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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

Evaluation of Concrete Behaviour by Using Silica Fume & Waste Plastics as


a Partial Replacement for Cement &Fine Aggregate

Sri Ruban.D1, Sureshkumar.P2, Sudeendra.B3, Nagarajan.N4


1,2,3,4 Assistant professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore
1sriruban@siet.ac.in, 2sureshkumarp@siet.ac.in, 3bsudeendra@siet.ac.in, 4nnagrajan@siet.ac.in

Abstract

It's been a long investigation to use waste materials in concrete. This paper discusses about evaluating the
behaviour of M20 grade concrete with replacement of silica fume and plastic wastes as a replacement for cement and fine
aggregate in various proportions. The concrete is casted with cement by replacing silica fume alone at 5%, 10% &
15%.Then for each percentage of silica fume, the crushed plastic wastes were replaced for fine aggregates at 10%, 20% and
30%. Ultimate Compressive strength, Flexural strength, Split tensile strength has been determined for different mix
combinations of materials and these values are compared with the corresponding values of conventional concrete.

The concrete with replacement upto 10% of silica fume and 20% of waste plastics were found to be optimum
which possess high compressive, tensile and flexural strength than other specimens. It is also concluded that the use of
industrial wastes such as plastics in concrete provides some advantages, like reduction in the use of natural resources,
disposal of wastes, prevention of environmental pollution and energy saving.

Keywords waste plastics, Compressive strength, flexural strength, normal concrete, silica fume (SF)
concrete, split tensile strength

I. INTRODUCTION
A. General

Concrete is the one of the most common material used in the construction industry. In the past few years many
research and modifications has been done to produce concrete which has the desired characteristics with using partial
replacement materials in concrete for cement and fine aggregate. Because now - a - days shortage of cement and fine
aggregate.

Cement and fine aggregate is one of the constituents used in the production of conventional concrete has become
highly expansive and also scarce Due to above reason scarcity of cement and fine aggregate partially replaced by silica
fume and pulverized waste plastics .It's an attempt to evaluate the mechanical properties on concrete by using silica fume
and pulverized waste plastics as a partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate.

B. Silica Fumes

Silica fumes are also known as micro silica is an amorphous (Non-crystalline) polymorph of silicon dioxide and
silica. It is an ultrafine powder collected as byproduct of silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production and consist of spherical
particles with an average particle diameter of 150nm.. The bulk density of the silica fumes depends on the degree of
densification in the silo and varies from 130 to 600 kg/m3.

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

Fig. 1 Silica Fume


C. Pulverized waste Plastic

Plastics are organic materials. They can shaped by heat or pressure or both. It is durable low cost water resistant
pressure energy & heavy chemical requirements in manufacture and are light weight. It has specific gravity of 0.45. The
main factors governing the desired aggregate grading are,

FIG. 1 CRUSHED WASTE PLASTICS

II. OBJECTICE AND SCOPE OF STUDY


A. Objectives

The following are the objectives of the presently study,

a. The properties of hardened concretes such as Compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural behavior
strength is to be determined.
b. The comparison of experimental value for different dosage of silica fumes and waste plastics is to be analyzed.
c. The optimum percentage of usage of silica fumes and waste plastics in concrete is to be determined.

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

B. Scope of Study

In this study the normal concrete were produced to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete using different
percentage of silica fume and pulverized waste plastic as cement and fine aggregate replacement by weight of cement and
fine aggregate such as 0%,5%,10%,15% and 0%, 10%,20%,30%.The design of density for normal concrete must be
obtained in M20 with mix proportion ratio 1:1.51:3.31 comprises of water ratio 0.5.The study was carried out to find
usage of waste plastics and its adaptability in construction.

III. MATERIAL PROPERTIES


A. Cement
Cement is used as a binding material in the concrete. Ordinary Portland cement of 53 grade is used. The cement
should be used within 3 months of manufacture. Cement mortar at the age of 7 days should have a compressive strength
of 11.04N/mm2 at the age of 28 days should not be less than 25 N/mm2 and tensile strength should not be less than 2.5
N/mm2.The initial setting time of cement should not be less than 30 minutes and final setting time shall be around 10
hours.

B. Fine aggregate

The cement passes through 2.36mm and retained on 900micron sieve are used. The purpose of the fine aggregate is fill
the voids in the coarse aggregate and to act as a workability agent. In this work zone-III grade sand is used Table shows
the properties of fine aggregate,

TABLE. I
PROPERTIES OF FINE AGGREGATE

. S.NO Characteristics Value


1 Specific gravity 2.62
2 Moisture content 2.28
3 Grading zone II

C. Coarse aggregate

The coarse aggregate is used in the form of broken crushed stone which of size re through 40mm sieve and retained in
20mm sieve. It is well graded i.e., different particle size and angular in shape. Table shows the properties of coarse
aggregate,
TABLE II
PROPERTIES OF COURSE AGGREGATE

S.NO Characteristics Value


1 Type Angular
2 Specific gravity 2.62
3 Total water absorption 1.02%
4 Moisture content 0.16%
5 Grading zone III

D. Water

The water used for mixing and curing the concrete is the potable water available in the campus.

