Plate Type Two Wheeler Clutches Plate Type Clutches consists of set of friction plates & steel plates that

are pressed under the spring load & transmits the power from engine to gearbox and subsequently to drive wheels. This clutch is an arrangement of plates stacked in alternating fashion, one geared on the inside to the engine, and next geared on the outside to the transmission input shaft. Whether wet or dry, the plates are squeezed together by a spring, causing friction buildup between the plates until they rotate as a single unit, driving the transmission directly.

Centrifugal Two Wheeler Clutches

Centrifugal Clutch is based on the principle of centrifugal force. This clutch uses a combination of friction Discs (like brake shoe) and floater (outer) to transfer power from the engine to the drive wheels. In all centrifugal clutches, centrifugal force works against spring tension to determine whether the clutch is engaged or not. At low rpm, the spring tension is greater than the centrifugal force and the clutch spins freely. As the engine speed increases, the centrifugal force begins to overcome the spring tension and at one point of time friction discs get engaged with floater and transmit the power. Four Wheeler Clutches

Manual Transmission Four Wheeleer Clutches

Manual Transmission are characterized by gear ratios which are selectable by engaging pairs of gears inside the transmission. Manual Transmission is a type of transmission used in automotive applications. Manual Transmissions often feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear selector, although some do not. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any gear at any time, but some, such as those commonly mounted on motorcycles and some types of race cars, only allow the driver to select the next- highest or lower gear ratio. Automatic Transmission Four Wheeler Clutches

Soul of Clutch

Clutch Friction Disc-Two Wheelers

The clutch friction Disc, also called as friction lining, consists of a splined round metal plate covered with friction material (lining). The splines in the center of the clutch Disc mesh with the splines on the input shaft of the manual transmission. This makes the input shaft and Disc turn together. However, the Disc is free to slide back and forth on the shaft.

Cork Base & Paper Base Clutch Friction Disc The cork base clutch friction Disc is made of heat–resistant nonasbestos cork, cotton fibers and copper wires moulded together. Grooves are cut into the friction material to aid cooling and release of the clutch Disc. In some cases, rivets are used to bond the friction material to both sides of the metal body of the Disc. The paper base clutch friction Disc is made of heat–resistant cellulose, cotton fibers and copper wires moulded together. Cellulose is used to prolong life of the clutch and provide more torsional strength. Paper CFD has more life than cork base friction material as it possess :More heat resistant property Low wear and tear characteristics High endurance Low warranties

Clutch friction materials

(a) Relatively high coefficient of friction under operating conditions. (e) Capability of withstanding bursts of centrifugal force when gear changing. Development in weaving techniques has in certain cases eliminated the use of wire crossing so . Asbestos based linings Generally. (g) High level of cyclic working endurance without the deterioration on friction properties (h) Good compatibility with cast iron facing over the normal operating temperature range. (b) The asbestos fibre wire is woven in three dimensions in the form of a disc to obtain in a single stage the desired thickness. followed by stiching several of these discs together to obtain the desired thickness. (a) The fibre wire thread is woven onto a cloth and pressed out into discs of the required diameters.Clutch friction linings are subjected to rubbing leading to generation of heat for relatively short periods. (f) Adequate shear strength to transmit engine torque. The woven cloth can be processed in one of two ways. the rigid lining is machined and drilled.. These woven linings are made from asbestos fibre spun around length of brass or Zinc wire to make length of threads which are both heat resistant and strong. (i) A high degree of interface contamination tolerance without affecting its friction take-up and grip characteristics. clutch driven plate asbestos based linings are of the woven variety. (c) Relatively high energy absorption capacity for short periods. ready for riveting to the driven plate. It is then pressed into shape and bonded together by again dipping it into a resin solution. (d) Capability of withstanding high pressure plate compressive loads. Finally. Therefore. (b) Capability of maintaining friction properties over its working life. The resultant disc is then dipped into resin to bond the woven asbestos threads together. it is desirable that they have a combination of these properties.

32 and 0.38 and a reasonable life span is obtained. v) Good centrifugal strength to withstand lining disintegration as a result of sudden acceleration which may occur during the changing of gears. iii) Good take-off characteristics. iv) Weight for weight Kevlar has five times the tensile strength of steel. It is not until a temperature of 425°C is reached that it begins to break down and then it does not simply become soft and melt. The operating properties relative to asbestos based linings are as follows. During 260°C. ii) It is lighter in weight than asbestos material therefore a reduction in driven plate spin shortens the time required for gear changing. The normal highest working temperature below which asbestos linings operate satisfactorily giving uniform coefficient of friction lies between 0. the disintegration process being completed at about 500°C. . but steadily changes to carbon. particularly with vehicle which were in the past prone to grab. i) High endurance performance over its normal working pressure and temperature ranges.that asbestos woven lining may be offered as either non-resin or resin metallic to match a variety of working conditions. The above draw back desires an alternative human friendly substitute for asbestos based friction lining material Asbestos substitute friction material The Dupont Company has developed a friction material derived from aromatic polyamide fibers belonging to the nylon family of polymers and it has been given the trade name Kevlar aramide. vi) Stable rubbing properties at high operating temperature.003mm becomes possible which can be easily inhaled by human damaging lungs. asbestos of diameter less than 0.

Kevlar exists in two states. After weighing other options. The only hurdle left for the driver was that the shifter needed to move simultaneously with the accelerator pedal. while leaving the gear in high mode. It was a four speed gearbox with an H-shaped pattern. The next new system to be developed used a sliding spur gearbox with three or four forward gears and a reverse gear integrated into it. there fibres are difficult to inhale because of their shape and size. firstly as a 0. Hsg22-02-2009 Brief History of Transmission Systems in Cars A car receives power from the engine under its hood. Later on a fusion of computing technology with well evolved manual transmissions led to the creation of automatic transmission systems in cars. The ones we see today are the result of an incremental evolution and development over the past century. The earliest transmissions were all of manual type. Most cars today come installed with good transmissions. an improved technology was introduced. The shifter slid a spur gear into the desired position to employ engine power. The transmission in a car is an intertwined system of gears. In either form. The first manual transmission was introduced by a company called Warner Gear (now BorgWarner) in 1927. One such noticeable improvement was in the Buick Series 40 from Chrysler Corporation in 1939 where springs were employed to exert high pressure on the clutch plates while the driver was required only to apply light pressure on the clutch pedal to start or stop the car. However. Through this new concept drivers could stop the car without using the clutch. In the early stages. . clutch pedal and the gearshift model. Power was transmitted through shearing action in low viscosity mineral oil. this system too did not find many takers and was eventually dropped. the system soon saw several technical problems and became redundant. It helped the car achieve high speeds with ease and at no discomfort to the occupants. The setup helps the car maintain its cruising speeds and slow down or rev up depending on the condition of the road. However. It does all this without affecting the engine’s performance at any time. In 1930. shafts and other parts that form a bridge to transfer power from the engine to the wheels. The gearbox in a car brings variety to driving and a very responsive transmission can make a big difference in ride quality for the occupants. Later on. Manual transmissions still continue to be just as popular as they used to be for the sole reason that they give the driver a sense of thrill through the ability to shift gears up or down at any desired moment.12mm thick endless longitudinal fibre which has a cut length varying between 6 and 100 mm and secondly in the form of an amorphous structure of crushed and ground fibre known as pulp. Car manufacturers were now encouraged to try out different technologies in gearboxes. the shifter moved with great stiffness and required skill to prevent the clutch teeth from clashing against each other. but it is the transmission that helps utilize engine power efficiently. the clutch plates were synchronized with the shifter so that the parts moved in unison. This was the beginning of the modern gear box. Car transmissions were not always like this. Chrysler settled for a fluid drive system in which the clutch pedal was operated in two vaned plates.

