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NAT IONAL QUALIFICAT IONS CURRICULUM SUPPORT

Civil Engineering
Structural Analysis and Design

[ADVANCED HIGHER]

James Dunbar

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Acknowledgements
Learning and Teaching Scotland gratefully acknowledge this contribution to the National
Qualifications support programme for Civil Engineering. In particular, the assistance of Bill
McKenzie, Mike Scully and Charlie Smith in the preparation of this material is
acknowledged with thanks.

Electronic version 2002

Learning and Teaching Scotland 2002

This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes by


educational establishments in Scotland provided that no profit accrues at any stage.
CONTENTS

Overview 1

Tutor Guide 3

Student Guide 7

Study Guide 1: Analysis of statically determinate pin-jointed


frames 11

Study Guide 2: Determination of beam deflections by standard formulae


and by Macaulays method 21

Study Guide 3: Design of reinforced concrete elements 41

Study Guide 4: Design of structural steelwork elements 75

Study Guide 5: Design of masonry and timber elements 99

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iv ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
OVERVIEW

These support materials are provided to assist teachers/lecturers in delivery of


the Advanced Higher Civil Engineering course unit Structural Analysis and
Design. They will also help to prepare students for assessment.

The Tutor Guide offers brief advice on the entry requirements for the unit, on
the design documents to be issued to candidates with each of the Study
Guides and the design procedures to be adopted.

The Student Guide provides a brief introduction to the unit, explains the
content of each Study Guide and offers advice on preparation for assessment.

Student support materials are provided in the form of five Study Guides, each
covering one or two outcomes of the unit.

The National Assessment Bank support material for this unit contains five
assessment instruments that take the form of end of topic tests. These may
be used to provide feedback on candidates progress as well as being used for
summative unit assessment.

The Study Guides in this pack provide the support notes required for the
outcomes covered by each instrument of assessment. End of Study Guide
tests are also provided, and these are of a similar standard to the instruments
of assessment of the National Assessment Bank.

The Study Guides are as follows:

Study Guide 1: Analysis of statically determinate pin-jointed frames

This covers all the performance criteria of Outcome 1.

Outcome 1: Analyse, by mathematical means, statically determinate


pin-jointed frames.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 1
O V ER V I E W

Study Guide 2: Determination of beam deflections by standard formulae


and Macaulays method

This covers all the performance criteria of Outcome 2.

Outcome 2: Determine the deflections of statically determinate beams


using standard formulae and Macaulays method.

It is recommended that Study Guide 1 be used before Study Guide 2, as the


meaning of the term statically determinate is considered in Study Guide 1.

It is also recommended that Study Guide 2 be used before Study Guides 3, 4


and 5, since knowledge of deflection calculation is required for reinforced
concrete, steelwork and timber design.

Study Guide 3: Design of reinforced concrete elements

This covers all the performance criteria of Outcomes 3 and 4.

Outcome 3: Design statically determinate singly reinforced beams and


slabs in reinforced concrete.

Outcome 4: Design short, braced, axially loaded columns in reinforced


concrete.

Study Guide 4: Design of structural steelwork elements

This covers all the performance criteria of Outcomes 5 and 6.

Outcome 5: Design statically determinate structural steel beams.

Outcome 6: Design axially loaded single-storey steel stanchions.

Study Guide 5: Design of masonry and timber elements

This covers all the performance criteria of Outcomes 7 and 8.

Outcome 7: Design vertically loaded single-leaf and cavity walls in


structural masonry.

Outcome 8: Design flooring, simply supported floor joists and axially


loaded columns in structural timber.

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TUTOR GUIDE

The Study Guides cover all the performance criteria of each outcome. The
End of Study Guide tests are extensive and of a standard equivalent to that
of the assessment instruments of the National Assessment Bank. However,
centres might need to develop additional formative assessment material.

General note

It is expected that candidates have previously undertaken the component units


of the Civil Engineering Higher course and are fully conversant with:

the conditions of static equilibrium


mathematical integration techniques
the calculation of loads on structural elements
the load paths through structural frames
the concept of design loads, partial load factors and material safety factors
the construction methods for reinforced concrete and masonry elements
the fabrication and erection methods for structural steelwork
the nature of timber as a building material.

These are not covered to any depth in the Study Guides.

If students are not fully conversant with the procedure for determining design
loads, from characteristic (unfactored) loads and partial safety factors,
teachers/lecturers will need to spend some teaching time on this and provide a
number of worked examples.

Study Guide 1: Analysis of statically determinate pin-jointed frames

It is recommended that Study Guide 1 be used at the start of the course as it


provides knowledge of statically determinate structures, which is required as
a general concept for all outcomes. This seems to be a difficult concept for
students to grasp and it is expected that individual centres will develop
additional formative assessments.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) iii
TU T O R G U ID E

Study Guide 2: Determination of beam deflections by standard formulae


and Macaulays method

Prior to issue of the Study Guide, integration techniques should be revised.


Candidates should also be issued with a data sheet listing the standard case
deflection formulae for the following cases:

a simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load over the entire
length
a simply supported beam with a concentrated load at mid-span
a cantilever beam with a uniformly distributed load over the entire length
a cantilever beam with a concentrated load at the end.

In the Study Guide, w is used to refer to a uniformly distributed load and


W to refer to a concentrated load.

Design procedures (Study Guides 35)

The notes for these guides were developed using PP 7312: 1998 Extracts
from British Standards for students of structural design as the design
reference. The use of any other publication may lead to answers that differ to
those given in the examples. Study Guide 2 should be undertaken before the
design Study Guides, as the standard case deflection formulae are widely
used in these design guides.

Study Guide 3: Design of reinforced concrete elements

Each centre should provide candidates with Tables of areas of


reinforcement when issuing the Study Guide. The design methods are based
on BS8110 Part 1: 1997 and the notes concentrate on the design equations
rather than the design charts. At the time of publication of the Study Guide
the design charts in PP 7312 were extracted from BS 8110 Part 3: 1985. As
the charts were developed using a materials factor for steel g m of 1.15 and
not 1.05 as used in the 1997 version of the code, there is now an inherent
error in the charts. Areas of reinforcement derived using the charts must
therefore be multiplied by the factor 1.05/1.15, as illustrated on page 51.

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TU T O R G U ID E

Study Guide 4: Design of structural steelwork elements

Each centre should provide candidates with the following documents when
issuing the Study Guide:

the Structural Steel section tables for UB and UC sections


the safe load tables for UC and UB subject to axial load
the safe load tables for web bearing and buckling of UB sections.

Copies of the most up-to-date tables can be obtained from the Corus Groups
web site www.corusconstruction.com

Any differences in dimensions or properties of UC or UB sections may be as


a result of different versions of the structural steel section tables being used.

The design methods are based on BS 5950 Part 1: 1990. The use of any other
version of the code may lead to variations in answers to the examples.

Candidates are expected to have prior knowledge of fabrication and erection


methods for simply supported beams and columns and of the definition of
length of a member.

Study Guide 5: Design of masonry and timber elements

The design procedures for masonry and timber are based on BS 5628 Part 1:
1992 and BS 5628 Part 2: 1996 respectively. The use of any other versions of
the code may lead to variations in design procedures.

The issue of brick manufacturers data sheets may enhance the candidates
understanding of the design process for masonry.

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STUDENT GUIDE

Introduction

The unit Structural Analysis and Design will appeal to you if you are
interested in problem solving. It will broaden your skills in the application of
scientific and technological principles to the area of structural design.
Gaining this award will enable you to continue development of the
competences required of the Incorporated Engineer. It will provide a strong
base for further study at HND and Degree level. You will achieve a level of
competence required of a person in a design office who has the responsibility
for the design of basic structural elements.

Unit content

The unit stresses the importance of structural engineering in the creative and
safe development of the built environment. It is designed to bring together
the study of structural mechanics, previously studied and now further
developed, with the processes of structural design. It will introduce you to
the British Standard Codes of Practice used in the design of reinforced
concrete, steelwork, masonry and timber structures all problem-solving
activities.

The unit has eight outcomes and will be assessed by five end of topic tests.
The teaching and learning materials have been prepared as five Study Guides,
which provide the support notes for the outcomes covered by each instrument
of assessment. At the end of each Study Guide you will find an End of
Study Guide test that contains questions that are of a standard similar to that
which you can expect in the assessment.

Study Guide 1: Analysis of statically determinate pin-jointed frames

This covers Outcome 1. It will introduce you to the analytical methods used
to determine the forces in pin-jointed frames

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S TU D EN T G U ID E

Study Guide 2: Determination of beam deflections by standard formulae


and Macaulays method

This covers Outcome 2. It will enable you to determine the deflections of


beams under standard and non-standard loading. Deflection formulae have
been developed for standard loading, which may be used to determine the
maximum deflections of beams. If non-standard load conditions are applied,
Macaulays method may be used.

Study Guide 3: Design of reinforced concrete elements

This covers Outcomes 3 and 4. It will introduce you to the design of


reinforced concrete elements: beams; slabs; and columns. You will learn how
to use the design procedures of BS 8110 to determine the area of tension
reinforcement in beams and slabs, the area of shear reinforcement required in
beams, the area of longitudinal and link steel in axially loaded columns and
how to prepare suitable arrangements of reinforcement.

Study Guide 4: Design of structural steelwork elements

This covers Outcomes 5 and 6. You will learn how to design structural
steelwork elements to BS 5950 Part 1. Simply supported fully restrained
steel beams, and axially loaded columns are covered by the Study Guide. In
addition to learning how to use the design code you will learn to use the
structural section tables and safe load tables for UB and UC sections.

Study Guide 5: Design of masonry and timber elements

This covers Outcomes 7 and 8. Two materials will be considered in this


guide: timber and masonry. The design procedures for masonry walls are to
BS 5628 Part 1 and those for timber are to BS 5268 Part 2. In the timber
design section, flooring elements such as boarding, joists, trimmer beams and
axially loaded columns will be studied.

Assessment

The assessment of the unit takes the form of five end of topic tests, all of
which are closed book. You will not be allowed to use the Study Guides.
However, you will have access to standard case deflection formulae, relevant
clauses from the design standards and published tables such as Structural
Section tables or areas of reinforcement tables, as applicable. Use the
opportunity during classroom time to develop your skills in the use of British
Standards. All the information is there if you know where to look for it!

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S TU D EN T G U ID E

Part of the classroom time will be allocated to assessment. However, you


will have to spend additional time in preparing yourself for assessment.
Learn how to use the design codes: what clauses (or page numbers) do you
have to look up for (say) bending moments applied to beams; what tables are
applicable; do the values from the tables have to be modified in some way?

The assessment will be carried out under the supervision of an invigilator


(normally your teacher/lecturer), under strict time constraints. These will be
outlined to you prior to undertaking the assessment. You must learn to use
the design codes quickly. Use the End of Study Guide tests as a guide to
your preparedness for final assessment.

Core skills

The assessment tasks of the unit will also be tailored to allow you to develop
a number of core skills, including problem solving. Completion of the unit
may result in automatic certification of certain core skills components.
Successful completion of the Advanced Higher Course in Civil Engineering
will result in automatic certification of other components. You should be
aware of the evidence you must gather to demonstrate attainment of core
skills and your tutor will guide you in this area.

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

STUDY GUIDE 1

Analysis of statically determinate pin-jointed frames

Introduction

This study guide covers Outcome 1 of the unit.

Outcome 1
Analyse, by mathematical means, statically determinate pin-jointed
frames.

On completion of the Study Guide you should be able to:

distinguish between statically determinate and statically indeterminate


frames

calculate the magnitude and nature of forces in pin-joined frames using the
method of joint resolution

calculate the magnitude and nature of forces in pin-joined frames using the
method of sections.

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

What does the term statically determinate pin-jointed frames mean?

What will be considered will be the analysis of trusses where the external
loads are applied at the node points only (intersection of the individual
elements of the frame), such that no bending effects can be developed in the
members. As only axial compressive and tensile forces are developed in the
frame members the frame is referred to as pin-jointed at a pin only direct
forces can be carried and no bending effects can be developed.

Statically determinate the frame can be solved using the three conditions
of equilibrium only.

The conditions are:


Algebraic sum of moments of forces must equal zero M = 0
Algebraic sum of vertical of forces must equal zero V = 0
Algebraic sum of horizontal of forces must equal zero H = 0

When considering the frame and its reactions there are three conditions of
equilibrium to solve the reactions, thus there can be no more than three
unknowns.

In the frame shown:

The support at the left-hand side is a hinge (or pin) which can have both
horizontal and vertical components of force and the support at the right-hand
side is a roller which can have only a vertical component of force. There are
three unknowns and there are three conditions of equilibrium with which to
solve them the frame reactions are statically determinate.

If the frame is provided with two hinges as supports, as shown below,

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

there are four unknowns and only three conditions of equilibrium with which
to solve them the frame reactions are statically indeterminate and cannot
be solved by using the conditions of equilibrium only.

In a similar manner the elements of the frame must conform to the equation
shown below if the frame is statically determinate:

n =(2j 3)

Where n = number of members


j = number of nodes

For the above frame:

n=9
j=6
2j 3 = 2 6 3 = 9
frame is statically determinate

Consider this frame:

n = 11
j=6
n > (2j 3) = 2 6 3 = 9
frame is statically indeterminate
to the second degree, since 11 9 = 2

At the start of each example ensure the frame (and its reactions) are statically
determinate.

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

Method of joint resolution

The method for analysis of the forces in frames by joint resolution is best
explained by a worked example and the application of a few simple rules.

Determine the forces in each member for the frame shown below.

Step 1: letter each of the nodes (step illustrated on frame)

Step 2: consider the frame as a whole and determine the magnitude and
direction of the forces at the reactions

(a) Take moments about the hinge and determine roller reaction

Take moments about A, M = 0, clockwise moments positive


(12 3) + (48 3) V C 6 = 0
V C = (36 + 144)/6 = 30 kN

(b) Apply V = 0 and H = 0 to find the magnitude and direction of the


hinge reactions

V = 0 V A + VC 48 = 0 upwards positive
V A = 48 30 = 18 kN
H = 0 12 H A = 0 forces to right positive
H A = 12 kN

Step 3: select a node with only two unknowns

Note: As no bending effects are present in the frame elements, the condition
of equilibrium M = 0 cannot be applied. As there are only two equilibrium
equations remaining in order to solve them there can be no more than two
unknown forces at any node.

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

Redrawing frame

Only nodes A and C are suitable. B has five unknown forces. D, E and F all
have three unknown forces.

Using only V = 0 and H = 0, firstly node A then node C

Node A
V = 0
As the reaction is 18 kN upwards, a balancing force of 18 kN downwards is
required.
This can only occur in a vertical element, thus force AF is 18 kN
H = 0
As the reaction is 12 kN to the left, a balancing force of 18 kN to the right is
required.
This can only occur in a horizontal element, thus force AB is 12 kN

Node C
V = 0
As the reaction is 30 kN upwards, a balancing force of 30 kN downwards is
required.
This can only occur in a vertical element, thus force CD is 18 kN
H = 0
As there is only one horizontal element at node C and no external horizontal
forces, the force in the single element must be 0. Force CB = 0.

Step 4: superimpose the known forces on the frame

Remember the algebraic sum of forces in an element must balance. For


example if the force at one end (node) of an element is 18 kN downwards, for
equilibrium at the other end (node) it must be 18 kN upwards.

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

Redrawing the frame

Step 5: repeat steps 3 and 4 with the remaining nodes of the frame

There are now only two unknowns at nodes F and D; node E still has three
unknowns.

Considering node F then node D

The inclined forces FB and DB can be split onto horizontal and vertical
components of force, either by knowing the ratio of the sides or by knowing
the values of the angles.

Node F
V = 0
As the force from member AF is 18 kN upwards, a balancing force of 18 kN
downwards is required.
This can only occur in the vertical component of element FB, thus the vertical
component of FB is 18 kN. However, FB is an inclined member so the actual
direction of the force along the length of the member must be down and to the
right. The magnitude is

18/cos 45 = 25.45 kN or 182 = 25.45 kN

H = 0
At this node there are three horizontal forces FE, the horizontal
component of FB and the external 12 kN force.
If the force in FB is acting down and to the right, the horizontal

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

component is acting to the right. FBh = 25.45 sin45 or 25.45/2 = 18 kN


FE + FBh + 12 = 0 forces to right positive
FE +18 +12 = 0
FE = 30 kN 30 kN acting to the left

Node D
As member DB is inclined, it can split into its horizontal and vertical
components
DBv = DB sin 45 or DB/2
DBh = DB cos 45 or DB/2
Considering the node, there is a vertical force of 30 kN acting upwards in
element DC.
This must be balanced by a downwards force of 30 KN. This can only occur
in DBv.

DBv = 30 kN The force in DB must therefore be acting down


and to the left.
DBv = DB sin 45 or DB/2 DB = 42.4 kN

H = 0
DE is unknown, but must balance DBh as there are no other horizontal
elements at this node. DBh is acting to the left DE must act to the right.

DE = DBh = 42.4 cos 45 or 42.4/2 = 30 kN

Repeat Step 4: superimpose the known forces on the frame

Now consider node E

The vertical force EA is the only unknown


This must balance the external 48 kN force
EA = 48 kN

Finished frame

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

Method of sections

The method for analysis of the forces in frames by sections is used when only
the forces in specific elements are required. The three conditions of
equilibrium are available for use, so the section should cut across no more
than three elements in which the forces are unknown.

Consider the frame used in the joint resolution example.


The first step (as before) is to calculate the reactions, giving the result:

The section considered to cut the frame shows that the forces in ED, BD and
BC are to be found.
The external equilibrium of the part of the frame to the left-hand side of the
section is considered. For each condition of equilibrium equation used there
can be only one unknown. Splitting BD into its horizontal and vertical
components, BD h and BD v respectively:

H = 0 becomes Taking forces acting to the right as positive


12 12 + BD h + ED + BC = 0
three unknowns
V = 0 becomes Taking upwards forces as positive
18 48 + BD v = 0
only one unknown

M = 0 is dependent on where moments are taken.