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

E. Silica fume

It has both physical and chemical properties. Amorphous, Sio2 > 85%, Trace element these are the chemical properties
of silica fume.
TABLE. II s
PROPERTIES OF SILICA FUME
S.No Description Result
1 Specific gravity 2.22
2 Fineness 9%
3 Initial setting time 30mins
4 Final setting time 600mins

F. Crushed waste plastics

Plastics are organic materials. They can shaped by heat or pressure or both. It is durable low cost water resistant
pressure energy & heavy chemical requirements in manufacture and are light weight. It has specific gravity of 0.45.The
main factors governing the desired aggregate grading are,

a. Surface area of aggregate. This determines the amount of water necessary to wet all the solids/particles.
b. The relative volume occupied by the aggregate.
c. The workability of the mix. The aggregate must contain a sufficient amount of material passing 300 m sieve to
improve workability.
d. d. The tendency to segregation. It is essential for the voids in the combined aggregate to be sufficiently small to
prevent the cement paste from passing through and separating out.
e.
TABLE III
PROPERTIES OF PULVERIZED WASTE PLASTIC

S.No Description Result


1 Specific gravity 0.45
2 Moisture content 2.28

IV. EXPERIMENTAL WORK


A. Mix Design

TABLE. IV
MIX PROPORTION FOR M20 GRADE CONCRETE
Fine Coarse
Grade of Cement Water
aggregate aggregate
concrete (Kg/m3) (lit)
(Kg/m3) (Kg/m3)

For M20 373.32 562.35 1236 191.6

For 1kg 1 1.50 3.31 0.5

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

B. Quantity Calculation

TABLE. V
QUANTITY REQUIREMENTS PER CUBE

TABLE. VI
QUANTITY REQUIREMENT PER CYLINDER

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

TABLE. VII
QUANTITY REQUIREMENT PER PRISM
Percentage %
Quantity (Kg)
S.N Mix Wast
Waste Fine Coarse
o Identification Silica e Silica Ceme
Plastic Aggregat Aggreg Water
Fume Plasti Fume nt
s e ate
cs
1 SF0 0 0 0 0 2.1 3.09 6.83 1.05
2 SF1 5 0 0.103 0 1.9 3.09 6.83 0.95
3 SF2 10 0 0.206 0 1.8 3.09 6.83 0.9
4 SF3 15 0 0.309 0 1.7 3.09 6.83 0.85
5 SP1 5 10 0.103 0.309 1.9 2.78 6.83 0.95
6 SP2 5 20 0.103 0.618 1.9 2.47 6.83 0.95
7 SP3 5 30 0.103 0.927 1.9 2.16 6.83 0.95
8 SP4 10 10 0.206 0.309 1.8 2.78 6.83 0.9
9 SP5 10 20 0.206 0.618 1.8 2.47 6.83 0.9
10 SP6 10 30 0.206 0.927 1.8 2.16 6.83 0.9
11 SP7 15 10 0.309 0.309 1.7 2.78 6.83 0.85
12 SP8 15 20 0.309 0.618 1.7 2.47 6.83 0.85
13 SP9 15 30 0.309 0.927 1.7 2.16 6.83 0.85

V. MATERIAL PROPERTIES
A. Casting Of Specimen

1) Preparation of mould

Before casting all the moulds were fully tightened. The inner sides of the moulds were coated with oil to prevent the
adhesion of concrete.

2) Casting of specimen

Concrete cube size 150mm 150mm 150mm were casted using M20 grade concrete with hand mix and cylindrical
moulds of size 150mm diameter and 300mm height and prism 100mm 10mm 500mm.The mould was filled with three
layers and each layer was compacted using damping rod of standard size. Specimens with ordinary Portland cement (OPC)
and specimens with cement and fine aggregate incorporating silica fume at 0%,5%,10%,15% and pulverized waste plastic
at 10%,20%,30% were casted. For each percentage two cubes, one cylinder, one prism were casted.

3) Curing

Curing is the process of keeping the set concrete damp for some days in order to enable the concrete gain more
strength. After 24 hours the specimens were removed from the mould and allowed to curing for 7days and 28 days.

B. Testing Of Specimens

1) Experimental Setup For Compression Test

The specimen is placed at the center of the pads located at the top and bottom portion of compression testing machine.
The experimental setup is shown in fig

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

Fig. 3 Compressive Strength test


2) Experimental Setup For Split Tensile Test

The specimen is placed at the center of the pads horizontally, located at the top and bottom portion of compression
testing machine. The experimental setup is shown in fig.

Fig. 4 Split tensile test

3) Experimental Setup For Flexural Test

The specimen is placed at the center of the pads horizontally, located at the center portion of flexural testing machine.
The experimental setup is shown in fig

Fig. 5 Flexural Strength test

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VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


A. Slump Test Value

The slump test is to be carried out for determine the workability of the different mix proportion.