The complete set up of the system helps to maintain the cruising speed of the car without any disturbance to the car’s performance. The first gearbox was available with an H-shaped pattern comprising of fur shift gears. Later on. Advantages of manual over automatic are as follows: • One of the biggest advantages of a manual gearbox is to have a greater control over the gear selection. Compiled here is a brief comparison of the advantages offered by both the transmission systems. In modern day cars. relieving the driver from changing gears. shafts. This kind of transmission system is controlled by a driver operated clutch that helps to change gears during acceleration or deceleration. a clutch is used to control speed instead of a torque convertor. Automatic Transmission Though advanced technology has given birth to the modern day automatic transmission. This is because in a manual system. this modern system of transmission was launched by Kinetic Motors through its most successful running Kinetic Honda bike. many people today still prefer manual transmissions on their cars. The automatic transmission was introduced first in some luxury cars before it was adapted to small cars. The oldest variant of the transmission system in India is the manual transmission that has undergone various modifications and alterations to form the present day automatic transmission. now called BorgWarner. The modern form of transmission provided two forward speeds that work on the action of centrifugal weights. and other electrical gadgets that form a bridge to transfer power and energy from the engine to the wheels. In India.Transmission design remained nearly the same for several years to come until the first automatic transmission was developed. Therefore. acceleration of the vehicle. manual system scores more. manual transmission systems are found with five forward gears and one reverse gear. The first automatic transmission was introduced by the Sturtevant brothers of Boston in 1904. Car Transmission – Mystery Explained! Car transmission system in a car helps to transmit mechanical power from the car engine to give kinetic energy to the wheels. manual transmission is known as the Sequential Manual Transmission. various innovations and advancements took place. In India. Types of Car Transmissions The two common types of transmissions are manual transmission and automatic transmission. especially during over-taking maneuvers. is at the driver’s own discretion. These gears help the driver to drive with ease and comfort even at high changing speeds. Though automatic transmissions became popular due to ease of use. gears are automatically shifted in the gearbox. It is an interconnected system of gears. When the speed of the car engine increases. the weight would swing out transmission to engage the gears and when the weight flew apart. . In this type of transmission. the gears would disengage. The first manual transmission was introduced in 1909 by a company known as Warner Gear. Manual Transmission vs. which gradually transformed the pattern and number of gears in the manual system.

This holds a greater advantage for new and inexperienced drivers and also helps during congested traffic situations where it becomes difficult to change gears every second. Manual gears are difficult to operate on steep climbs. people prefer going for their manual counterparts because a manual gearbox is believed to be more efficient and fuel efficient. the clever system does it all on its own. For car with manual gear shifts. • Automatic transmission requires less attention and concentration from the driver because the automatic gears start functioning as soon as the system feels the need of a gear change. Advantages of automatic gearshifts over manual gearshifts are as follows: • Automatic cars are easier to use.• Manual gearshifts are more fuel efficient as compared to their automatic counterpart. In terms of customer choices and preferences. . cars with manual transmissions are cheaper to run and car maintenance is easy. This is because a manual system has one clutch to operate. whereas an automatic system has a number of clutch packs that function in harmony with each other. • Compared to cars with automatic transmissions. • An automatic transmission system has smoother and quicker shifts as compared to the manual system. the driver has to be more alert while driving and better coordinated. The parts and equipments required to make an automatic system functional are expensive and highly technical as compared to a manual system. whereas with an automatic. • Automatic cars have better ability to control traction when approaching steep hills or engine braking during descents. especially for the inexperienced car driver. Manual system requires better driving skills. Torque convertor used to engage and disengage automatic gears may lose power and reduce acceleration as well as fuel economy. • It is easier to build a strong manual transmission than an automatic one.

there were only one or two imported models in India that came with the option of an automatic transmission and very few people knew about this concept. fuel economy. It is advisable to get a transmission with both manual and automatic switch options. acceleration. Cars with automatic transmission are different from cars with manual transmission in terms of power. Therefore the cost of maintenance of a car with an automatic transmission is marginally higher than cars with a manual transmission. control of power and acceleration is completely dependant on the transmission and the driver cannot accelerate beyond a set safety speed. even though it has been in use for over four decades in the US. now even the small car manufacturers are offering this option to its customers. This is part of the safety features installed by the car manufacturer for a car with an auto transmission. The gear shift moves up automatically at the optimum shifting level when the driver presses the accelerator and the reverse action can be achieved when the brake pedal is pressed. However. If the car stops at traffic signals or in traffic jams. This allows these cars to comfortably negotiate bad roads and hilly regions. This type of transmission will allow the driver to choose the type of transmission that he/she wants to use. First. It definitely eases the pressure of driving in congested cities. Those who are just getting themselves acquainted with the automatic transmission should keep the brakes pressed and gently release them while moving forward.Automatic Transmissions are a Boon for Comfort! Automatic transmission is a concept that is new in India. These modern cars can be started only when the gear is in parking mode or the neutral mode as some call it. However. where acceleration does not play a big part. . Five years back. There are only two major drawbacks in a car with an automatic transmission. The car will not respond to ignition in any other gear mode. Second. it is best to bring the car to neutral mode and then start the ignition before moving ahead – the same is advised for cars with manual transmission to improve a cars performance. A cluster of sensors embedded within the system constantly monitor the throttle (acceleration/deceleration) input and then optimize (change) the engine response accordingly. The driver only uses the acceleration and brake pedals. It is possible that the car could rev up if the accelerator is pressed hard and the driver can loose control over the vehicle. and can comfortably enjoy the drive without having to change gears. but traffic jams do. it is made up of several components and a break down of even a single component can stall the car completely. This means that a car with an automatic transmission is not conducive to racing conditions or to sharp overtaking tactics. and driving comfort. an automatic transmission is a choice of most because of its smooth shifting capabilities that provide occupants with a jerk-free ride and the fuel economy of the car sees a definite improvement. Most cars available in India with an automatic transmission have been modified to suit Indian road conditions. An automatic transmission unit does not require a driver’s intervention while driving.