As a general rule if the section cuts across three
elements, two of them will intersect at a node. Take
moments about this node leaving one unknown. Node
D in this example:

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

Take moments about D


Clockwise moments positive
(18 6) + (12 3) (48 3) +(BC 3) = 0
108 + 48 144 +3.BC = 0
0 + 3BC = 0 BC = 0

V = 0 becomes Taking upwards forces as positive


18 48 + BDv = 0
30 + BDv = 0
BDv = 30 kN towards node D

Force in BD acts along the line of the element, the direction is up and to the
right.
Magnitude of force BD = 30 /cos 45 or 302 = 42.4 kN

H = 0 Taking forces acting to the right as positive


12 12 + BDh + ED + BC = 0
12 12 + 42.4sin 45 +ED = 0
30 + ED = 0
ED = 30 kN From D the force acts to the left.

Superimpose the results on the frame.


Remember the algebraic sum of forces in an element must equal zero.
!

Answers agree with those found by method of joint resolution.

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S TU DY GU ID E 1

Study Guide 1 End Test

The figure below shows in outline a pin-jointed frame and the loads applied
to it.

(a) Show that the frame is statically determinate.

(b) Calculate the support reactions.

(c) Using the method of joint resolution, determine the magnitude and
nature of the force in each element of the frame. Show the results in an
outline sketch of the frame.

(d) Using the method of sections, check the validity of the results found
using the method of joint resolution, by determining the forces in
elements GF, CF and CD.

Answers:
Roller reaction: 82.5 kN
Hinge reactions:
horizontal 12 kN
vertical 73.5 kN all in directions shown in diagram

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S TU DY GU ID E 2

STUDY GUIDE 2

Determination of beam deflections by standard formulae


and by Macaulays method

Introduction

This study guide covers Outcome 2 of the unit.

Outcome 2
Determine the deflections of statically determinate beams using
standard formulae and Macaulays method.

On completion of the Study Guide you should be able to:

calculate the maximum deflections of statically determinate beams using


standard formulae

calculate critical deflections in beams subject to non-standard loading


using Macaulays method.

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S TU DY GU ID E 2

Macaulays method

This is a method of analysis that allows the slope and deflection of a beam to
be determined.
M E
From the equation of simple bending =
I R

where: M = bending moment at a section


E = modulus of elasticity
I = second moment of area of the section
R = radius of curvature

When both E and I are constant for a given section, M and R are the only
variables.
EI
The expression for M is then M =
R

If the deflection of the member is y, and as deflection is a function of the


radius of curvature R, then:

d2 y I
2
(R is the second derivative of deflection)
dx R

then:
d2 y
M = EI
dx 2

where x = distance along the length of the beam to position of bending


moment M.

To obtain deflection:

d2 y M
2
= Bending moment expression
dx EI

dy M
= +A Slope expression
dx EI

M
y= EI + Ax + B Deflection expression

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S TU DY GU ID E 2

Where A and B are constants of integration. They are determined by


considering the boundary conditions relating to the beam (i.e. the known
values of slope and deflection).

It is therefore possible to find the slope and deflection at any point along a
beam by providing a general expression for bending moment at any section in
terms of x and integrating the equation twice.

The procedure for determining the bending moment expression is as follows:

1. Assume one end of the beam to be the origin (generally the left-hand
side).
If the beam is statically determinate find the value of the reactions.

2. Consider a section xx as far from the origin as possible (beyond the


last applied load) and take moments about xx considering all loads to
the left-hand side of the section. All the bending moment terms will be
functions of x.

3. Integrate the bending expression with respect to x.


Integrate each loading term as a whole dont break it down into its
components.

4. Determine the constants of integration A and B for slope and deflection


using the boundary conditions relating to the beam, for example:

Deflections at supports are assumed zero unless otherwise stated.


Slopes at built-in supports are zero.
Slope at the centre of a symmetrically loaded beam is zero,
deflection is a maximum.
When deflection is a maximum, slope is zero.
Bending moments at free ends are zero.

5. Substitute values of x to determine the slope and deflection at any


section along the beam

Note: When determining quantities, omit any terms inside brackets that are
negative or zero.

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S TU DY GU ID E 2

Example 1: Point loads


A beam is simply supported as shown. For the illustrated loading system,
determine:

(a) the slope and deflection under the 200 kN load


(b) the magnitude and position of the maximum deflection.

E = 205 kN/mm2
I = 900 10 6 mm 4

Find the value of the reactions

Take moments about R a


M = 0, clockwise moments are positive
(200 2 ) + (350 5 ) (R b 7 ) = 0
R b = 307.1 kN

V = 0, upwards forces are positive


R a = 200 + 350 307.1 = 242.9 kN

Apply Macaulays method at a section xx beyond the last applied load

Take moments about xx

Distance to load from Moment = Force x distance


section xx
(m)
Ra x 242.9 x
200 kN x2 200[x2]
350 kN x5 350[x5]

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S TU DY GU ID E 2

The total moment at x may be written as:

d2 y
M x = EI = 242.9[x] 200 [x2] 350 [x5]
dx 2

Integrate with respect to x

d2 y
EI = 242.9[x] 200 [x2] 350 [x5] moment (kNm)
dx 2

dy [x]2 [x2]2 [x5]2 slope equation


EI = 242.9 200 350 +A
dx 2 2 2 (kNm x m = kNm2 )

[x]3 [x2]3 [x5]3 deflection equation


EI y = 242.9 200 350 + Ax + B
6 6 6 (kNm 2 x m = kNm3 )

Now deflections are zero at the supports thus:

When x = 0, y =0 and x = 7, y = 0

Substituting in the deflection eqn. for x = 0, y = 0

[0]3 [02]3 [05]3


EI 0 = 242.9 200 350 + A0 + B
6 6 6

Note: When determining quantities, omit any term inside a bracket that is
negative or zero.

Thus:

0 = (0) (ignore) (ignore) + (0) + B

Thus constant of integration B = 0

Substituting in the deflection eqn. for x = 7, y = 0

3 3 3
7 75 75
EI 0 = 242.9 200 350 +A [7]
6 6 6

0 = 13886 4667 467 + 7A

A = 1250

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S TU DY GU ID E 2

Thus general equations for slope and deflection at any point along the length
of the beam are

dy [x]2 [x2]2 [x5]2


EI = 242.9 200 350 1250 slope
dx 2 2 2

[x]3 [x2]3 [x5]3


EI y = 242.9 200 350 1250[x] deflection
6 6 6

To find the slope and deflection at the 200 kN load substitute for x=2

dy [2]2 [22]2 [25]2


EI = 242.9 200 350 1250
dx 2 2 2

= 486 (0) (ignore) 1250 kNm 2

dy 764 1 kNm 2 = 10 9 Nmm


=
dx EI 1 kN/mm 2 = 10 3 N/mm 2
Units are now consistent

764 109
= 900 106
205 103
= 0.0041 radians

[2]3 [22]3 [25]3


EI y = 242.9 200 350 1250[2]
6 6 6

= 324 0 0 2500 kNm 3


2176
y =
EI
2176 109 Nmm
= 900 106 = mm
205 10 3
N/mm 2 mm 4

= 11.8 mm (11.8 mm downwards)

To determine the position of the maximum deflection equate slope equation


to zero.

dy [x]2 [x2]2 [x5]2


EI = 242.9 200 350 1250
dx 2 2 2

0 = 121.5[x] 2 100 [x 2 4.x + 4] 175[x 2 10.x + 25] 1250

0 = 153.5x 2 + 2150x 6025 ax 2 + bx +c

26 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
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2150 (21502 4 153.3 6025)


Solving for x, x =
2 153.5
b
2 4ac)/2a
x = (b

x = 10.3 m or 3.88 m.

for x = 3.88 m deflection y = 2706/EI = 16.7 mm

Example 2: Uniformly distributed loads


A simply supported beam is Lm long and is required to carry a uniformly
distributed load of w kN/m. In general terms, determine the maximum
deflection of the beam:

Find value of reactions:

As beam is symmetrically loaded, R a = R b = w L/2 = wL/2

Apply Macaulays method at a section xx beyond the last applied load

In this example consider the section xx immediately to the left of reaction R b

Take moments about xx

Value of load Distance to centre of Moment = Force x distance


load from section xx (m)

Ra wL/2 x wL.x/2
w kN/m w.x x/2 w.x.x/2

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 27
S TU DY GU ID E 2

This may be written as:

wLx wx 2 d2 y
Mx = = EI 2
2 2 dx

Integrate with respect to x

dy wLx 2 wx 3
EI = +A slope equation
dx 4 6
wLx 3 wx 4
EI y = + Ax + B deflection equation
12 24

In order to find the constants of integration A and B apply the boundary


conditions.
For a simply supported beam with symmetrical loading:

Deflection at supports is zero.

Deflection at mid-span is a maximum and slope is zero.

Applying the deflection equation at left-hand support,when x = 0 y = 0

wL[0]3 w[0]4
EI 0 = + A[0] + B hence B = 0
12 24

Applying the deflection equation again at right-hand support, when


x=L y=0

wL L3 wL4
EI 0 = + AL
12 24
wL4 wL3
EI 0 = + AL A= note negative sign
24 24

Thus equations become:

dy wLx 2 wx 3 3wL3
EI = slope equation
dx 4 6 24
3 4 3
wLx wx wL x
EI y = deflection equation
12 24 24

28 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
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To determine maximum deflection, substitute in deflection equation for x =


L/2 as the beam is symmetrically loaded.

wL(L/2)3 w(L/2) 4 wL3 (L/2)


EI y =
12 24 24
wL.L / 8 wL / 16 wL .L
3 4 3
EI y =
12 24 48
4 4 4
wL wL wL
EI y =
96 384 48
4 4
4wL wL 8wL4
EI y =
384 384 384
4
5wL
y=
384EI

Example 3: Cantilever
A cantilever beam is 2m long and is required to carry a uniformly distributed
load of 20 kN/m and a point load of 64 kN at the tip.

(a) Using Macaulays method, determine the maximum deflection of the


beam in terms of EI.

(b) Check the answer obtained in (a) by applying the standard equations for
deflection

Additional information
Standard deflection formulae for cantilevers:
Uniformly distributed load = wL 4 /8EI
Point load at tip = WL 3 /3EI

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 29
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Find value of reactions:


Reaction must balance downwards forces, as V = 0
R a = 20 2 + 64 = 104 kN
Taking moments about R a ,
M = 0, clockwise moments are positive
M a + (20 2 1) + 64 2 = 0
M a = 168 kNm (anticlockwise)

Apply Macaulays method, at a section xx as far along the beam as possible.

Take moments about xx

Value of load Distance to centre of Moment = Force distance


load from section xx (m)
104 x 104x
20.x x/2 20.x.x/2

Considering also the moment at the support, this may be written as:

d2 y 20x 2
M x = EI = 168 + 104x
dx 2 2

Integrate with respect to x

dy 104x 2 20x
EI = 168x + +A slope equation
dx 2 6
168x 104x 3 20x 4
EI y = + + Ax + B deflection equation
2 6 24

In order to find the constants of integration A and B apply the boundary


conditions.
For a cantilever beam, deflection at the support is zero, and slope is zero at a
built-in support.

30 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
S TU DY GU ID E 2

Applying the deflection equation at support, when x = 0 y = 0

168[0]2 104[0]3 20[0]4


EI 0 = + + A[0] + B
2 6 24

Therefore B = 0
dy
Applying the slope equation at the built-in support, when x= 0, =0
dx

104.[0]3 20.[0]4
EI 0 = 168.[0]2 + +A
2 6

Therefore A = 0

Equations become:

dy 104x 2 20x
EI = 168x + slope equation
dx 2 6
3
168x 104x 20x 4
EI y = + deflection equation
2 6 24

Maximum deflection occurs at the tip of the cantilever, x = 2 m

168.22 104.23 20.24


EI y = +
2 6 24

EI y = 336 + 138.67 13.33

EI y = 210.67

210.67
y = Negative sign indicates that deflection is downwards.
EI

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S TU DY GU ID E 2

(b) Compare with standard equations:

Standard deflection formulae for cantilevers:

Uniformly distributed load = wL 4 /8EI


Point load at tip = WL 3 /3EI

20.24 40
For udl = =
8EI EI
3
64.2 170.67
for a point load = =
3EI EI
210.67
total deflection =
EI

Answers are exactly the same.

Note: Standard equations assume deflection is downwards and negative sign


is omitted.

Example 4: Simply supported beam with an overhang


Note on dealing with variation of uniformly distributed load between spans.

Consider a simply supported beam with an overhang. Three conditions of


uniformly distributed load will be examined and the general expression for
moment derived.

1. Constant udl along the length of the beam

Considering a section xx to towards the end of the beam

32 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
S TU DY GU ID E 2

Take moments about xx

M x = R a .x w.x.x/2 R b .[xa] = R a .x w.x 2 /2 R b .[xa]

2. udl on the main span and a larger udl on the overhang

For analysis purposes this is treated as a constant udl over the entire
beam and an additional load of (zw kN/m) on the overhang. As in (1),
moments are taken about the section xx.

Take moments about xx

(same as condition 1) (additional term)


M x = R a .x w.x.x/2 R b .[xa] (zw).[xa].[xa]/2

= R a .x w.x 2 /2 R b .[xa] (zw).[xa] 2 /2

3. udl on the main span and a smaller udl on the overhang

For analysis purposes this is treated as a constant udl over the entire
beam less an additional load of (wz kN/m) on the overhang. Load wz
acts upwards and gives a positive moment about section xx. As in the
other cases moments are taken about the section xx.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 33
S TU DY GU ID E 2

Take moments about xx

(same as condition 1) (additional term)


Mx = R a .x w.x.x/2 R b .[xa] + (zw).[xa].[x-a]/2

= R a .x w.x 2 /2 R b .[xa] + (zw).[xa] 2 /2

Example beam with overhang


For the beam loaded as shown below:

(a) Using Macaulays method, in terms of E and I, derive the equations for
slope and deflection along the length of the beam.

(b) Determine the deflection at the centre of the main span and at the tip of
the cantilever.

Additional information
Beam section 533 210 92 UB I = 55330 cm4
E= 205 kN/mm2

Find value of reactions:

Taking moments about R a ,


M = 0, clockwise moments positive
(30 8 4) R b 8 + (10 2 9) = 0
R b = 142.5 kN

Reactions must balance downwards forces


V =0,
R a + R b = 30 8 +10 2
R a = 260 142.5 = 117.5 kN

34 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
S TU DY GU ID E 2

Take moments about xx, considering a uniform load of 30kN/m over the
entire length of beam and a negative (upward) load of 20kN/m on the
overhang.

Value of load Distance to centre of Moment = Force x distance


load from section xx (m)
117.5 kN x 117.5x
30 kN/m.x x/2 30.x.x/2
142.5 kN x8 142.5(x8)
20 kN/m.(x8) (x8)/2 20.(x8) 2 /2

This may be written as:

dy 2 30x 2 20[x8]2
M x = EI = 117.5x + 142.5[x8] +
dx 2 2 2

Integrate with respect to x

dy 117.5x 2 30x 3 142.5[x8]2 20[x8]3


EI = + + +A slope equation
dx 2 6 2 6
117.5x 3 30x 4 142.5[x8]3 20[x8]4
EI y = + + + Ax + B deflection equation
6 24 6 24

In order to find the constants of integration A and B apply the standard


conditions.
For a simply supported beam deflection is zero at the supports.

When x = 0 , y = 0 apply to deflection equation

117.5.03 30.0 4 142.5[08]3 20[08]4


EI 0 = + + + Ax + B
6 24 6 24

0 = (0) (0) + (ignore term) + (ignore term) + (0) + B

B=0

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 35
S TU DY GU ID E 2

Also when x = 8, y = 0 apply to deflection equation

117.5.83 30.84 142.5[88]3 20[88]4


EI 0 = + + + Ax
6 24 6 24

0 = 10027 5120 + (0) + (0) + A.8

A = (100275120)/8 = 613.4

Standard equations become:

dy 117.5x 2 30x 3 142.5[x8]2 20[x8]3


EI = + + 613.4 slope equation
dx 2 6 2 6
117.5x 3 30x 4 142.5[x8]3 20[x8]4
EI y = + + 613.4x deflection equation
6 24 6 24

Actual deflections

At centre of main span, x = 4m

117.5.43 30.44 142.5[48]3 20[48]4


EI y = + + 613.4.4
6 24 6 24

EI y = 1253.3 320 + (ignore) + (ignore) 2453.6

In terms of EI, y = 1520.3/EI

Actual deflection, y = 1520.3 10 12 /(205 10 3 55330 10 4 )


y = 13.4 mm (downwards deflection)

Deflection at tip of beam, x = 10m

117.5.103 30.104 142.5[108]3 20[108]4


EI y = + + 613.4 10
6 24 6 24

EI y = 19583.3 12500 + 190 + 13.3 6134

In terms of EI, y = 1152.6 /EI

Actual deflection, y = 1152.6 10 12 /(205 10 3 55330 10 4 )

y = 10.2 mm (upwards deflection)

36 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
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Study Guide 2 End Test

Standard load case formulae

1. A series of timber beams form part of a balcony of a building. The


beams are cantilevered over a 2.4m length as shown in Figure 1. The
beams are at 1.2m centres and are required to support a uniformly
distributed load over the entire length and a point load at the tip. Using
the design formulae and the additional data, determine the deflection at
the tip of the beam.

Figure 1

Additional data:

Uniformly distributed load on floor being carried


by beams 2.4 kN/m
Point load at cantilever tip 1 kN
Modulus of elasticity of timber section (E) 8800 N/mm2

Deflection formulae:
Due to udl =wL 4 /8EI
Due to point load at tip =WL 3 /3EI

2. For the 457 191 82 UB beam loaded as shown below, use the
standard case deflection formulae given in the design data to determine
the mid-span deflection.

