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Structural Analysis and Design

Structural Analysis and Design

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Civil Engineering

Structural Analysis and Design

[ADVANCED HIGHER]

James Dunbar

abc

Acknowledgements

Learning and Teaching Scotland gratefully acknowledge this contribution to the National

Qualifications support programme for Civil Engineering. In particular, the assistance of Bill

McKenzie, Mike Scully and Charlie Smith in the preparation of this material is

acknowledged with thanks.

educational establishments in Scotland provided that no profit accrues at any stage.

CONTENTS

Overview 1

Tutor Guide 3

Student Guide 7

frames 11

and by Macaulays method 21

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) iii

iv ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

OVERVIEW

the Advanced Higher Civil Engineering course unit Structural Analysis and

Design. They will also help to prepare students for assessment.

The Tutor Guide offers brief advice on the entry requirements for the unit, on

the design documents to be issued to candidates with each of the Study

Guides and the design procedures to be adopted.

The Student Guide provides a brief introduction to the unit, explains the

content of each Study Guide and offers advice on preparation for assessment.

Student support materials are provided in the form of five Study Guides, each

covering one or two outcomes of the unit.

The National Assessment Bank support material for this unit contains five

assessment instruments that take the form of end of topic tests. These may

be used to provide feedback on candidates progress as well as being used for

summative unit assessment.

The Study Guides in this pack provide the support notes required for the

outcomes covered by each instrument of assessment. End of Study Guide

tests are also provided, and these are of a similar standard to the instruments

of assessment of the National Assessment Bank.

pin-jointed frames.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 1

O V ER V I E W

and Macaulays method

using standard formulae and Macaulays method.

meaning of the term statically determinate is considered in Study Guide 1.

and 5, since knowledge of deflection calculation is required for reinforced

concrete, steelwork and timber design.

slabs in reinforced concrete.

concrete.

structural masonry.

loaded columns in structural timber.

2 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

TUTOR GUIDE

The Study Guides cover all the performance criteria of each outcome. The

End of Study Guide tests are extensive and of a standard equivalent to that

of the assessment instruments of the National Assessment Bank. However,

centres might need to develop additional formative assessment material.

General note

of the Civil Engineering Higher course and are fully conversant with:

mathematical integration techniques

the calculation of loads on structural elements

the load paths through structural frames

the concept of design loads, partial load factors and material safety factors

the construction methods for reinforced concrete and masonry elements

the fabrication and erection methods for structural steelwork

the nature of timber as a building material.

If students are not fully conversant with the procedure for determining design

loads, from characteristic (unfactored) loads and partial safety factors,

teachers/lecturers will need to spend some teaching time on this and provide a

number of worked examples.

provides knowledge of statically determinate structures, which is required as

a general concept for all outcomes. This seems to be a difficult concept for

students to grasp and it is expected that individual centres will develop

additional formative assessments.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) iii

TU T O R G U ID E

and Macaulays method

Candidates should also be issued with a data sheet listing the standard case

deflection formulae for the following cases:

a simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load over the entire

length

a simply supported beam with a concentrated load at mid-span

a cantilever beam with a uniformly distributed load over the entire length

a cantilever beam with a concentrated load at the end.

W to refer to a concentrated load.

The notes for these guides were developed using PP 7312: 1998 Extracts

from British Standards for students of structural design as the design

reference. The use of any other publication may lead to answers that differ to

those given in the examples. Study Guide 2 should be undertaken before the

design Study Guides, as the standard case deflection formulae are widely

used in these design guides.

reinforcement when issuing the Study Guide. The design methods are based

on BS8110 Part 1: 1997 and the notes concentrate on the design equations

rather than the design charts. At the time of publication of the Study Guide

the design charts in PP 7312 were extracted from BS 8110 Part 3: 1985. As

the charts were developed using a materials factor for steel g m of 1.15 and

not 1.05 as used in the 1997 version of the code, there is now an inherent

error in the charts. Areas of reinforcement derived using the charts must

therefore be multiplied by the factor 1.05/1.15, as illustrated on page 51.

4 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

TU T O R G U ID E

Each centre should provide candidates with the following documents when

issuing the Study Guide:

the safe load tables for UC and UB subject to axial load

the safe load tables for web bearing and buckling of UB sections.

Copies of the most up-to-date tables can be obtained from the Corus Groups

web site www.corusconstruction.com

a result of different versions of the structural steel section tables being used.

The design methods are based on BS 5950 Part 1: 1990. The use of any other

version of the code may lead to variations in answers to the examples.

methods for simply supported beams and columns and of the definition of

length of a member.

The design procedures for masonry and timber are based on BS 5628 Part 1:

1992 and BS 5628 Part 2: 1996 respectively. The use of any other versions of

the code may lead to variations in design procedures.

The issue of brick manufacturers data sheets may enhance the candidates

understanding of the design process for masonry.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 5

6 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

STUDENT GUIDE

Introduction

The unit Structural Analysis and Design will appeal to you if you are

interested in problem solving. It will broaden your skills in the application of

scientific and technological principles to the area of structural design.

Gaining this award will enable you to continue development of the

competences required of the Incorporated Engineer. It will provide a strong

base for further study at HND and Degree level. You will achieve a level of

competence required of a person in a design office who has the responsibility

for the design of basic structural elements.

Unit content

The unit stresses the importance of structural engineering in the creative and

safe development of the built environment. It is designed to bring together

the study of structural mechanics, previously studied and now further

developed, with the processes of structural design. It will introduce you to

the British Standard Codes of Practice used in the design of reinforced

concrete, steelwork, masonry and timber structures all problem-solving

activities.

The unit has eight outcomes and will be assessed by five end of topic tests.

The teaching and learning materials have been prepared as five Study Guides,

which provide the support notes for the outcomes covered by each instrument

of assessment. At the end of each Study Guide you will find an End of

Study Guide test that contains questions that are of a standard similar to that

which you can expect in the assessment.

This covers Outcome 1. It will introduce you to the analytical methods used

to determine the forces in pin-jointed frames

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 7

S TU D EN T G U ID E

and Macaulays method

beams under standard and non-standard loading. Deflection formulae have

been developed for standard loading, which may be used to determine the

maximum deflections of beams. If non-standard load conditions are applied,

Macaulays method may be used.

reinforced concrete elements: beams; slabs; and columns. You will learn how

to use the design procedures of BS 8110 to determine the area of tension

reinforcement in beams and slabs, the area of shear reinforcement required in

beams, the area of longitudinal and link steel in axially loaded columns and

how to prepare suitable arrangements of reinforcement.

This covers Outcomes 5 and 6. You will learn how to design structural

steelwork elements to BS 5950 Part 1. Simply supported fully restrained

steel beams, and axially loaded columns are covered by the Study Guide. In

addition to learning how to use the design code you will learn to use the

structural section tables and safe load tables for UB and UC sections.

guide: timber and masonry. The design procedures for masonry walls are to

BS 5628 Part 1 and those for timber are to BS 5268 Part 2. In the timber

design section, flooring elements such as boarding, joists, trimmer beams and

axially loaded columns will be studied.

Assessment

The assessment of the unit takes the form of five end of topic tests, all of

which are closed book. You will not be allowed to use the Study Guides.

However, you will have access to standard case deflection formulae, relevant

clauses from the design standards and published tables such as Structural

Section tables or areas of reinforcement tables, as applicable. Use the

opportunity during classroom time to develop your skills in the use of British

Standards. All the information is there if you know where to look for it!

8 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU D EN T G U ID E

will have to spend additional time in preparing yourself for assessment.

Learn how to use the design codes: what clauses (or page numbers) do you

have to look up for (say) bending moments applied to beams; what tables are

applicable; do the values from the tables have to be modified in some way?

(normally your teacher/lecturer), under strict time constraints. These will be

outlined to you prior to undertaking the assessment. You must learn to use

the design codes quickly. Use the End of Study Guide tests as a guide to

your preparedness for final assessment.

Core skills

The assessment tasks of the unit will also be tailored to allow you to develop

a number of core skills, including problem solving. Completion of the unit

may result in automatic certification of certain core skills components.

Successful completion of the Advanced Higher Course in Civil Engineering

will result in automatic certification of other components. You should be

aware of the evidence you must gather to demonstrate attainment of core

skills and your tutor will guide you in this area.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 9

10 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 1

STUDY GUIDE 1

Introduction

Outcome 1

Analyse, by mathematical means, statically determinate pin-jointed

frames.

frames

calculate the magnitude and nature of forces in pin-joined frames using the

method of joint resolution

calculate the magnitude and nature of forces in pin-joined frames using the

method of sections.

11 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 1

What will be considered will be the analysis of trusses where the external

loads are applied at the node points only (intersection of the individual

elements of the frame), such that no bending effects can be developed in the

members. As only axial compressive and tensile forces are developed in the

frame members the frame is referred to as pin-jointed at a pin only direct

forces can be carried and no bending effects can be developed.

Statically determinate the frame can be solved using the three conditions

of equilibrium only.

Algebraic sum of moments of forces must equal zero M = 0

Algebraic sum of vertical of forces must equal zero V = 0

Algebraic sum of horizontal of forces must equal zero H = 0

When considering the frame and its reactions there are three conditions of

equilibrium to solve the reactions, thus there can be no more than three

unknowns.

The support at the left-hand side is a hinge (or pin) which can have both

horizontal and vertical components of force and the support at the right-hand

side is a roller which can have only a vertical component of force. There are

three unknowns and there are three conditions of equilibrium with which to

solve them the frame reactions are statically determinate.

12 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 1

there are four unknowns and only three conditions of equilibrium with which

to solve them the frame reactions are statically indeterminate and cannot

be solved by using the conditions of equilibrium only.

In a similar manner the elements of the frame must conform to the equation

shown below if the frame is statically determinate:

n =(2j 3)

j = number of nodes

n=9

j=6

2j 3 = 2 6 3 = 9

frame is statically determinate

n = 11

j=6

n > (2j 3) = 2 6 3 = 9

frame is statically indeterminate

to the second degree, since 11 9 = 2

At the start of each example ensure the frame (and its reactions) are statically

determinate.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 13

S TU DY GU ID E 1

The method for analysis of the forces in frames by joint resolution is best

explained by a worked example and the application of a few simple rules.

Determine the forces in each member for the frame shown below.

Step 2: consider the frame as a whole and determine the magnitude and

direction of the forces at the reactions

(a) Take moments about the hinge and determine roller reaction

(12 3) + (48 3) V C 6 = 0

V C = (36 + 144)/6 = 30 kN

hinge reactions

V = 0 V A + VC 48 = 0 upwards positive

V A = 48 30 = 18 kN

H = 0 12 H A = 0 forces to right positive

H A = 12 kN

Note: As no bending effects are present in the frame elements, the condition

of equilibrium M = 0 cannot be applied. As there are only two equilibrium

equations remaining in order to solve them there can be no more than two

unknown forces at any node.

14 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 1

Redrawing frame

Only nodes A and C are suitable. B has five unknown forces. D, E and F all

have three unknown forces.

Node A

V = 0

As the reaction is 18 kN upwards, a balancing force of 18 kN downwards is

required.

This can only occur in a vertical element, thus force AF is 18 kN

H = 0

As the reaction is 12 kN to the left, a balancing force of 18 kN to the right is

required.

This can only occur in a horizontal element, thus force AB is 12 kN

Node C

V = 0

As the reaction is 30 kN upwards, a balancing force of 30 kN downwards is

required.

This can only occur in a vertical element, thus force CD is 18 kN

H = 0

As there is only one horizontal element at node C and no external horizontal

forces, the force in the single element must be 0. Force CB = 0.

example if the force at one end (node) of an element is 18 kN downwards, for

equilibrium at the other end (node) it must be 18 kN upwards.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 15

S TU DY GU ID E 1

Step 5: repeat steps 3 and 4 with the remaining nodes of the frame

There are now only two unknowns at nodes F and D; node E still has three

unknowns.

The inclined forces FB and DB can be split onto horizontal and vertical

components of force, either by knowing the ratio of the sides or by knowing

the values of the angles.

Node F

V = 0

As the force from member AF is 18 kN upwards, a balancing force of 18 kN

downwards is required.

This can only occur in the vertical component of element FB, thus the vertical

component of FB is 18 kN. However, FB is an inclined member so the actual

direction of the force along the length of the member must be down and to the

right. The magnitude is

H = 0

At this node there are three horizontal forces FE, the horizontal

component of FB and the external 12 kN force.

If the force in FB is acting down and to the right, the horizontal

16 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 1

FE + FBh + 12 = 0 forces to right positive

FE +18 +12 = 0

FE = 30 kN 30 kN acting to the left

Node D

As member DB is inclined, it can split into its horizontal and vertical

components

DBv = DB sin 45 or DB/2

DBh = DB cos 45 or DB/2

Considering the node, there is a vertical force of 30 kN acting upwards in

element DC.

This must be balanced by a downwards force of 30 KN. This can only occur

in DBv.

and to the left.

DBv = DB sin 45 or DB/2 DB = 42.4 kN

H = 0

DE is unknown, but must balance DBh as there are no other horizontal

elements at this node. DBh is acting to the left DE must act to the right.

This must balance the external 48 kN force

EA = 48 kN

Finished frame

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 17

S TU DY GU ID E 1

Method of sections

The method for analysis of the forces in frames by sections is used when only

the forces in specific elements are required. The three conditions of

equilibrium are available for use, so the section should cut across no more

than three elements in which the forces are unknown.

The first step (as before) is to calculate the reactions, giving the result:

The section considered to cut the frame shows that the forces in ED, BD and

BC are to be found.