Torque converter torque converter cut-away A cut-away model of a torque converter .

Industrial power transmission such as conveyor drives. however. such as an internal combustion engine or electric motor. If you feel your insurance company has put you in an improper rate classification. drilling rigs.Shopping for merchandise in the comfort of your own home may be convenient. there is a solution. If you make such a purchase then find you are paying too much for the convenience. the torque converter normally takes the place of a mechanical clutch. Illinois insurance companies can legally consider a driver's accident record in determining the rate classification. including a down payment.A torque converter is a modified form of fluid coupling that is used to transfer rotating power from a prime mover. To cancel. . thus providing the equivalent of a reduction gear. Marine propulsion systems. almost all modern forklifts. The accidents to be considered in raising a driver's insurance premium should in some way be assessed to the insured. CONSUMER PROTECTION STARTS AT HOME . allowing the load to be separated from the power source. The company is then required to refund any money you paid for the goods.Accident-prone drivers are subject to having their insurance premium raised even though they may not have been ticketed for a driving mistake. you must inform the seller in writing and you must return the goods that were delivered in their original condition. or are otherwise dissatisfied. winches. but door-to-door sales can also have drawbacks. a torque converter is able to multiply torque when there is a substantial difference between input and output rotational speed. such as cars. you may request the State Department of Insurance to review your insurance record. Like a basic fluid coupling. construction equipment. and cancel the agreement. FOR DISCUSSION IN CLASSROOMS AND OTHER PUBLIC FORUMS ACCIDENTS CAN RAISE YOUR INSURANCE PREMIUMS . The law says that if the seller of a product costing $25 or more initially solicited you at your home. and locomotives. you may cancel the sale within three business days following the date of the sale. and on/off highway trucks. buses. Forwarders and other heavy duty vehicles. Usage • • • • Automatic transmissions on automobiles. As a more advanced form of fluid coupling. to a rotating driven load. Accidents may be charged against a driver's record even though no tickets were issued against the driver.

there is really no place for offroaders on city roads. Not to mention the fact that they often have incredibly poor pedestrian safety ratings. they are looked upon with scorn. they are a menace for those people who drive smaller cars. In short. For me. In short. pedestrians and the planet. In most European cities. The results show that even the safest small car is no protection against a hulking 4WD. they are anti-social. it is yet another reason why people should be discouraged from buying fourwheel-drives unless they absolutely need them. big four-wheel-drives are scarce on the roads.Should 4WDs be banned on safety grounds? German safety body ADAC has carried out a harrowing crash test between the tiny Fiat 500 and the Audi Q7 four-wheel-drive. a four-wheel-drive owners’ peace of mind comes at the expense of other motorists. . they limit the vision of other drivers on the road and . They are more likely to lose control because of their higher centre of gravity. in some places. like Paris. While they may fill their owners with a great sense of security as they negotiate the morning peak hour. In the Fiat 500 video shows – they are deadly in a crash with a smaller car. While they are worth their weight in gold in the country.’t it time we weened ourselves off our big four-wheel-drives? http://www. even the Americans are turning their backs on them. http://www.ansoft.pdf .

the repair cost can vary from Rs 1. too.000 (for anti-rust coating) and go as high as Rs 10. In case of a problem with the AC.500 (for changing the condenser) for a small car. Take a test drive.Second-hand car? What you must check Buyer of a second-hand car needs to be aware of some things. This includes covering scratches and dents.200.000 in case parts such as brake boosters need replacement. So.000 (with a paint job). In case of burnt ones. For a small car. engine number and colour. look at all the papers. Suspension: If the paperwork and exteriors are satisfactory. First.500. many owners do basic repairs before selling the car. Being aware of a few key parameters will help you get a value-for-money deal. The paint could also be done to cover rusting.000-1. the cost of mending can be Rs 6. chassis number.going for less than Rs 4 lakh.5004. The buyer should further check the underside of the vehicle and wheel wells for signs of rust. . Replacing one bald tyre can cost you Rs 2. Match the information on the papers with the one on the car. look for consistency of paint." said Jagasia. Varun Anand was surprised to find two cars . "Such work brings down the price of the car. If the vehicle does not absorb jerks and jolts while passing over potholes. a basic repair for rust can start at Rs 3. Brakes and clutch: The brake should not squeal and must stop the car in a sufficiently short distance. Four important things to match are the registration number. Tyre: Check tyres for wear and tear. a repair can take Rs 1. In this case. Patches of irregular paint could mean repair for scratches or dents.500 (for gas issues) to over Rs 6. When Anand checked the cars. Check clutch plates. he realised that one owner had replaced the engine with a local one. move on to the mechanical aspects.000 and can go as high as Rs 15.500 for small and medium segment cars. Air-conditioner: Switch it on to assess if it cools well and does it quickly.a 12-year BMW [ Images ] and a 14-year old Mercedes [ Images ] . the suspension needs repair. Tyres not worn out evenly can indicate misalignment. point it out to the owner and renegotiate the price. The cost of repair can range from Rs 2. Doors: To get a better value for their vehicle. Such work can cost at least Rs 5.000-6. In case of rust.000 (in case of excessive damage).500 to over Rs 15.

look for another car. There are chances that you may come across a car that satisfies you on all these parameters but the manufacturer has discontinued the model. The running cost of such a car may put a strain on your wallet as spares may be expensive. experts said it was always advisable to take a trusted mechanic to judge a used car. Any problems with the engine. "A mechanic can understand essential areas such as the condition of an engine and if the car has an accident history." said a Maruti car dealer.Engine: This is the most important aspect. The feedback can help you negotiate better. While these checks can give you basic understanding of the car. keep an ear on the engine sound. Knocking. Start by checking oil quality and consumption. tapping or rattling noises indicate excessive wear of internal engine parts. While taking a test drive. .

would I really want to own it? That's a question Chetan Maini is familiar with. There's the oil lobby. And fortunately. the determination and the can-do spirit of Chetan Maini. At 31. he launched this car. he started preparing for IIT JEE. At 24." said his dad. In my first year itself I worked on a 'supermileage' car which would give 400 kilometres to a litre!" In his second year. So why exactly do we stick to diesel and petrol? Well -. On paper the electric (or battery driven) vehicle makes great sense. the auto lobby and the this-is-theway-things-have-always-been-done.because of its proximity to the auto hub of Detroit. enhancing his vehicles. But in a couple of months Chetan realised IIT was not the place for him.I admire a couple of the 'next generation' industrial area just outside Bangalore -. he was building go-karts. At his nifty little factory in Bommasandra -. Excerpts: Like most of his classmates at Bishop Cotton. At 20. Chetan became very passionate about the 'solar car' project -. I'm still not sure if I would buy one.The first time I saw a Reva car. But then Chetan came along. At 13. There just aren't enough people in the world who believe in this new technology. perfecting. I thought it was 'cute'. The University of Michigan was Chetan's first preference -. The University of Michigan team was one of 35 teams chosen to participate. he was leading an electric car project." he declared. Dreaming of the day that you and I will junk our gas-guzzlers and go electric. he built a solar powered car. "Why don't you apply to schools in the US. And he is still interuniversity competition where teams built a car from scratch. "I studied mechanical engineering but I spent fifty percent of my time on extracurricular projects. he was's complicated. . But hey. "I wanted something more hands-on. something to do with automobiles. but I am sold on the drive.