Figure 2

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 37
S TU DY GU ID E 2

Design data:

Modulus of elasticity (E) 205 kN/mm 2


Second moment of area 37050 cm 4

Deflection formulae:
Due to udl =5wL 4 /384EI
Due to point load at mid-span =WL 3 /48EI

Derivation of formulae

3. Using Macaulays method, prove that the standard formula for a simply
supported beam carrying a point load at mid-span is:

=WL 3 /48EI

Macaulays method

4. For the beam loaded as shown below:

(a) Calculate the value of the reactions R a and R b .


(b) Derive an equation for the bending moment at any section along
the length of the beam in terms of length x from R a .
(c) Derive the equations for slope and deflection.
(d) Determine the actual deflection of the beam when x = 3m.

Figure 4

E = 10800 N/mm2
I = 357 10 6 mm 4

38 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
S TU DY GU ID E 2

Answers:
1. udl = 5.03 mm po int = 2.33 mm to t al = 7.36 mm

2. udl = 5.33 mm po int = 3.56 mm to t al = 8.89 mm

4. Ra =9.8 kN Rb = 7.3 kN

Mx = 9.8x 2x 2 /2 +7.3(x6) 1(x6) 2 /2

Slope equation: 9.8x 2 /2 2x 3 /6 +7.3(x6) 2 /2 (x6) 3 /6 40.8

Deflection equation: 9.8x 3 /6 2x 4 /24 +7.3(x6) 3 /6 (x6) 4 /24 40.8x

Deflection: 22mm

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 39
40 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AND DE SI GN ( AH )
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STUDY GUIDE 3

Design of reinforced concrete elements

Introduction

This study guide covers Outcomes 3 and 4 of the unit.

Outcome 3
Design statically determinate singly reinforced beams and slabs in
reinforced concrete.

Outcome 4
Design short, braced, axially loaded columns in reinforced concrete.

On completion of the study guide you should be able to:

Design singly reinforced beams in reinforced concrete.


This will involve: determining the design loads on beams; calculating the
areas of reinforcement to resist ultimate bending moments; determining
suitable arrangements of link reinforcement to resist the shear forces in
beams; and assessing the suitability of beams in deflection.

Design singly reinforced slabs in reinforced concrete.


This will involve: determining the design loads on slabs; calculating the
areas of reinforcement to resist the ultimate bending moments; determining
suitable arrangements of secondary (transverse) reinforcement; and
assessing the suitability of slabs in deflection.

Design axially loaded reinforced concrete columns.

The design process is from the British Standard:

BS 81101: 1997 Structural use of concrete


Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 41
S TU DY GU ID E 3

In the design process the following material strengths will be used


throughout:

Characteristic strength of concrete, f cu 40 N/mm2


Characteristic strength of main reinforcement, f y 460 N/mm2
Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, f yv 250 N/mm2
Unit weight of concrete 24 kN/m 3

In addition to the study guide you will require a copy of Reinforced Concrete
Design-Details of Reinforcing Steel.

Symbols and terms used in reinforced concrete design

For a simply supported beam with tension on the bottom surface due to
bending.

b breadth of the section


h overall depth of the section
d effective depth of section (this is the depth from the compression
surface to the centre of the tension reinforcement)
A s area of main tension reinforcement
A sv area of link (shear) reinforcement

42 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
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Reinforced concrete design BS 81101:1997


Clause reference

Design considerations
Notes for design and detailing concrete elements

Concrete cover to reinforcement 3.3

Cover to the steel reinforcement is necessary to ensure that the bond of the
steel with the concrete is fully developed, so that both the steel and the
concrete are effective in resisting the applied forces. In addition the nominal
cover specified should be such that the concrete protects the steel against
corrosion and fire. To this effect the nominal cover, that is the minimum
cover to all the reinforcement, should at least:

be the size of the main longitudinal reinforcement


be the size of the nominal maximum aggregate
satisfy the durability requirements (i.e. exposure).

When casting concrete against uneven surfaces, such as against earth, the
value should be not less than 75mm; when cast against a blinding layer the
cover should be specified as not less than 40mm.

The cover to protect the steel from corrosion is given in Table 3.3 of
BS 8110: Part 1 and depends on the exposure conditions that may be expected
and the quality of the concrete.

Definitions for exposure conditions are given in Table 3.2 and quality is
defined in terms of the concrete grade i.e. C30, C35, etc.

Table 3.4 gives the nominal cover required to protect the steel from the
effects of fire, with the values being dependent on time periods of fire
protection, e.g. 1 hour, 2 hours, etc.

Spacing of reinforcement

(a) Minimum distance between bars 3.11.12.1

During the concreting operation the aggregate must be allowed to move freely
between the bars to obtain the maximum compaction and bond. For this
reason the bar spacing should be greater than the nominal maximum size of
the aggregate.

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S TU DY GU ID E 3

Minimum distance between bars = h agg + 5 mm

where h agg is the nominal maximum aggregate size

For normal concrete work a 20 mm aggregate


is specified, thus minimum distance between
bars = h agg + 5 mm = 20 + 5 = 25 mm

(b) Maximum distance between bars in tension (beams) 3.12.11.2.3

This clause is used to ensure a limit on the crack widths on the tension face of
the concrete. The clear distance between adjacent bars should be not greater
than the value given in table 3.28 of the code. The value of spacing indicated
is for the condition zero redistribution of steel redistribution will not be
considered in this course and may be considered as being equal to zero.

Extract from table 3.28

fy Spacing
N/mm 2 mm
250 280
460 155

Spacing of bars slabs 3.12.11.2.7

In no case should the clear spacing between bars exceed the lesser of three
times the effective depth or 750 mm

In addition, unless the crack widths are checked by direct calculation, the
following rules will ensure adequate control of cracking for slabs subject to
normal internal and external environments:

(a) no further check is required if either:


(1) grade 250 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 250
mm
(2) grade 460 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 200
mm
(3) the reinforcement percentage (100 A s /bd) is less than 0.3%

where A s area of tension reinforcement


b breadth of section
d effective depth

44 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
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(b) where none of the conditions (1), (2) or (3) apply, the bar spacing
should be limited to the values given in table 3.28 for slabs where the
percentage of reinforcement exceeds 1% or the values given in table
3.28 divided by the reinforcement percentage for lesser amounts.

Example
If a slab is 300 mm deep and from design calculations 0.45% of high yield
reinforcement is required, then the maximum distance between bars can be
determined as follows:

From Table 3.28 max. spacing = 155 mm

However this figure is based on 1% or more of reinforcement being provided

From Cl 3.12.11.2.7 maximum spacing = 155/0.45 = 344 mm

Minimum area of reinforcement 3.12.5

Enough reinforcement should be provided to control the crack widths in the


tension face regardless of any other design considerations. From Table 3.25:

Situation Definition of Minimum percentage


percentage f y = 250N/mm 2 f y = 460N/mm 2
Tension reinforcement
(c) Rectangular sections 100 A s /A c 0.24 0.13
(in solid slabs this minimum
should be provided in both
directions)
For high yield reinforcement minimum permissible area is 0.13% of gross
section,

therefore minimum A s = 0.0013bh

Distribution or secondary steel is required in slabs. This reinforcement runs at


right angles to the main tension reinforcement and is tied to it. The purpose
of the secondary steel is to tie the slab together and to assist in distributing
the loading through the slab. The area of this steel must be at least equal to
the minimum area of steel found from Table 3.25

The distribution steel is always placed inside the main steel thus giving the
tension reinforcement the greatest effective depth.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 45
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Maximum area of reinforcement 3.12.6

Physically in order to compact the concrete properly and ensure adequate


bond develops between the concrete and the steel reinforcing bars a maximum
must be put on the amount of reinforcement allowed in elements

Beams and slabs Neither the area of tension reinforcement nor area of
compression should exceed 4% of the gross cross-
sectional area of the concrete
Columns The longitudinal reinforcement should not exceed the
following amounts, calculated as percentages of the
gross cross-sectional area:
(a) vertically cast columns 6%
(b) horizontally cast columns 8%
(c) laps in columns 10%

Effective span for calculations 3.4.1.2

For a simply supported beam it may be taken as the smaller distance:


(a) centres of bearings, or
(b) clear distance between supports plus the effective depth d

An example is provided in the design notes.

46 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
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Reinforced concrete design BS 8110: Part 1:1997

Procedure

Design of tension reinforcement

Procedure for determining the main area reinforcement in a beam/slab


using equations of BS 8110: Part 1: 1997 Clause 3.4.4.4

1. Determine the value of K

K = M/bd 2 f cu
where M applied bending moment
f cu characteristic strength of concrete, f cu = 40 N/mm 2
b breadth of section
d effective depth of section

Notes:
(1) for a slab always consider a typical 1 m width b =1000 mm

(2) d effective depth


This is the depth from the compression surface to the centre of the tension
reinforcement. The size of the reinforcing bars is not known nor is the
size of the stirrups (beam links) so an initial estimate must be made.

Beams
Typically for a beam the main bar size is of the order of 25 mm
and the links are generally 8, 10 or 12 mm diameter.

Effective depth, d = overall depth (h) cover link diameter main bar
dia/2
Assuming 30 mm cover, a link size of 10 mm and main bars of 20 mm
d = h 30 10 20/2 = h50 mm

Slabs
The bar size in a slab is generally smaller than would be required for a beam,
say 16 mm.
Slabs are designed so that links are not required and the cover is generally for
mild exposure conditions.

Effective depth, d = overall depth (h) cover main bar dia/2


d = h 20 16/2 = h -28 mm
To calculate K, ensure that units are in N and mm, as moment is quoted in
kNm.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 47
S TU DY GU ID E 3

The equation becomes:

K = M 10 6 /bd 2 f cu

2. Check that K K where K = 0.156

Only singly reinforced sections will be considered, therefore you must


always check that K K always.

3. Determine the lever arm distance, z

lever arm distance, z = d (0.5 +(0.25 K/0.9))


but z 0.95 d

4. Calculate the area of reinforcement

In this course always assume f y = 460 N/mm 2

Singly reinforced sections only.

Area of reinforcement, A s = M 10 6 /0.95 f y z mm2

5. Calculate minimum and maximum areas of reinforcement and compare


with calculated area

Minimum area 0.13%bh 3.12.5.3


Maximum area 4%bh 3.12.6

The calculated value must lie between these limits

If area is less then reinforcement at least equal in area to 0.13%bh must


be provided
If area is greater than 4%bh then section size must be increased

Nominal maximum aggregate size will always be assumed to be 20 mm


in this course

Example 1: Typical slab reinforced with high-yield steel

A simply supported slab is required to carry an ultimate moment 125 kNm per
metre width. The slab designated exposure condition is moderate with a
chosen fire resistance period of two hours. If the slab has an overall depth of
200 mm, determine a suitable arrangement of reinforcement.

48 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )
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Solution
Cover
From Table 3.3 of BS 8110, minimum cover to all steel required for f cu = 40
N/mm 2 and exposure condition moderate is 30 mm.
From Table 3.4 of BS 8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for a slab with
a fire period of two hours is 35 mm.
Minimum nominal cover to all steel is 35 mm.
From Figure 3.2 of BS 8110, minimum possible slab thickness complying
with a fire period of two hours is 125 mm. Thus the thickness provided
complies with fire regulations.

Find K
If the bar diameter is assumed to be 20 mm
Effective depth of section d = h cover bar diameter/2
= 2003520 /2
= 155 mm
Resistance-moment factor K = M 10 6 /(bd 2 f cu )
= 125 10 6 /(1000 150 2 40)
= 0.13
K<K (ie 0.156)

Find z
lever arm distance z = d(0.5 + (0.25K/0.9))
= d(0.5+(0.250.13/0.9))
= 0.825 d < 0.95 d
z = 128 mm

Find A s
Area of tension steel required A s = M 10 6 /(0.95 f y z)
= 125 10 6 /(0.95 460 128)
= 2335 mm2 /m

Provide T20@ 125 mm crs (2510 mm2 /m)

Applying detailing rules 3.12.11.2.7

Since 3d < 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars for tension steel
3d= 3 160 = 480 mm,
maximum spacing (centre to centre) of bars = 3d + dia = 500 mm.
Actual spacing used 125 mm, spacing suitable
Proportion of tension steel provided
100A s /(bh) = 100 2510/(1000 200)
= 1.25 % of gross section.

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As this falls within Code limits of 0.13% and 4%, this is satisfactory. Refer to
Table 3.25 and clause 3.12.6.
As the slab thickness of 200 mm does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the
bar spacing is required with high-yield steel. See Cl.3.12.11.2.7(a)(2).

Distribution steel

The distribution or secondary steel runs at right angles to the main tension
reinforcement and is tied to it. The purpose of the secondary steel is to tie
the slab together and to assist in distributing the loading through the slab.
The area of this steel must be at least equal to the minimum area of steel
found from Table 3.25, i.e.

0.13%bh

The distribution steel is always placed inside the main steel thus giving the
tension reinforcement the greater effective depth.

Minimum distribution steel required


Minimum steel area (Table 3.25) A s = 0.13%bh
= 0.0013 1000 200
= 260 mm2 /m width

Using the design charts

The percentage area of steel, 100A s /bd, may be found using the Design
Charts of BS 81103.

This percentage value is dependent on:

1. The concrete grade shown as a curve on each chart.


2. The value of the bending stress, M/bd 2 , on the vertical axis of the chart.

The course will use only Design Chart 2 from BS 81103. This deals with
singly reinforced beams and slabs using high yield (f y = 460 N/mm2 )
reinforcing steel.

From the previous example

M = 125 kNm, b=1000 mm, d=155 mm, hence:


M/bd 2 = 125 10 6 /1000 155 2
= 5.2 N/mm2

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Refer to Design Chart 2

(a) Find this value on the vertical axis

(b) Project horizontally to the line f cu = 40 N/mm 2

(c) Project vertically and read value from the horizontal axis

(d) Read value of 100A s /bd, 1.58

(e) As this chart was intended for a different version of the code, a
multiplication factor based on differing material partial safety factors,
g m , must be introduced.

Factor = 1.05/1.15

(f) Amended value of 100A s /bd = 1.58 1.05/1.15 = 1.44

Hence A s = 1.44bd/100 =1.44 1000 155/100 = 2332 mm 2 /m

By calculation A s = 2335 mm 2 /m

The remainder of the design procedure is carried out as before.

Example 2: Typical singly reinforced beam with high-yield steel

A simply supported beam is required to carry an ultimate moment 335 kNm.


The beam designated exposure condition is severe with a chosen fire
resistance period of two hours. If the beam has an overall depth of 550 mm
and breadth of 300 mm, determine a suitable arrangement of longitudinal
reinforcement.

Solution
Cover
From Table 3.3 of BS 8110, minimum cover to all steel for f cu = 40 N/mm2 an
exposure condition severe is 40 mm.
From Table 3.4 of BS 8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for simply-
supported beam with a fire period of two hours is 40 mm.
Thus minimum permissible cover to all steel is 40 mm.

The breadth of section is 300 mm from Figure 3.2 of BS 8110, minimum


possible beam width complying with a fire period of two hours is
200 mm. Breadth provided complies with fire regulations.

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The effective depth of section, d = overall depth cover link main bar
dia/2
assume a main bar and link size say 25 mm and 12 mm
d = 550 40 12 25/2= 485.5 mm 485 mm(say)

Longitudinal reinforcement
Applied-moment factor K = M 10 6 /(bd 2 f cu )
= 335 10 6 /(300 485 2 40)
= 0.119 < 0.156
Since applied-moment factor K < K beam is suitable for design
lever arm distance z = d(0.5+ (0.25K/0.9))
= d(0.5+0.250.119/0.9)) = d(0.84) 0.95d
= 0.84 485 = 407 mm,

Area of tension steel needed A s = M/0.95 f y z


A s = 335 10 6 /0.95 460 407
= 1883 mm2
Provide as tension steel 4T25 mm bars (A s = 1963 mm2 )

An alternative arrangement may be to provide 2T32 and 1T20


(1608 + 314 = 1922 mm 2 )
Percentage of tension steel provided = 100A s /(bh)
= 100 1963/(300 550)
= 1.18 % of gross section

As this is within Code limits of 0.13% and 4%, this is satisfactory.

Design of shear reinforcement

Procedure for determining shear reinforcement for beams and slabs

A. Shear resistance of solid slabs 3.5.5

1. Calculate shear stress at the point of highest shear force

The design shear stress, v c , at any section should not exceed the shear stress
at calculated at any section using equation 21

V
v= b =1000 mm
bd

The form and area of shear reinforcement are found using the
recommendation Table 3.16

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Extract from Table 3.16

Value of v Form of shear Area of shear


reinforcement to be reinforcement to be
provided provided
v < vc None None
v c < v < (v c + 0.4) Minimum links for the A s v 0.4b v s v /0.95f yv
whole length of the beam
(v c + 0.4) < v < 5 N/mm 2 Designed links A s v (vv c )b v s v /0.95f yv

In no case should v exceed 0.8f cu or 5 N/mm2


As f cu is taken as 40 N/mm 2 then 0.8f cu = 0.840 = 5.06 N/mm 2
thus
v < 5 N/mm2

In slabs the general condition is that no shear reinforcement is provided.


Always ensure that:
v < vc

2. Determine concrete shear stress v c

Using Table 3.8 find 100A s /b v d b v = b = 1000 mm


In previous slab example T20@ 125 mm crs (2510 mm 2 /m) was provided
Percentage area of reinforcement 100As/b v d = 100 2510/(1000 150)
= 1.67 %
d = 150 mm
From Table 3.8 for d =150 and 100A s /b v d = 1.67
Shear resistance = 0.95 N/mm2

However the note at the foot of Table 3.8 must be applied

For characteristic concrete strengths greater than 25 N/mm 2 , the values in this
table may be multiplied by (f cu /25) 1/3 . The value of f cu should not be taken as
greater than 40.

For (f cu /25) 1/3 when f cu = 40 N/mm 2 (40/25) 1/3 = 1.17

Shear resistance v c = 1.17 Table 3.8 value


In this example, v c = 1.17 0.95 = 1.11 N/mm2 .

The requirement is that no shear reinforcement is used in slabs.


Check v < v c .

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B. Shear resistance of beams 3.4.5

1. Calculate shear stress 3.4.5.2

The design shear stress, v c , at any section is determined and compared with
the shear stress calculated at any section using equation 3. The difference
between the values indicates the amount of shear reinforcement required.