The external equilibrium of the part of the frame to the left-hand side of the

section is considered. For each condition of equilibrium equation used there

can be only one unknown. Splitting BD into its horizontal and vertical

components, BD h and BD v respectively:

12 12 + BD h + ED + BC = 0

three unknowns

V = 0 becomes Taking upwards forces as positive

18 48 + BD v = 0

only one unknown

As a general rule if the section cuts across three

elements, two of them will intersect at a node. Take

moments about this node leaving one unknown. Node

D in this example:

18 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 1

Clockwise moments positive

(18 6) + (12 3) (48 3) +(BC 3) = 0

108 + 48 144 +3.BC = 0

0 + 3BC = 0 BC = 0

18 48 + BDv = 0

30 + BDv = 0

BDv = 30 kN towards node D

Force in BD acts along the line of the element, the direction is up and to the

right.

Magnitude of force BD = 30 /cos 45 or 302 = 42.4 kN

12 12 + BDh + ED + BC = 0

12 12 + 42.4sin 45 +ED = 0

30 + ED = 0

ED = 30 kN From D the force acts to the left.

Remember the algebraic sum of forces in an element must equal zero.

!

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 19

S TU DY GU ID E 1

The figure below shows in outline a pin-jointed frame and the loads applied

to it.

(c) Using the method of joint resolution, determine the magnitude and

nature of the force in each element of the frame. Show the results in an

outline sketch of the frame.

(d) Using the method of sections, check the validity of the results found

using the method of joint resolution, by determining the forces in

elements GF, CF and CD.

Answers:

Roller reaction: 82.5 kN

Hinge reactions:

horizontal 12 kN

vertical 73.5 kN all in directions shown in diagram

20 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 2

STUDY GUIDE 2

and by Macaulays method

Introduction

Outcome 2

Determine the deflections of statically determinate beams using

standard formulae and Macaulays method.

standard formulae

using Macaulays method.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 21

S TU DY GU ID E 2

Macaulays method

This is a method of analysis that allows the slope and deflection of a beam to

be determined.

M E

From the equation of simple bending =

I R

E = modulus of elasticity

I = second moment of area of the section

R = radius of curvature

When both E and I are constant for a given section, M and R are the only

variables.

EI

The expression for M is then M =

R

radius of curvature R, then:

d2 y I

2

(R is the second derivative of deflection)

dx R

then:

d2 y

M = EI

dx 2

moment M.

To obtain deflection:

d2 y M

2

= Bending moment expression

dx EI

dy M

= +A Slope expression

dx EI

M

y= EI + Ax + B Deflection expression

22 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 2

considering the boundary conditions relating to the beam (i.e. the known

values of slope and deflection).

It is therefore possible to find the slope and deflection at any point along a

beam by providing a general expression for bending moment at any section in

terms of x and integrating the equation twice.

1. Assume one end of the beam to be the origin (generally the left-hand

side).

If the beam is statically determinate find the value of the reactions.

last applied load) and take moments about xx considering all loads to

the left-hand side of the section. All the bending moment terms will be

functions of x.

Integrate each loading term as a whole dont break it down into its

components.

using the boundary conditions relating to the beam, for example:

Slopes at built-in supports are zero.

Slope at the centre of a symmetrically loaded beam is zero,

deflection is a maximum.

When deflection is a maximum, slope is zero.

Bending moments at free ends are zero.

section along the beam

Note: When determining quantities, omit any terms inside brackets that are

negative or zero.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 23

S TU DY GU ID E 2

A beam is simply supported as shown. For the illustrated loading system,

determine:

(b) the magnitude and position of the maximum deflection.

E = 205 kN/mm2

I = 900 10 6 mm 4

M = 0, clockwise moments are positive

(200 2 ) + (350 5 ) (R b 7 ) = 0

R b = 307.1 kN

R a = 200 + 350 307.1 = 242.9 kN

section xx

(m)

Ra x 242.9 x

200 kN x2 200[x2]

350 kN x5 350[x5]

24 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 2

d2 y

M x = EI = 242.9[x] 200 [x2] 350 [x5]

dx 2

d2 y

EI = 242.9[x] 200 [x2] 350 [x5] moment (kNm)

dx 2

EI = 242.9 200 350 +A

dx 2 2 2 (kNm x m = kNm2 )

EI y = 242.9 200 350 + Ax + B

6 6 6 (kNm 2 x m = kNm3 )

When x = 0, y =0 and x = 7, y = 0

EI 0 = 242.9 200 350 + A0 + B

6 6 6

Note: When determining quantities, omit any term inside a bracket that is

negative or zero.

Thus:

3 3 3

7 75 75

EI 0 = 242.9 200 350 +A [7]

6 6 6

A = 1250

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 25

S TU DY GU ID E 2

Thus general equations for slope and deflection at any point along the length

of the beam are

EI = 242.9 200 350 1250 slope

dx 2 2 2

EI y = 242.9 200 350 1250[x] deflection

6 6 6

To find the slope and deflection at the 200 kN load substitute for x=2

EI = 242.9 200 350 1250

dx 2 2 2

=

dx EI 1 kN/mm 2 = 10 3 N/mm 2

Units are now consistent

764 109

= 900 106

205 103

= 0.0041 radians

EI y = 242.9 200 350 1250[2]

6 6 6

2176

y =

EI

2176 109 Nmm

= 900 106 = mm

205 10 3

N/mm 2 mm 4

to zero.

EI = 242.9 200 350 1250

dx 2 2 2

26 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 2

Solving for x, x =

2 153.5

b

2 4ac)/2a

x = (b

x = 10.3 m or 3.88 m.

A simply supported beam is Lm long and is required to carry a uniformly

distributed load of w kN/m. In general terms, determine the maximum

deflection of the beam:

load from section xx (m)

Ra wL/2 x wL.x/2

w kN/m w.x x/2 w.x.x/2

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 27

S TU DY GU ID E 2

wLx wx 2 d2 y

Mx = = EI 2

2 2 dx

dy wLx 2 wx 3

EI = +A slope equation

dx 4 6

wLx 3 wx 4

EI y = + Ax + B deflection equation

12 24

conditions.

For a simply supported beam with symmetrical loading:

wL[0]3 w[0]4

EI 0 = + A[0] + B hence B = 0

12 24

x=L y=0

wL L3 wL4

EI 0 = + AL

12 24

wL4 wL3

EI 0 = + AL A= note negative sign

24 24

dy wLx 2 wx 3 3wL3

EI = slope equation

dx 4 6 24

3 4 3

wLx wx wL x

EI y = deflection equation

12 24 24

28 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 2

L/2 as the beam is symmetrically loaded.

EI y =

12 24 24

wL.L / 8 wL / 16 wL .L

3 4 3

EI y =

12 24 48

4 4 4

wL wL wL

EI y =

96 384 48

4 4

4wL wL 8wL4

EI y =

384 384 384

4

5wL

y=

384EI

Example 3: Cantilever

A cantilever beam is 2m long and is required to carry a uniformly distributed

load of 20 kN/m and a point load of 64 kN at the tip.

beam in terms of EI.

(b) Check the answer obtained in (a) by applying the standard equations for

deflection

Additional information

Standard deflection formulae for cantilevers:

Uniformly distributed load = wL 4 /8EI

Point load at tip = WL 3 /3EI

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 29

S TU DY GU ID E 2

Reaction must balance downwards forces, as V = 0

R a = 20 2 + 64 = 104 kN

Taking moments about R a ,

M = 0, clockwise moments are positive

M a + (20 2 1) + 64 2 = 0

M a = 168 kNm (anticlockwise)

load from section xx (m)

104 x 104x

20.x x/2 20.x.x/2

Considering also the moment at the support, this may be written as:

d2 y 20x 2

M x = EI = 168 + 104x

dx 2 2

dy 104x 2 20x

EI = 168x + +A slope equation

dx 2 6

168x 104x 3 20x 4

EI y = + + Ax + B deflection equation

2 6 24

conditions.

For a cantilever beam, deflection at the support is zero, and slope is zero at a

built-in support.

30 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 2

EI 0 = + + A[0] + B

2 6 24

Therefore B = 0

dy

Applying the slope equation at the built-in support, when x= 0, =0

dx

104.[0]3 20.[0]4

EI 0 = 168.[0]2 + +A

2 6

Therefore A = 0

Equations become:

dy 104x 2 20x

EI = 168x + slope equation

dx 2 6

3

168x 104x 20x 4

EI y = + deflection equation

2 6 24

EI y = +

2 6 24

EI y = 210.67

210.67

y = Negative sign indicates that deflection is downwards.

EI

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 31

S TU DY GU ID E 2

Point load at tip = WL 3 /3EI

20.24 40

For udl = =

8EI EI

3

64.2 170.67

for a point load = =

3EI EI

210.67

total deflection =

EI

is omitted.

Note on dealing with variation of uniformly distributed load between spans.

uniformly distributed load will be examined and the general expression for

moment derived.

32 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 2

For analysis purposes this is treated as a constant udl over the entire

beam and an additional load of (zw kN/m) on the overhang. As in (1),

moments are taken about the section xx.

M x = R a .x w.x.x/2 R b .[xa] (zw).[xa].[xa]/2

For analysis purposes this is treated as a constant udl over the entire

beam less an additional load of (wz kN/m) on the overhang. Load wz

acts upwards and gives a positive moment about section xx. As in the

other cases moments are taken about the section xx.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 33

S TU DY GU ID E 2

Mx = R a .x w.x.x/2 R b .[xa] + (zw).[xa].[x-a]/2

For the beam loaded as shown below:

(a) Using Macaulays method, in terms of E and I, derive the equations for

slope and deflection along the length of the beam.

(b) Determine the deflection at the centre of the main span and at the tip of

the cantilever.

Additional information

Beam section 533 210 92 UB I = 55330 cm4

E= 205 kN/mm2

M = 0, clockwise moments positive

(30 8 4) R b 8 + (10 2 9) = 0

R b = 142.5 kN

V =0,

R a + R b = 30 8 +10 2

R a = 260 142.5 = 117.5 kN

34 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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Take moments about xx, considering a uniform load of 30kN/m over the

entire length of beam and a negative (upward) load of 20kN/m on the

overhang.

load from section xx (m)

117.5 kN x 117.5x

30 kN/m.x x/2 30.x.x/2

142.5 kN x8 142.5(x8)

20 kN/m.(x8) (x8)/2 20.(x8) 2 /2

dy 2 30x 2 20[x8]2

M x = EI = 117.5x + 142.5[x8] +

dx 2 2 2

EI = + + +A slope equation

dx 2 6 2 6

117.5x 3 30x 4 142.5[x8]3 20[x8]4

EI y = + + + Ax + B deflection equation

6 24 6 24

conditions.

For a simply supported beam deflection is zero at the supports.

EI 0 = + + + Ax + B

6 24 6 24

B=0

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S TU DY GU ID E 2

EI 0 = + + + Ax

6 24 6 24

A = (100275120)/8 = 613.4

EI = + + 613.4 slope equation

dx 2 6 2 6

117.5x 3 30x 4 142.5[x8]3 20[x8]4

EI y = + + 613.4x deflection equation

6 24 6 24

Actual deflections

EI y = + + 613.4.4

6 24 6 24

y = 13.4 mm (downwards deflection)

EI y = + + 613.4 10

6 24 6 24

36 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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beams are cantilevered over a 2.4m length as shown in Figure 1. The

beams are at 1.2m centres and are required to support a uniformly

distributed load over the entire length and a point load at the tip. Using

the design formulae and the additional data, determine the deflection at

the tip of the beam.

Figure 1

Additional data:

by beams 2.4 kN/m

Point load at cantilever tip 1 kN

Modulus of elasticity of timber section (E) 8800 N/mm2

Deflection formulae:

Due to udl =wL 4 /8EI

Due to point load at tip =WL 3 /3EI

2. For the 457 191 82 UB beam loaded as shown below, use the

standard case deflection formulae given in the design data to determine

the mid-span deflection.

Figure 2

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 37

S TU DY GU ID E 2

Design data:

Second moment of area 37050 cm 4

Deflection formulae:

Due to udl =5wL 4 /384EI

Due to point load at mid-span =WL 3 /48EI

Derivation of formulae

3. Using Macaulays method, prove that the standard formula for a simply

supported beam carrying a point load at mid-span is:

=WL 3 /48EI

Macaulays method

(b) Derive an equation for the bending moment at any section along

the length of the beam in terms of length x from R a .

(c) Derive the equations for slope and deflection.

(d) Determine the actual deflection of the beam when x = 3m.

Figure 4

E = 10800 N/mm2

I = 357 10 6 mm 4

38 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 2

Answers:

1. udl = 5.03 mm po int = 2.33 mm to t al = 7.36 mm

4. Ra =9.8 kN Rb = 7.3 kN

Deflection: 22mm

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 39

40 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AND DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 3

STUDY GUIDE 3

Introduction

Outcome 3

Design statically determinate singly reinforced beams and slabs in

reinforced concrete.

Outcome 4

Design short, braced, axially loaded columns in reinforced concrete.

This will involve: determining the design loads on beams; calculating the

areas of reinforcement to resist ultimate bending moments; determining

suitable arrangements of link reinforcement to resist the shear forces in

beams; and assessing the suitability of beams in deflection.

This will involve: determining the design loads on slabs; calculating the

areas of reinforcement to resist the ultimate bending moments; determining

suitable arrangements of secondary (transverse) reinforcement; and

assessing the suitability of slabs in deflection.

Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 41

S TU DY GU ID E 3

throughout:

Characteristic strength of main reinforcement, f y 460 N/mm2

Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, f yv 250 N/mm2

Unit weight of concrete 24 kN/m 3

In addition to the study guide you will require a copy of Reinforced Concrete

Design-Details of Reinforcing Steel.

For a simply supported beam with tension on the bottom surface due to

bending.

h overall depth of the section

d effective depth of section (this is the depth from the compression

surface to the centre of the tension reinforcement)

A s area of main tension reinforcement

A sv area of link (shear) reinforcement

42 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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Clause reference

Design considerations

Notes for design and detailing concrete elements

Cover to the steel reinforcement is necessary to ensure that the bond of the

steel with the concrete is fully developed, so that both the steel and the

concrete are effective in resisting the applied forces. In addition the nominal

cover specified should be such that the concrete protects the steel against

corrosion and fire. To this effect the nominal cover, that is the minimum

cover to all the reinforcement, should at least:

be the size of the nominal maximum aggregate

satisfy the durability requirements (i.e. exposure).

When casting concrete against uneven surfaces, such as against earth, the

value should be not less than 75mm; when cast against a blinding layer the

cover should be specified as not less than 40mm.

The cover to protect the steel from corrosion is given in Table 3.3 of

BS 8110: Part 1 and depends on the exposure conditions that may be expected

and the quality of the concrete.

Definitions for exposure conditions are given in Table 3.2 and quality is

defined in terms of the concrete grade i.e. C30, C35, etc.

Table 3.4 gives the nominal cover required to protect the steel from the

effects of fire, with the values being dependent on time periods of fire

protection, e.g. 1 hour, 2 hours, etc.

Spacing of reinforcement

During the concreting operation the aggregate must be allowed to move freely

between the bars to obtain the maximum compaction and bond. For this

reason the bar spacing should be greater than the nominal maximum size of

the aggregate.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 43

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is specified, thus minimum distance between

bars = h agg + 5 mm = 20 + 5 = 25 mm

This clause is used to ensure a limit on the crack widths on the tension face of

the concrete. The clear distance between adjacent bars should be not greater

than the value given in table 3.28 of the code. The value of spacing indicated

is for the condition zero redistribution of steel redistribution will not be

considered in this course and may be considered as being equal to zero.

fy Spacing

N/mm 2 mm

250 280

460 155

In no case should the clear spacing between bars exceed the lesser of three

times the effective depth or 750 mm

In addition, unless the crack widths are checked by direct calculation, the

following rules will ensure adequate control of cracking for slabs subject to

normal internal and external environments:

(1) grade 250 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 250

mm

(2) grade 460 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 200

mm

(3) the reinforcement percentage (100 A s /bd) is less than 0.3%

b breadth of section

d effective depth

44 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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(b) where none of the conditions (1), (2) or (3) apply, the bar spacing

should be limited to the values given in table 3.28 for slabs where the

percentage of reinforcement exceeds 1% or the values given in table

3.28 divided by the reinforcement percentage for lesser amounts.

Example

If a slab is 300 mm deep and from design calculations 0.45% of high yield

reinforcement is required, then the maximum distance between bars can be

determined as follows:

tension face regardless of any other design considerations. From Table 3.25:

percentage f y = 250N/mm 2 f y = 460N/mm 2

Tension reinforcement

(c) Rectangular sections 100 A s /A c 0.24 0.13

(in solid slabs this minimum

should be provided in both

directions)

For high yield reinforcement minimum permissible area is 0.13% of gross

section,

right angles to the main tension reinforcement and is tied to it. The purpose

of the secondary steel is to tie the slab together and to assist in distributing

the loading through the slab. The area of this steel must be at least equal to

the minimum area of steel found from Table 3.25

The distribution steel is always placed inside the main steel thus giving the

tension reinforcement the greatest effective depth.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 45

S TU DY GU ID E 3

bond develops between the concrete and the steel reinforcing bars a maximum

must be put on the amount of reinforcement allowed in elements

Beams and slabs Neither the area of tension reinforcement nor area of

compression should exceed 4% of the gross cross-

sectional area of the concrete

Columns The longitudinal reinforcement should not exceed the

following amounts, calculated as percentages of the

gross cross-sectional area:

(a) vertically cast columns 6%

(b) horizontally cast columns 8%

(c) laps in columns 10%

(a) centres of bearings, or

(b) clear distance between supports plus the effective depth d

46 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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Procedure

using equations of BS 8110: Part 1: 1997 Clause 3.4.4.4

K = M/bd 2 f cu

where M applied bending moment

f cu characteristic strength of concrete, f cu = 40 N/mm 2

b breadth of section

d effective depth of section

Notes:

(1) for a slab always consider a typical 1 m width b =1000 mm

This is the depth from the compression surface to the centre of the tension

reinforcement. The size of the reinforcing bars is not known nor is the

size of the stirrups (beam links) so an initial estimate must be made.

Beams

Typically for a beam the main bar size is of the order of 25 mm

and the links are generally 8, 10 or 12 mm diameter.

Effective depth, d = overall depth (h) cover link diameter main bar

dia/2

Assuming 30 mm cover, a link size of 10 mm and main bars of 20 mm

d = h 30 10 20/2 = h50 mm

Slabs

The bar size in a slab is generally smaller than would be required for a beam,

say 16 mm.

Slabs are designed so that links are not required and the cover is generally for

mild exposure conditions.

d = h 20 16/2 = h -28 mm

To calculate K, ensure that units are in N and mm, as moment is quoted in

kNm.

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S TU DY GU ID E 3

K = M 10 6 /bd 2 f cu

always check that K K always.

but z 0.95 d

with calculated area

Maximum area 4%bh 3.12.6

be provided

If area is greater than 4%bh then section size must be increased

in this course

A simply supported slab is required to carry an ultimate moment 125 kNm per

metre width. The slab designated exposure condition is moderate with a

chosen fire resistance period of two hours. If the slab has an overall depth of

200 mm, determine a suitable arrangement of reinforcement.

48 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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Solution

Cover

From Table 3.3 of BS 8110, minimum cover to all steel required for f cu = 40

N/mm 2 and exposure condition moderate is 30 mm.

From Table 3.4 of BS 8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for a slab with

a fire period of two hours is 35 mm.

Minimum nominal cover to all steel is 35 mm.

From Figure 3.2 of BS 8110, minimum possible slab thickness complying

with a fire period of two hours is 125 mm. Thus the thickness provided

complies with fire regulations.

Find K

If the bar diameter is assumed to be 20 mm

Effective depth of section d = h cover bar diameter/2

= 2003520 /2

= 155 mm

Resistance-moment factor K = M 10 6 /(bd 2 f cu )

= 125 10 6 /(1000 150 2 40)

= 0.13

K<K (ie 0.156)

Find z

lever arm distance z = d(0.5 + (0.25K/0.9))

= d(0.5+(0.250.13/0.9))

= 0.825 d < 0.95 d

z = 128 mm

Find A s

Area of tension steel required A s = M 10 6 /(0.95 f y z)

= 125 10 6 /(0.95 460 128)

= 2335 mm2 /m

Since 3d < 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars for tension steel

3d= 3 160 = 480 mm,

maximum spacing (centre to centre) of bars = 3d + dia = 500 mm.

Actual spacing used 125 mm, spacing suitable

Proportion of tension steel provided

100A s /(bh) = 100 2510/(1000 200)

= 1.25 % of gross section.

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As this falls within Code limits of 0.13% and 4%, this is satisfactory. Refer to

Table 3.25 and clause 3.12.6.

As the slab thickness of 200 mm does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the

bar spacing is required with high-yield steel. See Cl.3.12.11.2.7(a)(2).

Distribution steel

The distribution or secondary steel runs at right angles to the main tension

reinforcement and is tied to it. The purpose of the secondary steel is to tie

the slab together and to assist in distributing the loading through the slab.

The area of this steel must be at least equal to the minimum area of steel

found from Table 3.25, i.e.

0.13%bh

The distribution steel is always placed inside the main steel thus giving the

tension reinforcement the greater effective depth.

Minimum steel area (Table 3.25) A s = 0.13%bh

= 0.0013 1000 200

= 260 mm2 /m width

The percentage area of steel, 100A s /bd, may be found using the Design

Charts of BS 81103.

2. The value of the bending stress, M/bd 2 , on the vertical axis of the chart.

The course will use only Design Chart 2 from BS 81103. This deals with

singly reinforced beams and slabs using high yield (f y = 460 N/mm2 )

reinforcing steel.

M/bd 2 = 125 10 6 /1000 155 2

= 5.2 N/mm2

50 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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(c) Project vertically and read value from the horizontal axis

(e) As this chart was intended for a different version of the code, a

multiplication factor based on differing material partial safety factors,

g m , must be introduced.

Factor = 1.05/1.15

By calculation A s = 2335 mm 2 /m

The beam designated exposure condition is severe with a chosen fire

resistance period of two hours. If the beam has an overall depth of 550 mm

and breadth of 300 mm, determine a suitable arrangement of longitudinal

reinforcement.

Solution

Cover

From Table 3.3 of BS 8110, minimum cover to all steel for f cu = 40 N/mm2 an

exposure condition severe is 40 mm.

From Table 3.4 of BS 8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for simply-

supported beam with a fire period of two hours is 40 mm.

Thus minimum permissible cover to all steel is 40 mm.

possible beam width complying with a fire period of two hours is

200 mm. Breadth provided complies with fire regulations.

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The effective depth of section, d = overall depth cover link main bar

dia/2

assume a main bar and link size say 25 mm and 12 mm

d = 550 40 12 25/2= 485.5 mm 485 mm(say)

Longitudinal reinforcement

Applied-moment factor K = M 10 6 /(bd 2 f cu )

= 335 10 6 /(300 485 2 40)

= 0.119 < 0.156

Since applied-moment factor K < K beam is suitable for design

lever arm distance z = d(0.5+ (0.25K/0.9))

= d(0.5+0.250.119/0.9)) = d(0.84) 0.95d

= 0.84 485 = 407 mm,

A s = 335 10 6 /0.95 460 407

= 1883 mm2

Provide as tension steel 4T25 mm bars (A s = 1963 mm2 )

(1608 + 314 = 1922 mm 2 )

Percentage of tension steel provided = 100A s /(bh)

= 100 1963/(300 550)

= 1.18 % of gross section

The design shear stress, v c , at any section should not exceed the shear stress

at calculated at any section using equation 21

V

v= b =1000 mm

bd

The form and area of shear reinforcement are found using the

recommendation Table 3.16

52 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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reinforcement to be reinforcement to be

provided provided

v < vc None None

v c < v < (v c + 0.4) Minimum links for the A s v 0.4b v s v /0.95f yv

whole length of the beam

(v c + 0.4) < v < 5 N/mm 2 Designed links A s v (vv c )b v s v /0.95f yv

As f cu is taken as 40 N/mm 2 then 0.8f cu = 0.840 = 5.06 N/mm 2

thus

v < 5 N/mm2

Always ensure that:

v < vc

In previous slab example T20@ 125 mm crs (2510 mm 2 /m) was provided

Percentage area of reinforcement 100As/b v d = 100 2510/(1000 150)

= 1.67 %

d = 150 mm

From Table 3.8 for d =150 and 100A s /b v d = 1.67

Shear resistance = 0.95 N/mm2

For characteristic concrete strengths greater than 25 N/mm 2 , the values in this

table may be multiplied by (f cu /25) 1/3 . The value of f cu should not be taken as

greater than 40.

In this example, v c = 1.17 0.95 = 1.11 N/mm2 .

Check v < v c .

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The design shear stress, v c , at any section is determined and compared with

the shear stress calculated at any section using equation 3. The difference

between the values indicates the amount of shear reinforcement required.

V

v= b v = b = breadth of section

bvd

As f cu is taken as 40 N/mm 2 then 0.8f cu = 0.840 = 5.06 N/mm 2

thus

v < 5 N/mm2

The form and area of shear reinforcement are found using the

recommendation Table 3.7

reinforcement to be reinforcement to be

provided provided

Less than 0.5v c None None

0.5v c < v < (v c + 0.4) Minimum links for the A s v 0.4b v s v /0.95f yv

whole length of the beam

(v c + 0.4) < v < 5 N/mm 2 Designed links A s v (vv c )b v s v /0.95f yv

As for slabs the percentage area of reinforcement 100A s /b v d and the effective

depth of the beam are used to determine v c .

Clause 3.4.5.4:

continues for a distance at least equal to d beyond the section being

considered. At supports the full area of tension reinforcement at the section

may be applied in the table provided the requirements for curtailment and

anchorage are met (see 3.12.9).

54 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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moment occurs at mid-span hence this is where the maximum amount of

tension reinforcement is needed. At the supports the bending moment is zero,

and in theory no reinforcement needs to be provided. However in practice, in

accordance with clause 3.12.8 and Figure 3.24, at least 50% of the

reinforcement must continue over to the supports.

4T25 bars (A s =1963 mm2 )

or

2T32 & 1T20 (1608 + 314 = 1922 mm2 )

At the support this would be 2T25 (i.e. at least 50% of reinforcement) or the

2T32s.

not the full area. Conversely at mid-span A s is based on the full area.

b = 300 mm

d =480 mm

From table 3.8 for 100A s /b v d = 0.68 and d 400 mm v c = 0.54 N/mm 2

Design concrete shear stress v c = (f cu /25) 1/3 0.63 = 0.74 N/mm 2

At mid-span 4T25

100A s /b v d=100 1963/(300 480)= 1.36% d = 480 mm

Design concrete shear stress v c = 1.17 0.69 = 0.81 N/mm2

length of the beam.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 55

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beams. The form and area are determined from Table 3.7

f yv =strength of shear reinforcement in this course only mild steel links are

considered

f yv = 250 N/mm2

A sv = total cross-section of links at neutral axis.

