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Shear Reinforcement

M.Sheik Mohamed1, V.Kalpana2

1Assistant Engineer, Nabard & Rural Roads, Tamil Nadu Highways Department, Tirunelveli-

627002, Tamil Nadu, India

2Assistant Professor Civil Engineering, Aalim Muhammed Salegh College of Engineering,

Muthapudupet,

Avadi-IAF, Chennai-600055, TamilNadu, India

---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract-Shearing resistance or shear transfer quite hard to understand. When compared with the bending

mechanism in flexural members is a very complex failures, shear failures are very sudden and dangerous. It is

phenomenon and it was the major problem in early a brittle failure in nature. Normally the beams subjected to

1940s.Major structural elements such as flexural vertical loading, may fail in shear before attaining their

members were failed in shear. For suppressing this shear flexural capacity. So, considering the importance of shear

problem extensive research is required. This paper phenomenon, the studies on the shear strength of concrete

explains about the behavior of shear strength of beams made without web reinforcement started from 1948

reinforced concrete beams made without web or shear to till date. The main obstacle behind in this shear transfer

reinforcement. The theoretical background behind in the mechanism is the number of parameters involved and these

shear failure has been discussed and thoroughly parameters are yet to be known. Extent knowledge of the

explained. The experimental setup procedures have been different modes of shear failures and the mechanisms

clearly illustrated. The shear transfer mechanisms involved is necessary to suppress them. Existing codes and

namely beam action and arch action has been discussed specifications of different countries for reinforced concrete

in detail. The various failure modes are also presented. design with regard to shear differ considerably .This only

reflects the fact that we know very little about the behavior

Key Words: Shear transfer, beam action, arch action, failure and strength of reinforced concrete subjected to shearing

mode, span to effective depth ratio force in spite of the considerable number of tests and

theoretical investigations made during more than half a

1. INTRODUCTION century. Despite the ultimate research work, still we dont

have a simple and analytically derived formula to predict the

The extensive study on flexural members subjected to shear strength of reinforced concrete beams. As discussed

bending gave a clear picture about its failure mechanisms earlier, every country followed the shear design of flexural

and led to the development of design of flexural members members by their own design provisions. For example,

with higher safety. These concepts were fully understood by Indian code formula for predicting the shear strength based

the researchers and now fully incorporated in the design on empirical equation and also in touch with the British

codes of many countries. Of course everyone knows that Code. The current provisions for shear in standard codes

flexural failure is a ductile failure. After that the focus of such as American code, Indian code and British code are still

many researchers transferred on the topic of behavior of based on empirical or semi empirical considerations. These

members subjected to flexure and shear especially for failures show less or no prior warning before failure

flexural members. Even before 20th century, lot of proceeding to the collapse of structures. So, researchers have

publications appeared and spoke about the complexity of the concentrated on the internal mechanism of shear failure.

problem. Many structural elements are subjected to shearing

forces. The forces act in the structural members either as 2. SHEAR CONCEPT

seldom or in combination with other forces like flexure, As we all know that, shear force is nothing net vertical force

shear and torsion. In addition to identifying the effect of acting either to the left or right of the section of element.

shear forces acting alone, therefore it is necessary to Shearing force exists in beams due to change in bending

examine the possible interaction with the other structural moment along the span.i.e; this force is equal to the rate of

actions. In bending members, shear transfer mechanisms change of bending moment. Normally shear forces are

interact with bond between the concrete and embedded classified into two types i.e. vertical shear force and

rebar and also the anchorage mechanism. Shear strength in horizontal shear force. The horizontal shear force occurs in

steel reinforced concrete beams has been the subject of beams when they are subjected to bending stresses. The

many controversies and debates since the beginning of 20th vertical shear force present in beams when they are

century. Due to the complexity, shear transfer mechanism is subjected to zero bending stresses. From the principle of

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 947

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 05 | May-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

complementary shear, vertical shear forces are always of tension reinforcement, grade of tension reinforcement

accompanied with the horizontal shear forces. These forces and end anchorage of tension reinforcement. The behavior of

are very much predominant in beams as they cause severe reinforced concrete beams in shear can be explained in two

deformation and lead to cause failure of structures. stages viz., pre-cracking stage and post cracking stage.