V
v= b v = b = breadth of section
bvd

In no case should c exceed 0.8f cu or 5 N/mm2


As f cu is taken as 40 N/mm 2 then 0.8f cu = 0.840 = 5.06 N/mm 2
thus
v < 5 N/mm2

The form and area of shear reinforcement are found using the
recommendation Table 3.7

Extract from Table 3.7:

Value of v Form of shear Area of shear


reinforcement to be reinforcement to be
provided provided
Less than 0.5v c None None
0.5v c < v < (v c + 0.4) Minimum links for the A s v 0.4b v s v /0.95f yv
whole length of the beam
(v c + 0.4) < v < 5 N/mm 2 Designed links A s v (vv c )b v s v /0.95f yv

2. Determine concrete shear stress v c

As for slabs the percentage area of reinforcement 100A s /b v d and the effective
depth of the beam are used to determine v c .

However care should be taken when calculation 100A s /b v d see


Clause 3.4.5.4:

The term As is that area of longitudinal tension reinforcement which


continues for a distance at least equal to d beyond the section being
considered. At supports the full area of tension reinforcement at the section
may be applied in the table provided the requirements for curtailment and
anchorage are met (see 3.12.9).

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For simply supported beams carrying a uniformly distributed load maximum


moment occurs at mid-span hence this is where the maximum amount of
tension reinforcement is needed. At the supports the bending moment is zero,
and in theory no reinforcement needs to be provided. However in practice, in
accordance with clause 3.12.8 and Figure 3.24, at least 50% of the
reinforcement must continue over to the supports.

From beam example, provide as tension steel or


4T25 bars (A s =1963 mm2 )
or
2T32 & 1T20 (1608 + 314 = 1922 mm2 )

At the support this would be 2T25 (i.e. at least 50% of reinforcement) or the
2T32s.

Thus at the support, where shear is highest, A s is based on 2T25 or 2T32s,


not the full area. Conversely at mid-span A s is based on the full area.

For the previous beam example A s (2T25) = 981 mm 2


b = 300 mm
d =480 mm

100A s /b v d = 100 981/(300 480) = 0.68%

From table 3.8 for 100A s /b v d = 0.68 and d 400 mm v c = 0.54 N/mm 2
Design concrete shear stress v c = (f cu /25) 1/3 0.63 = 0.74 N/mm 2

At mid-span 4T25
100A s /b v d=100 1963/(300 480)= 1.36% d = 480 mm

From table 3.8 v c = 0.69 N/mm2


Design concrete shear stress v c = 1.17 0.69 = 0.81 N/mm2

This procedure tends to result in a variation of shear reinforcement along the


length of the beam.

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3. Determining the size and spacing of shear reinforcement

Shear reinforcement in the form of links or stirrups are always provided in


beams. The form and area are determined from Table 3.7

f yv =strength of shear reinforcement in this course only mild steel links are
considered
f yv = 250 N/mm2
A sv = total cross-section of links at neutral axis.

The links are designed to go round the outside of the main reinforcement

Area A sv refers to (in its simplest form) two legs of reinforcement


s v = spacing of links along the member

To begin with A sv and s v are unknowns as they refer to the links. Generally a
size of bar is chosen for the shear reinforcement and the spacing varied along
the length of the beam.

Typically 8, 10, 12 or 16mm diameter bars are used as links. If a bar size is
chosen then this leaves the spacing s v as the only unknown

The equations may be written as:

0.95 f yv A sv
sv = minimum link spacing
0.4 b v
0.95 f yv A sv
sv = close space links
(v v c ) b v

Clause 3.4.5.5 states that, regardless of the above calculation, the spacing of
links should not exceed 0.75d.

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Design for deflection

Procedure for determining deflection limits for beams and slabs

The actual span/depth ratio is compared with the appropriate ratio obtained
from Table 3.9, which is modified by the value, obtained from Table 3.10

1. Calculate the actual span/depth ratio:


Effective span
Effective depth

2. Find the basic l/d ratio from Table 3.9.

Support conditions Rectangular sections


Cantilever 7
Simply supported 20
Continuous 26

Thus for a simply supported beam or slab basic l/d = 20

3. Determine the modification factor for tension reinforcement from Table


3.10

See also Clause 3.4.6.5


The value K was previously calculated using K = M 10 6 /bd 2 f cu
Table 3.10 requires M/bd 2 to be calculated
This may be done directly or by rearranging the above equation so:

M/bd 2 =K f cu

The value of service stress f s is calculated using


f s = 2f y A s req /3 A s pro v Eqn 8

Where the Area of reinforcement provided is approximately the same as


that required, then:
f s = 2/3 f y = 307 N/mm 2

Thus the modification factor may be determined from Table 3.10.

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4. Determine permissible deflection ratio and compare with actual value

Permissible span/depth ratio = Table 3.9 value Table 3.10 value

This is now compared with the actual span/depth ratio

Beam or slab complies with code when actual < permissible.

Full beam design example BS 8110: Part 1:1997

A series of simply supported beams carry an imposed load of 5 kN/m 2 , in


addition to the dead loading calculated from the cross-section shown below
and the application of finishes.
Using the additional data, design a suitable arrangement of reinforcement for
the beam and check the beams suitability in deflection.

Additional design data:

Unit weight of concrete 24 kN/m 3


Finishes to concrete 1 kN/m 2
Beam centres 3m
Exposure conditions mild
Fire period 1 hour
Characteristic strength of concrete f cu = 40 N/mm2
Characteristic strength of main bars f y = 460 N/mm 2
Bar is deformed round (Type 2)
Characteristic strength of links f yv = 250 N/mm2

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Solution
Overall depth of concrete section h = 400 mm
Breadth of concrete section b = 275 mm
Cover: bar diameter
Table 3.3 value = 20 mm
Table 3.4 value = 20 mm
Also Figure 3.2. Minimum beam width = 200 mm in 1-hour fire

If a 25 mm diameter bar is assumed for the design, cover = 25 mm


Link size is not known, assume 10 mm link diameter
Effective depth of concrete section d = h cover link half main bar
= 400 25 10 25/2 = 350 mm (say)

Span
Beam effective span lesser of:
(a) centre to centre of supports 5000 300/2 300/2 = 4700 mm
(b) clear span + d 5000 2 300 + 350 = 4750 mm
Effective span, L =4.7 m

Characteristic dead load, g k


slab weight 24 0.2 3 14.4 kN/m
beam self weight 24 0.275 0.4 2.64 kN/m
finishes 13 3 kN/m
gk 20 kN/m

Characteristic imposed load, q k


35 qk 15 kN/m

Design load = 1.4 g k + 1.6 q k


= 1.4 20 + 1.6 15
= 52 kN/m
Maximum moment M = (1.4 g k + 1.6 q k ) L 2 /8 = 52 4.7 2 /8
= 143. 6 kNm
Maximum shear force V = (1.4 g k + 1.6 q k ) L/2 = 52 4.7/2 = 122.2 kN

Main reinforcement at position of maximum moment


Limiting factor K = 0.156
Compute K = M 10 6 /(bd 2 f cu )
= 143.6 10 6 /(275 350 2 40)
= 0.106
As K <K,.
lever arm z = d(0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9))
= 355(0.5+ (0.25 0.106/0.9))
= 302 mm < 0.95 d (0.95d = 337 mm)

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Area of tension reinforcement A s = M 10 6 /(0.95f y z)


= 143.6 10 6 /(0.95 460 302)
= 1088 mm2
Percentage area of reinforcement 100A s /bd = 100 1088/(275 355)
= 1.11%
As this is within the code limits of 0.3% and 4% this is satisfactory
Selected reinforcement 4T20 (A s = 1256 mm2 )

Detailing

Clear distance between bars b [(no of bars dia) 2(cover + link dia.)]/(No
of bars 1)
= [275 (4 20) 2(20 + 10]/(4 1)
= 45 mm
Permissible clear distance minimum 25 mm (clause 3.12.11)
maximum 155 mm (table 3.28)

Shear reinforcement at (or near) support


Breadth of section for shear bv = b = 275 mm
Design shear stress v = V 10 3 / (b v d)
= 122.2 1000/(275 355)
= 1.25 N/mm2
Area of reinforcing bars in accordance with Clause 3.4.5.4. (i.e. 50%)
At the support the longitudinal bars effective for shear are 2T20
Area of bars for shear A s pro v = 628 mm2
Percentage provided 100A s pro v /(b v d)
= 100 628/(275 355)
= 0.64%
From Table 3.8 for 100A s prov /(b v d) = 0.64% and d = 355 mm
v c = 0.57 N/mm2

Characteristic concrete strength greater than 25 N/mm 2 therefore increase v c


according to footnote in Table 3.8.
Increased shear strength v c = v c (f cu /25) 1/3 = 0.67 N/mm2

Provide links to take shear force in accordance with Table 3.7


(v c + 0.4) = (0.67 + 0.4) = 0.97 N/mm 2
v > (v c + 0.4) [ 1.25 > 0.97 ]
Provide close spaced links near the supports
Assume the use of R10 links A sv = 157 mm2
Spacing of links at ends member s v = A sv 0.95f yv /(b v (vv c ))
= 157 0.95 250/(275(1.25 0.67))
= 233 mm

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Provide R10 links at 225 mm centres near the supports

At (or near mid-span) minimum links only required


Spacing of links s v = A sv 0.95f yv /[(b v (0.4)]
= 157 0.95 250/(275 0.4) = 338 mm
but limited to 0.75 d = 0.75 355 = 266 mm

Provide R10 links at 250 mm centres near the centre of the beam

X = 2.35 0.4/ 1.25 = 0.75 m


Provide minimum links in middle 1.5 m (2 0.75 m) of beam, R10s at 250
mm centres
Provide close spaced links at the ends of the beam, R10 at 225mm centres

Deflection criteria: Full calculation


Actual l/d 4700/355 = 13.2
Basic l/d (Table 3.9) 20
Service stress f s = 2f yA s req /(3A s pro v )
= 2 460 1088/(3 1256)
= 260 N/mm2
M/bd 2 = 143.6 10 6 /(275 355 2 ) = 4.1 N/mm 2
Or alternatively M/bd 2 = K f cu = 0.1 40 = 4 N/mm 2
From Table 3.10 for f s =260 N/mm2 , and M/bd 2 = 4.1
Modification factor for tension steel = 0.92
Permissible simply-supported l/d =20 0.92 = 18.4
As actual < permissible beam is serviceable in deflection (13.2 < 18.4)

Deflection criteria: Abridged version of calculation


Actual l/d 4700/355 = 13.2
Basic l/d ( Table 3.9) 20
Service stress f s 307 N/mm 2
M/bd 2 = K f cu = 0.1 40 = 4 N/mm2

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From Table 3.10


Modification factor for tension steel = 0.84
Permissible simply-supported l/d =20 0.84 = 16.8
As actual < permissible beam is serviceable in deflection
By taking f s = 307 N/mm 2 (f s =2/3 f y) a conservative value is found always
erring on the safe side.

Simply supported beams (or slabs) with an overhang

BS 81101 states in 3.2.1.2.2:


It will normally be sufficient to consider the following arrangements of
vertical load:
(a) All spans loaded with the maximum design ultimate load
(1.4G k + 1.6Q k )
(b) Alternate spans loaded with the maximum design ultimate load (1.4G k +
1.6Q k ) and all other spans loaded with the minimum design ultimate
load (1.0 G k ).

In the design to consider a simply supported beam with an overhang then


three possible loading arrangements must be considered:

1. maximum load on main span and overhang


2. maximum load on main span, minimum load on the overhang
3. minimum load on main span, maximum load on the overhang

The requirements for reinforced concrete design is to determine the shear


force and bending moments in the member and design reinforcement
accordingly. Thus three shear diagrams to be drawn together with their
significant values. These are superimposed on one another and the shear force
envelope created. Similar for the bending moments a bending moment
envelope must be developed.

Two maximum values of bending moment will be found:


A sagging moment along the length of the main span (which means the
main reinforcement will be positioned near the bottom surface)
A hogging bending moment over the overhang support (the reinforcement
will be positioned near the top surface).

Thereafter the design procedure in the notes for either a beam or a slab can be
used.

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Example
For the beam shown below and using the loading given in the design data,
determine the maximum sagging and hogging bending moment.

Design data:
Characteristic dead load inclusive of self-weight 24kN/m
Characteristic imposed load 18kN/m

Solution
Maximum load =1.4G k + 1.6Q k = 1.4 24 + 1.6 18 = 62.4 kN/m
Minimum load = 1.0G k =24 kN/m

Maximum load on all spans

Take moments about A


62.4 10 10/2 = B 8 B = 390 kN
A = 62.4 10 390 = 234 kN

Drawing shear force diagram

Maximum sagging moment = 0.5 234 3.75 = 438.75kNm


Maximum hogging moment = 0.5 124.8 2 = 124.8 kNm

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Maximum load on main span, minimum load on the overhang

Take moments about A


62.4 8 8/2 + 24 2 9= B 8 B = 303.6 kN
A = 62.4 8 + 24 2 303.6 = 243.6 kN

Drawing shear force diagram

Maximum sagging moment = 0.5 243.6 3.9 = 475kNm


Maximum hogging moment = 0.5 48 2 = 48 kNm

Minimum load on main span, maximum load on the overhang

Take moments about A


24 8 8/2 + 62.4 2 9= B 8 B = 236.4 kN
A = 24 8 + 62.4 2 236.4 = 80.4 kN

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Drawing shear force diagram

Maximum sagging moment = 0.5 80.4 3.35 = 134.67kNm


Maximum hogging moment = 0.5 124.8 2 = 124.8 kNm

Design values are: Sagging bending moment 475 kNm


Hogging bending moment 124.8 kNm

Use design procedures to determine main and shear reinforcement values.

Axially loaded column design BS 8110: Part 1:1997

Calculations for reinforcement are in accordance with BS 8110:Part 1: 1997


Clause 3.8.4

The first step in the design of a column is to determine whether the proposed
arrangement of column dimensions and height will make it short or slender.
If the column is slender in addition to the axial load it will also be designed
for moments due to deflection, thus for axial design the column must be
short.

Example of design information

Design ultimate axial load on column N = 2400 kN


Height of column FFL to FFL L= 4.5 m
Depth of the cross section h = 350 mm
Width of column b = 350 mm
Characteristic strength of concrete f cu = 40 N/mm2
Characteristic strength of reinforcement f y = 460 N/mm 2
Flooring arrangement supported by column continuous beam and slab floor
construction with beams 600 mm deep by 350 mm wide in both directions.
All spans equal.
The column is connected at the bottom to a base designed to carry a moment

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Effective height of column Clause 3.8.1.6

The effective height is found using equation 30 le = lo


The value of is found using Table 3.19 for braced columns and Table 3.20
for unbraced columns where is a function of the end restraint conditions of
the column.
The definitions for braced and unbraced columns are given in clause 3.8.1.5.

A column may be considered braced in a given plane if lateral stability to


the structure as a whole is provided by walls or bracing or buttressing design
to resist all lateral forces in that plane. It should otherwise be considered as
unbraced.

The column may also be defined as short or slender as defined in clause


3.8.1.3.

A column may be considered as short when both the ratios l ex /h and l ey /b are
less than 15 (braced) and 10 (unbraced). It should otherwise be considered
as being slender.

For this section of the course the columns will be restricted to short braced
systems.

To use Table 3.19 the end restraint conditions must be known

End condition at bottom


End condition at top 1 2 3
1 0.75 0.80 0.90
2 0.80 0.85 0.95
3 0.90 0.95 1.00

The end conditions are defined in clause 3.8.1.6.2.

Condition 1
The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams on either side
which are at least as deep as the overall dimension of the column in the plane
considered.
The column in the example supports beams 600 mm deep.
If the column is the lowest length of a structure and is connected to a
substantial base then condition 1 may also apply at the base.

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Condition 2
The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams or slabs on either
side which are shallower than the column, e.g. the column in the example is
connected to a floor which is 300 mm deep

Condition 3
The column is connected to shallow members that will provide some nominal
restraint, e.g. a shallow floor

In the example consider the column to be connected at the top to beams 600
mm deep and to a substantial base at the bottom:
For top restraint condition 1
bottom restraint condition 1
From Table 3.19 = 0.75

The clear height l o this is defined as the clear height between end
restraints.

For this example the height of the column is given as 4.5 m, with 600 mm
deep beams framing in at the top. Then the clear height
l o = 4.5 0.6 = 3.9 m

Effective height le = l o =0.75 3.9 = 2.925 m

Note: The column can have two different effective heights, one based on the
xx axis the other on the yy for simplicity in this course l ex = l ey = l e

Slenderness of column 3.8.1.3

In order for the column to be defined as short braced, both the ratios l ex /h and
l ey/b must be less than 15.
As b is defined as the smaller dimension, only one check needs to be applied.
l ey/b < 15

Slenderness of column 2925/350 = 8.35


Slenderness of column within allowable for a short column.

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Axial load considerations 3.8.4

Two equations are used:


Equation 38 where a column cannot be subject to significant moments due
to the nature of the loading.

N = 0.4 f cu A c + 0.7 A sc f y

Equation 39 where a column is carrying an approximately equal


arrangement of beams the spans of which do not vary by more than 15% and
the beams are designed to carry uniformly distributed loads.

N = 0.35 f cu A c + 0.7 A sc f y

In both equations it is generally the area of reinforcement A sc that is required,


thus the equations must be rearranged with A sc as the subject.

Note:
Area of concrete A c = Cross-sectional area less area of reinforcement
= (b h) A sc

Consider the example for which design data is given.

Assuming the short braced column is carrying an approximately equal


arrangement of beams, the spans of which do not vary by more than 15%, and
the beams are designed to carry uniformly distributed loads.
Use Equation 39

Main bars
N = 0.35f cu (b.h A sc ) + 0.7 A sc f y

N 103 0.35 f cu b h
Area of reinforcement A sc =
0.7 f y 0.35 f cu
2400 103 0.35 40 350 350
=
0.7 460 0.35 40
= 2224 mm 2

Note: At least four bars must be provided, i.e. one in each corner.
An even number of bars must be provided.