I enjoyed my classes and got decent grades. and spend 4 to 5 hours on the track!" The months we spent building. "We spent only $40. "I was working with General Motors as an intern.which he'd sold to TRW -and was looking for something interesting to do." I realised.. I would be at GM from 7 am till 4 pm. Next stop: World Solar Championships in Australia. whose father Dr Lon Bell was a PhD from Caltech.from getting the B-school guys to help in raising sponsorship. We would meet around once a month and put together business plan ideas in this area. "To me these projects were my education. to make it happen. but we put our heads together and raised the million dollars. "Sure.200 kms -. How could twenty year olds beat large OEMs?" For Chetan." One of the four friends was Dave Bell. Chetan got excited about electric cars. Chetan spent his final year working on a formula race car. it was an awakening. And had nothing to do with the syllabus!" At this point.a total of 3. Racing across the outback from Darwin to Adelaide -.. "We were four friends who understood each other very well. .from welding body panels to wrestling with machine parts.000 while you guys spent a million dollars. But the night before an exam you would often find me reading about things which interested me. many heads and many hearts. Back at college. The University of Michigan pooled in many hands. "Anything is possible. to understanding weather and solar patterns. Dr Bell had founded a company called Technar -.It was a completely hands on project -. You could have done that as well!" It was an important lesson in teamwork -. At the end of the race a rival team member remarked to Chetan.competing against the likes of Mazda and Honda! "On day one we actually finished ahead of Honda and everyone was shocked. testing and perfecting resulted in the University of Michigan team standing first among the 35 universities which raced their cars. drive two hours to the Michigan International Speedway where we tested the car. so of course you came first!" Chetan replied.

The company continued to work on electrical vehicle technologies but also moved into other high-end automotive technologies. "Well this sounds really good! Why don't you come and join me?" Thus in 1991. he returned to work with Lon Bell at Amerigon. . We built the platform of an electric car and evaluated many different technologies. Apart from attending a great programme which integrated mechanical and electrical engineering." It was a huge learning experience but Chetan felt he needed to study further. "In the first summer we were just seven of us in the company. After graduating. So he took a year and a half off for a Master's at Stanford. There was much to do there but Chetan was feeling the urge to return home. Excerpts from the book Connect the Dots by Rashmi Bansal published by Eklavya Foundation. Chetan got involved in building a hybrid-electric car.He said. Chetan joined Dr Bell's start-up. Rs 150'.

Simply pouring coolant into the thermostat housing (on the engine) would leave an air bubble in the radiator. Cooling system issues With an already hot normal operating temperature of 220 °F (104 °C) prior to the recall switching to a 195 °F (91 °C) thermostat. while adding coolant just to the radiator would leave an air bubble in the engine's coolant passages.07%) are reported to have had engine fires of some type. depending on the source used. If the proper oil level was not maintained.. up to 260 (0. The Associated Press quoted the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as saying it had ". There are several possible contributors to Fiero engines catching fire. some fires may have been due to the engine wiring harness being located in the center of the engine bay above the exhaust manifold. said. you end up with a broken rod. A third cause might be cracks in the engine block from overtightenening of the head bolts. The fires affected the 2. Another factor was the incorrectly listed three-quart oil capacity. filling the thermostat housing. but a misprint on dipsticks and in the owner's manuals led to owners using only three quarts. David Hudgens.."[6] The larger of the two reported numbers of cars with fires (260) amounts to 0... to help prevent oil starvation to the rods. Proper procedure (with engine idling and the thermostat removed. and mostly 1984 models (although there may have been additional occurrences after the above reports were published). The presence of drip shields between the engine block and the exhaust manifold are a clue that the car has been retrofitted... In later models.. this was improved to some degree with better heat shielding wrapped around the wiring harness. Alternatively..5 L engine almost exclusively.received 148 complaints regarding Pontiac Fieros catching fire including reports of six injuries. the latter resulting in fire if sprayed onto the hot catalytic converter or exhaust manifold at the front of the engine compartment. Most vehicles existing today have been serviced by GM during one of the safety recalls on the car. where the heat could possibly melt and ignite the wiring. along with ten reported minor injuries. produced in GM's Saginaw plant. This could result in a hole being punched in the engine block. the bearings could seize.. 'If you ran out of oil. Certain vehicles also had their connecting rods or entire block replaced. This demanded that a special coolant filling procedure be followed to prevent severe overheating. most notably by over-revving the engine. Low levels of engine oil may cause a connecting rod to break. The addition of the longer AC Delco PF51 oil filter and a recalibrated dipstick added extra oil capacity to the oiling system. The leak would spray coolant or oil. The 1984 model had a magnesium grille over this area. and maybe not changing the oil very often. a GM spokesman in Detroit.5 quarts. One theory is that the sports car styling attracted buyers who would drive the car hard. perhaps.168[1].Engine fire Of the total production of the Pontiac ( GM) of 370. The primary cause is thought to be a batch of poorly cast connecting rods.07% of Fieros produced. . snapping the porous castings of the connecting rods. the mid-mounted engine utilized long pipes to carry coolant to the frontmounted radiator.. the actual oil capacity was 4. allowing oil to escape and come into contact with engine parts.' "[5] The Pontiac division claimed in a 1988 press release that "GM tests have shown that running these 1984 cars with low engine oil level can cause connecting rod failure which may lead to an engine compartment fire.. it is still the owner's responsibility to check the oil. shields and drip-trays were added to prevent leaking fluids from contacting hot surfaces. which failed when the oil level became too low. The oil would catch fire when it contacted the exhaust manifold or hot exhaust components. Some engines developed cracks in the block that would leak coolant and/or oil. Pontiac is aware of 260 fires attributable to the condition. allowing oil to spray onto hot exhaust components where it could ignite... any leakage or consumtion would allow the oil level to decline over time to a dangerously low level. and then that coupled with some aggressive driving. sometimes accompanied by broken head bolts directly above the crack. and enabled running four quarts of oil in the crankcase instead of three.[citation needed] For the fire-related recall. and that's where the connecting rod came in.

