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Construction of Road Embankment with Waste


Article January 2015

DOI: 10.4028/


7 410

3 authors:

Milo elija Neboja Radovi

University of Novi Sad University of Novi Sad


Nikolai Vatin
Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic Un


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Applied Mechanics and Materials Submitted: 2014-11-01
ISSN: 1662-7482, Vols. 725-726, pp 596-601 Revised: 2014-11-02
doi:10.4028/ Accepted: 2014-11-02
2015 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland Online: 2015-01-29

Construction of Road Embankment with Waste Materials

Milo elija1,a*, Neboja Radovi2,b, Nikolay Vatin3,c

Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, 21000, Serbia
St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Politekhnicheskaya sr., 29, 195251, Saint-
Petersburg, Russia
a b d,,

Keywords: fly ash, roads, construction, embankments.

Abstract. Fly ash represents a residue that occurs as a product of burning finely milled particles of
coal in thermal power plants. The fly ash in the construction of embankments in road construction
can be used with or without the addition of binders. For the construction of embankment from the
ashes, aside embankments (trapezoid shape) are placed. Justification of this study is the fact that so
huge amounts of this material are left aside, while there are great possibilities for using of natural
materials in the construction of roads.

Since the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in solving environmental pollution
problems of industrial waste. One such example is the industrial waste generated by coal
combustion in power plants, and it is called fly ash. The largest percentage of waste (about 66%)
belongs to fly ash, but the amount used in the industry does not exceed more than 17 million tons of
fly ash [1]. The ash is mainly used in the construction industry as a concrete additive or a cement
supplement [2 4], for road construction [5 11], for waste areas [12 14] and in agriculture [15
17]. Fly ash, produced during coal combustion at temperatures between 1100 and 1450 C, contains
useful oxides, such as SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3 and other[18]. The annual production of fly ash and
slag in Serbia is around 5 million tons [19]. Percentage ratio of fly ash and slag differs, and most
often depends on coal combustion conditions. It varies between 90:10 and 95:5. According to the
annual production and time of disposal (over 30 years) it is considered that there is more than 300
million tons of deposited ash in Republic of Serbia, which makes flying ash and slag the most
common secondary material in our country. Fly ash and slag landfills in Serbia occupy an area of
1639 ha, and cause numerous problems for local environment. During 1978, India used only 1% of
produced fly ash, and by year 1990, the country increased the usage of ash to around 30 million tons
[20]. The use of fly ash in Great Britain was first recorded in 1952, and it was used for embankment
construction as a concrete additive.
The chemical properties of the fly ash are the most important indicators when assessing their
suitability as construction material or as raw material for the production of building materials.
Numerous laboratory tests worldwide and in our country have shown that a crucial impact on the
physical - chemical properties of the ash and slag, have the following factors [21]:
type and genesis of coal
the degree of fragmentation of coal
where the fly ash is poured
Studies showed that the fly ash and slag from lignite and brown coal vary considerably in
composition and quality compared to ash and slag obtained by burning stone coal. The highest
production of electricity is generated by thermal power plants (65.5%), followed by hydro power
plants (33%), while in thermal power plants heating plants (CHP) is achieved production of 1%
,and in industrial power plants 0.5% [22].

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of Trans
Tech Publications, (ID:,19:10:46)
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 725-726 597

The degree of fragmentation, that is grinding of coal, as well as the type and design of the boiler
and its operation affects the grain-size composition of the fly ash, the size of the loss for the
annealing process and content of SO3 [23].
This paper analyzes the possibility of using fly ash taken directly from the production for the
embankments in road construction with and without the addition of binders. Embankments in road,
construction are often being built on a small load bearing capacity, with high groundwater level,
which oscillates in time.

Embankment of fly ash

The ash in the construction of the embankment can be used with or without a binder or additives.
Embankments constructed of ash without binders, must be closed after processing subsoil and
sealed with waterproof layer of clay. Waterproof layer should be done with inclination 3 - 5% of the
arable surface environment to the outer edge, as shown in Fig. 1. Sealing waterproof layer should be
done from clay material that by USCS classification belongs to the group CH, C clay, and by
AASHTO classification of the group of clayey soils A-7-sixth. The coefficient of filtration material
from which is waterproof layer made of should be> 10-5cm/s.