3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR VERTICAL SHEAR

FORCE 5. PRE-CRACKING STAGE

Before cracking, the reinforced concrete beam acts more or

The vertical shear force is calculated as described below. less like a homogeneous beam. The flexural stress (f) across

From the principle of complementary shear, vertical shear any section are given by the classical formula

force always accompanied with the horizontal shear force. If f= My/I (1)

the vertical shear force is calculated then the horizontal Where, M= bending moment (Nmm)

shear force also has the same magnitude. Shear strength of The shear stress () across the same section is given by

concrete is nothing but resistance of vertical shear force. The =Vay/Ib (2)

shear strength contributed by the concrete can be found out Where, V = shear force (N), A = cross sectional area (mm2)

by the beams cast with or without shear reinforcement. If y = the distance of centroid of an element from the

shear reinforcement is provided, then the shear strength of neutral axis of the section (mm),

concrete will be reduced. The situations arise where the I = moment of inertia of the section (mm4), b = width of the

nominal shear stress is less than shear strength of concrete, element (mm)

the minimum vertical bars should be provided in the form of 6. POST CRACKING STAGE

stirrups in beams. The conventional test setup for finding The total external shear force is resisted by the internal

shearing resistance of reinforced concrete beams cast resisting mechanism of beam element. In other words, shear

without web or shear reinforcement is two point loading transfer mechanisms are of two actions. Namely, beam

system and center point loading system. Out of this two, two action and arch action. These two actions combined to resist

point loading system is superior in which flexure-shear the external shear force. It is believed that for slender beams

interaction can be created with three spans. In this (shear span/effective depth ratio>2.5) the resisting action is

arrangement, beam is subjected to symmetrically place two mainly due to beam action. For short beams (shear

equal concentrated loads P at distance say x (shear span) span/effective depth ratio<2.5) the resisting action is mainly

from the supports. It has the advantage of combining two due to arch action.

different test conditions i.e., pure bending, that is, no shear 7. BEAM ACTION

force is present between the two loads P, and constant shear Beam action of element generally comprises with three

force in the two end regions or shear spans. The failure of factors regarding, uncracked concrete in the flexural

the beam is caused by the crack developed in the shear compression zone, aggregate interlock mechanism and

region. This crack is known as web shear crack or diagonal dowel action of longitudinal bars. Out of the three major

crack. These cracks formed at 45 degrees to the longitudinal contributory sources, aggregate interlock mechanism resists

axis of beam. The shear stresses combined with bending larger amount of shear force. The approximate proportion of

stresses led to formation of principal tensile stresses near contribution of the above three forces are shear in

supports of beams section equal to the shear stresses. The compression zone - 20 to 40% ,shear from dowel action 15

principal tensile stresses nothing but diagonal tension which to 25% ,shear from aggregate interlock 35 to 50% amount of

is responsible for the formation of web shear cracks. The shearing forces. The contribution resisting forces towards

cracks are formed in the concrete when the principal tensile shear is illustrated by the following figure.

stress exceeds the tensile strength of concrete. Thats why

shear strength of concrete is directly proportional to tensile

strength of concrete and this tensile strength can be

expressed by fck. Shear strength of concrete normally

varied from 10 to 20 percent of its compressive strength.

The shear at which the inclined crack in beam without shear

reinforcement is formed first is taken as shear strength of

concrete.

8. ARCH ACTION

The shearing resistance of concrete depends upon shear This happens when the beam is subjected to flexure-shear

span to depth ratio (a/d), tension steel ratio (), compressive interaction. Flexure-shear interaction is nothing but the

strength of Concrete (fck), size of coarse aggregate, density of combination of bending moment and shear force act in a

concrete, use of fibers in concrete, size of beam, position and section. Due to the loading action on beam, it behaves as an

geometry of haunches, tensile strength of concrete, support arch with tie, in the flexural zone called as arch action in

conditions, clear span to depth ratio (L/d), number of layers which the concrete acts as an arch and tension

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 948

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 05 | May-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

diagonal cracking. This arch action generally takes more

shear load in comparison with beam action.