[8][9] The electrical power from the generator is sent primarily to the electric motor. a distance longer than the daily commute for 75% of Americans. federal tax credit and other benefits available in some locations. A second problem has become common as more Fieros are being serviced by shops unfamiliar with their design. See Hybrid vehicle drivetrain. New Jersey and Connecticut. both of the tooling and the pre-production vehicles that will be produced before regular production begins Classification as a "hybrid" Because the current Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) definition of a hybrid vehicle states the vehicle shall have "two or more energy storage systems both of which must provide propulsion power. or other subsidies. the Volt is powered by electrical energy stored in its on-board lithium-ion batteries. Nationwide availability in the U. the actual propulsion of the Volt is accomplished exclusively by the electric motor."[22] the company has avoided the use of the term "hybrid" when describing its Voltec designs. Texas.[13][14] The Volt will be initially sold in seven regions: California. tax deductions.500 U. The distribution is controlled by the electronic control unit (ECU) of the vehicle. this configuration is most commonly referred to as a plug-in series hybrid. The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle to be produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors and expected to be launched in November 2010 as a 2011 model.500 due at lease signing. Michigan[18] and by October 2009. either together or independently. 2010 the first factory-built Volt was produced at the Detroit Hamtramck Assembly Plant in order to test the production line and for quality control purposes. As a result. Washington DC. Michigan. The Volt will also be available through a lease program with a monthly payment of US$350 for 36 months. Its propulsion system is based on GM's new Voltec (formerly known as E-Flex) electric automobile platform.8 kW·h usable) lithium-ion battery pack can be fully charged by plugging the car into a 120-240VAC residential electrical outlet using the provided SAE J1772compliant[3] charging cord.[12] The Volt's retail price will start at US$41. Instead GM describes the Volt as an electric vehicle equipped with a "range extending" gasoline powered internal combustion engine (ICE) as a genset and therefore dubbed an "Extended Range Electric Vehicle"[23][24] or E-REV.[5] whose average commute is 33 miles (53 km).S. a small 4-cylinder internal combustion engine using premiumgrade[7] gasoline creates electricity on-board using a 55 kW (74 hp) generator to extend the Volt's range to more than 300 miles (483 km). . many have been crushed by shop lifts.S. due to the combination of an internal combustion engine and electric motors in series rather than parallel. Austin. enough electrical energy will be stored to power the Volt up to 40 miles (64 km). For up to the first 40 miles (64 km). The Volt is currently eligible for a US$7.[10][11] Unlike most current commercially available hybrid electric vehicles. which differs significantly from GM's earlier BAS Hybrid and Two-Mode Hybrid systems.[6] After 40 miles (64 km). 80 Volts had been built and are being tested under various conditions. depending on the state of charge (SoC) of the battery pack and the power demanded at the wheels. with US$2. No external charging station is required. which are charged by connection to an electrical outlet.000 (including destination charges) before any factory incentives. New York.[15][16][17] The first pre-production test car based on the full Volt design was built in June 2009 in Warren.burping the bubble out of the radiator by cracking open the radiator cap until coolant exits) must be followed in order to ensure an air-free cooling system. and Canada is scheduled to begin in one year to 18 months after the initial launch. The under-body coolant tubes are positioned in such a way that a casual glance beneath the car will not suggest their fragility.[19] On March 31.[4] With fully charged batteries. The age of the car means that even GM dealerships may now be unaware of the proper jacking methods. The car's 16 kW·h (8.[8][23][24][25] However. resulting in a near complete lack of engine cooling. and with an option to buy at the end of the lease. with the excess going to the batteries.

although not yet in commercial production.1 Parallel hybrid o 1.1 Full Hybrids o 2.3 Internal combustion engine-hydraulic hybrid o 3.1 Electric-internal combustion engine hybrid o 3. Electrically-assisted pedal bicycles are a form of hybrid drive. or they may operate in series with one source exclusively providing the acceleration and the second being used to augment the first's power reserve. • 1Types by drive train structure o 1.2 Mild Hybrids o Hybrids are classified by the division of power between sources.3 Plug-in hybrid 3 Types by nature of the power source o 3.Hybrid vehicles are vehicles with two or more power sources in the drivetrain. Battery and supercapacitor technology is advancing.[1] A potential advantage is that when these battery sets require renewing in the future. the newer battery sets will be potentially superior having higher energy storage giving greater range enhancing a vehicle. The sources can also be used in both series and parallel as needed. although only the gasoline-electric hybrid is currently commercially available. and performance.6 Solar Photovoltaics (PV) • • http://www. There are many different types of hybrid vehicles.4 Internal combustion engine-pneumatic hybrid o 3.2 Series-Hybrid o 1. Other combinations of energy storage and conversion are possible. both sources may operate in parallel to simultaneously provide acceleration.pdf . Current hybrids use both an internal combustion (IC) engine and a battery/electric drive system to improve fuel consumption.3 Power-split or series-parallel hybrid 2 Types by degree of hybridization o 2. emission.2 Electric-fuel cell hybrid o 3.5 Human power and environmental power hybrids o 3.fischer-tropsch. the vehicle being primarily driven by one source but the second capable of providing direct additional acceleration if required. Combustion-electric hybrids have larger battery sets than what a normal combustion engine only vehicle would have.

a dream always comes to me. The light he lit in our country has lit many lamps and is still lighting. we see all these three institutions flourishing and what a contribution they have made to the national scene IISc has become a world class branded institution. you have to continuously trigger innovations which will capture the global market. I would suggest TATA Motors to use their system design capacity. The Tata Hydro Electric Station has given birth to many power plants in the country. dear friends. Launch of innovative Nano in 2008 is an another important milestone in the world of Indian automotive industry. Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata laid the foundation for three important areas. When I am with you all. while traveling in their high ways.It is not the mountain we conquer.wide marketing campaign for NANO and also plan to start multiple manufacturing centers in India and abroad.Address and interaction with the Engineers and Staff of Tata Motors. Competitiveness is powered by intensive knowledge in multiple fields. I want to see the Indian designed car. to launch a world. envisioned all these institutions in early 20th century (May 1904). I admire this great visionary. a visionary revolutionist who evolved a new method of working towards India’s freedom through development of industry. ease of maintenance and affordability. Dear Friends. The first was the sowing of seeds for TATA Iron and Steel Plant. I would like to discuss the dynamics of automobile enterprises and particularly Automobile vision 2020: internationally competitive Indian automobile system TATA’s contribution to Automobile sector Tata Motors has made history in the past many times. Pune Automobile vision 2020: Internationally competitive Indian automobile system “There are many Everest’s in the life of man. The hydro-electric power was switched on in Mumbai in 1915. safety needs. In recent years. so that TATA can graduate from the present production of 2. Well known commercial truck making company has shown the world that it can make customer friendly passenger cars . When I am with the TATA institution. I would like to greet the TATA team for this singular contribution. . the IISc-Bangalore opened its doors in 1911. I would like to suggest the TATA Team. but ourselves”. system integration capacity. I realize that you are born out of a vision. system management capacity. with cars of multiple nations whizzing past at 100-110 kms. Tata Steel has crossed the nine million tons per year steel output. Integrated Capacities My view is: the growth of automotive industry is powered by competitiveness. passenger comfort.000 (all types of passenger vehicles) to 1 Million NANO cars alone in a suitable product mix by the year 2015. power and scientific research. Bangalore. Tata’s vision has brought a revolution in steel industry. Let me congratulate everyone in the Tata institutions. second to create hydroelectric power station. Indian manufactured car running in multiple numbers in multiple nations. third was establishment of an educational and research institute popularly known as TATA institute now Indian Institute of Science. Today. The first ingot of steel rolled out from Tata Iron and Steel Plant in 1912. A great vision by a great soul in the early 20th century. In a globally competitive environment. Intensive knowledge is powered by technology and innovation. Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata. power generation and education. You have to meet the multiple users needs in different countries with widely varying climatic conditions.18. core competence and innovative spirit. the indigenously designed Tata Indica has brought a brand image to India in the Automobile sector. Tata has a great opportunity because of your visionary approach. Launch of Indica in 1998and launch of ACE in 2005 have been important milestones in the country’s prowess in automobile sector. During my visit to Europe and US cities. When will it happen? How to make it possible? Certainly. achieving high gradient climbing capability.

