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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

in non-linear dynamic progressive collapse analysis

E.P. Stoddart a, M.P. Byeld a,, J.B. Davison b, A. Tyas b

a

School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

b

Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Shefeld, Shefeld S10 2TN, UK

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper introduces the use of rate dependent springs to component-based joint models. This allows

Available online xxxx strain rate hardening as well as strain rate induced reductions in ductility to be included in component

spring models for inclusion in non-linear dynamic analysis. Experimental tests of n-plate connections

Keywords: are carried out under static and dynamic conditions with loading time as low as 32 ms to failure. The

Progressive collapse joints were tested under the combined effects of tensile load and rotation in order to simulate the com-

Steel construction plex conditions experienced by joints during catenary action. The strain rate modications to the compo-

Robustness

nent models of the joint were observed to be able to accurately model strain rate induced hardening, as

Disproportionate collapse

Blast

well as reductions in failure rotation which occur in joints under dynamic conditions.

Impact The rate dependent component models were subsequently incorporated directly into sub-frame mod-

Connections els to simulate catenary action developed due to the loss of support to a column. The individual failure

Joints criteria of the joint components provide for an accurate simulation of the progressive fracture of joints

Structures during collapse. The results are compared with the conventional approach in which joints are modelled

Modelling using axial and rotational springs. The comparison reveals that, for the scenario investigated, the conven-

tional method leads to a 20% overestimation of load capacity, due to the lack of inclusion of dynamic

material property effects and moment capacity reductions resulting from prying action and catenary

action axial forces. Thus the approach goes some way to developing a more realistic approximation of

momenttensionrotation response through to fracture of joints in whole frame progressive collapse

computer simulations.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Recent studies have indicated that some semi-rigid steelwork con-

The importance of protecting buildings against progressive col- nections may lack the strength and ductility required to survive

lapse is well recognised with both US and UK design guidelines the demands imposed by catenary action [5,6].

including recommendations to ensure a minimum level of robust- Early work [7] investigated the ultimate axial capacity of steel

ness [1,2]. Progressive collapse occurs where local failure of a pri- connections subject to direct tension loading and subsequent stud-

mary load bearing elements leads to the collapse of adjoining ies of the ndings formed the basis for calculating tensile capacity

members which in turn leads to further collapse and thus the total to the present day [8]. However these calculations did not account

damage is disproportionate to the original cause [3]. A minimum for joint rotation or the prying action which can develop when the

level of robustness is attained by ensuring the structural elements lower beam ange contacts the supporting column (Fig. 1). This

are mechanically fastened together. By designing connections be- prying action generates a force couple between the lower beam

tween members to resist specied vertical and horizontal tensile ange and the connection, which horizontal equilibrium dictates

forces structural continuity is enhanced. This tying force method must reduce the axial capacity. This is extremely important when

was incorporated into British regulations following the 1968 pro- considering primary element loss of a column and the frame is re-

gressive collapse of a tower block at Ronan Point, London and sim- quired to support a double bay span with large connection

ilar requirements have been incorporated into the Eurocodes [4]. rotations.

These tying forces are intended to allow the structure to bridge Immediately following column removal, downwards movement

over the loss of a primary element, in what is termed catenary ac- of the damaged bay is resisted by a combination of forces in the

connections, beams, columns and oor system. This dynamic load

Corresponding author.

redistribution will increase the associated tying force at the con-

E-mail address: mpb@soton.ac.uk (M.P. Byeld).

nections making them more susceptible to premature failure.

0141-0296/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

Please cite this article in press as: Stoddart EP et al. Strain rate dependent component based connection modelling for use in non-linear dynamic progres-

sive collapse analysis. Eng Struct (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