The links are designed to go round the outside of the main reinforcement

s v = spacing of links along the member

To begin with A sv and s v are unknowns as they refer to the links. Generally a

size of bar is chosen for the shear reinforcement and the spacing varied along

the length of the beam.

Typically 8, 10, 12 or 16mm diameter bars are used as links. If a bar size is

chosen then this leaves the spacing s v as the only unknown

0.95 f yv A sv

sv = minimum link spacing

0.4 b v

0.95 f yv A sv

sv = close space links

(v v c ) b v

Clause 3.4.5.5 states that, regardless of the above calculation, the spacing of

links should not exceed 0.75d.

56 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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The actual span/depth ratio is compared with the appropriate ratio obtained

from Table 3.9, which is modified by the value, obtained from Table 3.10

Effective span

Effective depth

Cantilever 7

Simply supported 20

Continuous 26

3.10

The value K was previously calculated using K = M 10 6 /bd 2 f cu

Table 3.10 requires M/bd 2 to be calculated

This may be done directly or by rearranging the above equation so:

M/bd 2 =K f cu

f s = 2f y A s req /3 A s pro v Eqn 8

that required, then:

f s = 2/3 f y = 307 N/mm 2

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 57

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addition to the dead loading calculated from the cross-section shown below

and the application of finishes.

Using the additional data, design a suitable arrangement of reinforcement for

the beam and check the beams suitability in deflection.

Finishes to concrete 1 kN/m 2

Beam centres 3m

Exposure conditions mild

Fire period 1 hour

Characteristic strength of concrete f cu = 40 N/mm2

Characteristic strength of main bars f y = 460 N/mm 2

Bar is deformed round (Type 2)

Characteristic strength of links f yv = 250 N/mm2

58 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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Solution

Overall depth of concrete section h = 400 mm

Breadth of concrete section b = 275 mm

Cover: bar diameter

Table 3.3 value = 20 mm

Table 3.4 value = 20 mm

Also Figure 3.2. Minimum beam width = 200 mm in 1-hour fire

Link size is not known, assume 10 mm link diameter

Effective depth of concrete section d = h cover link half main bar

= 400 25 10 25/2 = 350 mm (say)

Span

Beam effective span lesser of:

(a) centre to centre of supports 5000 300/2 300/2 = 4700 mm

(b) clear span + d 5000 2 300 + 350 = 4750 mm

Effective span, L =4.7 m

slab weight 24 0.2 3 14.4 kN/m

beam self weight 24 0.275 0.4 2.64 kN/m

finishes 13 3 kN/m

gk 20 kN/m

35 qk 15 kN/m

= 1.4 20 + 1.6 15

= 52 kN/m

Maximum moment M = (1.4 g k + 1.6 q k ) L 2 /8 = 52 4.7 2 /8

= 143. 6 kNm

Maximum shear force V = (1.4 g k + 1.6 q k ) L/2 = 52 4.7/2 = 122.2 kN

Limiting factor K = 0.156

Compute K = M 10 6 /(bd 2 f cu )

= 143.6 10 6 /(275 350 2 40)

= 0.106

As K <K,.

lever arm z = d(0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9))

= 355(0.5+ (0.25 0.106/0.9))

= 302 mm < 0.95 d (0.95d = 337 mm)

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= 143.6 10 6 /(0.95 460 302)

= 1088 mm2

Percentage area of reinforcement 100A s /bd = 100 1088/(275 355)

= 1.11%

As this is within the code limits of 0.3% and 4% this is satisfactory

Selected reinforcement 4T20 (A s = 1256 mm2 )

Detailing

Clear distance between bars b [(no of bars dia) 2(cover + link dia.)]/(No

of bars 1)

= [275 (4 20) 2(20 + 10]/(4 1)

= 45 mm

Permissible clear distance minimum 25 mm (clause 3.12.11)

maximum 155 mm (table 3.28)

Breadth of section for shear bv = b = 275 mm

Design shear stress v = V 10 3 / (b v d)

= 122.2 1000/(275 355)

= 1.25 N/mm2

Area of reinforcing bars in accordance with Clause 3.4.5.4. (i.e. 50%)

At the support the longitudinal bars effective for shear are 2T20

Area of bars for shear A s pro v = 628 mm2

Percentage provided 100A s pro v /(b v d)

= 100 628/(275 355)

= 0.64%

From Table 3.8 for 100A s prov /(b v d) = 0.64% and d = 355 mm

v c = 0.57 N/mm2

according to footnote in Table 3.8.

Increased shear strength v c = v c (f cu /25) 1/3 = 0.67 N/mm2

(v c + 0.4) = (0.67 + 0.4) = 0.97 N/mm 2

v > (v c + 0.4) [ 1.25 > 0.97 ]

Provide close spaced links near the supports

Assume the use of R10 links A sv = 157 mm2

Spacing of links at ends member s v = A sv 0.95f yv /(b v (vv c ))

= 157 0.95 250/(275(1.25 0.67))

= 233 mm

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Spacing of links s v = A sv 0.95f yv /[(b v (0.4)]

= 157 0.95 250/(275 0.4) = 338 mm

but limited to 0.75 d = 0.75 355 = 266 mm

Provide R10 links at 250 mm centres near the centre of the beam

Provide minimum links in middle 1.5 m (2 0.75 m) of beam, R10s at 250

mm centres

Provide close spaced links at the ends of the beam, R10 at 225mm centres

Actual l/d 4700/355 = 13.2

Basic l/d (Table 3.9) 20

Service stress f s = 2f yA s req /(3A s pro v )

= 2 460 1088/(3 1256)

= 260 N/mm2

M/bd 2 = 143.6 10 6 /(275 355 2 ) = 4.1 N/mm 2

Or alternatively M/bd 2 = K f cu = 0.1 40 = 4 N/mm 2

From Table 3.10 for f s =260 N/mm2 , and M/bd 2 = 4.1

Modification factor for tension steel = 0.92

Permissible simply-supported l/d =20 0.92 = 18.4

As actual < permissible beam is serviceable in deflection (13.2 < 18.4)

Actual l/d 4700/355 = 13.2

Basic l/d ( Table 3.9) 20

Service stress f s 307 N/mm 2

M/bd 2 = K f cu = 0.1 40 = 4 N/mm2

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Modification factor for tension steel = 0.84

Permissible simply-supported l/d =20 0.84 = 16.8

As actual < permissible beam is serviceable in deflection

By taking f s = 307 N/mm 2 (f s =2/3 f y) a conservative value is found always

erring on the safe side.

It will normally be sufficient to consider the following arrangements of

vertical load:

(a) All spans loaded with the maximum design ultimate load

(1.4G k + 1.6Q k )

(b) Alternate spans loaded with the maximum design ultimate load (1.4G k +

1.6Q k ) and all other spans loaded with the minimum design ultimate

load (1.0 G k ).

three possible loading arrangements must be considered:

2. maximum load on main span, minimum load on the overhang

3. minimum load on main span, maximum load on the overhang

force and bending moments in the member and design reinforcement

accordingly. Thus three shear diagrams to be drawn together with their

significant values. These are superimposed on one another and the shear force

envelope created. Similar for the bending moments a bending moment

envelope must be developed.

A sagging moment along the length of the main span (which means the

main reinforcement will be positioned near the bottom surface)

A hogging bending moment over the overhang support (the reinforcement

will be positioned near the top surface).

Thereafter the design procedure in the notes for either a beam or a slab can be

used.

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Example

For the beam shown below and using the loading given in the design data,

determine the maximum sagging and hogging bending moment.

Design data:

Characteristic dead load inclusive of self-weight 24kN/m

Characteristic imposed load 18kN/m

Solution

Maximum load =1.4G k + 1.6Q k = 1.4 24 + 1.6 18 = 62.4 kN/m

Minimum load = 1.0G k =24 kN/m

62.4 10 10/2 = B 8 B = 390 kN

A = 62.4 10 390 = 234 kN

Maximum hogging moment = 0.5 124.8 2 = 124.8 kNm

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62.4 8 8/2 + 24 2 9= B 8 B = 303.6 kN

A = 62.4 8 + 24 2 303.6 = 243.6 kN

Maximum hogging moment = 0.5 48 2 = 48 kNm

24 8 8/2 + 62.4 2 9= B 8 B = 236.4 kN

A = 24 8 + 62.4 2 236.4 = 80.4 kN

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Maximum hogging moment = 0.5 124.8 2 = 124.8 kNm

Hogging bending moment 124.8 kNm

Clause 3.8.4

The first step in the design of a column is to determine whether the proposed

arrangement of column dimensions and height will make it short or slender.

If the column is slender in addition to the axial load it will also be designed

for moments due to deflection, thus for axial design the column must be

short.

Height of column FFL to FFL L= 4.5 m

Depth of the cross section h = 350 mm

Width of column b = 350 mm

Characteristic strength of concrete f cu = 40 N/mm2

Characteristic strength of reinforcement f y = 460 N/mm 2

Flooring arrangement supported by column continuous beam and slab floor

construction with beams 600 mm deep by 350 mm wide in both directions.

All spans equal.

The column is connected at the bottom to a base designed to carry a moment

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The value of is found using Table 3.19 for braced columns and Table 3.20

for unbraced columns where is a function of the end restraint conditions of

the column.

The definitions for braced and unbraced columns are given in clause 3.8.1.5.

the structure as a whole is provided by walls or bracing or buttressing design

to resist all lateral forces in that plane. It should otherwise be considered as

unbraced.

3.8.1.3.

A column may be considered as short when both the ratios l ex /h and l ey /b are

less than 15 (braced) and 10 (unbraced). It should otherwise be considered

as being slender.

For this section of the course the columns will be restricted to short braced

systems.

End condition at top 1 2 3

1 0.75 0.80 0.90

2 0.80 0.85 0.95

3 0.90 0.95 1.00

Condition 1

The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams on either side

which are at least as deep as the overall dimension of the column in the plane

considered.

The column in the example supports beams 600 mm deep.

If the column is the lowest length of a structure and is connected to a

substantial base then condition 1 may also apply at the base.

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Condition 2

The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams or slabs on either

side which are shallower than the column, e.g. the column in the example is

connected to a floor which is 300 mm deep

Condition 3

The column is connected to shallow members that will provide some nominal

restraint, e.g. a shallow floor

In the example consider the column to be connected at the top to beams 600

mm deep and to a substantial base at the bottom:

For top restraint condition 1

bottom restraint condition 1

From Table 3.19 = 0.75

The clear height l o this is defined as the clear height between end

restraints.

For this example the height of the column is given as 4.5 m, with 600 mm

deep beams framing in at the top. Then the clear height

l o = 4.5 0.6 = 3.9 m

Note: The column can have two different effective heights, one based on the

xx axis the other on the yy for simplicity in this course l ex = l ey = l e

In order for the column to be defined as short braced, both the ratios l ex /h and

l ey/b must be less than 15.

As b is defined as the smaller dimension, only one check needs to be applied.

l ey/b < 15

Slenderness of column within allowable for a short column.

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Equation 38 where a column cannot be subject to significant moments due

to the nature of the loading.

N = 0.4 f cu A c + 0.7 A sc f y

arrangement of beams the spans of which do not vary by more than 15% and

the beams are designed to carry uniformly distributed loads.

N = 0.35 f cu A c + 0.7 A sc f y

thus the equations must be rearranged with A sc as the subject.

Note:

Area of concrete A c = Cross-sectional area less area of reinforcement

= (b h) A sc

arrangement of beams, the spans of which do not vary by more than 15%, and

the beams are designed to carry uniformly distributed loads.

Use Equation 39

Main bars

N = 0.35f cu (b.h A sc ) + 0.7 A sc f y

N 103 0.35 f cu b h

Area of reinforcement A sc =

0.7 f y 0.35 f cu

2400 103 0.35 40 350 350

=

0.7 460 0.35 40

= 2224 mm 2

Note: At least four bars must be provided, i.e. one in each corner.

An even number of bars must be provided.

6T25 (A sc = 2944 mm 2 ) or 4T32 (A sc = 3215 mm 2 )

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General rule 100A sc /A cc = 0.4

Minimum Area A sc = 0.4 bh/100 = 0.4 350 350 / 100

A sc = 490 mm 2

Maximum area of reinforcement Cl.3.12.6.2

Vertical cast columns 6% of gross area

A sc = 6/100 bh = 6/100 350 350

A sc = 7350 mm 2

Area of steel chosen is suitable.

links or ties at least one-quarter the size of the largest compression bar or 6

mm, whichever is greater, should be provided at a maximum spacing of 12

times the size of the smallest compression bar.

Minimum diameter of links Quarter the diameter of largest bar

= 25/4 = 6.25 mm

Make diameter of links R8

Mild steel bars are used as the links are only required for containment

purposes and not required to carry load.