thinking differently and acting differently with innovative leadership. While this is a welcome situation from the point of view of personnel and goods mobility. He said that Dubai is planning to increase the tourist arrival by five times. Audi has joined with Volkswagen and Preussag. I would like to share with you a new development in the automotive industry reported in the book titled ‘Pulse’ by Robert Frenay. which has a goal to design a production model in which every material can eventually be reused.a plan of action to fulfill the national objective from the vision of the Chief of the nation. This innovation arises from institutional initiative and the R & D productivity of the firm. The health ministry had a road map for waste management and a plan for providing the additional clean water needed. Work towards fossil fuel free automobile of the future: (a) solar power + fuel cell (b) electric (c) ethanol . Innovation is the capital I was studying the Global Competitiveness Report for the year 2007-08. Suitable infrastructure for future automobiles Whenever I meet young people they ask me thought provoking questions. A new sports car from BMW features a recyclable thermoplastic body that can be disconnected from its frame in twenty minutes. that the aviation minister was planning for a new airport and also addition of new types of aircraft needed for attracting the tourists. published in 2006. In India the vehicle production is increasing at about 17%. I am also happy to note that many of Indian auto companies have started exporting their components to their original equipment manufacturers in the developed world. Finland is ranked 6. In this respect. After 1983. Once this decision was taken. Carnegie Mellon University has developed ReStar – a software that analyzes disassembly tasks. the standard of automotive technology has got redefined and Indian consumers are able to get what their western counterparts are getting. I would like to suggest to the TATA team assembled here. Carmakers have a history of reclamation and reuse. This technique apart from reducing the ‘embodied energy’ as in the case of construction industry will reduce the cost of the vehicle substantially and simultaneously reduce the pollution created by raw material manufacturing industry. parking facilities. I met the Ruler of Dubai with his ministers. globalization has done a lot of good in the Indian automobile industry. complimentarity with public transport system and financing in affordable way and give valuable inputs to various specialist agencies. Switzerland is ranked 2. The works ministry was planning for increase in the hotel accommodation for accommodating the tourists without disappointment. McDonough and Braungart are working with Ford on another development. The surface transport minister was planning a number of additional road lanes required in the highways. our thinking has been refined resulting in enhancing our ability to face global competition through our core strength. that is: with Nano car coming on the road and becoming affordable for large number of people. This has to be done innovatively while designing all our future cars.manufacturing capacity and above all innovative marketing methodology in an integrated manner to produce a globally competitive passenger vehicle system. so that million car production can be made possible. is. With funding primarily from Ford. what you need to do. Recyclable automobile systems Dear friends. This was the type of integrated response that I found in the whole government . Indian Automotive Industry During the last two decades. Your interdiciplinary team may have to study comprehensively various aspects like the loading on the already crowded high ways and city roads. China 34 and UAE 37 and India is 48. Indian Automobile Industry has taken long strides. Growth competitiveness is determined by the innovative ability of an organization. There I find in terms of Growth Competitive Index ranking US is ranked 1. to set up a chain of auto-disassembly plants. which they’re now expanding. I am sure this development will be of considerable interest to automotive researchers. National innovative capacity has to be the country’s important potential for producing competitive products. designers and industry leaders. I thought of sharing with you one experience: When I visited Dubai – UAE in 2003. I found. We have to take the message coming out of this experience and plan for the multiple requirements simultaneously for promoting uninterrupted large volume car production and deployment. With the competitiveness arising out of globalization. as well as from Xerox and GE Plastics. 2. it has two major issues which have to be addressed: “environmental pollution and safety”. You need to evolve this combination in an integrated way. the steel company. Singapore is ranked 7.. For that. in that situation what will happen to the road traffic congestion? What will be the pollution level increase? What will be its effect on parking problem? When I hear these types of questions. Work towards highest fuel efficiency for a given class of engine and car sizing. to concentrate on the following design criteria for competing in the national and international market: 1. shaped by policies and nature of local institutions.

Improvement in Diesel Engines: One of the important aspect of diesel engines is. c. Alternative Power Plants: Substantial research is required in battery technology to provide a reliable. Automobile plying in Brazil roads have to get the design certification for using maximum biofuel and bio-diesel. Designing the power plant to accept 100% bio-fuel. . Emulsified Fuels: Emulsified fuels are found to give much better emission reduction towards reduced particulate and Oxides of Nitrogen emission reduction along with fuel saving that it is now implemented in most of the developed countries. Alternate Fuels: While it is important. Without that. 5. will you? If so then you will be the winner? Automobile Research areas Now. Design to cost and quality 6. Improvement in Combustion Efficiency: For getting better control and precision over combustion and emission. they will not be permitted in run on Brazil roads. high density and cost effective battery to the large Indian rural population. Continuously aim to decrease the overall weight of the automobile systems enabling higher payload capability through state of the art structural design. the NOx (Nitrogen oxide) and particulate matter in the emission which has to be overcome by use of advanced combustion technologies which will reduce both. low-weight. The future generation cars and trucks have to use bio-diesel. Emulsified fuels will cut emissions and will bring down the operating costs including captive power generation costs. self-healing and fail-safe system. Robotic Car I realize that all the eight criteria are interconnected. For automobile applications. Here I would like to emphasize that winner in the automobile industry will be the one who puts the automobile to run with 100% bio-fuel first in the market. let me discuss some of the research areas where automobile scientists and engineers have to concentrate. In India. Bio-fuels are renewable and can be produced in short notice as against fossil fuels which have been produced over millions of years. We should take note of the successful implementation of such programme in different parts of the world. Design of safety systems for providing high-level passenger Safety. we are now successfully burning in a boiler in an industry emulsified diesel fuel with 25% water straight away saving 25% of the diesel fuel.or bio-diesel (d) hydrogen 3. a. please think about the huge fuel savings and the cost benefits for over thousands of boilers and several external fired equipments running with oil in India. e. It can be seen in Brazil the gas stations have provisions for various mixes of biofuel and ethanol including 100% biofuels. scientists have to concentrate on development of alternate fuels and renewable energy sources. 7. Hydrogen powered fuel cells: Hydrogen powered vehicles are almost zero emission vehicles. While combusting emulsified fuels for industrial firing needs no modifications it needs encouragement and educating the users. The savings for the country in oil import bill will be over 20% the present level. Constantly increasing the electronics. Gasoline direct injection permits combustion of ultra-clean fuel air mixtures under diverse operating conditions and hence can deliver higher performance with lower fuel consumption and lower emission. This singular research area alone has the potential to make TATA Motors to produce and market the most competitive commercial and passenger vehicle within the next two years. f. We have to progressively move into fuel cell vehicles within a few decades. The emulsified fuel costs 20% cheaper than the diesel fuel. Which industry is going to be the pioneer. 4. d. communication and control in the automobile systems for realizing high reliability. 8. Indian Automotive Engineers have to work on this area and to offer the system for use in all types of diesel vehicles. ethanol and hydrogen. b. to continuously improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines. ethanol and emulsified fuel. Fully operated bio-fuel car is going to come to india. TATA Need to work with Hydro drive emulsification technology and IIT Madras to experiment and introduce the emulsified fuels in the Diesel cars and diesel vehicles. If one such small boiler using emulsified fuel can save 40 litres of diesel in a day and equivalent amount of cash spent on the fuel. we have to work on direct injection of gasoline for better exhaust characteristics.