2 E.P. Stoddart et al. / Engineering Structures xxx (2012) xxxxxx

When analysing such an event, US guidance [3] limits removal used, the rotation is limited and the connection is subjected to ten-

time of the column to 1/10 of its natural period and recent work sion only to allow a comparison with the design tying capacity (in

has outlined the legitimacy of using instantaneous column loss which it is assumed that the load is applied axially notwithstand-

as an upper bound design limit to assess a structures potential ing the fact that catenary action, by denition, requires some de-

for progressive collapse [9]. Progressive collapse analysis proce- gree of end rotation). Alternatively a single loading ram can be

dures have developed greatly the past decade and now range in used to force the column section to rotate about the connection

complexity from modifying static analyses using dynamic load fac- and thus introduce prying action. An industrial compressor was

tors to full three-dimensional non-linear dynamic solutions. How- used to charge a pressure vessel and the pressure released by the

ever, the problem remains that the response of the structure is failing of a brass diaphragm. Different diaphragm thicknesses were

inuenced by the connection behaviour and this behaviour is rela- used to vary the failure load and thus the loading rates. Custom

tively unknown at the loading rates and rotations likely to occur as built load cells were attached perpendicular to the column with

a building sustains damage. a hemispherical bearing to record the applied normal forces.

The dynamic movement of the column ends was captured using

laser displacement gauges (LDGs) and a three dimensional digital

2. Experimental dynamic testing image correlation system to allow accurate calculation of the mo-

ment of inertia of the column section. In addition, an accelerometer

In order to examine the ability of typical connections to resist was installed at the centreline of the load cell. A 2 m long uniform

the loading and deformation likely to occur as a frame resists col- 254 254 167 UC section was used which had a total mass

lapse, a purpose built dynamic connection test facility has been de- (including stiffeners, load cell and roller bearings) of 402 kg. Where

signed and constructed at the University of Shefelds Civil one load ram was used, the inertial moment of resistance (MI) was

Engineering and Dynamics (CEDUS) laboratory (Fig. 2). The com- calculated by assuming it behaved as a homogenous innitely stiff

plete test methodology is available elsewhere [10] but a brief rod rotating about a variable pivot point. This pivot point was cal-

description is presented below. culated from the displacement gauge data.

The setup applies loads of up to 300 kN in loading rise times With reference to Fig. 3 dynamic force equilibrium was used to

from 5 ms to several hundreds of seconds, in either direct tension calculate the connection force (Fc) in terms of the applied force (FA),

or combined moment and tension. The test layout xes the beam inertial force (FI) and rotation (h):

in position and pneumatically driven loading rams force a column

section away thus loading the connection. Where dual rams are F C t F A t cos ht F I t 1

Please cite this article in press as: Stoddart EP et al. Strain rate dependent component based connection modelling for use in non-linear dynamic progres-

sive collapse analysis. Eng Struct (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

E.P. Stoddart et al. / Engineering Structures xxx (2012) xxxxxx 3

From dynamic moment equilibrium about the centreline of the beam deections. As a consequence the connections can be subject

connection the moment connection (Mc): to simultaneous large rotations and high axial forces leading to the

possibility of connection fracture. In addition, the high tempera-

M C t F A tx2 x3 M I t F I tx3 cos ht 2

tures can affect material properties often reducing the associated

At each time step h was calculated from the laser displacement yield and ultimate strength. Static testing of web cleat connections

gauge data: under these load combinations has been the subject of recent work

[14] with the parameters studied including rotational capacity and

z1 t z2 t

ht tan1 3 the tying capacity in the presence of other forces. Yu et al. [15] pre-

L x5 x6

sented the use of the component method to model the connections

The rotational acceleration (a) was calculated by double differ- with good correlation against test results showing that the method

entiation of the laser displacement gauge data and veried against is able to account for non-linear material properties and load

the accelerometer readings which were used to calculate the iner- scenarios.

tial moment of resistance. The advantage of considering the deformable regions of the

connection separately is that failure criteria for each component

M I t htI 4 can be included. This makes it possible, once the model is assem-

The total mass (M) and the recorded displacement at the centre bled, to predict the occurrence and sequence of failure. This makes

of mass of the column (zcl) were used to calculate the inertial force. it particularly suitable to progressive collapse analysis conditions

in which local connection fracture can progress to complete joint

F I t zCL tM 5 fracture and the subsequent detachment of the supported member.

Validation trials conducted without a connection in place dem-

onstrated an error of less than 5% for calculation of the moment of 3.1. Strain rate dependent effects

inertia [10].