Maximum spacing of links 12 times diameter of smallest main bar

2 25 = 300 mm

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Characteristic strength of concrete, f cu 40 N/mm2

Characteristic strength of main reinforcement, f y 460 N/mm2

Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, f yv 250 N/mm2

Unit weight of concrete 24 kN/m 3

Slab design

A simply supported slab spans between two brick walls as shown. For the

given design information determine:

(a) the maximum bending moment and shear force in the slab per metre

width

(c) check the suitability of the slab to resist the shear forces

(d) check the slab for crack control and defection requirements

Design information:

Characteristic imposed load 4.5 kN/m2

Characteristic dead load due to finishes 1.5 kN/m2

Exposure conditions mild

Fire resistance 1 hour

Beam design

analysis purposes the beams may be assumed to have the arrangement of a

simply supported beam with an overhang as shown below:

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(a) Determine:

(i) The maximum sagging bending moment

(ii) The maximum hogging bending moment

(iii) The maximum shear force at support A

sections

Design information:

Characteristic imposed load 5 kN/m 2

Characteristic dead load due to finishes 2 kN/m 2

Characteristic dead load of flooring units 3.8 kN/m2

Exposure conditions moderate

Fire resistance 2 hours

Beam cross-section 300 mm 650 mm

Column design

reinforced concrete building.

(b) If the height of the columns between floor levels is 4.8m and the beams

framing into the columns are 600mm deep, show that the column is

short.

(c) Determine a suitable arrangement of main and link reinforcement.

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Design data:

Characteristic imposed load on floor 5 kN/m 2

Characteristic dead load due to finishes 2 kN/m 2

Axial loads on column X for upper floors

Characteristic imposed load 1200kN

Characteristic dead load 820kN

Exposure conditions moderate

Fire resistance 3 hours

Column cross-section 350mm 350 mm

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Answers

Slab Design

K = 0.031

A S = 575 mm 2 /m

v =0.2 N/mm2 vc= 0.47 N/mm 2

Actual span/depth ratio = 24.1 permissible span/depth ratio = 24.4

Beam design

A(kN) (kN) sagging hogging

moment moment (kNm) moment (kNm)

Load case 1 233.2 505.2 379.8 278.3

Load case 2 255.4 362.2 459 109

Load case 3 70.2 341.3 88.4 278.3

Maximum hogging moment = 278.3 kNm

Maximum shear at A = 255.4 kN

K = 0.108 K = 0.066

z = 0.86 d z = 0.92 d

A s = 2053 mm 2 A s = 1164 mm 2

R12s @ 200 mm centres or equivalent

= 6.2

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Column design

Imposed load from floor = 240 kN Design load, N = 3698 kN

A sc = 6438 mm 2

Main reinforcement 8T32 (6430 mm2 )

Links R8s @350 mm centres, or alternatives

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STUDY GUIDE 4

Introduction

Outcome 5

Design statically determinate structural steel beams.

Outcome 6

Design axially loaded, single-storey steel stanchions.

Use structural section tables to find the properties of universal beams and

universal columns.

This will involve determining the suitability of beams for bending

moment, shear force, deflection, and web buckling and bearing at the

supports.

use of steelwork in building, Part 1: Code of practice for design in simple and

continuous construction.

In addition to the study guide you will require a copy of each of the following

documents:

Universal columns dimensions and properties

Safe load tables bearing/buckling/shear values

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(1) Plastic

Compact in each case the section can resist the full load

Semi-compact (squash load)

It is only necessary for strut design that the section be classified as not

slender.

This is not related to the Euler theory definition of slender but relates to the

ability of the cross-section of the member to carry the load without distortion

of the section.

(2) Slender the section fails at a load less than the squash load

due to local buckling of the section

The amount of load that the members can carry is dependent on the

slenderness, , of the gross section, design strength, p y , and the section

classification.

[load = area stress ]

The design strength is found using Table 6 of BS 5950. In this course only

Grade 43 steel will be considered:

equal to (mm) p y (N/mm 2 )

43 16 275

40 265

63 255

80 245

100 235

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web thickness t = 9.9 mm

flange thickness T= 17.0 mm

Design strength p y = 265 N/mm 2

Note: The design strength depends on the greater material thickness.

For slender sections p y is modified by a stress reduction factor as given in

Table 8 (not applicable to UC sections).

measure of the ease with which the cross-section can distort (or buckle) under

load. This can occur in one of two ways:

(2) The web d/t ratio

Values of b/T and d/t are obtained from the section tables and compared with

the Table 7 limits.

section Compact compact

Outstand element Rolled section b/T 8.5 b/T 9.5 b/T 15

of a compression

flange

Web, where whole Rolled section d/t 39 d/t 39 d/t 39

section is subject

to compression

Flange thickness T = 12.5 mm

Design strength p y = 275 N/mm 2

= (275/p y) 1/2 = (275/275) 1/2 = 1.0

From the section tables, the ratios for local buckling are: b/T = 8.17

d/t = 20.3

b/T = 8.18 < 8.5 Flanges are plastic

d/t = 20.1 < 39 Web is not slender Section is not slender

For axially loaded columns all that is required from the classification of the

section is that it is not slender.

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The slenderness is a measure of the ease with which the strut will buckle

over its length and is found using:

Effective length L

Slenderness = = E

Radius of gyration r

of a member multiplied by a factor to take account of the end conditions and

loading

L E = KL

K = effective length ratio

Note: Universal column sections have two major axes xx and yy, thus there

are two values of slenderness:

L Ex L Ey

= and =

rx ry

strength p c.

reference must first be made to Table 25.

Rolled H-section up to 40 mm 27(b) 27(c)

over 40 mm 27(c) 27(d)

An H-section is one for which the overall depth of the section divided by the

overall breadth (D/B) is less than 1.2. An I-section is one for which D/B >

1.2.

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All UC sections are H-sections, and nearly all of the UB sections are

I-sections.

Flange thickness T = 12.5 mm Design strength p y =275 N/mm 2

Look up Table 27(b) for the xx axis

and Table 27(c) for the yy axis

The critical value of compressive strength is the lesser of the two values from

the tables.

Pc = Ag pc

Struts

(1) From the Section Tables, the material (flange) thickness is found.

(2) The design strength is taken from Table 6 [either 275 or 265 N/mm 2 ].

(3) The effective length, L E , is found using the appropriate end restraint

conditions. L E = 1.0 L or 0.85 L

L Ex L Ey

= and =

rx ry

(5) The strut curve tables for both axes are selected from Table 25.

Tables 27 (a)(d).

the two values.

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For safe economic design, the compressive resistance P c should just exceed

the design load F c , i.e. P c F c .

P resistance or capacity (maximum load which can be applied to the

section)

p strength of the section (permissible stress)

subscripts:

c compression

t tension

b bearing

Example

Check the suitability of a 203 203 52 UC section to carry the applied

axial loads given, if the actual length between restraints is 4.2 m. It can be

assumed that the effective length of the column L E = 0.85L for both axes.

Dead 450 kN

Imposed 350 kN

Solution

Design load, F c = 1.4 Dead + 1.6 Imposed

= 1.4 450 + 1.6 350

= 630 + 560

= 1190 kN.

ratios for local buckling Flange b/T 8.17

Web d/t 20.3

radius of gyration r x 8.90 cm

radius of gyration r y 5.16 cm

area of section A g 66.3 cm2

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Section classification = 1

b/T = 8.17 < 8.5 Plastic

d/t = 20.3 < 39 Not slender

thus section is not slender.

= 0.85 4.2m = 3.57 m for both axes

L Ex L Ey

(4) x = and y =

rx ry

= 40.1 = 69

and from the section tables the radius of gyration is in cm. The units

must cancel out.

In this example the calculation is carried out using cm units.

For buckling about yy axis, use strut curve Table 27(c)

with p y = 275 N/mm 2

Slenderness yy axis p cy = 183 N/mm 2

(7) Pc = Ag pc

= (66.3 100) 183

= 1213000 N = 1213 kN

Note: Be careful with the units. The area is given, in the dimensions and

properties table, in cm2 units, and p cy is in N/mm 2 .

mm 2 N/mm 2 = N

divide by 1000 to determine load in kN

therefore P c > F c and section is suitable.

Compare the value of P c with the value given in the Safe Load Tables.

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are frequently used to carry axial loads. The y-y axis of a UB section is

considerably weaker than a comparable UC section, and to improve its load-

carrying capacity intermediate side rails may be inserted to restrain the yy

axis. This principle can also be applied to any other form of column section.

For the arrangement shown, the column can buckle about the xx axis over

the length L x , whereas for the yy axis the column can buckle over either L y1

or L y2 or L y3 , whichever has the greatest effective length.

Values of p cx and p c y are then calculated and the critical value used to find the

compressive resistance P c .

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The diagram below shows the elevation of a column that is to be provided

with intermediate ties providing restraint about the yy axis only. The

column is to carry axial unfactored loads of 580kN dead and 760kN imposed.

The proposed section for the column is 533 210 101 UB. Check the

suitability of the proposed section, using the safe load tables for UB

sections, L E = 1.0L

Design load = 1.4 dead + 1.6 imposed = 1.4 580 + 1.6 760 = 2028kN

Effective length xx axis L EX = 6.8m

L EY

For L EY = 3.5m P CY = 2060 kN

For L EY = 4.0m P CY = 1850 kN

For L EY = 3.6m P CY = 2060 1/5 (20601850) = 2018kN

L EX

For L EX = 6.5m P CX = 2760 kN

For L EX = 7.0m P CX = 2750 kN

For L EX = 6.8m P CX = 2760 3/5 10 = 2754 kN

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The rules for the design of members in bending are given in sections 4.2 and

4.3 of BS 5950: Part 1. The design of such elements is primarily concerned

with bending strength, but since bending moment is subject to variation along

the length of the member and is accompanied by shear action, the

combination of bending and shear must be taken into account. In addition, the

degree of restraint applied to the beam ends and along its length greatly

influence the bending capacity. If the beam is fully restrained along its

compression flange as defined in clause 4.2.2, there is no need to make any

allowance for lateral torsional buckling.

All beams must have an adequate resistance to bending and shear, and beams

that are not fully restrained laterally must be checked for a reduced bending

capacity due to lateral torsional instability, in accordance with section 4.3.

compression flange fully restrained is where it is required to carry a concrete

floor (either in-situ or formed from pre-cast concrete units) on the top flange.

A bond can form at the steel/concrete interface which will resist any sideways

movement of the beam compression flange.

shear, and the combination of maximum shear and coexistent moment should

be checked.

The beams considered in this course will all be simply supported but will

carry a variety of loading. In this type of example the maximum shear force

will occur at the reactions, where moment is equal to zero. Conversely the

maximum moment will occur at or near the centre of the beam where shear is

zero or has a low value. For design purposes the maximum shear will be

considered together with the maximum moment and the shear will meet the

criteria for low shear load given in clause 4.2.5.

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The applied shear force along the span, F v , should nowhere exceed the shear

capacity, P v

i.e. F v < P v

where P v = 0.6p y A v

for rolled I, H and channel sections, loaded parallel to web

A v = tD

D = overall depth of beam

These values are found from Section Tables

flange thickness.

classification from Table 7.

When F v < 0.6 P v the influence of co-existent shear on the moment capacity

may be ignored and the following capacities applied. All beams on this course

will be subject to the low shear load condition

(1) Plastic (2) Compact (3) Semi-

compact

Outstand element Rolled sections b/T 8.5 d/t 79 b/T 15

of compression

flange

Web, with neutral Rolled sections d/t 79e d/t 98 d/t 120

axis at mid-depth

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Z x = elastic modulus of beam about major axis

These values are found from Section Tables.

Mc = p y Zx

Only the extreme fibres of the section reach the design strength.

M c = p y Z x

p y = p y stress reduction factor of Table 8 (not generally applicable to UB

sections).

Deflection

The beam must be checked for the serviceability limit state of deflection,

such that the actual deflection due to unfactored imposed load only is less

than the deflection limits given in Table 5, i.e.

actual deflection < span/360 or span/200

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Buckling 4.5.2.1

At points of concentrated load such as the condition shown below, where the

beam is supported, it is possible that the beam web can buckle. The

requirements of clause 4.5.2.1 must be met.

for a beam resting on brick supports b 1 =100 mm

for a beam resting on seating cleats b 1 = 21 mm

n 1 = load dispersal length for supports this is equal to half the depth

of the beam

t = beam web thickness

p c = compressive strength of the web found using Table 27(c) of the

code for a slenderness, = 2.5d/t

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Bearing

It is also possible that the junction between the beam flange and web may be

subject to a bearing failure.

The local capacity of the interface between the web and the beam is given by:

P crip = (b 1 + n 2 ) t p y w

flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2.5 to the plane of the

flange.

r = root radius of beam

thickness

A simply supported beam spans over a 6m length and is required to carry the

unfactored loading shown in the diagram below.

DEAD 24kN/m

IMPOSED 30kN/m

(a) bending

(b) shear

(c) bearing over a 75 mm wide support

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Solution

Section properties

Section size 610 229 113 Universal Beam

Depth of steel section D = 607.6 mm

Width of steel section B = 228.2 mm

Thickness of flange T = 17.3 mm

Thickness of web t = 11.1 mm

Root radius r = 12.7 mm

Inertia about major axis I x = 87320 cm 4

Plastic modulus about major axis S x = 3281 cm 3

Elastic modulus Z = 2874 cm 3

Area of section A = 144 cm2

For material thickness of 17.3 mm, from Table 6

Design strength (Grade 43) p y = 265 N/mm2

Youngs modulus E = 205 kN/mm2

Factored loading

Distributed load w = 1.4 dead + 1.6 imposed

= 1.4 24 + 1.6 30

= 81.6 kN/m

Point load W = 1.4 124 + 1.6 84

= 308 kN

Reactions wL/2 + W/2

81.6 6/2 + 308/2

= 398.8 kN

This is also the maximum shear

Maximum moment wL 2 /8 + WL/4

81.6 6 2 /8 + 308 6/4 = 829.2 kNm

Section classification

Ratios for local buckling b/T = 6.60 < 8.5e

d/t = 49.3 < 79e

Therefore section is plastic

Shear 4.2.3

Shear area Av = tD = 11.1 607.6 = 6744.4

mm 2

Shear capacity P v = 0.6 p y A v

= 0.6 265 6744.4/10 3

= 1072.4 kN

Design shear force F v = 398.8 kN

Since F v < 0.6 P v low shear load condition applies Clause 4.2.5

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The beam should be checked for two conditions:

(2) maximum moment and coexistent shear force

If the low shear load condition applies at the reactions, where the shear force

is the highest, it applies along the length of the beam. Thus the beam needs

only to be checked for maximum moment.