From the Areas of Reinforcing Steel Chart, select


6T25 (A sc = 2944 mm 2 ) or 4T32 (A sc = 3215 mm 2 )

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Minimum area of reinforcement Table 3.25


General rule 100A sc /A cc = 0.4
Minimum Area A sc = 0.4 bh/100 = 0.4 350 350 / 100
A sc = 490 mm 2
Maximum area of reinforcement Cl.3.12.6.2
Vertical cast columns 6% of gross area
A sc = 6/100 bh = 6/100 350 350
A sc = 7350 mm 2
Area of steel chosen is suitable.

Links Clause 3.12.7.1

When part or all of the main reinforcement is required to resist compression,


links or ties at least one-quarter the size of the largest compression bar or 6
mm, whichever is greater, should be provided at a maximum spacing of 12
times the size of the smallest compression bar.

Assuming that 6T25s are used


Minimum diameter of links Quarter the diameter of largest bar
= 25/4 = 6.25 mm
Make diameter of links R8
Mild steel bars are used as the links are only required for containment
purposes and not required to carry load.
Maximum spacing of links 12 times diameter of smallest main bar
2 25 = 300 mm

Provide R8 links @ 300 mm centres

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Study Guide 3 End Test

For all questions:


Characteristic strength of concrete, f cu 40 N/mm2
Characteristic strength of main reinforcement, f y 460 N/mm2
Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, f yv 250 N/mm2
Unit weight of concrete 24 kN/m 3

Slab design

A simply supported slab spans between two brick walls as shown. For the
given design information determine:

(a) the maximum bending moment and shear force in the slab per metre
width

(b) design a suitable arrangement of main and secondary reinforcement

(c) check the suitability of the slab to resist the shear forces

(d) check the slab for crack control and defection requirements

Design information:
Characteristic imposed load 4.5 kN/m2
Characteristic dead load due to finishes 1.5 kN/m2
Exposure conditions mild
Fire resistance 1 hour

Beam design

A series of beams at 4m centres support pre-cast concrete flooring units. For


analysis purposes the beams may be assumed to have the arrangement of a
simply supported beam with an overhang as shown below:

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For one beam

(a) Determine:
(i) The maximum sagging bending moment
(ii) The maximum hogging bending moment
(iii) The maximum shear force at support A

(b) Design a suitable arrangement of main reinforcement at the critical


sections

(c) Design suitable shear reinforcement at support A

(d) Check the cantilevered portion of the beam for deflection

Design information:
Characteristic imposed load 5 kN/m 2
Characteristic dead load due to finishes 2 kN/m 2
Characteristic dead load of flooring units 3.8 kN/m2
Exposure conditions moderate
Fire resistance 2 hours
Beam cross-section 300 mm 650 mm

Column design

The diagram below illustrates the layout braced multi-storey in-situ


reinforced concrete building.

Using the design data, for the central column X:

(a) Evaluate the design axial load


(b) If the height of the columns between floor levels is 4.8m and the beams
framing into the columns are 600mm deep, show that the column is
short.
(c) Determine a suitable arrangement of main and link reinforcement.

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Design data:
Characteristic imposed load on floor 5 kN/m 2
Characteristic dead load due to finishes 2 kN/m 2
Axial loads on column X for upper floors
Characteristic imposed load 1200kN
Characteristic dead load 820kN
Exposure conditions moderate
Fire resistance 3 hours
Column cross-section 350mm 350 mm

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Answers

Slab Design

Answers where appropriate per metre width of slab:

Design loading 16.86 kN/m M = 46.55 kNm V = 39.6 kN


K = 0.031
A S = 575 mm 2 /m
v =0.2 N/mm2 vc= 0.47 N/mm 2
Actual span/depth ratio = 24.1 permissible span/depth ratio = 24.4

Beam design

Results from analysis of all three load cases:

Reaction Reaction B Maximum Maximum


A(kN) (kN) sagging hogging
moment moment (kNm) moment (kNm)
Load case 1 233.2 505.2 379.8 278.3
Load case 2 255.4 362.2 459 109
Load case 3 70.2 341.3 88.4 278.3

Maximum sagging moment = 459 kNm


Maximum hogging moment = 278.3 kNm
Maximum shear at A = 255.4 kN

(b) Sagging reinforcement Hogging reinforcement


K = 0.108 K = 0.066
z = 0.86 d z = 0.92 d
A s = 2053 mm 2 A s = 1164 mm 2

(c) v =0.58 N/mm2 vc= 0.61 N/mm 2


R12s @ 200 mm centres or equivalent

(d) Actual span/depth ratio = 4.7 Permissible span/depth ratio


= 6.2

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Column design

Dead load from floor = 373.4 kN


Imposed load from floor = 240 kN Design load, N = 3698 kN

A sc = 6438 mm 2
Main reinforcement 8T32 (6430 mm2 )
Links R8s @350 mm centres, or alternatives

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STUDY GUIDE 4

Design of structural steelwork elements

Introduction

This study guide covers Outcomes 5 and 6 of the unit.

Outcome 5
Design statically determinate structural steel beams.

Outcome 6
Design axially loaded, single-storey steel stanchions.

On completion of the study guide you should be able to:

Use structural section tables to find the properties of universal beams and
universal columns.

Design structural steel beams with full lateral restraint.


This will involve determining the suitability of beams for bending
moment, shear force, deflection, and web buckling and bearing at the
supports.

Design axially loaded steel columns.

The design process is from the British Standard: BS 59501:1990 Structural


use of steelwork in building, Part 1: Code of practice for design in simple and
continuous construction.

In the design process Grade 43 steel will be used throughout.

In addition to the study guide you will require a copy of each of the following
documents:

Universal beams dimensions and properties


Universal columns dimensions and properties
Safe load tables bearing/buckling/shear values

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Structural steel struts subject to axial load BS 59501:1990

Compression members clause 4.7

Compression members are classed as either:

(1) Plastic
Compact in each case the section can resist the full load
Semi-compact (squash load)

It is only necessary for strut design that the section be classified as not
slender.

This is not related to the Euler theory definition of slender but relates to the
ability of the cross-section of the member to carry the load without distortion
of the section.

(2) Slender the section fails at a load less than the squash load
due to local buckling of the section

The amount of load that the members can carry is dependent on the
slenderness, , of the gross section, design strength, p y , and the section
classification.

For plastic, compact and semi-compact sections:

The compressive resistance P c = A g p c


[load = area stress ]

The design strength is found using Table 6 of BS 5950. In this course only
Grade 43 steel will be considered:

Design grade Thickness less than or Design strength


equal to (mm) p y (N/mm 2 )
43 16 275
40 265
63 255
80 245
100 235

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Thus for a 457 152 74 UB in Grade 43 steel:


web thickness t = 9.9 mm
flange thickness T= 17.0 mm
Design strength p y = 265 N/mm 2
Note: The design strength depends on the greater material thickness.
For slender sections p y is modified by a stress reduction factor as given in
Table 8 (not applicable to UC sections).

The classification of the section is found using Table 7 of BS5950 and is a


measure of the ease with which the cross-section can distort (or buckle) under
load. This can occur in one of two ways:

(1) The outstand of the flange b/T ratio


(2) The web d/t ratio

Values of b/T and d/t are obtained from the section tables and compared with
the Table 7 limits.

Extract from Table 7

Type of element Type of (1) Plastic (2) (3) Semi-


section Compact compact
Outstand element Rolled section b/T 8.5 b/T 9.5 b/T 15
of a compression
flange
Web, where whole Rolled section d/t 39 d/t 39 d/t 39
section is subject
to compression

this is a factor which depends on the material grade = (275/p y) 1/2

For a 203 203 52 UC section in Grade 43 steel


Flange thickness T = 12.5 mm
Design strength p y = 275 N/mm 2
= (275/p y) 1/2 = (275/275) 1/2 = 1.0

From the section tables, the ratios for local buckling are: b/T = 8.17
d/t = 20.3
b/T = 8.18 < 8.5 Flanges are plastic
d/t = 20.1 < 39 Web is not slender Section is not slender

For axially loaded columns all that is required from the classification of the
section is that it is not slender.

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The slenderness is a measure of the ease with which the strut will buckle
over its length and is found using:

Effective length L
Slenderness = = E
Radius of gyration r

Effective length is defined as the length between points of effective restraint


of a member multiplied by a factor to take account of the end conditions and
loading

L E = KL

where L = actual length


K = effective length ratio

K is determined from the conditions of end restraint.

In this course L E = 1.0L or 0.85 L

The value you should use will be given in each question.

Note: Universal column sections have two major axes xx and yy, thus there
are two values of slenderness:

L Ex L Ey
= and =
rx ry

Both values have to be calculated in order to determine the compressive


strength p c.

To decide which of the Tables 27(a) (d) are to be used in determining p c


reference must first be made to Table 25.

For UC sections, extracting from Table 25 gives:

Type of section Thickness xx axis yy axis


Rolled H-section up to 40 mm 27(b) 27(c)
over 40 mm 27(c) 27(d)

An H-section is one for which the overall depth of the section divided by the
overall breadth (D/B) is less than 1.2. An I-section is one for which D/B >
1.2.

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All UC sections are H-sections, and nearly all of the UB sections are
I-sections.

Thus for a 203 203 52 UC section in Grade 43 steel:


Flange thickness T = 12.5 mm Design strength p y =275 N/mm 2
Look up Table 27(b) for the xx axis
and Table 27(c) for the yy axis

The critical value of compressive strength is the lesser of the two values from
the tables.

The compressive resistance is calculated using:

Pc = Ag pc

A g = gross sectional area (from Section Tables).

Struts

The process for design or checking the adequacy of a column is as follows:

(1) From the Section Tables, the material (flange) thickness is found.

(2) The design strength is taken from Table 6 [either 275 or 265 N/mm 2 ].

(3) The effective length, L E , is found using the appropriate end restraint
conditions. L E = 1.0 L or 0.85 L

(4) The slenderness, , is calculated for both the xx and yy axes.

L Ex L Ey
= and =
rx ry

The radius of gyration, r, is found using the Section Tables.

(5) The strut curve tables for both axes are selected from Table 25.

(6) The compressive strength, p c , is read from the appropriate part of


Tables 27 (a)(d).

The critical value of compressive strength is selected, i.e. the lower of


the two values.

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(7) The compressive resistance P c is calculated. P c = A g p c.

The area of the section A g is found from the Section Tables.

For safe economic design, the compressive resistance P c should just exceed
the design load F c , i.e. P c F c .

Terms used in the code:

F the factored design load


P resistance or capacity (maximum load which can be applied to the
section)
p strength of the section (permissible stress)

subscripts:

c compression
t tension
b bearing

Example
Check the suitability of a 203 203 52 UC section to carry the applied
axial loads given, if the actual length between restraints is 4.2 m. It can be
assumed that the effective length of the column L E = 0.85L for both axes.

The applied axial loads are:


Dead 450 kN
Imposed 350 kN

Solution
Design load, F c = 1.4 Dead + 1.6 Imposed
= 1.4 450 + 1.6 350
= 630 + 560
= 1190 kN.

(1) From Section Tables

flange thickness, T 12.5 mm


ratios for local buckling Flange b/T 8.17
Web d/t 20.3
radius of gyration r x 8.90 cm
radius of gyration r y 5.16 cm
area of section A g 66.3 cm2

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(2) From Table 6 [as T < 16 mm ] p y = 275 N/mm2

Section classification = 1
b/T = 8.17 < 8.5 Plastic
d/t = 20.3 < 39 Not slender
thus section is not slender.

(3) From Table 24 L E = 0.85L


= 0.85 4.2m = 3.57 m for both axes

L Ex L Ey
(4) x = and y =
rx ry

= 3.57 100/8.9 = 3.57 100/5.16


= 40.1 = 69

Slenderness is a ratio. The height of the stanchion was given in metres,


and from the section tables the radius of gyration is in cm. The units
must cancel out.
In this example the calculation is carried out using cm units.

(5) From Table 25

For buckling about xx axis, use strut curve Table 27(b)


For buckling about yy axis, use strut curve Table 27(c)
with p y = 275 N/mm 2

(6) Slenderness xx axis p cx = 250 N/mm 2


Slenderness yy axis p cy = 183 N/mm 2

(7) Pc = Ag pc
= (66.3 100) 183
= 1213000 N = 1213 kN

Note: Be careful with the units. The area is given, in the dimensions and
properties table, in cm2 units, and p cy is in N/mm 2 .

cm2 100 = mm2


mm 2 N/mm 2 = N
divide by 1000 to determine load in kN

1213 kN > 1190 kN


therefore P c > F c and section is suitable.
Compare the value of P c with the value given in the Safe Load Tables.

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Stanchions restrained at an intermediate position

Although they are not as efficient as UC sections, Universal Beam sections


are frequently used to carry axial loads. The y-y axis of a UB section is
considerably weaker than a comparable UC section, and to improve its load-
carrying capacity intermediate side rails may be inserted to restrain the yy
axis. This principle can also be applied to any other form of column section.

For the arrangement shown, the column can buckle about the xx axis over
the length L x , whereas for the yy axis the column can buckle over either L y1
or L y2 or L y3 , whichever has the greatest effective length.

Values of p cx and p c y are then calculated and the critical value used to find the
compressive resistance P c .

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Example Stanchion with intermediate restraints


The diagram below shows the elevation of a column that is to be provided
with intermediate ties providing restraint about the yy axis only. The
column is to carry axial unfactored loads of 580kN dead and 760kN imposed.
The proposed section for the column is 533 210 101 UB. Check the
suitability of the proposed section, using the safe load tables for UB
sections, L E = 1.0L

Design load = 1.4 dead + 1.6 imposed = 1.4 580 + 1.6 760 = 2028kN

Effective length yy axis L EY = 3.6m


Effective length xx axis L EX = 6.8m

From the safe load tables:


L EY
For L EY = 3.5m P CY = 2060 kN
For L EY = 4.0m P CY = 1850 kN
For L EY = 3.6m P CY = 2060 1/5 (20601850) = 2018kN
L EX
For L EX = 6.5m P CX = 2760 kN
For L EX = 7.0m P CX = 2750 kN
For L EX = 6.8m P CX = 2760 3/5 10 = 2754 kN

Compressive resistance of stanchion, P C =2018 kN

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Design of members subject to bending BS 59501:1990

The rules for the design of members in bending are given in sections 4.2 and
4.3 of BS 5950: Part 1. The design of such elements is primarily concerned
with bending strength, but since bending moment is subject to variation along
the length of the member and is accompanied by shear action, the
combination of bending and shear must be taken into account. In addition, the
degree of restraint applied to the beam ends and along its length greatly
influence the bending capacity. If the beam is fully restrained along its
compression flange as defined in clause 4.2.2, there is no need to make any
allowance for lateral torsional buckling.

All beams must have an adequate resistance to bending and shear, and beams
that are not fully restrained laterally must be checked for a reduced bending
capacity due to lateral torsional instability, in accordance with section 4.3.

Fully restrained beams

A practical situation where the beam may be considered as having its


compression flange fully restrained is where it is required to carry a concrete
floor (either in-situ or formed from pre-cast concrete units) on the top flange.
A bond can form at the steel/concrete interface which will resist any sideways
movement of the beam compression flange.

At critical sections the combination of maximum moment and coexistent


shear, and the combination of maximum shear and coexistent moment should
be checked.

The beams considered in this course will all be simply supported but will
carry a variety of loading. In this type of example the maximum shear force
will occur at the reactions, where moment is equal to zero. Conversely the
maximum moment will occur at or near the centre of the beam where shear is
zero or has a low value. For design purposes the maximum shear will be
considered together with the maximum moment and the shear will meet the
criteria for low shear load given in clause 4.2.5.

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Shear capacity Clause 4.2.3

The applied shear force along the span, F v , should nowhere exceed the shear
capacity, P v
i.e. F v < P v

where P v = 0.6p y A v

From Clause 4.2.3(a)


for rolled I, H and channel sections, loaded parallel to web

A v = tD

Where t = thickness of beam web


D = overall depth of beam
These values are found from Section Tables

p y = design strength found from Table 6 and based on the beam


flange thickness.

Moment capacity with low shear load Clause 4.2.5

The moment capacity M c of any section will depend on its section


classification from Table 7.

When F v < 0.6 P v the influence of co-existent shear on the moment capacity
may be ignored and the following capacities applied. All beams on this course
will be subject to the low shear load condition

Classification of the section

Extract from Table 7

Type of element Type of section Class of section


(1) Plastic (2) Compact (3) Semi-
compact
Outstand element Rolled sections b/T 8.5 d/t 79 b/T 15
of compression
flange
Web, with neutral Rolled sections d/t 79e d/t 98 d/t 120
axis at mid-depth

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For plastic or compact sections

M c = p yS x or 1.2 p y Z x whichever is the lesser.

S x = plastic modulus of beam about major axis


Z x = elastic modulus of beam about major axis
These values are found from Section Tables.

The section reaches its full plastic moment of resistance.

For semi-compact sections


Mc = p y Zx

Only the extreme fibres of the section reach the design strength.

For slender sections


M c = p y Z x

The capacity of the section is further reduced by local buckling


p y = p y stress reduction factor of Table 8 (not generally applicable to UB
sections).

Deflection

The beam must be checked for the serviceability limit state of deflection,
such that the actual deflection due to unfactored imposed load only is less
than the deflection limits given in Table 5, i.e.
actual deflection < span/360 or span/200

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Web buckling and bearing

Buckling 4.5.2.1

At points of concentrated load such as the condition shown below, where the
beam is supported, it is possible that the beam web can buckle. The
requirements of clause 4.5.2.1 must be met.