In the component models developed herein, dynamic increase

factors (DIF) were used to account for the variable material proper-

3. Component-based methods for connection modelling

ties at different loading rates using the work by Malvar and

Crawford [16]. The DIF for yield strength (U) is given by:

The component method is an approach to connection modelling

h iay

in which all regions of deformation are represented by an assembly e_

U 1104

of spring elements. The non-linear forcedisplacement behav- 6

fy

iour of each component can be obtained by experimental testing ay 0:074 0:040 414

or numerical modelling. Eurocode 3 Part 1:8 Design of Joints

[11] makes use of the component method to predict the The DIF for ultimate strength (X) is found using:

momentrotation behaviour of common semi-rigid steel connec- h iau

X e_

tions by assuming all of the components act together as a single 1104

7

rotational spring. fy

au 0:019 0:009 414

Investigations into progressive collapse recognised the benet

of incorporating the joint component models into whole frame where fy is the yield strength of the steel and e_ is the strain-rate. All

progressive collapse models [12,13]. This allowed for the redistri- steel was S275 and the bolts were Class 8.8, with the static material

bution of forces between joint components and could account for properties as specied in Eurocode 3.

all loading conditions, including axial forces, whilst maintaining

global equilibrium of the system. This approach reduced computa- 3.2. Plate in bearing

tional time compared to full three-dimensional FEA connection

models. The behaviour of the plate in bearing is based upon experimen-

Axial forces are important in re conditions, where the variable tal work which concentrated on characterising the behaviour of a

temperatures can cause axial compression due to restraint of ther- single bolt bearing against a single plate [17]. Parameters include

mal expansion or axial tension due to catenary action from large end distance (e), plate thickness (tp) and bolt diameter (db). The

Please cite this article in press as: Stoddart EP et al. Strain rate dependent component based connection modelling for use in non-linear dynamic progres-

sive collapse analysis. Eng Struct (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

4 E.P. Stoddart et al. / Engineering Structures xxx (2012) xxxxxx

is a function of the plate yield (fyp) and ultimate (fup) stress:

Fb 1:74D

0:009D 8

F b;Rd 1 D0:5

gation (Db) using:

Ki

D Db 9

F b;Rd

The nominal plate strength can be calculated from the plate

thickness (tp) and edge distance (e) using:

F b;Rd Xfup etp 10

The initial stiffness of the plate is calculated based upon the Fig. 4. Effect of bearing rate on DIF for S275 steel.

bearing (Kbr) bending (Kb) and shear (Kv) stiffnesses using Youngs

modulus (Ep) and shear modulus (Gp) of the plate steel.

above [19]. A three dimensional mesh consisting of rst order 8-

1 node brick elements was created with dimensions of

Ki 1

11

K br

K1 K1v 150 120 6 mm. The stiff bolt was modelled using 4-node rigid

b

shell elements. The velocity of the bolt bearing against the plate

The individual stiffnesses are calculated as follows.

was kept constant throughout the analysis with results for a veloc-

0:8 ity of 1.5 m/s presented. A bilinear material model was dened

db

K br 120t p Ufyp 12 using the strain-rate dependent criteria given in Eqs. (6) and (7).

25:4

3 The resulting load-deformation behaviour indicates a good correla-

e tion with the prediction of dynamic enhancement however no

K b 32Ep t p 0:5 13

db material fracture criteria was specied so the FE model demon-

e strates a greater ductility than predicted (see Fig. 5)

K v 6:67Gp tp 0:5 14

db

The static values for yield and ultimate stresses of both the n 3.3. Bolt in single shear

plate and beam web were taken as 275 and 430 MPa respectively

[18], while a value of 205 kN/mm2 was adopted for the Youngs The bolt shear deformation model is developed from previous

modulus of the steel. Eqs. (8)(14) provide the forcedisplacement work by Sarraj [20] where a parametric study of nite element

behaviour of both the n plate and beam web subject to an applied models was used to investigate the shear behaviour of Grade 8.8

bearing force. The effect of strain rate is included by considering an bolts. The bolt shear deformation (Dv) is related to the applied

innitely stiff bolt moving at a constant bearing rate (Vbr). The time shear force (Fv) by:

taken to reach the yield bearing deformation (dbr) is used to predict 6

Fv Fv

the strain rate as follows: Dv 2:5 20

K v ;b F v ;Rd

ey

e_ 15 The bolt shear stiffness (Kv,b) is dependent upon the shear mod-

ty

ulus (G), shear stress area (As) and bolt diameter (db) and calculated

where using:

dbr fy 0:15GAs

ty and ey 16 K v ;b 21

V br E db

V br fyp where fub, As, G and db are the bolt ultimate stress, shear area, shear

e_ 17 modulus and diameter respectively. The value of 0.15 is a correction

Ep dbr

factor to account for the cross-sectional shape and material

This gives the following relationship from Eqs. (6) and (7): properties.

DIF for yield strength of plate in bearing The proposed bolt shearing strength (Fv,Rd) is a function of the

" #0:0740:040414

fyp shear area (As) and bolt yield strength (fyb): from connection design

V br fyp manual [8]

Ubr 18

Ep dbr 1 105

Bolt strength 0:6f yb As 22

DIF for ultimate strength of plate in bearing

For Grade 8.8 bolts:

" #0:0190:009414

fyp

V br fyp fub

Xbr 19 1:25 23

Ep dbr 1 10 4 fyb

The original investigation [15] determined a typical yield bear- F v ;Rd 0:6 1:25 fyb As 0:75Uv fyb As 24

ing deformation (dbr) of 0.102 mm which is used for both the n-

plate and beam web and allows the DIF to be plotted as a function where Uv is a shear rate dependent strength factor.

of the bearing rate (Fig. 4). Previous studies [21] of M20 bolts have shown that the yield

An FEA model of a single plate bearing against an innitely stiff stress and strain is achieved over an initial deformation of approx-

bolt was developed and compared against the analytical procedure imately 1/40 of the bolt diameter. This value is used to approxi-

Please cite this article in press as: Stoddart EP et al. Strain rate dependent component based connection modelling for use in non-linear dynamic progres-

sive collapse analysis. Eng Struct (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

E.P. Stoddart et al. / Engineering Structures xxx (2012) xxxxxx 5

Fig. 5. FEA model of plate in bearing and comparison with numerical prediction.

mate the strain rate by dividing the yield strain by the time taken 3.4. Friction

to reach the yield strain for a set shear rate (Vb).

Sarraj [23] presented a triangular friction model to represent

eyb the friction between the beam web and shear tab. The peak friction

e_ 25

ty force includes a slip factor (l) to account for the friction surfaces.

F s;Rd 0:28lfub As 29

db

ty The displacements at peak shear force and zero resistance are

40V b

calculated using the combined plate thickness (tT):

where 26

fyb Dsu 0:18db

eyb 30

Eb tT < 20 then Dsf 16

40V b fyb 31

e_ 27 38 < t T then Dsf 4

db Eb

The shear rate is therefore directly proportional to the strain Dynamic friction is not accounted for in the model but could be

rate which is used to calculate the dynamic increase factor from included in future work.

Eq. (6).

3.5. Beam and column contact

" #0:0740:040414

fyb

4 105 V b fyb Beam column contact is often included through the use of an

Uv 28

db Eb additional spring whose stiffness is zero until the initial clearance

is taken up at which point it becomes innitely stiff. This method is

The DIF can then be plotted as a function of shear rate as shown a simple approximation which allows prying action to be included

in Fig. 6. but cannot account for any relative slip between the beam lower

In practice, 20 mm diameter bolts are installed in 22 mm diam- ange and column. Whilst this is often inconsequential for connec-

eter clearance holes and therefore, assuming the bolts are installed tion tests it was thought that in the case of progressive collapse

centrally, there is 1 mm of movement in either direction. This is ac- this slip could alter the rotation point and thus the overall behav-

counted for by offsetting the stiffness curve for each bolt. Experi- iour. Therefore a contact denition was made between the rigid

mental data of bolts tested at 20 C [22] indicates that once the elements representing the face of the beam and column ange.

bolt ultimate shear strength is achieved the bolt fractures with lit-

tle ductility.