Moment capacity for plastic section M c = p yS x p y Z

M c = p yS x

= 265 3281/10 3

= 869.5 kNm

or M c = 1.2p y Z

=1.2 265 2874/10 3

= 914 kNm

Critical value is the lesser of the two

Since M < M c (829.2 kNm < 869.5 kNm) applied moment is within moment

capacity.

Deflection

Apply imposed loads only

Uniform load 30 kN/m

Maximum deflection for a uniformly distributed load

= 5wL 4 /384EI

= 5 30 6000 4 /384 205 10 3

87320 10 4

= 2.83 mm

Maximum deflection for a point load at mid-span

Imposed point load W = 84 kN

= WL 3 /48EI

= 84 10 3 6000 3 /48 205 10 3

87320 10 4

= 2.11 mm

Total deflection = 2.83 + 2.11 = 4.94 mm

From Table 5 the limiting defection for a beam carrying brittle finishes

span/360 =6000/360 = 16.7 mm

Since actual deflection < limiting deflection (4.94 mm < 16.7 mm), the beam

is serviceable in deflection.

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Local capacity of web P cr it = (b 1 +n 2 )t.p yw

where:

Stiff bearing length b 1 = 75 mm

Spread to fillet n 2 = 2.5 (r+T)

= 2.5 (12.7+17.3) = 75 mm

Design strength of web p yw = 275 N/mm2

Local capacity of web P c = (b 1 +n 2 )t.p yw

= (75+75)11.1 275/10 3

= 458 kN

Force applied through flange F v = 398.8 kN

Since value of reaction is less than the capacity of the web, no bearing

stiffener is required.

Buckling capacity of web P w = (b 1 + n 1 )t.p c

where:

Stiff bearing length b 1 = 75 mm

Spread to centre of section n 1 = D/2 = 607.6/2 = 303.8 mm

p c is the compressive strength based on p y for the web (t = 11.1 mm from

Table 6: 275 N/mm 2 )

and slenderness ratio = 2.5 d/t

d is the depth between the fillets obtained from the Section Tables.

Alternatively d/t is the ratio for local buckling obtained when checking the

beam classification (d/t = 49.3).

= 2.5 547.6/11.1 =123.3

or = 2.5 49.3 = 123.3

Compressive strength p c = 94 N/mm2

Buckling capacity of web P w = (b 1 + n 1 )t.p c

= (75+ 303.8)11.1 94/10 3

= 395.2 kN

Since the reaction force is greater than the capacity (398.8 kN > 395.2 kN) a

load carrying stiffener will be required to prevent the web from buckling.

This is not a failure condition and will not change the suitability of the beam

to carry the loads. However stiffeners will have to be designed to help

distribute the end reaction from the beam web to the support.

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Example 2 Use of the moment capacity table and bearing and buckling

values for unstiffened webs tables.

flooring units. The beams are simply supported over a span of 7m.

(a) Select a suitable UB section.

(b) Check the suitability of the chosen beam in shear and deflection.

(c) Check the suitability of the section, using the appropriate safe load

table, for web bearing and buckling, given that the stiff bearing length

at the supports is 40mm.

Design data:

Dead load due to pre-cast concrete units 2.5 kN/m2

Dead load allowance for finishes and self weight 1.5 kN/m2

Imposed load 6 kN/m 2

Solution

Design load = 1.4 dead + 1.6 imposed

(1.4 [2.5 + 1.5]) + 1.6 6) 3 = 45.6 kN/m

Maximum shear, F v =wL/2 = 45.6 7/2 = 159.6 kN

(a) From the moment capacity table select a UB section with a moment

capacity of at least 279.3 kNm.

406 178 54 UB ( M c = 289 kNm)

apply clause 4.2.5, the safe load table has already carried out the

necessary checks.

(b) Before shear can be checked using Cl. 4.2.3, the design strength, p y,

must be found.

For material thickness of 10.9 mm, from Table 6

Design strength (Grade 43) p y = 275 N/mm2

Shear area A v = tD = 7.7 402.6 = 3100 mm 2

Shear capacity P v = 0.6 p y A v

= 0.6 275 3100/10 3

= 511.5 kN

Design shear force F v =159.6 kN

The beam is suitable in shear

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Deflection

Apply unfactored imposed loads only

Uniform load 6 3 = 18 kN/m

Maximum deflection for a uniformly distributed load

= 5wL 4 /384EI

= 5 18 7000 4 /384 205 10 3

18720 10 4

= 14.7 mm

From Table 5, the limiting defection for a beam carrying brittle finishes

L/360

7000/360 = 19.4 mm

Since actual deflection < limiting deflection (14.7 mm < 19.4 mm).

Beam is serviceable in deflection

Using the safe load tables bearing and buckling values for unstiffened webs

At the bottom of the table buckling and bearing values for unstiffened webs

the following formula is given:

web capacity = C 1 +b 1 C 2 +t p C 3

The third term only applies if additional plates have been welded to the

flange of the beam, thus for a universal beam only

web capacity = C 1 +b 1 C 2

Bearing

For the 406 178 54 UB end bearing

C 1 = 111

C 2 = 2.09

Stiff bearing length, b 1 = 40 mm

= 111 + 83.6 = 194.6 kN > 159.6 kN

Beam web does not require a bearing stiffener

Buckling

For end buckling C 1 = 152

C 2 = 0.753

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= 152 + 30.1 = 182.1 kN > 159.6 kN

Beam web does not require a buckling stiffener

The end column of the table also gives the shear capacity of the section found

using

Shear capacity P v = 0.6 py A v From table P v = 505 kN

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Designation Designation

Serial Mass/ Moment Serial Mass/ Moment

Size metre Capacity Size metre Capacity

mm kg kNm mm kg kNm

914 x 419 388 4690 406 x 178 74 412

343 4110 67 371

60 327

914 x 305 289 3340 54 289

253 2890

224 2520 406 x 140 46 244

201 2220 39 198

194 2030 57 278

176 1800 51 246

45 213

762 x 267 197 1900

173 1640 356 x 127 39 180

147 1370 33 148

152 1320 46 199

140 1210 40 172

125 1060

305 x 127 48 194

610 x 305 238 1980 42 168

179 1460 37 148

149 1210

305 x 102 33 132

610 x 229 140 1100 28 112

125 975 25 92

113 872

101 792 254 x 146 43 156

37 133

533 x 210 122 848 31 109

109 747

101 694 254 x 102 28 97

92 652 25 84

82 566 22 72

89 533 25 71

82 503

74 456

67 404 203 x 102 23 63

74 429 152 x 89 16 34

67 396

60 352

52 300 127 x 76 13 23

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Figure 1 shows the part layout of multi-storey steelwork structure with pre-

cast concrete floor units. The construction is such that all beams may be

assumed to have full lateral restraint to their compression flanges and all

connections can be assumed to be simple.

Beams

Type A

(a) Determine the design uniformly distributed load on a typical internal

beam.

(b) Determine the maximum bending moment and shear force on beam type

A.

406 178 74 UB section for:

(i) bending

(ii) shear

(ii) deflection

Type B

(a) Determine the design concentrated load on a typical internal beam.

(b) Determine the maximum bending moment and shear force on beam type

B.

(c) Using the moment capacity table for Universal Beams select a suitable

UB section.

(d) Check the suitability of the selected beam for shear and deflection.

(e) If the end reactions of beam B bear on to a stiff bearing length of 50mm

at the stanchions, check the beam for web bearing and web buckling.

Stanchion X

(a) Determine the design axial load on the column due to the flooring.

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design axial load of 3160kN from upper floors. Using the appropriate

clauses of BS 81101, check the suitability of a 305 305 158 UC

section if the length between restraints is 4m and the effective length L E

=0.85L.

(c) If the UC were to be replaced by a UB section, from the safe load tables

select a suitable section if side rails were used to restrain the yy axis at

mid-height. L E =1.0L for both axes.

Design information

Characteristic dead load due to floor units 2.8 kN/m2

Characteristic dead load due to self weights

and finishes 2.2 kN/m2

Characteristic imposed load 5 kN/m 2

Deflection formulae:

Uniformly distributed load =5wL 4 /384EI

Concentrated load at third points =23WL 3 /684EI

Figure 1

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Answers

Type A beam

Maximum shear force F v = 199.2 kN

Type B beam

(c) Section 610 305 149 UB or 686 254 140 UB for both

M c = 1210 kNm

deflection = 14.4 < span/360

Web buckling capacity 431 kN

Column

P c = 4526 kN

UB section: 686 254 170 or alternative P cy = 4700 kN, P cx = 5040 kN

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STUDY GUIDE 5

Introduction

Outcome 7

Design vertically loaded single-leaf and cavity walls in structural

masonry.

Outcome 8

Design flooring, simply supported floor joists and axially loaded

columns in structural timber.

Design single-leaf and cavity walls formed from bricks and/or blocks.

This will involve determining the suitability of beams for bending

moment, shear force, deflection and bearing at the supports.

BS 56281:1992 Code of practice for masonry

Part 1: Structural use of unreinforced masonry

Timber

BS 52682:1996 Structural use of timber

Part 2: Code of practice for permissible stress design, materials and

workmanship

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Materials

blockwork) and mortar. The final strength of the structural elements formed

is dependent on:

The strength of the brick (obtained from the manufacturers data sheets)

The strength of the mortar (dependent on mortar constituents and

proportions)

engineering

Calcium silicate

Concrete bricks

Clay blocks

Dense concrete blocks

Aerated (or lightweight) concrete blocks

Sizes can vary from 100 to 200 mm wide, up to 300 mm high and 440 mm

long.

Masonry cement and sand

Cement: sand with plasticiser

to sand, e.g. 1:2:8 (cement: lime: sand). Cement sand mortars have strength

but accommodate movement poorly. Introducing varying amounts of lime

allows the mortar to accommodate settlement, temperature and moisture

changes to which the final structure may be subject, but has the disadvantage

of reducing the final strength of the mortar. Table 1 of BS 5628 designates

four ranges of mortars assigned (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv).

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movement.

(iv) indicates a mortar good at accommodating movement but having low

strength.

Table 1 further specifies the conditions of use between the three main mortar

types:

Cement: lime: sand mortars have good bonding properties and hence high

resistance to rain penetration but low resistance to frost attack. Conversely

cement: sand with plasticiser mortars have a high resistance to frost attack

but do not bond well with the bricks or blocks and may be subject to rain

penetration. Masonry mortars attempt to provide a medium between the other

two mortar types by having better bonding properties than cements with

plasticisers and an increased resistance to frost attack over cement: lime: sand

mortars.

Loads

In determining the loads on elements of the structure the following

characteristic loads and their combinations are considered in this course.

Dead:

The characteristic dead load (G k ) is the weight of the structure complete with

finishes, fixtures and partitions.

Imposed:

The characteristic imposed load (Q k ) is calculated in accordance with BS

6399: Part 1, based on the activity/occupancy for which the floor area will be

used, or in accordance with BS 6399: Part 3 for roof loads.

Combinations of the above loads form the basis of the design loads used in

the analysis of the structural elements. Clause 22 of the code outlines, for

combinations of load, the design loads taken as the sum of the products of the

component loads multiplied by the appropriate partial safety factor.

For example, the combination of dead and imposed load used for the design

load is taken as the most severe condition of:

Design dead load = 0.9 G k or 1.4 G k

Design imposed load = 1.6 Q k

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The characteristic strength f k of any masonry wall or column must take into

consideration the following factors:

2. The brick type and strength Table 2 (a) to (d) dependent on the brick

or block unit used and ratio of block dimensions see clause 23.1.

If the plan area is less than 0.2 m 2 the characteristic compressive

strength f k is multiplied by the factor:

(0.70 + 1.5A) 23.1.1

For example 23.1.2 states that the thickness of the wall (single leaf) is

equal to the width of a standard brick format. The value of f k obtained

from table 2(a) may be multiplied by 1.15

Example

Question

A brick wall is to be constructed of standard bricks having a compressive

strength of 50 N/mm 2 as specified in the manufacturers literature. The mortar

is required to have high strength and a good resistance to frost during

construction. The wall thickness is not of standard brick thickness. Select a

suitable mortar and hence determine the characteristic strength of the

masonry f k .

Solution

Using Table 1

Good resistance to frost and high strength is required. Therefore use a

cement: sand mortar with plasticiser highest strength designation (ii).

For mortar designation (ii) and brick compressive strength 50 N/mm 2

f k = 12.2 N/mm2

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14 N/mm2 .

design procedures.

Values of g m can be found using Table 4 and are dependent on:

Category of construction control.

supplied if not specifically stated otherwise. Special indicates that the

manufacturer has high quality control limits such that the bricks or blocks

provided consistently meet a high standard.

any rigorous supervision and testing requirements. Special indicates that

supervision and control on site are to a high level of quality control.

special control, but on site only have normal construction control. In this case

from Table 4 this would give a value m of 3.1.