The buckling resistance P w = (b 1 + n 1 ) t p c

Typical values of bearing length are:


for a beam resting on brick supports b 1 =100 mm
for a beam resting on seating cleats b 1 = 21 mm

n 1 = load dispersal length for supports this is equal to half the depth
of the beam
t = beam web thickness
p c = compressive strength of the web found using Table 27(c) of the
code for a slenderness, = 2.5d/t

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Bearing

It is also possible that the junction between the beam flange and web may be
subject to a bearing failure.
The local capacity of the interface between the web and the beam is given by:
P crip = (b 1 + n 2 ) t p y w

where n 2 = the length obtained by dispersion through the flange to the


flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2.5 to the plane of the
flange.

n 2 = 2.5( T + r ) T = thickness of beam flange


r = root radius of beam

p yw = design strength of the web found using Table 6 and web


thickness

Example fully restrained steel beam


A simply supported beam spans over a 6m length and is required to carry the
unfactored loading shown in the diagram below.

DEAD 24kN/m
IMPOSED 30kN/m

Check the suitability of a 610 229 113 universal beam for:

(a) bending
(b) shear
(c) bearing over a 75 mm wide support

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Solution

Section properties
Section size 610 229 113 Universal Beam
Depth of steel section D = 607.6 mm
Width of steel section B = 228.2 mm
Thickness of flange T = 17.3 mm
Thickness of web t = 11.1 mm
Root radius r = 12.7 mm
Inertia about major axis I x = 87320 cm 4
Plastic modulus about major axis S x = 3281 cm 3
Elastic modulus Z = 2874 cm 3
Area of section A = 144 cm2

Strength of steel Clause 3.1.1


For material thickness of 17.3 mm, from Table 6
Design strength (Grade 43) p y = 265 N/mm2
Youngs modulus E = 205 kN/mm2

Factored loading
Distributed load w = 1.4 dead + 1.6 imposed
= 1.4 24 + 1.6 30
= 81.6 kN/m
Point load W = 1.4 124 + 1.6 84
= 308 kN
Reactions wL/2 + W/2
81.6 6/2 + 308/2
= 398.8 kN
This is also the maximum shear
Maximum moment wL 2 /8 + WL/4
81.6 6 2 /8 + 308 6/4 = 829.2 kNm

Section classification
Ratios for local buckling b/T = 6.60 < 8.5e
d/t = 49.3 < 79e
Therefore section is plastic

Shear 4.2.3
Shear area Av = tD = 11.1 607.6 = 6744.4
mm 2
Shear capacity P v = 0.6 p y A v
= 0.6 265 6744.4/10 3
= 1072.4 kN
Design shear force F v = 398.8 kN
Since F v < 0.6 P v low shear load condition applies Clause 4.2.5

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Note: this is the worst arrangement of shear force.


The beam should be checked for two conditions:

(1) maximum shear force and coexistent moment


(2) maximum moment and coexistent shear force

If the low shear load condition applies at the reactions, where the shear force
is the highest, it applies along the length of the beam. Thus the beam needs
only to be checked for maximum moment.

Moment capacity 4.2.5


Moment capacity for plastic section M c = p yS x p y Z
M c = p yS x
= 265 3281/10 3
= 869.5 kNm
or M c = 1.2p y Z
=1.2 265 2874/10 3
= 914 kNm
Critical value is the lesser of the two
Since M < M c (829.2 kNm < 869.5 kNm) applied moment is within moment
capacity.

Deflection
Apply imposed loads only
Uniform load 30 kN/m
Maximum deflection for a uniformly distributed load
= 5wL 4 /384EI
= 5 30 6000 4 /384 205 10 3
87320 10 4
= 2.83 mm
Maximum deflection for a point load at mid-span
Imposed point load W = 84 kN
= WL 3 /48EI
= 84 10 3 6000 3 /48 205 10 3
87320 10 4
= 2.11 mm
Total deflection = 2.83 + 2.11 = 4.94 mm

From Table 5 the limiting defection for a beam carrying brittle finishes
span/360 =6000/360 = 16.7 mm

Since actual deflection < limiting deflection (4.94 mm < 16.7 mm), the beam
is serviceable in deflection.

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Web bearing and buckling

Bearing on the web 4.5.3


Local capacity of web P cr it = (b 1 +n 2 )t.p yw
where:
Stiff bearing length b 1 = 75 mm
Spread to fillet n 2 = 2.5 (r+T)
= 2.5 (12.7+17.3) = 75 mm

For beam web thickness of 11.1 mm


Design strength of web p yw = 275 N/mm2
Local capacity of web P c = (b 1 +n 2 )t.p yw
= (75+75)11.1 275/10 3
= 458 kN
Force applied through flange F v = 398.8 kN

Since value of reaction is less than the capacity of the web, no bearing
stiffener is required.

Buckling of the web 4.5.2


Buckling capacity of web P w = (b 1 + n 1 )t.p c
where:
Stiff bearing length b 1 = 75 mm
Spread to centre of section n 1 = D/2 = 607.6/2 = 303.8 mm
p c is the compressive strength based on p y for the web (t = 11.1 mm from
Table 6: 275 N/mm 2 )
and slenderness ratio = 2.5 d/t
d is the depth between the fillets obtained from the Section Tables.
Alternatively d/t is the ratio for local buckling obtained when checking the
beam classification (d/t = 49.3).
= 2.5 547.6/11.1 =123.3
or = 2.5 49.3 = 123.3

From Table 27(c)


Compressive strength p c = 94 N/mm2
Buckling capacity of web P w = (b 1 + n 1 )t.p c
= (75+ 303.8)11.1 94/10 3
= 395.2 kN

Since the reaction force is greater than the capacity (398.8 kN > 395.2 kN) a
load carrying stiffener will be required to prevent the web from buckling.

This is not a failure condition and will not change the suitability of the beam
to carry the loads. However stiffeners will have to be designed to help
distribute the end reaction from the beam web to the support.

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Example 2 Use of the moment capacity table and bearing and buckling
values for unstiffened webs tables.

A series of beams at 3m centres are required to carry pre-cast concrete


flooring units. The beams are simply supported over a span of 7m.

Using the design data:


(a) Select a suitable UB section.
(b) Check the suitability of the chosen beam in shear and deflection.
(c) Check the suitability of the section, using the appropriate safe load
table, for web bearing and buckling, given that the stiff bearing length
at the supports is 40mm.

Design data:
Dead load due to pre-cast concrete units 2.5 kN/m2
Dead load allowance for finishes and self weight 1.5 kN/m2
Imposed load 6 kN/m 2

Solution
Design load = 1.4 dead + 1.6 imposed
(1.4 [2.5 + 1.5]) + 1.6 6) 3 = 45.6 kN/m

Maximum moment, M = wL 2 /8 = 45.6 7 2 /8 == 279.3 kNm


Maximum shear, F v =wL/2 = 45.6 7/2 = 159.6 kN

(a) From the moment capacity table select a UB section with a moment
capacity of at least 279.3 kNm.
406 178 54 UB ( M c = 289 kNm)

No other checks have to be done dont classify the section; dont


apply clause 4.2.5, the safe load table has already carried out the
necessary checks.

(b) Before shear can be checked using Cl. 4.2.3, the design strength, p y,
must be found.
For material thickness of 10.9 mm, from Table 6
Design strength (Grade 43) p y = 275 N/mm2
Shear area A v = tD = 7.7 402.6 = 3100 mm 2
Shear capacity P v = 0.6 p y A v
= 0.6 275 3100/10 3
= 511.5 kN
Design shear force F v =159.6 kN
The beam is suitable in shear

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Deflection
Apply unfactored imposed loads only
Uniform load 6 3 = 18 kN/m
Maximum deflection for a uniformly distributed load
= 5wL 4 /384EI
= 5 18 7000 4 /384 205 10 3
18720 10 4
= 14.7 mm
From Table 5, the limiting defection for a beam carrying brittle finishes
L/360
7000/360 = 19.4 mm
Since actual deflection < limiting deflection (14.7 mm < 19.4 mm).
Beam is serviceable in deflection

Using the safe load tables bearing and buckling values for unstiffened webs

At the bottom of the table buckling and bearing values for unstiffened webs
the following formula is given:

web capacity = C 1 +b 1 C 2 +t p C 3

The third term only applies if additional plates have been welded to the
flange of the beam, thus for a universal beam only

web capacity = C 1 +b 1 C 2

Bearing
For the 406 178 54 UB end bearing
C 1 = 111
C 2 = 2.09
Stiff bearing length, b 1 = 40 mm

Web bearing capacity = 111 + 40 2.09


= 111 + 83.6 = 194.6 kN > 159.6 kN
Beam web does not require a bearing stiffener

Buckling
For end buckling C 1 = 152
C 2 = 0.753

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Web buckling capacity = 152 + 40 0.753


= 152 + 30.1 = 182.1 kN > 159.6 kN
Beam web does not require a buckling stiffener

The end column of the table also gives the shear capacity of the section found
using
Shear capacity P v = 0.6 py A v From table P v = 505 kN

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Universal beams subject to bending moment capacity for grade 43 steel

Designation Designation
Serial Mass/ Moment Serial Mass/ Moment
Size metre Capacity Size metre Capacity
mm kg kNm mm kg kNm
914 x 419 388 4690 406 x 178 74 412
343 4110 67 371
60 327
914 x 305 289 3340 54 289
253 2890
224 2520 406 x 140 46 244
201 2220 39 198

838 x 292 226 2430 356 x 171 67 333


194 2030 57 278
176 1800 51 246
45 213
762 x 267 197 1900
173 1640 356 x 127 39 180
147 1370 33 148

686 x 254 170 1490 305 x 165 54 232


152 1320 46 199
140 1210 40 172
125 1060
305 x 127 48 194
610 x 305 238 1980 42 168
179 1460 37 148
149 1210
305 x 102 33 132
610 x 229 140 1100 28 112
125 975 25 92
113 872
101 792 254 x 146 43 156
37 133
533 x 210 122 848 31 109
109 747
101 694 254 x 102 28 97
92 652 25 84
82 566 22 72

457 x 191 98 591 203 x 133 30 86


89 533 25 71
82 503
74 456
67 404 203 x 102 23 63

457 x 152 82 477 178 x 102 19 47


74 429 152 x 89 16 34
67 396
60 352
52 300 127 x 76 13 23

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Study Guide 4 End Test

Figure 1 shows the part layout of multi-storey steelwork structure with pre-
cast concrete floor units. The construction is such that all beams may be
assumed to have full lateral restraint to their compression flanges and all
connections can be assumed to be simple.

Using the design information provided, complete the following tasks:

Beams

Type A
(a) Determine the design uniformly distributed load on a typical internal
beam.

(b) Determine the maximum bending moment and shear force on beam type
A.

(c) Using the appropriate clauses of BS 81101, check the suitability of a


406 178 74 UB section for:

(i) bending
(ii) shear
(ii) deflection

Type B
(a) Determine the design concentrated load on a typical internal beam.

(b) Determine the maximum bending moment and shear force on beam type
B.

(c) Using the moment capacity table for Universal Beams select a suitable
UB section.

(d) Check the suitability of the selected beam for shear and deflection.

(e) If the end reactions of beam B bear on to a stiff bearing length of 50mm
at the stanchions, check the beam for web bearing and web buckling.

Stanchion X

(a) Determine the design axial load on the column due to the flooring.

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(b) In addition to the floor loading the stanchion is required to carry a


design axial load of 3160kN from upper floors. Using the appropriate
clauses of BS 81101, check the suitability of a 305 305 158 UC
section if the length between restraints is 4m and the effective length L E
=0.85L.

(c) If the UC were to be replaced by a UB section, from the safe load tables
select a suitable section if side rails were used to restrain the yy axis at
mid-height. L E =1.0L for both axes.

Design information
Characteristic dead load due to floor units 2.8 kN/m2
Characteristic dead load due to self weights
and finishes 2.2 kN/m2
Characteristic imposed load 5 kN/m 2
Deflection formulae:
Uniformly distributed load =5wL 4 /384EI
Concentrated load at third points =23WL 3 /684EI

Figure 1

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Answers

Type A beam

(a) Design load 49.8 kN/m

(b) Maximum moment M = 398.4 kNm


Maximum shear force F v = 199.2 kN

(c ) M c = 412 kNm, P v = 647 kN Deflection = 17.1 < span/360

Type B beam

(a) Concentrated load 398.4 kN

(b) Maximum moment M = 1195 kNm

(c) Section 610 305 149 UB or 686 254 140 UB for both
M c = 1210 kNm

(d) For 610 305 149 UC Pv = 1149 kN


deflection = 14.4 < span/360

(e) Web bearing capacity 456 kN


Web buckling capacity 431 kN

Column

Axial design load 4255 kN


P c = 4526 kN
UB section: 686 254 170 or alternative P cy = 4700 kN, P cx = 5040 kN

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STUDY GUIDE 5

Design of masonry and timber elements

Introduction

This study guide covers Outcomes 7 and 8 of the unit.

Outcome 7
Design vertically loaded single-leaf and cavity walls in structural
masonry.

Outcome 8
Design flooring, simply supported floor joists and axially loaded
columns in structural timber.

On completion of the study guide you should be able to:

Design single-leaf and cavity walls formed from bricks and/or blocks.

Design timber floor boards, floor joists and trimmer beams.


This will involve determining the suitability of beams for bending
moment, shear force, deflection and bearing at the supports.

Design axially loaded timber columns.

The design processes are from the following British Standards:

Brickwork and blockwork


BS 56281:1992 Code of practice for masonry
Part 1: Structural use of unreinforced masonry

Timber
BS 52682:1996 Structural use of timber
Part 2: Code of practice for permissible stress design, materials and
workmanship

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Design of masonry to BS 56281: 1992

Materials

Masonry is the name given to the construction consisting of brickwork (or


blockwork) and mortar. The final strength of the structural elements formed
is dependent on:
The strength of the brick (obtained from the manufacturers data sheets)
The strength of the mortar (dependent on mortar constituents and
proportions)

Bricks may be divided into the categories:

Clay which may be further subdivided into common, facing and


engineering
Calcium silicate
Concrete bricks

Standard brick format is 215 mm long 102.5 mm wide 65 mm high

Blocks may be defined as:


Clay blocks
Dense concrete blocks
Aerated (or lightweight) concrete blocks

Sizes can vary from 100 to 200 mm wide, up to 300 mm high and 440 mm
long.

Mortar varieties are:

Cement: lime: sand


Masonry cement and sand
Cement: sand with plasticiser

Mortars are as specified by their mix proportions as a ratio of cement to lime


to sand, e.g. 1:2:8 (cement: lime: sand). Cement sand mortars have strength
but accommodate movement poorly. Introducing varying amounts of lime
allows the mortar to accommodate settlement, temperature and moisture
changes to which the final structure may be subject, but has the disadvantage
of reducing the final strength of the mortar. Table 1 of BS 5628 designates
four ranges of mortars assigned (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv).

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(i) indicates a mortar with high strength but poor at accommodating


movement.
(iv) indicates a mortar good at accommodating movement but having low
strength.
Table 1 further specifies the conditions of use between the three main mortar
types:
Cement: lime: sand mortars have good bonding properties and hence high
resistance to rain penetration but low resistance to frost attack. Conversely
cement: sand with plasticiser mortars have a high resistance to frost attack
but do not bond well with the bricks or blocks and may be subject to rain
penetration. Masonry mortars attempt to provide a medium between the other
two mortar types by having better bonding properties than cements with
plasticisers and an increased resistance to frost attack over cement: lime: sand
mortars.

Design considerations BS 56281

Loads
In determining the loads on elements of the structure the following
characteristic loads and their combinations are considered in this course.

Dead:
The characteristic dead load (G k ) is the weight of the structure complete with
finishes, fixtures and partitions.

Imposed:
The characteristic imposed load (Q k ) is calculated in accordance with BS
6399: Part 1, based on the activity/occupancy for which the floor area will be
used, or in accordance with BS 6399: Part 3 for roof loads.

Combinations of the above loads form the basis of the design loads used in
the analysis of the structural elements. Clause 22 of the code outlines, for
combinations of load, the design loads taken as the sum of the products of the
component loads multiplied by the appropriate partial safety factor.

For example, the combination of dead and imposed load used for the design
load is taken as the most severe condition of:
Design dead load = 0.9 G k or 1.4 G k
Design imposed load = 1.6 Q k

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Characteristic strength of masonry Clause 23

The characteristic strength f k of any masonry wall or column must take into
consideration the following factors:

1. Mortar type and proportions Table 1.

2. The brick type and strength Table 2 (a) to (d) dependent on the brick
or block unit used and ratio of block dimensions see clause 23.1.

3. The horizontal cross-sectional area.


If the plan area is less than 0.2 m 2 the characteristic compressive
strength f k is multiplied by the factor:
(0.70 + 1.5A) 23.1.1

A = horizontal cross-sectional area (m2 ).

4. The thickness of the wall


For example 23.1.2 states that the thickness of the wall (single leaf) is
equal to the width of a standard brick format. The value of f k obtained
from table 2(a) may be multiplied by 1.15

Example

Question
A brick wall is to be constructed of standard bricks having a compressive
strength of 50 N/mm 2 as specified in the manufacturers literature. The mortar
is required to have high strength and a good resistance to frost during
construction. The wall thickness is not of standard brick thickness. Select a
suitable mortar and hence determine the characteristic strength of the
masonry f k .

Solution
Using Table 1
Good resistance to frost and high strength is required. Therefore use a
cement: sand mortar with plasticiser highest strength designation (ii).

Therefore use mortar designation (ii).

Using Table 2(a) masonry constructed from standard brick format


For mortar designation (ii) and brick compressive strength 50 N/mm 2
f k = 12.2 N/mm2

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It is a narrow brick wall so clause 23.1.2 does apply.

Thus the characteristic strength of the masonry f k =12.2 1.15 =


14 N/mm2 .

Partial safety factor for material strength 27

Clause 27 of BS 5628-1 allows the partial safety factor g m to be applied to


design procedures.
Values of g m can be found using Table 4 and are dependent on:

Category of manufacturing control of structural units.


Category of construction control.

In both cases control may be expressed as normal or special.

In manufacturing control, normal is taken as the standard assumed to be


supplied if not specifically stated otherwise. Special indicates that the
manufacturer has high quality control limits such that the bricks or blocks
provided consistently meet a high standard.

In construction control normal is assumed to be that obtained on site without


any rigorous supervision and testing requirements. Special indicates that
supervision and control on site are to a high level of quality control.