Of course. AGNI programme of DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organization) and PURA (Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas) becoming the National Mission. I have seen three dreams which have taken shape as vision. pollution free. Leader must work with integrity and succeed with integrity. g. Courage to combat the problems and succeed. Challenge for researchers will be in the development of drives. they can also take up the development of organic solar cells.Simultaneously. highly mobile. I am sure. 4. from director to delegator and from one who demands respect to one who facilitates self-respect. 2.07. Courage to travel into an unexplored path. these three programmes succeeded in the midst of many challenges and problems. May God bless you. transmission and low weight high capacity batteries. mission and realization. TATA Motors has such leaders who will transform TATA Motors into a one million passenger car per annum producer with 50% going to export market. Are the unique qualities of the youth. manager to mentor. APJ Abdul Kalam.2008 . For that leaders of this organisation should have courage. the industry needs large number of creative leaders. Leader must have a passion to transform the vision into action. Dr. I will work and work with courage to achieve success in all the missions". 7. Leader must have a vision. 1. 29. Every action of the leader should be transparent. Courage to invent. Courage "Courage to think different. As a youth of my nation. Creative leadership means exercising the vision to change the traditional role from the commander to the coach. 3. I have worked in all these three areas. Conclusion Dear friends. Leader must have courage to take decisions. The automobile specialists should work with these energy experts to get the solar cells with 50% efficiency which can be effectively used in solar power driven vehicles. dye-sensitized solar cells and third generation solar cells. Leader must know how to manage a success and failure. I want to convey to you what I have learnt on leadership from these three programmes. Space programme of ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). CNT Based Solar PV Cells: Our scientists have to take up this challenge and come up with the development of a CNT based PV cell with an efficiency of at least 50% within the next three years so that it can go into the commercial production within five years. Leader must be able to travel into an unexplored path. In addition. 6. For a non-linear growth in the Automobile Sector and transforming India into a world leader in the production and marketing of energy efficient. Leader should have Nobility in management. 8. control electronics. In order to achieve what I have discussed so far and to realize the goals in a specified time frame and to build TATA Motors brand. safe and cost effective automotive system before the year 2020. what we need is creative leadership. there is a need to work on hybrid electric vehicle for containing the growing environmental emission in big cities. 5. Courage to discover the impossible.

The results show that for the emulsified fuel ratios. and decreasing values of carbon monoxide (CO). To regulate the above. Experimental investigations were carried out to compare the performance of diesel fuel with different ratios 50D: 50E (50 per cent diesel No: 2: 50 per cent ethanol —100 per cent proof) and 60D: 40E emulsified fuels. C G Saravanan1 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Technology. It is expected that diesel engines will be widely used in the foreseeable future. Annamalai University. Also.1243/09544070JAUTO454 893-900 Authors M P Ashok1. used for the preparation of an alternative fuel for the diesel engine.The performance and emission characteristics of emulsified fuel in a direct injection diesel engine Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. there is a marginal increase in torque. Number 7 / 2007 10. Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering PublisherProfessional Engineering Publishing Journal ISSN Issue DOI Pages 0954-4070 Volume 221. However. experiments were conducted for the selected emulsified fuel ratio 50D: 50E for different high injection pressures and the results are compared. Tamil Nadu. In the next phase. identifying an alternative fuel to the diesel engine with less pollution is essential. robust structure and high fuel economy. NOx. an increase in the use of diesel engines causes a shortage of fossil fuel and results in a greater degree of pollution. Chidambaram. Ethanol—diesel emulsion is one such method. emissions. it is found that an increase in injection pressure of the engine running with emulsified fuel decreases CO and smoke emissions especially between 1500 to 2000 r/min with respect to the diesel fuel. sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions at the maximum speed conditions. compared with diesel fuel. India Abstract Diesel engines are employed as the major propulsion power sources because of their simple. power. Diesel engine incorporating emulsified fuel supply system Document Type and Number: .

Infosys. sales and marketing and distribution network and others.United States Patent 4388893 Abstract: A fuel supply system for producing an emulsified fuel continuously is disclosed. The company already has four big players from car industry in this sector and more companies are showing interest. KPIT Cummins Info systems and IBM India. The Tata Consultancy Services. It has also sought local partner in designing and testing of vehicles. driven by technology for cars. are learnt to spend a sizeable chunk of their revenues on up gradation and development of software of their cars. This is enough to show the scope of the sector. how can the IT sector people be far? The embedded technology has revolutionized the automotive world. World’s car giants General Motors. Apart from OEM companies the support industries like component manufacturers. dealers and suppliers spend a substantial amount of their revenue on gaining software for their departments. Daimler which manufactures Mercedes-Benz and BMW. Mercedes makers Daimler and BMW annually spend a minimum of $2billion on software for their cars. The emulsion is maintained by recirculating the emulsion and adding a ratio of fuel and water to the system to achieve a desired fuel/water ratio in the recirculation loop. Indian IT drives car technology When IT industry is booming and most sectors from manufacturing and to marketing are getting a piece of pie. virtual test drives solutions and in-car entertainment. Satyam. Toyota. And Indian IT sector has been in the forefront of the new technologies in car over the last decade. General Motors. head of global marketing Mr Jayant Pendharkar said “the automotive sector gives a lot of scope for growth of Indian IT companies. The services range from back end support to the being involved in development of new technology. The global automotive IT market. hybrid engines. They also source software solutions for their supply chains. Ford. easily touches $15 billion. It is not only TCS it also Satyam Computer Services has set up a separate division in Chennai to cater to research and development for automotive sector. The market in automotive software is very huge. . Some of the Indian companies who are actively involved in creating technology for cars are Tata Consultancy Services.” TCS is gaining at least 15 percent of its revenue from automotive sector. It is dedicated to assisting car companies in developing cars run n alternative fuels. It is know that companies like Ford. Former Daimler partner Chrysler has signed a contract worth several millions dollars for providing application maintenance and support service to the company. Apart from this it was also involved in providing engineering support services to Ferrari in developing its new F1 car. improving manufacturing.

