin in a dot. ls -a --. more filename --. If you've made a typo.e.moves a file (i. mv filename1 filename2 --. by date.g. and shows where they differ wc filename --. UNIX is case-sensitive. recursively etc. for example to list files by size. but you may sometimes want to change these permissions. File Compression o gzip filename --. See help protection for more details. Just hit the space bar to see more or q to quit. the easiest thing to do is hit CTRL-u to cancel the whole line.

g. You basically 'go' to another directory.you can make big leaps or avoid walking around by specifying pathnames.make a new directory cd dirname --. Clicking on the command will open the help page for that command with full details about it. You can even print it directly. MS-DOS and command line overview Below is a listing of each of the MS-DOS commands currently listed on Computer Hope and a brief explanation of what each of the commands do. Gzip produces files with the ending '.tells you where you currently are. gzcat filename --. The below commands are all MS-DOS commands.. Command Description ansi.uncompresses files compressed by gzip. 'cd . are used to group files together in a hierarchical structure. You don't have to walk along step by step .change directory. You always start out in your 'home directory'. which means not all the below commands will work in your version of MS-DOS and/or Windows command line. Causes MS-DOS to look in other directories when Type File External . pwd --. control cursor movement.o o it depends very much on the size of the file and the nature of the contents.' will get you one level up from your current position. and you can get back there by typing 'cd' without arguments. compress). gunzip filename --. y y y mkdir dirname --. using gzcat filename | lpr . and you will see the files in that directory when you do 'ls'. Directories Directories.lets you look at a gzipped file without actually having to gunzip it (same as gunzip -c). There are other tools for this purpose.sys append Defines functions that change display graphics. and reassign keys. like folders on a Macintosh.gz' appended to the original filename. but gzip usually gives the highest compression rate. too (e.

Supplement the International keyboard and character set information. arp assign assoc at Displays. Display and change file attributes. adds.editing a file or running a command. Assign a drive letter to an alternate letter.ini Enable / disable CTRL + C feature. Schedule a time to execute commands or programs. Recovery console command that allows a user to view. and rebuild the boot. View the file associations. modify. Recovery Internal External Internal Internal External bootcfg break cacls call cd chcp . External External Internal External atmadm attrib batch Internal External Recovery console command that executes a series Recovery of commands in a file. Lists connections and addresses seen by Windows ATM call manager. Changes directories. Calls a batch file from another batch file. View and modify file ACL's. and removes arp information from network devices.

Easily change the foreground and background color of the MS-DOS window.chdir chdsk chkntfs choice cls cmd color Changes directories. Debug utility to create assembly programs to External External External External Internal Internal Internal External . comp compact control convert copy ctty date debug Compares files. Opens the command interpreter. Change the computers input/output devices. Compresses and uncompress files. Copy one or more files to an alternate location. Internal External Check the hard disk drive running NTFS for errors. Convert FAT to NTFS. Check the hard disk drive running FAT for errors. View or change the systems date. External Specify a listing of multiple options within a batch External file. Clears the screen. Internal Internal command Opens the command interpreter. Open Control Panel icons from the MS-DOS prompt.

List the contents of one or more directory. External External diskcomp Compare a disk with another disk. diskcopy Copy the contents of one disk and place them on another disk. Deletes one or more files and/or directories. Recovery console command that deletes a file. Command to view and execute commands that have been run in the past. View and edit files. View and edit files. A GUI to help with early MS-DOS users. External Internal Internal External Internal Recovery console command that disables Windows Recovery system services or drivers. echo edit edlin Displays messages and enables and disables echo. defrag del delete deltree dir disable Re-arrange the hard disk drive to help with loading programs. Deletes one or more files.modify hardware settings. doskey dosshell External External Internal Internal External External drivparm Enables overwrite of original device drivers. .

Exit from the command interpreter. Recovery console command to enable a disable service or driver. Expand a Microsoft Windows file back to it's original format. Compare files. External External External External External Recovery Recovery Internal . Stops the localization of the environment changes enabled by the setlocal command.emm386 ename Load extended Memory Manager. Search for text within a file. Searches for a string of text within a file. Erase files from computer. Writes a new boot record to a disk drive. Utility used to create partitions on the hard disk drive. Writes a new boot sector. External Recovery endlocal erase exit expand extract fasthelp fc fdisk find findstr fixboot fixmbr for Internal Internal Internal External Extract files from the Microsoft Windows cabinets. External Displays a listing of MS-DOS commands and information about them. Boolean used in batch files.