4. Comparison between experimental and numerical results

component-based method described above. In the experimental

test programme a 10 mm thick n plate connection (Fig. 7) was

loaded using a single load ram with results from both static and

dynamic tests presented. The connection was designed to BCSA

guidelines [8] using M20 Grade 8.8 bolts and S275 steel for all

sections.

Static behaviour of the component model was predicted using a

rotation-controlled analysis where the rotation was increased in

each step and the force solved for each bolt row as used in previous

work [15]. The total moment was then calculated as a resultant of

all the forces in the bolt rows.

Dynamic behaviour was obtained using the explicit solver in

ABAQUS with the input le for the pre-processing stage created

using ABAQUS/CAE. The column was modelled using rigid ele-

ments (R2D2) as was the face of the beam section. Each bolt row,

Fig. 6. Effect of shear rate on DIF for M20 Grade 8.8 bolt. consisting of n plate, beam web and bolt in single shear, was

Please cite this article in press as: Stoddart EP et al. Strain rate dependent component based connection modelling for use in non-linear dynamic progres-

sive collapse analysis. Eng Struct (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

6 E.P. Stoddart et al. / Engineering Structures xxx (2012) xxxxxx

Core 2 Duo processor with 2 GB RAM and the total run time was

approximately 6 min. The physical behaviour of the component

model showed good correlation against the experimental test data

(Fig. 10ad). The rotational acceleration and displacement of the

centre of mass are of particular importance in modelling this prob-

lem as these are used to calculate the dynamic inertial forces

which in turn are used to determine the actual moment and force

at the connection.

The dynamic behaviour is compared against the experimental

test data where connection failure was achieved in approximately

35 ms. From observation of the momentrotation curves, the initial

stiffness and yield moment is predicted well; however the model

appears to predict a stiffer response in the strain hardening or plas-

tic phase. This may be attributable to over estimation of the material

strength at this loading rate or the fact that the connection model

Fig. 7. Fin-plate connection detailing. does not account for web buckling or crushing of the lower ange,

which would allow further rotation at the respective moment.

When the column is loaded it is forced to rotate and the rate of

assembled into a global connection model using axial connector rotation causes the bolt row components to extend at different

sections. The forcedisplacement behaviour of each spring was de- velocities. As a result the individual forces are different for

ned for a range of deformation rates (Fig. 8) to allow the solver to dynamic and static loading leading to an increased moment at low-

calculate the behaviour throughout the analysis. The load recorded er rotations. The resistance gradually increases with rotation until

in the experimental test was tabulated and used as input for the FE the lower beam ange contact occurs at which point an increase in

model. stiffness is observed. The ultimate connection load is dictated by

In all experimental tests, the dominant failure mode was by bolt the failure of the upper bolt row which in all cases was predicted

shear as shown in Fig. 9a. Very little deformation was recorded in to be bolt shear; in agreement with the experimental data. This ini-

the n plate whilst the beam web showed signicant bolt hole elon- tial failure allowed further rotation and led to consecutive failures

gation (Fig. 9b) with a maximum of 4.72 mm recorded for bolt row 1. of the other bolt rows.

Please cite this article in press as: Stoddart EP et al. Strain rate dependent component based connection modelling for use in non-linear dynamic progres-

sive collapse analysis. Eng Struct (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

E.P. Stoddart et al. / Engineering Structures xxx (2012) xxxxxx 7

Fig. 9. (a) Shear failure of all bolts. (b) Final bearing deformation of beam web.

The component-based model was able to predict static and dy- column loss were conducted using the same connections as the

namic connection behaviour, where the connection was taken to experimental investigation from the previous section. All struc-

failure in 35 ms, with reasonable accuracy, Fig. 11. Dynamically tural beams and columns were modelled with beam elements

loading the connection caused an increase in yield moment and using a bilinear material model whilst the component joint model

plastic stiffness combined with reduced failure rotation. The meth- developed previously was used for the connection. In addition a

od in general allows the inclusion of second-order geometric ef- shear element was included at each bolt row to maintain global

fects, caused by changing geometry, such as prying action at equilibrium.