TABLE. VIII
SLUMP TEST VALUE
Mix Identification (%) Workability (mm)
Sf0 40
Sf1 37
Sf2 36
Sf3 30
Sp1 23
Sp2 20
Sp3 22
Sp4 28
Sp5 30
Sp6 21.5
Sp7 20
Sp8 18
Sp9 16.6

B. Compressive Strength
The 7 and 28 days compressive strength test results are tabulated below.

TABLE. IX
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AT THE AGE OF 7&28DAYS

Avg Compressive Strength


S.NO Mix Identification (N/mm2)
7 Days 28 Days
1 Sf0 15.32 26.67
2 Sf1 15.85 24.58
3 Sf2 16.45 28.88
4 Sf3 14.05 22.04
5 SP1 14.8 27.11
6 SP2 10.23 18.22
7 SP3 9.7 15.56
8 SP4 16.44 28.88
9 SP5 18.33 29.33
10 SP6 13.89 22.88
11 SP7 10.67 17.77
12 SP8 12.77 20.34
13 SP9 8.44 16.33

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

30

25

Average Compressive Strength


20

15
7 Days
28 Days
10

0
Sf0 Sf1 Sf2 Sf3 SP1 SP2 SP3 SP4 SP5 SP6 SP7 SP8 SP9

Mix Identification

Fig. 6 Graph showing Compressive Strength test results

From the above results, its identified that the compressive strength increase with the addition of silica fume up to 10%
of replacement of cement and waste plastic up to 20% of replacement of fine aggregate. But at 15% of silica fume and
30% of waste plastic compressive strength decreases.

C. Split Tensile Strength Of Cylinder

TABLE. X
SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH AT THE AGE OF 7&28DAYS

Avg Split Tensile


S.NO Mix Identification Strength (N/mm2)
28 Days
1 Sf0 2.8
2 Sf1 1.9
3 Sf2 2.2
4 Sf3 1.67
5 SP1 1.5
6 SP2 2.4
7 SP3 1.9
8 SP4 2
9 SP5 2.95
10 SP6 1.95
11 SP7 1.25
12 SP8 1.70
13 SP9 1.06

2.5
Average Split Tensile Strength

1.5
28 Days

0.5

0
Sf0 Sf1 Sf2 Sf3 SP1 SP2 SP3 SP4 SP5 SP6 SP7 SP8 SP9

Mix Identification

Fig. 7 Graph showing Split tensile test results

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

From the above results, its identified that the split tensile strength increase with the addition of silica fume up to 10% of
replacement of cement and waste plastic up to 20% of replacement of fine aggregate .But at 15% of silica fume and 30%
of waste plastic split tensile strength tends to decrease.

D. Flexural Strength Of Prism

TABLE. XI
FLEXURAL STRENGTH AT THE AGE OF 28DAYS

Avg Flexural Strength (N/mm2)


S.NO Mix Identification
28 Days
1 Sf0 5.8
2 Sf1 2.88
3 Sf2 5.44
4 Sf3 4.18
5 SP1 2.64
6 SP2 4.18
7 SP3 3.72
8 SP4 5.7
9 SP5 5.95
10 SP6 4.7
11 SP7 3.5
12 SP8 3
13 SP9 2.8

5
Average Flexural Strength N/mm2

3
28 Days

0
Sf0 Sf1 Sf2 Sf3 SP1 SP2 SP3 SP4 SP5 SP6 SP7 SP8 SP9
Mix Identification

Fig. 8 Graph showing Flexural Strength test results

VII. CONCLUSION
The following conclusions are drawn from this paper which deals with replacing silica fume and waste plastics in various
proportions as a partial substitute for cement and fine aggregate

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

The strength tests were calculated at 5%, 10% and 15% of silica fume replaced with cement alone. The compressive
strength, split tensile strength & flexural strength is optimum at 10% of silica fume alone.
The Mechanical properties of concrete are carried out at 5%, 10% and 15% of silica fume and waste plastic replaced
with cement and fine aggregate. The compressive strength, split tensile strength & flexural strength results are
optimum at 10% of silica fume and 20% of pulverized waste plastic replacement.
Concrete when replaced 10 % of silica fume and 20% of waste plastics shows better results when compared with the
conventional concrete.
The density of concrete tends decrease a bit with addition of plastics at different percentages.
At the end, this paper gives enough knowledge in developing a innovative skills in finding the use of alternative
material in concrete.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
First of all we loved to thank Dr.S.Thangavelu, Chairman, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology
who given us space for doing this research paper. We thank Dr.G.Ramadoss, Principal, Sri Shakthi Institute of
Engineering and Technology, who encourage us for doing this research work. We extends our thanks to Dr.P.Murthy,
Head of the Department, Department of Civil Engineering, for his valuable assistance and comments that greatly
improved the progress of paper. We thank our colleagues from Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Shakthi Institute of
Engineering and Technology who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research.

REFERENCES
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