Figure 1. Building sealing-impermeable coating embankment [24]

Possible filtered water from the embankment, over the waterproof layer is implemented in the
side channels beside the embankment and it is taken for drainage treatment. Channels also must be
waterproof, they can be made of concrete, protected under the concrete lining.
Building the embankment is made by lateral closing clay embankment in the form of a trapezoid,
with the height of 1m at the side of the embankment and the width 0.8m of the top performed in the
slope of 1:1.5 or less.
The possibility of construction the embankment made of ash, without the usage of binders is
directly dependent on the height of the embankment.
If the height of the embankment is H 6m, embankment can be made of ash without binders
(Fig. 2), if the embankment height is H 6m, it is needed to perform a layer of stabilized ash height
of 4-5m (ash with the binder) [24 29], (Fig. 3)

Figure 2. Building embankment of ash H<6m.

598 Innovative Technologies in Development of Construction Industry

Figure 3. Building embankment of ash H>6m

The final layer of the embankment-placental layer, is necessary for the stability of the
embankment to be made of ash stabilized with cement or lime. The percentage of lime in this area
we can be increased up to 4%.

Embankment of ash without binder in combination with geotextile

If it is necessary to prepare the embankment with a slope greater than 1:1.5, and the embankment
is performed of ash without binders, it can be performed in combination with a geotextile [30 - 36].
(Fig. 4) [24]

Figure 4. Building embankment with ash and geotextile.

At each segment of the embankment height 1m, first are made trapezoid-shaped coated
embankments at sides, which are enveloping with geotextile, and then in between there are
performed at least 3 layers of ashes. After that geotextile is laid on the last layer of compacted ash,
following re-building the embankment in segments, as described previously. For embankments
performed in conjunction of ash and geotextile is not required the stabilized layer height of 4-5m.
Embankment of ashes with binders
This type of embankment is more applicable in urban areas, where it is necessary to take as less
as possible space for building [29]. Such embankments slope must be steeper than 1:1.5, and it is
performed by the following procedure:
The inclination of the slope of the embankment can be 2:1 to 3:2, depending on the physical-
mechanical properties of stabilized ash (primarily the cohesion c and angle of internal friction '),
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 725-726 599

In the construction of the embankment, it is not needed trapezoid shape cladding

embankment of clay, but it is needed to predict subsequent top soiling embankments.
basic layer as the final layer of the embankment, can be made out by the same technology
described in chapter embankments of ashes without a binder.

Fly ash is the residual material, mostly dark gray to black, dry, non-plastic, loose, by granular
composition it is dusty, sandy - dusty, non-sticky and very lightweight material. Color of fly ash can
vary from black through gray, up to light gray, depending on the participation of unburned coal,
soot, and the presence of calcium oxide. Physical and mechanical properties of fly ash and fly ash
stabilized with the addition of a binder is a suitable material for the construction of roads and other
infrastructure (elements) systems (levees, fill ditches, fill behind the building, etc.). Fly ash and slag
should be installed in the roadbed in segments isolated from the influence of surface ground water,
as this, in terms of operation time, prevents the flushing of harmful chemical constituents of fly ash
and slag, and their entry into the bearing environment. So far, the ash and slag were only controlled
and delayed and now there are attempts to make use of these materials. Possibilities for use are:
- in road construction;
- In the construction materials industry;
- As a fundamental basis for power plants with solar panels and etc.
The most extensive testing has been carried out for the purpose of utilization of deferred ash in
road construction and the installation of embankments. Justification of these studies is the fact that
so far are delayed huge amounts of the material, while there are great needs for natural materials in
the construction of roads. In the industry of building materials, deferred ash would be used as a
supplement to aggregate, for making lightweight concrete. More recently, there were requests to the
landfills of deferred ash and slag to build plants to convert solar energy into electricity.

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Innovative Technologies in Development of Construction Industry

Construction of Road Embankment with Waste Materials


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