It is therefore possible to specify from the manufacture of the brick or blocks


special control, but on site only have normal construction control. In this case
from Table 4 this would give a value m of 3.1.

Detailed design consideration Section four BS 5628-1

As with the other materials used in the design of structural elements, when
dealing with compressive members (columns and walls in the case of
masonry) slenderness is a key factor.

The slenderness ratio is calculated using:

effective height or length


slenderness ratio =
effective thickness

For normal construction this should not exceed 27.

The effective height or length is found using clause 28.3 which lists for walls,
columns and piers the effective height as a function of the clear distance

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between lateral supports and the resistance to lateral movement. This is


similar to the methods given in the structural steelwork and reinforced
concrete codes (for example L E = 1.0L in steel and l e = l o in concrete
design).

For masonry design the explanation of the terms lateral support and enhanced
resistance are given in clause 28.2.

Lateral supports

The lateral support can be based on the horizontal or vertical dimension,


depending on whether the support is provided on a horizontal or vertical line.
Examples of the type of support given are listed below.

For this course only dead and imposed load on walls will be considered, thus
only the effective height of the structure need be calculated, as walls required
to carry wind loading are considered to span vertically.

Horizontal lateral supports

Simple resistance
For houses not exceeding three storeys, with timber floors and joists spaced
not more than 1.2 m apart, and connected by suitable joist hangers.

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Enhanced resistance

(a) Floors or roofs of any form of construction spanning from both sides at
the same level, i.e. interior load bearing walls

(b) In-situ concrete floors which bear on to at least half the thickness of the
wall or inner leaf of a cavity wall, but not less than 90 mm

(c) In the case of houses of not more than three storeys, a timber floor
spanning onto a wall from one side and has a bearing not less than 90
mm

similar arrangement to above.

Effective height 28.3

Effective height of a wall with:

(1) Simple resistance is taken as the clear distance between supports.

(2) Enhanced resistance is taken as 0.75 times the clear distance between
supports.

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Effective thickness 28.4

The effective thickness of a wall is illustrated in Figure 3 of the code with


reference to Table 5 and is explained in further detail in clauses 28.4.1 and
28.4.2

Example
A load bearing internal single leaf wall having a clear height of 3.4 m is to be
formed using standard format bricks. It may be assumed that the floors are
formed using timber joints at 450mm centres. Determine the slenderness of
the wall.

Solution
The floor will provide enhanced resistance to the wall.

Effective height 0.75 clear height = 0.75 3400 = 2550 mm

Effective thickness Table 3

Effective thickness = width of single leaf wall = 102.5 mm

Effective height 2550


Slenderness ratio = = = 24.9 < 27 OK
Effective thickness 102.5

Eccentricity of loading

The design of the wall must take into account any eccentricity of loading that
may occur. Clause 31 gives guidance on the application of dead and imposed
loads in walls.

For external walls with the floor bearing directly onto the wall, the load is
assumed to act at 1 / 3 the bearing depth from the loaded face.

For interior walls with continuous flooring each side of the floor, the load
may be taken as bearing on to 1 / 2 the width of the wall and each portion is
assumed to act at 1 / 3 the bearing depth from the loaded face.

For joist hangers the load is assumed to act at the face of the wall.

Loads from upper storeys are assumed to act axially on the wall in all cases.

The resultant eccentricity, e x , is calculated by equating moments due to the


applied loading with the moment due to the total load on the wall, and is
expressed in terms of the wall thickness t.

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Design procedure for loading 32

The actual load on the wall is compared with the design vertical resistance of
the wall. Clause 32.2.1 gives the formula for calculating the design vertical
resistance of a wall per unit length and the definitions of the terms.

.t.f k
m

capacity reduction factor allowing for the effects of slenderness and


eccentricity, and is obtained from table 7
t thickness of the wall
f k characteristic strength of the masonry
m partial safety factor for the material

Example
Single leaf wall

A single leaf internal brick wall of a traditionally built house is subject to the
loading given in the design data. It may be assumed that the floor consists of
timber joists at 450mm centres spanning across the wall.
Check the suitability of the wall in compression.

Design data
Axial design load from upper floor 48 kN/m
Characteristic imposed loading on floors 1.5 kN/m2
Characteristic dead load inclusive of self-weight of floors 0.6 kN/m2
Span of floor on left hand side of wall 3m
Span of floor on right hand side of wall 4m
Clear height of wall 2.7 m
Compressive strength of standard brick units 10 N/mm 2
Mortar designation (iv)
Category of manufacturing control of structural units normal
Category of construction control normal

Solution
Calculate design loads
Upper floors 48 kN/m
Design load on floor = 1.4 0.6 + 1.6 1.5
= 3.24 kN/m2
Load from l.h.s floor = 3.24 3/2 R 1 = 4.9 kN/m
Load from r.h.s floor = 3.24 4/2 R 2 = 6.5 kN/m
R T = 59.4 kN/m

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Find eccentricity at top wall


The eccentricity from the timber floors is assumed to be applied at t/3

Applying R T .e x = SR.t/3
59.4 e x = 6.5 t/3 4.9 t/3

= 0.009t

Slenderness 28

Timber floor spanning across the wall would be assumed to give enhanced
resistance (see 28.2.2.2(a)).

Effective height = 0.75 clear height = 0.75 2.7 = 2025 mm

From Figure 3 effective thickness of columns and walls effective thickness, t


= 102.5 mm

effective height 2025


Slenderness ratio = = = 19.8 < 27 suitable
effective thickness 102.5

Design vertical resistance of a wall per unit length 32.2

from Table 7 for slenderness =19.8 and e x = 0.009 t


As e x < 0.05 t, eccentricity is taken as 0.05 t

Slenderness
18 0.77
20 0.70
Interpolating for 19.8 0.706

Material safety factor from Table 4 for normal conditions of manufacture and
construction control m is 3.5.

f k characteristic strength of masonry 23

The compressive strength from the manufacturers data 10 N/mm 2 and mortar
designation is (iv) from Table 2.

f k = 3.5 N/mm2

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This can be multiplied by 1.15, as it is a single leaf brick wall that is equal in
width to the width of a standard format brick (see cl.23.1.2)

f k = 3.5 1.15 = 4.0 N/mm2

Resistance of wall .t.f k


m

0.706 102.5 4.0


= 82.7N/mm = 82.7kN/m
3.5

As this value exceeds the total design load on wall (59.4 kN/m), wall is
suitable.

Cavity walls under compression

The design process is the same as that for the single leaf wall but additional
points listed below should be considered:

Floor loadings are normally only carried on the inner leaf.

The tabulated values of brick and block arrangements are acceptable:

Outer leaf Inner leaf


brick brick
brick block
block block

The two leaves of masonry are connected by ties in accordance with clause
29.1 and Table 6 of BS 5628.

As the walls are connected by ties, the effective height of the outer leaf is
taken as being the same as that of the inner leaf.

The rules of Figure 3 are used to obtain the effective thickness:

the greatest of 2/3(t 1 + t 2 )


or t 1
or t 2

In design, each leaf is considered separately

The slenderness ratio calculations are based on both leaves.


The strength calculations are based on a single leaf.

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Example
Cavity wall

The external wall of a traditionally built low-rise structure is shown below.


Using the design data, check the suitability of the prescribed concrete blocks
and select a suitable compressive strength of brick.

Design data:
Compressive strength of units:
Inner leaf block 150 mm thick 225 mm
high 440 mm long 5 N/mm2
Characteristic loads from upper floor on inner leaf:
Dead 40 kN/m
Imposed 18 kN/m
Imposed loading on floors 3 kN/m 2
Dead load inclusive of self weight of floors 3.5 kN/m 2

Span of pre-cast concrete units forming floor 4.6 m


(units bear in inner leaf only)
Clear height of wall 3.15 m
Mortar designation (iii)
Category of manufacturing control of structural units normal
Category of construction control normal

Solution
Calculate design loads
Outer leaf axial 1.4 13 + 1.6 6 27.8 kN/m
Inner leaf
Axial 1.4 40 + 1.6 18 84.8 kN/m
Floor (1.4 3.5 + 1.6 3) 4.6/2 R1 = 22.3 kN/m
Total load R T = 107.1 kN/m

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Find eccentricity at top wall


The eccentricity from the floor may be taken as t / 3

Applying R T e x = R 1 t/3
107.1 e x = 22.3 t/3
22.3t
ex = = 0.07t
107.1 3

Slenderness 28

Pre-cast floor bearing on to the wall would be assumed to give enhanced


resistance, see 28.2.2.2(a).

Effective height = 0.75 clear height = 0.75 3.15 m = 2362.5 mm

From figure 3 effective thickness greater of:


(a) 2/3 (t 1 + t 2 ) = 2/3(102.5 + 150) = 168.33 mm
(b) t 1 102.5 mm
(c) t 2 150 mm

Effective thickness =168.33 mm

effective height 2362.5


Slenderness ratio = = = 14 < 27 suitable
effective thickness 168.33

Calculations for inner leaf

Design vertical resistance of a wall per unit length 32.2

b from Table 7 for slenderness ratio =14 and e x = 0.07t

Eccentricity 0.05 t 0.1 t


Slenderness of 14 0.89 0.83

Interpolating for 0.07t 0.89 0.02/0.05 0.06 = 0.866

Material safety factor from Table 4 for normal conditions of manufacture and
construction control m = 3.5

f k characteristic strength of masonry 23

The compressive strength from the manufacturers data 5 N/mm 2 and mortar
designation is (iii).

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Which Table 2 is to be used?

As solid concrete blocks are used with a height to least horizontal dimension
ratio = 225/150 = 1.5

Clause 23.1.6 states that the value of f k should be obtained by interpolation


between the values given in tables 2 (b) and 2(d)
Table 2(b) f k = 2.5 N/mm2
Table 2(d) f k = 5.0 N/mm2

f k = 3.75 N/mm2

Resistance of wall .t.f k


m

0.866 150 3.75


= 139.2N/mm = 139.2kN/m
3.5

As this value exceeds the total design load on wall (107.1 kN/m), wall is
suitable.

Design of masonry walls with piers 28.1

A pier is a thickened section forming an integral part of the masonry


construction. Piers are placed at regular intervals along the wall and have the
advantage of reducing the slenderness ratio of the wall and hence increasing
its load carrying capacity. Piers may be introduced into single leaf or cavity
walls.

Plan view of cavity wall with piers at constant centres

The design procedure is the same as that for a single leaf or cavity wall, with
an additional consideration given in Table 5 when determining the effective
thickness of the wall.

Example
The diagram below shows the outline of a cavity wall with piers at 3m
centres. The wall is to be formed from blockwork 100 mm thick for both

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leaves with the piers being an additional 100 mm thick and 300 mm wide.
The cavity between the inner and outer leaves may be assumed to be 50 mm.
Check the suitability of the inner leaf to carry the loads given in the design
data. It may be assumed that the floor units bear over the entire width of the
inner leaf. The height of the wall may be considered as being 4.2m.

Design data:
Structural units: concrete block
100 mm thick 200 mm high 300 mm long 7 N/mm2
Loads from upper floor:
Inner leaf dead 30 kN/m
imposed 20 kN/m
Imposed loading on floor 5 kN/m 2
Dead load inclusive of self weight of floors 4 kN/m 2
Span of pre-cast concrete units forming floor 3.5 m
Mortar designation (ii)
Category of manufacturing control of structural units normal
Category of construction control normal

Solution
Note: for simplicity the outer leaf calculations have been omitted they
would be carried out using the procedure adopted in the previous example.

Calculate design loads


Inner leaf
Axial 1.4 30 + 1.6 20 74 kN/m
Floor (1.4 4 + 1.6 5) 3.5/2 R 1 = 23.8 kN/m
Total load R T = 97.8 kN/m

Find eccentricity at top wall


The eccentricity from the floor may be taken as t/3

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Applying R T .e x = SR.t/3
97.8 e x = 23.8 t/3
23.8t
ex = = 0.08t
99.8 3

Slenderness 28

Pre-cast floor bearing on to the wall would be assumed to give enhanced


resistance, see 28.2.2.2(a).

Effective height = 0.75 clear height = 0.75 4.2 m = 3150 mm

Coefficient K from Table 5

Ratio pier spacing to


pier width = 3000/300
= 10

Ratio t p /t 2 = 200/100 = 2

Value of K from Table 5 K=1.2 (this value may require to


be interpolated in some
examples)

From Figure 3 effective thickness greater of:

(a) 2/3 (t 1 + Kt 2 ) = 2/3(100 + 1.2 100) = 146.7 mm


(b) t1 100 mm
(c) Kt 2 = 1.2 100 120 mm

Effective thickness =146.7 mm

effective height 3150


Slenderness ratio = = = 21.5 < 27 suitable
effective thickness 146.7

Design vertical resistance of a wall per unit length 32.2

from Table 7 for slenderness ratio = 21.5 and e x = 0.08 t

Eccentricity 0.05 t 0.1 t


Slenderness of 20 0.70 0.64
Slenderness of 22 0.62 0.56

Interpolating for 0.08t = 0.60

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Material safety factor from Table 4 for normal conditions of manufacture and
construction control m = 3.5

f k characteristic strength of masonry 23

The compressive strength from the manufacturers data 7 N/mm 2 and mortar
designation is (ii).

Which Table 2 is to be used?

As solid concrete blocks are used with a height to least horizontal dimension
ratio = 200/100 = 2

Use Table 2(d) for unit strength 7 N/mm 2 and mortar designation (ii)

f k = 6.4 N/mm2

Resistance of wall .t.f k


m

0.60 100 6.4


= 109.7N/mm = 109.7kN/m
3.5

As this value exceeds the total design load on wall (97.8 kN/m), wall is
suitable.

Structural design of timber to BS 52682:1996

The structural design of timber elements is based on permissible stresses and


deflections derived from elastic theory.

Flexural members members subject to bending

Members subject to bending (i.e. beams) are assumed to behave in accordance


with elastic bending theory provided that the permissible material stresses are
not exceeded. The bending expression can be applied to timber design:

M/I =f/y =E/R

At any point across a section of a beam which is located a distance y from the
neutral axis of a section, a stress f will be developed as a consequence of
applying a bending moment M to the section. The magnitude of the stress
developed will vary with the second moment of area of the section I.

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In the timber design code, is the designation for stress, hence the above
equation may be written as:

M/I = /y

In timber design generally rectangular sections are used, therefore the


maximum compressive and tensile bending stress will occur at the extreme
fibres. Thus y is equal to half the depth of the section.

As both I and y are geometric properties of the section it is convenient to


combine the two terms in a single property which is referred to as the elastic
modulus and denoted by the symbol Z.

Z = I/y

Further, as rectangular sections are being considered, if b is the width of the


section and h the depth then I and y may be expressed as:

I = bh 3 /12 and y =h/2

Hence elastic modulus, Z = (bh 3 /12)/(h/2) = bh 2 /6

Considering, from the bending expression, M/I = /y and combining with the
definition of elastic modulus then:

M = Z

This can be rearranged to determine the maximum bending stress in the beam
and then compared with the permissible stress that the beam may carry.

Other design requirements

The other checks required to timber beams are shear, bearing, deflection and
the maximum depth to breadth ratio.

As the beams are simply supported, and generally carry uniformly distributed
loads, shear will be a maximum at the supports.

3 Load
Maximum shear stress =
2 Cross-sectional area

The end bearing area is dependent on the contact area with the beam support.

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Load Load
Maximum bearing stress = =
Contact area width of beam bearing length

Both of these values can then be compared with the permissible values
obtained from the design code.

Deflection, as with other structural materials, is a serviceability requirement.


Maximum deflections are determined using the standard deflection formulae
and compared with the deflection limits given in the design code.

Timber as a structural material

Unlike other construction materials, timber cannot be mixed to a pre-


determined formula. The cut wood has to be inspected and graded by visual
or mechanical means. The design code allows for a number of strength
classes based on the inspection of the timber, or alternatively, if the species
of timber is known it may be classified as given in Table 8 of the code
according to its standard name.
Appropriate grade stresses are assigned to the graded timber. For flexure the
appropriate grade stresses are:

Bending parallel to the grain


Compression perpendicular to the grain
Shear parallel to the grain

Account must also be taken of the loading and exposure conditions that the
timber will be subject to. The design code lists almost thirty factors that can
be applied to the grade stresses. Only a few will be of concern in this course.

Modification factors

Moisture content of timber related to service class.


It is difficult to artificially dry solid timber more than 100 mm thick, unless it
is specially dried. BS 5268 recognises three services classes that are related
to the conditions of end use. Service classes 1 and 2 generally require the
timber to be artificially dried and the dimensions and properties of the dried
timber can be taken as the grade values. Service class 3 timber is used when
the finished structure is fully exposed or if the timber is more than 100 mm
thick. In this case the grade values must be modified by a factor K 2 found in
Table 13 which allows for the differing load carrying mechanisms of wet and
dry timber.

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Service Examples of end use of Average Moisture content in


class timber moisture each piece at time
content each piece at time
3 External & fully exposed > 20 %
2 Covered and unheated 18 % 24 %
2 Covered and heated 15 % 20 %
1 Internal use and 18% 24%
continuously heated 12% 20%

Service classes 1 and 2 use unmodified stresses and moduli. i.e. K 2 =1


Service class 3 timber uses modified stresses and moduli. i.e. K 2 <1

Duration of loading K 3
The grade stresses based on the strength classes of the timber apply to long-
term loading on the structural element. Table 14 gives a modification factor
for various load durations and list values of K 3 varying from 1.0 to 1.75. K 3
is applied to the grade stresses only and does not apply to the modulus of
elasticity.

Load-sharing systems K 8
A load-sharing system may be considered as being, for example, a series of
four or more floor joists connected by flooring in such a way that act together
a standard timber floor. Provided that the joists are no farther apart than
610 mm centres then the grade stresses should be modified by the
modification factor K 8 =1.1.
For all other systems K 8 may be taken as being equal to 1.0.
For load-sharing systems the mean modulus of elasticity should be used to
calculate any deflections except in circumstances where dynamic loads may
occur, e.g. gymnasia, where the minimum value should be used.