9. FAILURE MODES

The following are the failure modes in shear of the

reinforced concrete beams without transverse

reinforcement. The beams may be failed in any of the

following failure modes.

Fig- 4: Shear tension failure

This type of failure occurs in deep beams when the shear

span to effective depth of beams is less than 1.In this type,

9.3. Diagonal tension failure

shear is transferred by a strut and tie mechanism in which

This type of failure occurs in normal beams when the shear

tension reinforcement acts as tie and concrete acts as strut.

span to effective depth of beams is in the ratio of 2.5 to

After the formation of inclined cracking, shear is carried as

6.Initially flexural cracks are appeared and then flexure

an inclined thrust between the load and the reaction point

shear cracks originates from the final flexural crack. Due to

and it behaves as a tied arch. The final failure becomes a

the increase in load this type of crack propagates gradually

splitting failure or it may fail in compression at the reaction.

until it reaches the loading point. This type of failure crack

The analysis of such an end section is closely related to the

pattern usually has greater crack width and originates either

analysis of a deep beam.

left or right end support of beam.

9.2. Shear tension failure and shear compression 9.4. Flexural failure

failure This type of failure occurs in slender beams when the shear

This type of failure occurs in short beams when the shear span to effective depth of beams is more than 6.In under

span to effective depth of beams is in the ratio of 1 to reinforced beam the failure is started with the yielding of

2.5.This type failure takes place either by crushing of tension reinforcement and then crushing of concrete in the

reduced concrete section above the tip of the crack under compression zone. This type of failure is termed as flexural

combined shear and compression is known as shear tension failure and ductile in nature. In over reinforced beam

compression failure and secondary cracking along the failure occurs due to crushing of concrete in the compression

tension reinforcement known as shear tension failure. zone and then yielding of tension reinforcement. This type of

failure is termed as flexural compression failure and brittle

in nature.

10. CONCLUSIONS

The shear force transfer mechanisms in flexural members

play an important role in design of flexural members in

geometrical aspect and structural aspect. The shear design

provisions available in various countries still based on

empirical approach. From the exhaustive study, it was

clearly understood that brief research is still required in

analyzing this shear phenomenon. Apart from this, the shear

Fig-3: Shear compression failure

design provisions adopted in codes of various countries have

to be formed and follow a deterministic approach. The safety

should be fixed based on type of shear failures.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 949

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 05 | May-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

REFERENCES

Ahmed and Ilyas.Development of shear capacity

equations for rectangular reinforced concrete

beams,PakJ.Engg& Appl.Sc., vol.6, Jan.2010,pp.1-8,

concrete, ACI committee, Farmington Hills,

Michigan, USA, 2007.

concrete beams,Cement and Concrete

composites,vol.12,pp.87-94,1990.

reinforced concrete transfer beams in high-rise

buildings, Structural Engineering & Mechanics,

vol.37, pp.39-59,2011.

TD,Shear resistance of high strength concrete beams

without shear reinforcement,International Journal

of Civil and Structural Engineering,vol.1,pp.101-

113,2010.

section, loading arrangement and aggregate type on

shear strength,Magazine of Concrete

Research,vol.63,pp.139-155,2011.

BIOGRAPHIES

working as an Assistant Engineer

in the Tamil Nadu Highways

Department. He has totally Three

and half years experience in

construction, design and teaching

and his area of interest in the field

Concrete Technology, Analysis of

Structures and Design of

Structures.

as an Assistant Professor in Aalim

Muhammed Salegh College of

Engineering. She has totally one

year experience in teaching field

and her area of interest in the field

of Analysis of Structures and

Design of Structures.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 950

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