Load a device driver in to high memory. Change the label of a disk drive. Recovery Internal External External if Internal External External External External Internal Recovery External Internal ifshlp. ipconfig keyb label lh listsvc loadfix loadhigh Network command to view network adapter settings and assigned values. Display a listing of commands and brief explanation. Recovery console command that displays the services and drivers. Change layout of keyboard.format ftp ftype goto graftabl help Command to erase and prepare a disk drive. Show extended characters in graphics mode. . Load a device driver in to high memory. External Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations. Moves a batch file to a specific label or location. External Command to connect and operate on a FTP server. Allows for batch files to perform conditional processing.sys 32-bit file manager. Load a program above the first 64k.

Logoff the currently profile using the computer.lock logoff logon map md mem mkdir mode more move msav msd msdex Lock the hard disk drive. or view the network or network settings Internal External Recovery Recovery Internal External Internal External External Internal External External External nbtstat External net External . Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT Update. Diagnostics utility. Display memory on system. Early Microsoft Virus scanner. fix. Move one or more files from one directory to another directory. Command to create a new directory. Display one page at a time. Utility used to load and provide access to the CDROM. Command to create a new directory. Recovery console command to list installations and enable administrator login. Modify the port or display settings. Displays the device name of a drive.

Look up an IP address of a domain or host on a network. View and modify the computers path location. External .netsh Configure dynamic and static network information External from MS-DOS. Changes to the directory or network path stored by the pushd command. External External Internal External Internal netstat nlsfunc nslookup path pathping pause ping External popd power print prompt pushd qbasic Internal External External Internal Stores a directory or network path in memory so it Internal can be returned to at any time. Prints data to a printer port. Conserve power with computer portables. Display the TCP/IP network protocol statistics and External information. Command used in batch files to stop the processing of a command. View and locate locations of network latency. Test / send information to another network computer or network device. Open the QBasic. View and change the MS-DOS prompt. Load country specific information.

shutdown Shutdown the computer from the MS-DOS prompt. External smartdrv Create a disk cache in conventional memory or External . Removes an empty directory.rd ren rename rmdir route runas scandisk scanreg set setlocal Removes an empty directory. Change one variable or string to another. External setver share External shift Changes the position of replaceable parameters in Internal a batch program. Run the scandisk utility. Change MS-DOS version to trick older MS-DOS programs. Internal Internal Internal Internal View and configure windows network route tables. Scan registry and recover registry from errors. Installs support for file sharing and locking capabilities. Renames a file or directory. Renames a file or directory. External Enables a user to run a program as a different user. External External External Internal Enables local environments to be changed without Internal affecting anything else.

Start a separate window in Windows from the MSDOS prompt. . View a visual tree of the hard disk drive. unlock Unlock a disk drive. Telnet to another computer / device from the prompt. sort Sorts the input and displays the output to the screen. External start Internal subst switches sys telnet time title tracert tree type undelete External Internal External External Internal Internal External External Internal External External Internal unformat Unformat a hard disk drive.extended memory. Display the contents of a file. Remove add functions from MS-DOS. Undelete a file that has been deleted. Visually view a network packets route across a network. Change the title of their MS-DOS window. Substitute a folder on your computer for another drive letter. View or modify the system time. Transfer system files to disk drive.

increasing responsiveness and making Linux more suitable for real-time applications. although some exceptions run in user space. . Enables or disables the feature to determine if files have been written properly. in contrast to that found in Microsoft Windows. with full access to the hardware. Preemption also improves latency. Copy multiple files. Displays the volume information about the designated drive. This feature was added to handle hardware interrupts correctly and improve support for symmetric multiprocessing (SMP). The graphics system most people use with Linux doesn't run in the kernel. directories. Kernel mode preemption allows device drivers to be preempted under certain conditions. Internal Internal vol Internal xcopy External Architecture Linux kernel map and bigger Interactive map Linux is a monolithic kernel.ver verify Display the version information. and/or drives from one location to another. Device drivers and kernel extensions run in kernel space (ring 0 in many CPU architectures).

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