As with the other materials used in the design of structural elements, when

dealing with compressive members (columns and walls in the case of

masonry) slenderness is a key factor.

slenderness ratio =

effective thickness

The effective height or length is found using clause 28.3 which lists for walls,

columns and piers the effective height as a function of the clear distance

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similar to the methods given in the structural steelwork and reinforced

concrete codes (for example L E = 1.0L in steel and l e = l o in concrete

design).

For masonry design the explanation of the terms lateral support and enhanced

resistance are given in clause 28.2.

Lateral supports

depending on whether the support is provided on a horizontal or vertical line.

Examples of the type of support given are listed below.

For this course only dead and imposed load on walls will be considered, thus

only the effective height of the structure need be calculated, as walls required

to carry wind loading are considered to span vertically.

Simple resistance

For houses not exceeding three storeys, with timber floors and joists spaced

not more than 1.2 m apart, and connected by suitable joist hangers.

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Enhanced resistance

(a) Floors or roofs of any form of construction spanning from both sides at

the same level, i.e. interior load bearing walls

(b) In-situ concrete floors which bear on to at least half the thickness of the

wall or inner leaf of a cavity wall, but not less than 90 mm

(c) In the case of houses of not more than three storeys, a timber floor

spanning onto a wall from one side and has a bearing not less than 90

mm

(2) Enhanced resistance is taken as 0.75 times the clear distance between

supports.

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reference to Table 5 and is explained in further detail in clauses 28.4.1 and

28.4.2

Example

A load bearing internal single leaf wall having a clear height of 3.4 m is to be

formed using standard format bricks. It may be assumed that the floors are

formed using timber joints at 450mm centres. Determine the slenderness of

the wall.

Solution

The floor will provide enhanced resistance to the wall.

Slenderness ratio = = = 24.9 < 27 OK

Effective thickness 102.5

Eccentricity of loading

The design of the wall must take into account any eccentricity of loading that

may occur. Clause 31 gives guidance on the application of dead and imposed

loads in walls.

For external walls with the floor bearing directly onto the wall, the load is

assumed to act at 1 / 3 the bearing depth from the loaded face.

For interior walls with continuous flooring each side of the floor, the load

may be taken as bearing on to 1 / 2 the width of the wall and each portion is

assumed to act at 1 / 3 the bearing depth from the loaded face.

For joist hangers the load is assumed to act at the face of the wall.

Loads from upper storeys are assumed to act axially on the wall in all cases.

applied loading with the moment due to the total load on the wall, and is

expressed in terms of the wall thickness t.

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The actual load on the wall is compared with the design vertical resistance of

the wall. Clause 32.2.1 gives the formula for calculating the design vertical

resistance of a wall per unit length and the definitions of the terms.

.t.f k

m

eccentricity, and is obtained from table 7

t thickness of the wall

f k characteristic strength of the masonry

m partial safety factor for the material

Example

Single leaf wall

A single leaf internal brick wall of a traditionally built house is subject to the

loading given in the design data. It may be assumed that the floor consists of

timber joists at 450mm centres spanning across the wall.

Check the suitability of the wall in compression.

Design data

Axial design load from upper floor 48 kN/m

Characteristic imposed loading on floors 1.5 kN/m2

Characteristic dead load inclusive of self-weight of floors 0.6 kN/m2

Span of floor on left hand side of wall 3m

Span of floor on right hand side of wall 4m

Clear height of wall 2.7 m

Compressive strength of standard brick units 10 N/mm 2

Mortar designation (iv)

Category of manufacturing control of structural units normal

Category of construction control normal

Solution

Calculate design loads

Upper floors 48 kN/m

Design load on floor = 1.4 0.6 + 1.6 1.5

= 3.24 kN/m2

Load from l.h.s floor = 3.24 3/2 R 1 = 4.9 kN/m

Load from r.h.s floor = 3.24 4/2 R 2 = 6.5 kN/m

R T = 59.4 kN/m

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The eccentricity from the timber floors is assumed to be applied at t/3

Applying R T .e x = SR.t/3

59.4 e x = 6.5 t/3 4.9 t/3

= 0.009t

Slenderness 28

Timber floor spanning across the wall would be assumed to give enhanced

resistance (see 28.2.2.2(a)).

= 102.5 mm

Slenderness ratio = = = 19.8 < 27 suitable

effective thickness 102.5

As e x < 0.05 t, eccentricity is taken as 0.05 t

Slenderness

18 0.77

20 0.70

Interpolating for 19.8 0.706

Material safety factor from Table 4 for normal conditions of manufacture and

construction control m is 3.5.

The compressive strength from the manufacturers data 10 N/mm 2 and mortar

designation is (iv) from Table 2.

f k = 3.5 N/mm2

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This can be multiplied by 1.15, as it is a single leaf brick wall that is equal in

width to the width of a standard format brick (see cl.23.1.2)

m

= 82.7N/mm = 82.7kN/m

3.5

As this value exceeds the total design load on wall (59.4 kN/m), wall is

suitable.

The design process is the same as that for the single leaf wall but additional

points listed below should be considered:

brick brick

brick block

block block

The two leaves of masonry are connected by ties in accordance with clause

29.1 and Table 6 of BS 5628.

As the walls are connected by ties, the effective height of the outer leaf is

taken as being the same as that of the inner leaf.

or t 1

or t 2

The strength calculations are based on a single leaf.

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Example

Cavity wall

Using the design data, check the suitability of the prescribed concrete blocks

and select a suitable compressive strength of brick.

Design data:

Compressive strength of units:

Inner leaf block 150 mm thick 225 mm

high 440 mm long 5 N/mm2

Characteristic loads from upper floor on inner leaf:

Dead 40 kN/m

Imposed 18 kN/m

Imposed loading on floors 3 kN/m 2

Dead load inclusive of self weight of floors 3.5 kN/m 2

(units bear in inner leaf only)

Clear height of wall 3.15 m

Mortar designation (iii)

Category of manufacturing control of structural units normal

Category of construction control normal

Solution

Calculate design loads

Outer leaf axial 1.4 13 + 1.6 6 27.8 kN/m

Inner leaf

Axial 1.4 40 + 1.6 18 84.8 kN/m

Floor (1.4 3.5 + 1.6 3) 4.6/2 R1 = 22.3 kN/m

Total load R T = 107.1 kN/m

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The eccentricity from the floor may be taken as t / 3

Applying R T e x = R 1 t/3

107.1 e x = 22.3 t/3

22.3t

ex = = 0.07t

107.1 3

Slenderness 28

resistance, see 28.2.2.2(a).

(a) 2/3 (t 1 + t 2 ) = 2/3(102.5 + 150) = 168.33 mm

(b) t 1 102.5 mm

(c) t 2 150 mm

Slenderness ratio = = = 14 < 27 suitable

effective thickness 168.33

Slenderness of 14 0.89 0.83

Material safety factor from Table 4 for normal conditions of manufacture and

construction control m = 3.5

The compressive strength from the manufacturers data 5 N/mm 2 and mortar

designation is (iii).

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As solid concrete blocks are used with a height to least horizontal dimension

ratio = 225/150 = 1.5

between the values given in tables 2 (b) and 2(d)

Table 2(b) f k = 2.5 N/mm2

Table 2(d) f k = 5.0 N/mm2

f k = 3.75 N/mm2

m

= 139.2N/mm = 139.2kN/m

3.5

As this value exceeds the total design load on wall (107.1 kN/m), wall is

suitable.

construction. Piers are placed at regular intervals along the wall and have the

advantage of reducing the slenderness ratio of the wall and hence increasing

its load carrying capacity. Piers may be introduced into single leaf or cavity

walls.

The design procedure is the same as that for a single leaf or cavity wall, with

an additional consideration given in Table 5 when determining the effective

thickness of the wall.

Example

The diagram below shows the outline of a cavity wall with piers at 3m

centres. The wall is to be formed from blockwork 100 mm thick for both

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leaves with the piers being an additional 100 mm thick and 300 mm wide.

The cavity between the inner and outer leaves may be assumed to be 50 mm.

Check the suitability of the inner leaf to carry the loads given in the design

data. It may be assumed that the floor units bear over the entire width of the

inner leaf. The height of the wall may be considered as being 4.2m.

Design data:

Structural units: concrete block

100 mm thick 200 mm high 300 mm long 7 N/mm2

Loads from upper floor:

Inner leaf dead 30 kN/m

imposed 20 kN/m

Imposed loading on floor 5 kN/m 2

Dead load inclusive of self weight of floors 4 kN/m 2

Span of pre-cast concrete units forming floor 3.5 m

Mortar designation (ii)

Category of manufacturing control of structural units normal

Category of construction control normal

Solution

Note: for simplicity the outer leaf calculations have been omitted they

would be carried out using the procedure adopted in the previous example.

Inner leaf

Axial 1.4 30 + 1.6 20 74 kN/m

Floor (1.4 4 + 1.6 5) 3.5/2 R 1 = 23.8 kN/m

Total load R T = 97.8 kN/m

The eccentricity from the floor may be taken as t/3

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Applying R T .e x = SR.t/3

97.8 e x = 23.8 t/3

23.8t

ex = = 0.08t

99.8 3

Slenderness 28

resistance, see 28.2.2.2(a).

pier width = 3000/300

= 10

Ratio t p /t 2 = 200/100 = 2

be interpolated in some

examples)

(b) t1 100 mm

(c) Kt 2 = 1.2 100 120 mm

Slenderness ratio = = = 21.5 < 27 suitable

effective thickness 146.7

Slenderness of 20 0.70 0.64

Slenderness of 22 0.62 0.56

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Material safety factor from Table 4 for normal conditions of manufacture and

construction control m = 3.5

The compressive strength from the manufacturers data 7 N/mm 2 and mortar

designation is (ii).

As solid concrete blocks are used with a height to least horizontal dimension

ratio = 200/100 = 2

Use Table 2(d) for unit strength 7 N/mm 2 and mortar designation (ii)

f k = 6.4 N/mm2

m

= 109.7N/mm = 109.7kN/m

3.5

As this value exceeds the total design load on wall (97.8 kN/m), wall is

suitable.

deflections derived from elastic theory.

with elastic bending theory provided that the permissible material stresses are

not exceeded. The bending expression can be applied to timber design:

At any point across a section of a beam which is located a distance y from the

neutral axis of a section, a stress f will be developed as a consequence of

applying a bending moment M to the section. The magnitude of the stress

developed will vary with the second moment of area of the section I.

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In the timber design code, is the designation for stress, hence the above

equation may be written as:

M/I = /y

maximum compressive and tensile bending stress will occur at the extreme

fibres. Thus y is equal to half the depth of the section.

combine the two terms in a single property which is referred to as the elastic

modulus and denoted by the symbol Z.

Z = I/y

section and h the depth then I and y may be expressed as:

Considering, from the bending expression, M/I = /y and combining with the

definition of elastic modulus then:

M = Z

This can be rearranged to determine the maximum bending stress in the beam

and then compared with the permissible stress that the beam may carry.

The other checks required to timber beams are shear, bearing, deflection and

the maximum depth to breadth ratio.

As the beams are simply supported, and generally carry uniformly distributed

loads, shear will be a maximum at the supports.

3 Load

Maximum shear stress =

2 Cross-sectional area

The end bearing area is dependent on the contact area with the beam support.

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Load Load

Maximum bearing stress = =

Contact area width of beam bearing length

Both of these values can then be compared with the permissible values

obtained from the design code.

Maximum deflections are determined using the standard deflection formulae

and compared with the deflection limits given in the design code.

determined formula. The cut wood has to be inspected and graded by visual

or mechanical means. The design code allows for a number of strength

classes based on the inspection of the timber, or alternatively, if the species

of timber is known it may be classified as given in Table 8 of the code

according to its standard name.

Appropriate grade stresses are assigned to the graded timber. For flexure the

appropriate grade stresses are:

Compression perpendicular to the grain

Shear parallel to the grain

Account must also be taken of the loading and exposure conditions that the

timber will be subject to. The design code lists almost thirty factors that can

be applied to the grade stresses. Only a few will be of concern in this course.

Modification factors

It is difficult to artificially dry solid timber more than 100 mm thick, unless it

is specially dried. BS 5268 recognises three services classes that are related

to the conditions of end use. Service classes 1 and 2 generally require the

timber to be artificially dried and the dimensions and properties of the dried

timber can be taken as the grade values. Service class 3 timber is used when

the finished structure is fully exposed or if the timber is more than 100 mm

thick. In this case the grade values must be modified by a factor K 2 found in

Table 13 which allows for the differing load carrying mechanisms of wet and

dry timber.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 117

S TU DY GU ID E 5

class timber moisture each piece at time

content each piece at time

3 External & fully exposed > 20 %

2 Covered and unheated 18 % 24 %

2 Covered and heated 15 % 20 %

1 Internal use and 18% 24%

continuously heated 12% 20%

Service class 3 timber uses modified stresses and moduli. i.e. K 2 <1

Duration of loading K 3

The grade stresses based on the strength classes of the timber apply to long-

term loading on the structural element. Table 14 gives a modification factor

for various load durations and list values of K 3 varying from 1.0 to 1.75. K 3

is applied to the grade stresses only and does not apply to the modulus of

elasticity.

Load-sharing systems K 8

A load-sharing system may be considered as being, for example, a series of

four or more floor joists connected by flooring in such a way that act together

a standard timber floor. Provided that the joists are no farther apart than

610 mm centres then the grade stresses should be modified by the

modification factor K 8 =1.1.

For all other systems K 8 may be taken as being equal to 1.0.

For load-sharing systems the mean modulus of elasticity should be used to

calculate any deflections except in circumstances where dynamic loads may

occur, e.g. gymnasia, where the minimum value should be used.