Depth factor K 7
The grade stresses based on the strength classes of the timber apply to
materials having a depth (h) of 300 mm. A modification factor K 7 is applied
to the grade bending stress of beams having a depth other than 300 mm.

For solid timber beams:

Depth of beam (h) mm K 7 value


72 mm or less 1.17
72 > h < 300 (300/h) 0.11
h > 300 0.81(h 2 + 92300)
(h 2 + 56200)

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Notching of beams K 5 Figure 2


Notching the end of a beam for construction purposes causes stress
concentrations that must be allowed for in the shear calculation. The shear
stress should be calculated by using the effective depth (h e ) shown in Figure
2. The grade shear stress should be multiplied by a modification factor K 5 to
obtain the permissible stress.

For beams notched on the underside K 5 = h e /h

Note: Beams with notches on the top edge are not considered in this unit.

Deflection
The deflection is acceptable if the deflection of the fully loaded beam does
not exceed 0.003 times the span of the member or 14mm whichever is the
lesser.

Timber flexural members design examples

Boarding

Check the suitability of 20mm tongued and grooved floor boarding spanning
between 50mm 250mm timber joists at 600mm centres. The boards are of
strength class C14.

Note that boarding is normally provided in lengths up to 3m long. Each


board spans over a number of joists and for analysis purposes may be treated
as a continuous beam.

The maximum moment occurs at an internal support and may be found using
M = wL 2 /10. The maximum shear force (reaction) occurs at the outside
support and may be taken as V= 0.4wL.

Additional data:
Dead load inclusive of self-weight of boards 0.15 kN/m2
Imposed load 1.5 kN/m2

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Solution
Consider a width of boarding (b) = 1m b=1000 mm
(Actual width of floor is immaterial if width of one metre is assumed)
Length between supports L = 600mm = 0.6m
Load on boarding w =dead + imposed = 0.15 + 1.5 = 1.65 kN/m2
Considering a typical 1m width of board b=1.65 1 = 1.65 kN/m

Bending

Maximum moment M = wL 2 /10 = 1.65 0.6 2 /10 = 0.06 kNm


Elastic modulus of board Z = bh 2 /6 = 1000 20 2 /6 = 66667 mm 3

Actual bending stress, s = M/Z = 0.06 10 6 /66667 = 0.9 N/mm2

Permissible stress =
grade bending stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3 K 7 K 8

Grade stress from Table 7 C14 = 4.1 N/mm 2


K 2 wet stresses modification factor material 20 mm
thick service class 1 K2 = 1
K 3 duration of loading on floor this may be taken
as long term K3 = 1
K 7 depth factor less than 72 mm K 7 = 1.17
K 8 load-sharing boards are load-sharing K 8 = 1.1

Permissible stress = 4.1 1.0 1.0 1.17 1.1


= 5.28 N/mm2 > 0.9 N/mm2 boards suitable in bending

Shear

Maximum shear force V = 0.4wL = 0.4 1.65 0.6 = 0.4 kN

3V 3 0.4 103
Maximum shear stress v = = = 0.03 N/mm2
2bh 2 1000 20

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Permissible stress =
grade shear stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3 K 8

Grade stress from Table 7 C14 = 0.6 N/mm 2


The modification factors used for bending are still applicable except K 7 that
is applied to bending only.
Permissible stress = 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.1
= 0.66 N/mm2 > 0.03 N/mm 2 boards suitable in shear

Deflection

Considering the beam as continuous, = wL 4 /384EI

E mean from Table 7 C14 (one board cannot act on its own) E = 6800 N/mm 2

I =bh 3 /12 = 1000 20 3 /12 = 666667 mm4

= wL 4 /384EI = 1.65 600 4 /(384 6800 666667) = 0.13 mm

Permissible deflection (clause 2.10.7) = 0.003 span = 0.003 600 = 1.8 mm

Actual deflection less than permissible beam is suitable.

Floor joists

The floor joists for the boarding example above also require to be checked. It
may be assumed that the joists are simply supported over a span of 3.6 m and
bear on to blockwork supports 100 mm wide. The revised dead load to
include for the self-weight of the beam may be taken as 0.34 kN/m2 . The
joists are strength class C16.

Solution
Centres of joists 600mm = 0.6m

Load/joist w = (dead + imposed) centres


= (0.34 + 1.5) 0.6 = 1.1 kN/m

Bending

For a simply supported beam


Maximum moment M = wL 2 /8 = 1.1 3.6 2 /8 = 1.78 kNm

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Elastic modulus of board Z = bh 2 /6 = 50 250 2 /6 = 520833 mm 3

Actual bending stress, = M/Z = 1.78 10 6 /520833 = 3.42 N/mm 2

Permissible stress = grade bending stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3


K7 K8

Grade stress from Table 7 C16 = 5.3 N/mm 2


K 2 wet stresses modification factor material 20 mm
thick service class 1 K 2 =1
K 3 duration of loading on domestic floor this may be
taken as long term K 3 =1
K 7 depth factor (clause 2.10.5)

K 7 = (300/h) 0.11 = 300/250) 0.1 = 1.02 K 7 =1.02


K 8 load-sharing boards are load-sharing K 8 =1.1

The assumption is that the floor boards are of sufficient length to distribute
the load over at least four joists.

Permissible bending stress = 5.3 1.0 1.0 1.02 1.1


= 5.95 N/mm2 < 3.42 N/mm 2
Beam satisfactory in bending.

Shear

Maximum shear force V = wL/2 = 1.1 3.6/2 = 1.98 kN


3V 3 1.98 103
Maximum shear stress v = = = 0.24 N/mm 2
2bh 2 50 250

Permissible stress = grade shear stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3 K 8

Grade stress from Table 7 C16 = 0.67 N/mm 2


The modification factors used for bending are still applicable
(K 7 is only applicable to bending)
Permissible stress = 0.67 1.0 1.0 1.1
= 0.74 N/mm2 > 0.24 N/mm 2 joist suitable in shear

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Bearing

Value of reaction = wL/2 = 1.1 3.6/2 = 1.98 kN


Joist bears on to a 100mm wide support and width of joist is 50mm
Reaction 1.98 103
Actual bearing stress = = = 0.39 N/mm 2
Bearing length width 100 50

Permissible stress = compression perpendicular to the grain K 2 K 3


K8

Grade stress from Table 7 compression perpendicular to the grain 2.2


N/mm 2
Two values of compression perpendicular to the grain are given in Table 7.
Which value should be used? Reference should be made to Note 1 of the
table.

The modification factors used for shear are still applicable


Permissible stress = 2.2 1.0 1.0 1.1
= 2.42 N/mm2 > 0.39 N/mm 2 bearing length is suitable

Deflection

As the beam is simply supported, = 5wL 4 /384EI

E mean from Table 7 C14 (one board cannot act on its own) E = 8800 N/mm 2
I =bh 3 /12 = 50 250 3 /12 = 65.1 10 6 mm4
= 5wL 4 /384EI = 5 1.1 3600 4 /(384 8800 65.1 10 6 ) = 4.2 mm

Permissible deflection (clause 2.10.7) = 0.003 span 14 mm = 0.003


3600 = 10.8 mm

Actual deflection less than permissible beam suitable.

Notches

If the beam is notched at the support, then the shear cross-sectional area is
reduced and the modification factor K 5 applies (see clause 2.10.4).
Consider the above beam with a 75mm notch on the underside.

Dimension h e = h 75 = 250 75 = 175 mm

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3V 3 1.98 103
Maximum shear stress v = = = 0.34 N/mm 2
2bh 2 50 174

K5 = he/h = 175/250 = 0.7

Permissible stress = grade shear stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3 K 8


K5

Permissible stress = 0.67 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.7


= 0.52 N/mm2 > 0.34 N/mm 2

Joist is still suitable in shear.

Timber compression members

As with all structural materials, the design of compression members is


dependent on the slenderness ratio.

Where the slenderness ratio, = L e /i

L e = effective length is found using Table 18, which lists for conditions of
end restraint, the ratio of L e /L, where L is the actual length.

Values given for L e are 0.7L, 0.85L, 1.0L, 1.5L and 2 L.

i is the radius of gyration of the section. As only solid rectangular sections


will be dealt with, there are two possible axes of buckling, xx and the yy.
Hence there are two values of slenderness ratio:

x = L ex /i x y = L ey /i y

The radius of gyration i x = I x /A i y = I y /A

Where I (for a rectangular section) = bh 3 /12 Ix =bh 3 /12 and Iy =hb 3 /12

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Area A = bh

considering xx axis considering yy axis

The critical slenderness ratio is the larger of the two


In no case should the slenderness ratio exceed 180 (see clause 2.11.4)

The permissible stress is based on the comments of clause 2.11.5 which gives
two design procedures:

1. Compression members with slenderness ratios less than 5 (short


columns)
2. Compression members with slenderness ratios greater than 5 (slender
columns)

In both cases the permissible stress is taken as the grade compression stress
parallel to the grain multiplied by the modification factors for moisture
content, duration of loading and load sharing.

Permissible stress = grade stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3 K 8

In addition for members with a slenderness greater than 5, the above formula
is multiplied by K 12 given in Table 19.

Factor K 12 varies with slenderness ratio as calculated above and with


E/ c ,

where E = minimum modulus of elasticity of the material, and

c , = compression parallel to the grain.

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Example
Single column

A timber column 200mm 200mm is required to carry a load of 210 kN. The
load has been transferred to the column by timber joists such that the end
restraint conditions top and bottom may be taken as restrained in position but
not in direction. The height of column is 2.8 m and the timber may be taken
as strength class C27. The load may be considered as short term.

Solution
As timber is greater than 100mm thick it would be difficult to dry the section,
so use wet stresses. Values found in Table 7 are modified by factor K 2 found
in Table 13

From Table 7
c , = compression parallel to the grain = 8.2 N/mm2 K 2 = 0.6
E min = 8200 N/mm 2 K 2 = 0.8
L e =1.0L = 2800 mm

I = bh 3 /12 = 200 200 3 /12 = 1.333 10 8 mm4


A = bh = 200 200 = 40000 mm 2

i= I/A = 57.7 mm
l = L e /i = 2800/57.7 = 48.5 (for both axes) < 180 suitable

Ratio E/c , = (8200 0.8)/(8.2 0.6) = 1333.3 {modified by factor K 2 }

From Table 19:


40 50
1300 0.809 0.757
1400 0.811 0.760

Modification factor K 12 for = 48.5 and E/ c , =1333.3 K 12 = 0.767

Alternatively for Table 19 an equivalent slenderness L e /b may be used for


rectangular sections, in this example 2800/200 = 14

From Table 19:


11.6 14.5
1300 0.809 0.757
1400 0.811 0.760
as before.

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K 3 for short term loading = 1.5


K 8 for non load-sharing member = 1.0

Permissible stress = grade stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3 K 8 K 12


= 8.2 0.6 1.5 1 0.767
= 5.66 N/mm2

Actual compressive stress = Load/Area = 210 10 3 /40000 = 5.25 N/mm 2

As this is less than 5.66 N/mm2 the column is suitable.

Example
Column forming part of a partition wall

A timber column of 72mm 168mm cross-section supports a medium term


axial load of 24 kN. The column forms part of a partition wall that is 3.9 m
high and the columns are arranged such that there is no load sharing. The
column is restrained in position only top and bottom and is provided with
restraining side rails at the third points about the weaker axis. Check the
suitability of strength class C22 to carry the load.

Solution
As there are two differing effective lengths and hence two different
slenderness ratios, the critical axis must be identified

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L e = 3.9m L e =1.3m
72 168 3
168 723
I = bh 3 /12 Ix = Iy =
12 12

28.45 10 6 mm 4 5.23 10 6 mm 4

i= I/A 28.45 10 6 /(168 72) 5.23 10 6 /(168 72)

48.5 mm 20.8 mm

3900 1300
l = L e /I = 80.4 = 62.5
48.5 20.8

Critical axis for buckling is the xx axis

Section is less than 100mm thick so service class 1 or 2 applies (K 2 = 1.0)

From Table 7

c , = compression parallel to the grain = 7.5 N/mm2

E min = 6500 N/mm 2

Ratio E/ c , = 6500/7.5 = 867

From Table 19 for the ratio value of 867 and l = 80.4 K 12 = 0.51

K 3 for medium term loading = 1.25


K 8 for non-load sharing member = 1.0

Permissible stress = grade stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3 K 8 K 12


= 7.5 1.0 1.25 1 0.51
= 4.78 N/mm2

Actual compressive stress = Load/Area = 24 10 3 /(72 168)


= 1.98 N/mm2

As this is less than 4.78 N/mm2 the column is suitable.

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Study Guide 5 End Test

Timber design

In order to gain more space for selling goods a retailer has decided to have a
mezzanine floor erected in High Street premises. The retailer has requested
that the construction should be timber, be left exposed, and be a feature of the
premises.

Figure 1 shows the proposed mezzanine plan and part section. A trimmer
beam will support the floor joists internally, and externally the joists will be
supported by the existing brick walls.

All timber members are shown as dressed sizes.

Floor joists
(a) If the floor joists are at 600mm centres, determine the design loading on
a typical member.

(b) Check the suitability in bending and shear of an 87mm 216mm


section.

Trimmer beam
(a) Treating the loading from joists to be uniformly distributed, determine
the maximum bending moment and shear force in the trimmer beam.

(b) Given that the floor joists provide full lateral restraint to the trimmer,
check the suitability of a 121mm 321mm section in bending and
deflection.

(c) If the beam bears on to 100mm wide brick at the external supports
check its suitability in bearing.

(d) In order to reduce the overall depth of the floor construction a 70mm
notch is to be cut out of the trimmer beam as shown in the part section.
Check the suitability of the beam in shear at the column support

Column
(a) Determine the design loading on the column.

(b) Check the suitability of the 121mm 121mm section if the effective
length of the column can be taken as 3m.

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Design data
Duration of loading long term
Timber grade C27
Dead loading including self-weight of timber 1.5 kN/m2
Imposed loading 4 kN/m 2

Figure 1

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Masonry design

Figure 2 shows the layout of a derelict city centre building, the existing
external walls of which are incapable of resisting any additional loads. Your
client has recently purchased the building with a view to renovating it. The
local authority has insisted that the existing facade must remain in place if
possible. After a structural survey had been carried out on the building it was
discovered that one wall was in such a bad state of repair that it must be
demolished.

In consultation with the client and his architect it has been decided that an
inner carcass of brick work or block work will be used to transmit the loads
from the structure to the foundations and a new cavity wall would replace the
wall that has to be demolished. The new masonry will be tied to the existing
facade to provide it with a degree of stability but there will be no load
interaction between the existing and new work.

The client has a supply of bricks that he wishes to use on the contract.
However the architect feels that 150mm blocks for the cavity wall and
200mm blocks for the inner carcass wall would be a better arrangement.

Two designs are thus required for the new masonry adjacent to the facade and
for the wall replacing the demolished side.

Considering the walls that are to be designed to have a clear height of 3.6m
and that the floors framing into the walls provide enhanced resistance and
using relevant design information given:

New masonry adjacent to the facade (single skin masonry design)

Brick
(a) Determine the design axial load per metre on a single skin brick wall
with piers every 3m.

(b) Check the suitability of this arrangement to carry the design load.

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Block
(c) Determine the design axial load per metre on a 200 mm block wall.

(d) Choose a suitable compressive strength of block and a suitable mortar


designation to carry the design load.

Replacement wall (cavity masonry construction)

Brick
(a) Determine the design axial load per metre on a cavity brick wall with
piers every 1.5m.

(b) Check this arrangement of the brick wall to carry the design load.

Block
(c) Determine the design axial load per metre on the 150 mm block cavity
wall

(d) Choose a suitable compressive strength of block and a suitable mortar


designation to carry the design load. The cavity width between the
skins may be taken as 60 mm.

Design data:
Characteristic dead due to flooring 2.6kN/m 2
Characteristic imposed load 3kN/m 2

Characteristic loads from upper floors:


Single skin walls
For brick wall dead 40kN/m
imposed 50kN/m
For block wall dead 44kN/m
imposed 50kN/m
Cavity wall
Brick
Inner leaf dead 80kN/m
imposed 66kN/m

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Block
Inner leaf dead 84kN/m
imposed 66kN/m

Manufacturing control and construction control can be assumed to be normal


throughout
Bricks supplied by client standard format compressive strength of unit
50 N/mm2
Mortar designation (iii)

Proposed blocks solid concrete 440mm long 215mm high 150 or 200
thick.

Figure 2

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Answers
Timber

Floor joists
Design loading 3.3 kN/m
Max. moment 6.6 kNm
Max. shear force 6.6 kN
Permissible bending stress 11.4 N/mm 2 actual bending stress 9.76 N/mm2
Permissible shear stress 1.21N/mm2 actual shear stress 0.53 N/mm2
Trimmer beam
Design loading 11 kN/m
Max. moment 17.8 kNm
Max. shear force 19.8 kN
Permissible bending stress 9.9 N/mm 2 actual bending stress 8.6 N/mm2
Permissible shear stress 0.93N/mm2 actual shear stress 0.9 N/mm2
Permissible bearing stress 2.75N/mm2 actual bearing stress 1.63 N/mm2
Column
Design load 39.6 kN
Permissible compressive stress
4.13 N/mm2 actual compressive stress 2.7 N/mm2

Masonry

Floor loading 27.37 kN/m


Single leaf brick
Total load 163.34 kN/m minimum eccentricity
Slenderness 23.9
Resistance 164.5 kN/m
Single leaf block
Total load 169 kN/m minimum eccentricity
Slenderness 13.5
Minimum f k = 6.42 N/mm2 Compressive strength of unit 35 N/mm 2
Cavity wall brick
Inner leaf
Total load 245 kN/m minimum eccentricity
Slenderness 17
Resistance 245.2 kN/m
Cavity wall block
Inner leaf
Total load 250.5 kN/m minimum eccentricity
Slenderness 13.5
Minimum f k = 3.23 N/mm2 Compressive strength of unit 10 N/mm 2

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