large rotations. Alternative congurations, such as additional bolt The investigation compared the use of a component-based

rows, would require further validation before they could be imple- method against modelling the connections using rotational springs

mented with a similar level of condence. (yield elements) for a double span scenario following removal of

the central support (Fig. 12). The beams were 7 m long

356 171 45 UB sections made of S275 steel. The behaviour of

5. Frame modelling the rotational spring was dened using the static momentrotation

curve developed previously. In addition, an axial spring was in-

Following the validation of the component method for dynamic cluded to avoid overestimation of the lateral restraint, whose

conditions, a series of analyses for a steel frame structure subject to behaviour was obtained by assuming the connection was subject

Please cite this article in press as: Stoddart EP et al. Strain rate dependent component based connection modelling for use in non-linear dynamic progres-

sive collapse analysis. Eng Struct (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

8 E.P. Stoddart et al. / Engineering Structures xxx (2012) xxxxxx

Fig. 12. Simple column loss scenario using (a) component method (b) rotational spring method.

to direct tension. The behaviour of both the rotational and axial ing displacementtime history for each method was analysed

springs are shown in Fig. 12b. using ABAQUS/Explicit. Where the frame demonstrated sufcient

The component method model was able to explicitly account robustness, the point load was increased and the problem reanal-

for the dynamic effects and failure was based upon individual com- ysed until an ultimate failure load was achieved.

ponent behaviour whilst for the rotational spring method a rota- Results indicated that the component method model predicted

tional capacity and axial capacity were dened prior to analysis. a reduced ultimate failure load of approximately 80% compared to

A constant point load, W, was applied at the central column and using rotational springs (Fig. 13a). In addition, the sum of all bolt

the central column restraint instantaneously removed. The result- row forces was used to calculate the total horizontal reaction;

Please cite this article in press as: Stoddart EP et al. Strain rate dependent component based connection modelling for use in non-linear dynamic progres-

sive collapse analysis. Eng Struct (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

E.P. Stoddart et al. / Engineering Structures xxx (2012) xxxxxx 9

which indicated that failure occurred at less than the predicted di- iour and the method is computationally effective with reduced

rect tension axial capacity. running time when compared with modelling joints using full

The rotational spring acts in isolation from the axial spring and three dimensional FEA meshes.

therefore sufcient rotation capacity was always available at the

connections meaning that axial load was the dominating failure Acknowledgements

mechanism rather than excessive rotation capacity. In comparison

the component method model predicted ultimate failure at a lower The authors would like to thank the Engineering and Sciences

rotation due to inclusion of horizontal beam forces. These horizon- Research Council for funding this research.

tal forces in combination with the applied moment caused signi-

cantly higher loads to develop within the individual bolt rows at References

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[18] BS EN 1993-1-1. Eurocode 3 design of steel structures Part 1.1: General rules

The reduction in load capacity is because the conventional and rules for buildings. BS EN1993-1-1:2005. European Committee For

method does not account for the reduction in moment capacity Standardization (CEN); 2005.

due to the presence of high horizontal tensile forces formed during [19] Stoddart, E., Development of component-based methods for blast and

progressive collapse conditions. PhD thesis. Department of Civil Engineering,

catenary action. Whilst only one comparison was presented, this University of Southampton, UK; in preparation.

trend for the conventional method to overestimate collapse load- [20] Sarraj M. The behaviour of steel n plate connections in re. PhD thesis.

ing would be likely to occur for other frame types in which semi- Department of Civil and Sructural Engineering, University of Shefeld, UK.

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rigid beam column joints are utilised.

Co. Ltd.; 1989.

This work shows that component-based models are able to pre- [22] Yu H et al. Experimental investigation of the behaviour of n plate connections

dict connection performance under the high strain-rate conditions in re. J Construct Steel Res 2009;65(3):72336.

encountered during progressive collapse. The work also shows that [23] Sarraj M et al. Finite element modelling of steel n plate connections in re.

Fire Safety J 2007;42(67):40815.

the models can be readily incorporated into whole frame models to

provide a more realistic prediction of progressive collapse behav-

Please cite this article in press as: Stoddart EP et al. Strain rate dependent component based connection modelling for use in non-linear dynamic progres-

sive collapse analysis. Eng Struct (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.042

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