Depth factor K 7

The grade stresses based on the strength classes of the timber apply to

materials having a depth (h) of 300 mm. A modification factor K 7 is applied

to the grade bending stress of beams having a depth other than 300 mm.

72 mm or less 1.17

72 > h < 300 (300/h) 0.11

h > 300 0.81(h 2 + 92300)

(h 2 + 56200)

118 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Notching the end of a beam for construction purposes causes stress

concentrations that must be allowed for in the shear calculation. The shear

stress should be calculated by using the effective depth (h e ) shown in Figure

2. The grade shear stress should be multiplied by a modification factor K 5 to

obtain the permissible stress.

Note: Beams with notches on the top edge are not considered in this unit.

Deflection

The deflection is acceptable if the deflection of the fully loaded beam does

not exceed 0.003 times the span of the member or 14mm whichever is the

lesser.

Boarding

Check the suitability of 20mm tongued and grooved floor boarding spanning

between 50mm 250mm timber joists at 600mm centres. The boards are of

strength class C14.

board spans over a number of joists and for analysis purposes may be treated

as a continuous beam.

The maximum moment occurs at an internal support and may be found using

M = wL 2 /10. The maximum shear force (reaction) occurs at the outside

support and may be taken as V= 0.4wL.

Additional data:

Dead load inclusive of self-weight of boards 0.15 kN/m2

Imposed load 1.5 kN/m2

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 119

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Solution

Consider a width of boarding (b) = 1m b=1000 mm

(Actual width of floor is immaterial if width of one metre is assumed)

Length between supports L = 600mm = 0.6m

Load on boarding w =dead + imposed = 0.15 + 1.5 = 1.65 kN/m2

Considering a typical 1m width of board b=1.65 1 = 1.65 kN/m

Bending

Elastic modulus of board Z = bh 2 /6 = 1000 20 2 /6 = 66667 mm 3

Permissible stress =

grade bending stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3 K 7 K 8

K 2 wet stresses modification factor material 20 mm

thick service class 1 K2 = 1

K 3 duration of loading on floor this may be taken

as long term K3 = 1

K 7 depth factor less than 72 mm K 7 = 1.17

K 8 load-sharing boards are load-sharing K 8 = 1.1

= 5.28 N/mm2 > 0.9 N/mm2 boards suitable in bending

Shear

3V 3 0.4 103

Maximum shear stress v = = = 0.03 N/mm2

2bh 2 1000 20

120 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Permissible stress =

grade shear stress parallel to the grain K 2 K 3 K 8

The modification factors used for bending are still applicable except K 7 that

is applied to bending only.

Permissible stress = 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.1

= 0.66 N/mm2 > 0.03 N/mm 2 boards suitable in shear

Deflection

E mean from Table 7 C14 (one board cannot act on its own) E = 6800 N/mm 2

Floor joists

The floor joists for the boarding example above also require to be checked. It

may be assumed that the joists are simply supported over a span of 3.6 m and

bear on to blockwork supports 100 mm wide. The revised dead load to

include for the self-weight of the beam may be taken as 0.34 kN/m2 . The

joists are strength class C16.

Solution

Centres of joists 600mm = 0.6m

= (0.34 + 1.5) 0.6 = 1.1 kN/m

Bending

Maximum moment M = wL 2 /8 = 1.1 3.6 2 /8 = 1.78 kNm

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 121

S TU DY GU ID E 5

K7 K8

K 2 wet stresses modification factor material 20 mm

thick service class 1 K 2 =1

K 3 duration of loading on domestic floor this may be

taken as long term K 3 =1

K 7 depth factor (clause 2.10.5)

K 8 load-sharing boards are load-sharing K 8 =1.1

The assumption is that the floor boards are of sufficient length to distribute

the load over at least four joists.

= 5.95 N/mm2 < 3.42 N/mm 2

Beam satisfactory in bending.

Shear

3V 3 1.98 103

Maximum shear stress v = = = 0.24 N/mm 2

2bh 2 50 250

The modification factors used for bending are still applicable

(K 7 is only applicable to bending)

Permissible stress = 0.67 1.0 1.0 1.1

= 0.74 N/mm2 > 0.24 N/mm 2 joist suitable in shear

122 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Bearing

Joist bears on to a 100mm wide support and width of joist is 50mm

Reaction 1.98 103

Actual bearing stress = = = 0.39 N/mm 2

Bearing length width 100 50

K8

N/mm 2

Two values of compression perpendicular to the grain are given in Table 7.

Which value should be used? Reference should be made to Note 1 of the

table.

Permissible stress = 2.2 1.0 1.0 1.1

= 2.42 N/mm2 > 0.39 N/mm 2 bearing length is suitable

Deflection

E mean from Table 7 C14 (one board cannot act on its own) E = 8800 N/mm 2

I =bh 3 /12 = 50 250 3 /12 = 65.1 10 6 mm4

= 5wL 4 /384EI = 5 1.1 3600 4 /(384 8800 65.1 10 6 ) = 4.2 mm

3600 = 10.8 mm

Notches

If the beam is notched at the support, then the shear cross-sectional area is

reduced and the modification factor K 5 applies (see clause 2.10.4).

Consider the above beam with a 75mm notch on the underside.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 123

S TU DY GU ID E 5

3V 3 1.98 103

Maximum shear stress v = = = 0.34 N/mm 2

2bh 2 50 174

K5

= 0.52 N/mm2 > 0.34 N/mm 2

dependent on the slenderness ratio.

L e = effective length is found using Table 18, which lists for conditions of

end restraint, the ratio of L e /L, where L is the actual length.

will be dealt with, there are two possible axes of buckling, xx and the yy.

Hence there are two values of slenderness ratio:

x = L ex /i x y = L ey /i y

Where I (for a rectangular section) = bh 3 /12 Ix =bh 3 /12 and Iy =hb 3 /12

124 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Area A = bh

In no case should the slenderness ratio exceed 180 (see clause 2.11.4)

The permissible stress is based on the comments of clause 2.11.5 which gives

two design procedures:

columns)

2. Compression members with slenderness ratios greater than 5 (slender

columns)

In both cases the permissible stress is taken as the grade compression stress

parallel to the grain multiplied by the modification factors for moisture

content, duration of loading and load sharing.

In addition for members with a slenderness greater than 5, the above formula

is multiplied by K 12 given in Table 19.

E/ c ,

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 125

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Example

Single column

A timber column 200mm 200mm is required to carry a load of 210 kN. The

load has been transferred to the column by timber joists such that the end

restraint conditions top and bottom may be taken as restrained in position but

not in direction. The height of column is 2.8 m and the timber may be taken

as strength class C27. The load may be considered as short term.

Solution

As timber is greater than 100mm thick it would be difficult to dry the section,

so use wet stresses. Values found in Table 7 are modified by factor K 2 found

in Table 13

From Table 7

c , = compression parallel to the grain = 8.2 N/mm2 K 2 = 0.6

E min = 8200 N/mm 2 K 2 = 0.8

L e =1.0L = 2800 mm

A = bh = 200 200 = 40000 mm 2

i= I/A = 57.7 mm

l = L e /i = 2800/57.7 = 48.5 (for both axes) < 180 suitable

40 50

1300 0.809 0.757

1400 0.811 0.760

rectangular sections, in this example 2800/200 = 14

11.6 14.5

1300 0.809 0.757

1400 0.811 0.760

as before.

126 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 5

K 8 for non load-sharing member = 1.0

= 8.2 0.6 1.5 1 0.767

= 5.66 N/mm2

Example

Column forming part of a partition wall

axial load of 24 kN. The column forms part of a partition wall that is 3.9 m

high and the columns are arranged such that there is no load sharing. The

column is restrained in position only top and bottom and is provided with

restraining side rails at the third points about the weaker axis. Check the

suitability of strength class C22 to carry the load.

Solution

As there are two differing effective lengths and hence two different

slenderness ratios, the critical axis must be identified

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 127

S TU DY GU ID E 5

L e = 3.9m L e =1.3m

72 168 3

168 723

I = bh 3 /12 Ix = Iy =

12 12

28.45 10 6 mm 4 5.23 10 6 mm 4

48.5 mm 20.8 mm

3900 1300

l = L e /I = 80.4 = 62.5

48.5 20.8

From Table 7

From Table 19 for the ratio value of 867 and l = 80.4 K 12 = 0.51

K 8 for non-load sharing member = 1.0

= 7.5 1.0 1.25 1 0.51

= 4.78 N/mm2

= 1.98 N/mm2

128 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Timber design

In order to gain more space for selling goods a retailer has decided to have a

mezzanine floor erected in High Street premises. The retailer has requested

that the construction should be timber, be left exposed, and be a feature of the

premises.

Figure 1 shows the proposed mezzanine plan and part section. A trimmer

beam will support the floor joists internally, and externally the joists will be

supported by the existing brick walls.

Floor joists

(a) If the floor joists are at 600mm centres, determine the design loading on

a typical member.

section.

Trimmer beam

(a) Treating the loading from joists to be uniformly distributed, determine

the maximum bending moment and shear force in the trimmer beam.

(b) Given that the floor joists provide full lateral restraint to the trimmer,

check the suitability of a 121mm 321mm section in bending and

deflection.

(c) If the beam bears on to 100mm wide brick at the external supports

check its suitability in bearing.

(d) In order to reduce the overall depth of the floor construction a 70mm

notch is to be cut out of the trimmer beam as shown in the part section.

Check the suitability of the beam in shear at the column support

Column

(a) Determine the design loading on the column.

(b) Check the suitability of the 121mm 121mm section if the effective

length of the column can be taken as 3m.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 129

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Design data

Duration of loading long term

Timber grade C27

Dead loading including self-weight of timber 1.5 kN/m2

Imposed loading 4 kN/m 2

Figure 1

130 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Masonry design

Figure 2 shows the layout of a derelict city centre building, the existing

external walls of which are incapable of resisting any additional loads. Your

client has recently purchased the building with a view to renovating it. The

local authority has insisted that the existing facade must remain in place if

possible. After a structural survey had been carried out on the building it was

discovered that one wall was in such a bad state of repair that it must be

demolished.

In consultation with the client and his architect it has been decided that an

inner carcass of brick work or block work will be used to transmit the loads

from the structure to the foundations and a new cavity wall would replace the

wall that has to be demolished. The new masonry will be tied to the existing

facade to provide it with a degree of stability but there will be no load

interaction between the existing and new work.

The client has a supply of bricks that he wishes to use on the contract.

However the architect feels that 150mm blocks for the cavity wall and

200mm blocks for the inner carcass wall would be a better arrangement.

Two designs are thus required for the new masonry adjacent to the facade and

for the wall replacing the demolished side.

Considering the walls that are to be designed to have a clear height of 3.6m

and that the floors framing into the walls provide enhanced resistance and

using relevant design information given:

Brick

(a) Determine the design axial load per metre on a single skin brick wall

with piers every 3m.

(b) Check the suitability of this arrangement to carry the design load.

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 131

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Block

(c) Determine the design axial load per metre on a 200 mm block wall.

designation to carry the design load.

Brick

(a) Determine the design axial load per metre on a cavity brick wall with

piers every 1.5m.

(b) Check this arrangement of the brick wall to carry the design load.

Block

(c) Determine the design axial load per metre on the 150 mm block cavity

wall

designation to carry the design load. The cavity width between the

skins may be taken as 60 mm.

Design data:

Characteristic dead due to flooring 2.6kN/m 2

Characteristic imposed load 3kN/m 2

Single skin walls

For brick wall dead 40kN/m

imposed 50kN/m

For block wall dead 44kN/m

imposed 50kN/m

Cavity wall

Brick

Inner leaf dead 80kN/m

imposed 66kN/m

132 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Block

Inner leaf dead 84kN/m

imposed 66kN/m

throughout

Bricks supplied by client standard format compressive strength of unit

50 N/mm2

Mortar designation (iii)

Proposed blocks solid concrete 440mm long 215mm high 150 or 200

thick.

Figure 2

ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH ) 133

S TU DY GU ID E 5

Answers

Timber

Floor joists

Design loading 3.3 kN/m

Max. moment 6.6 kNm

Max. shear force 6.6 kN

Permissible bending stress 11.4 N/mm 2 actual bending stress 9.76 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress 1.21N/mm2 actual shear stress 0.53 N/mm2

Trimmer beam

Design loading 11 kN/m

Max. moment 17.8 kNm

Max. shear force 19.8 kN

Permissible bending stress 9.9 N/mm 2 actual bending stress 8.6 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress 0.93N/mm2 actual shear stress 0.9 N/mm2

Permissible bearing stress 2.75N/mm2 actual bearing stress 1.63 N/mm2

Column

Design load 39.6 kN

Permissible compressive stress

4.13 N/mm2 actual compressive stress 2.7 N/mm2

Masonry

Single leaf brick

Total load 163.34 kN/m minimum eccentricity

Slenderness 23.9

Resistance 164.5 kN/m

Single leaf block

Total load 169 kN/m minimum eccentricity

Slenderness 13.5

Minimum f k = 6.42 N/mm2 Compressive strength of unit 35 N/mm 2

Cavity wall brick

Inner leaf

Total load 245 kN/m minimum eccentricity

Slenderness 17

Resistance 245.2 kN/m

Cavity wall block

Inner leaf

Total load 250.5 kN/m minimum eccentricity

Slenderness 13.5

Minimum f k = 3.23 N/mm2 Compressive strength of unit 10 N/mm 2

134 ST RU CT U R AL AN ALYS I S AN D DE SI GN ( AH )

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