It has been the largest market for several IT companies in India. which was rescued from the collapse by the government loans on New Year's Eve. it was hard to imagine. He also said the BYD electric car will hit the European market "a little bit earlier than entering US market". while the Asia Pacific region is slowly but steadily growing in market size.000 to $40. The main areas in which technology is flowing to Indian IT sector has been in designing. the Shenzhen-based electric car developer is not the only one plugging into the green energy industry.000. backed by billionaire investor Warren Buffett became the focus of Detroit show and hit the headlines in US newspapers for its electric cars. Next to the BYD display. Automakers are plugging into green energy. China Daily. "We are confident of exporting our electric cars to the US market in 2011. hybrid. making some wonder: after five years. Almost every automaker at the show raced to unveil their strategies to create mass-produced electric cars within two or three years. General Motors. The IT in car technology is growing at the rate of 50-60 percent annually till March 2008. battery and natural gas. mobilized more than 600 employees to loudly cheer the debut of its Chevrolet Volt plug-in.USA has been the biggest contributor to this sector so far. discussion about alternative-fuel technologies for future vehicles was hot and also varied as the world's automakers pursued strategies for nearly everything from hydrogen fuel cells to ethanol. who could be the ultimate winner in the electric auto industry? Originally world's biggest mobile handset battery maker. because "BYD is the first and only one who has 100 percent mastered the core technology of the battery". while Germany is yet to open up. However. The loud message was primarily to the US government saying: we are making progress on green technology to ensure the future of the US auto industry. Among European countries France auto sector is responding favorably to Indian automotive software solutions. following the near meltdown of the US auto industry that the 2009 Detroit auto show was also a gathering of electric vehicles and plans. The Detroit-based company plans to build a US factory to assemble advanced lithium-ion batteries from LG Chem Ltd of South Korea for its Chevy Volt and put the sedan into mass production in 2010 for a price between $30. general manager of BYD's auto export trade division. the first mass-produced model in the world which came to the China market in December. Li believes in the company's electric auto future. Chrysler showed four electric or range-extending hybrid concept veh . priced at around $22.000. Chinese BYD Auto. However." said Li Zhuhang.: 2009-02-09 At the Beijing auto show last April. engineering support services and research and development.

an official of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) said here Saturday. standards and infrastructure. Kotowski said. The tour bus carrying a group of 15 Chinese tourists overturned on US 93 highway in Arizona. would be anticipated within one year from now. including the Dodge Circuit EV all-electric sports car.icles at the show. But the final report of the fatal accident. But the NTSB investigators noted that the investigation has found that the door was mechanically functioning as designed. three vehicles with alternative electric drive systems that could travel up to 375 miles on a single charge. Nine Chinese tourists and the bus driver were injured in the crash. "We're employing a comprehensive approach to electrification that will tackle commercial issues such as batteries. The electric models will be brought to the market beginning next year through 2013. According to him.000 annually. Even the luxury sedan provider Mercedes-Benz put BlueZero. about 40 kilometers south of the Hoover Dam at around 4 p. Most of them are still under treatment at two Las Vegas hospitals. Kotowski said that 15 of the 17 people aboard were ejected from the vehicle during the crash because there were no seat belts for passengers in the 30-seat bus. when returning to Las Vegas after a one-day trip to the Grand Canyon. also has the ambitions to sell an all-electric car by 2012 in Japan." said Kotowski.m. are on a production agenda starting from later this year to 2010. the company's executive chairman. Some witnesses told investigators that they saw the driver trying to close the door when he lost control of the vehicle. who was appropriately licensed. which was not represented at the Detroit show. Pete Kotowski. Europe and the US. which gained an edge on hybrid vehicles as the owner of the world's best seller Prius. has said it will sell an electric car in the US as early as 2010. "No conclusion has been reached for more investigation at this stage." said Bill Ford Jr. Kotowski said that the 48-year-old bus driver told investigators that he was distracted by the vehicle's door. The Concept BlueZero. which was briefly open for non-disclosed reasons just minutes before the crash occurred. which had become a headline on both US and Chinese news media for past week. the year Chrysler is forecasting sales of electric cars will exceed 100. a battery-only small electric prototype in the center of its stand. Another US auto giant Ford said it plans to begin the sales of an electric sedan in the US by 2011.US federal investigators are nearly completing their work on scene investigation on the tour bus crash that killed six Chinese tourists and their tour guide over a week ago in Arizona. US law doesn't require seat belts for bus passengers on highways. and the Chrysler Town & Country EV range-extending vehicles. chinadaily. who is in charge of the NTSB investigation. US about to end scene probe on Arizona bus crash. on January 30. . 2009-02-08 09:57 LAS VEGAS -. Toyota. while Nissan. the Jeep Wrangler Unlimited EV. the Jeep Patriot. told a press conference in Las Vegas. officials of the Arizona Department of Public Safety were discussing with prosecutors on whether to file criminal charges against the bus driver.

Related readings: Tibet to build first expressway Highway construction resumes Sichuan-Tibet highway collapse worsens with rainfall "This time we employed advanced surveying and mapping technologies. the progress for the rest of the project will be smoothed. lack of fund and poor technologies had failed seven attempts to build a highway in that area since the 1970s. said Yao Bohua.Highway linking last roadless county due before 2012 (Xinhua). "When it is completed. has only about 10. The tough terrains. Workers were digging a 3. the project is wholly funded by the country. which means "flower" in the Tibetan language.000 inhabitants. the county seat of Bome. ." Yao said." Yao said. linking Zhamog Town. there are only mountain paths connecting villages and towns. will be connected with the outside when construction on a highway is completed in three years as scheduled.6 million). At a cost of 950 million yuan (US$138. In case of landslides and mud-rock-flow. in the construction project. the county is isolated with the outside.China's last road-less county Medog. Updated: 2009-02-09 10:27 LHASA -.3-km tunnel through the Galung La mountain in Nyingchi Prefecture. in Tibet. head of the highway planning and design institute under the region's communication department. It is the last of the country's 2.100 counties to be connected via a highway." The sparsely populated Medog. mostly in rural areas. Situated at Tibet's border with India and nestled among snow-capped mountains. especially the global positioning system (GPS). "The construction on the tunnel is a very important phase of the project. The 117-km highway. which has an average altitude of about 5. he added. will end the history that local people have to rely on horses and mules for transportation in Medog. complicated geological conditions.000 meters. and Medog.

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