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**‘Calculating the Surface Potential Gradient of Overhead Line Conductors’
**

Qi Li, Simon M. Rowland, R. Shuttleworth

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 30, Issue 1, pp. 43-52 (2015)

**DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2014.2325597
**

II. Jr. All these calculation techniques are based on a simplified model of The major factors affecting conductor surface stress for an transmission line conductors—a set of cylinders parallel to overhead line. gradient distribution is performed. proximity of tower. Index Terms—surface gradient. fax: 303-555-5555.. Full names of authors are preferred in the author series of cylindrical conductors with infinite length. corona.gov). three-dimensional transmission line is thus represented by a Boulder. The F. Thus calculation of the electric field strength on Maxwell Potential Coefficient Method (MPCM) Markt and Mengele's Method and Its Extension Numerical methods can be found in the literature are (in the surface of HV conductors when studying corona order of publishing date): phenomena is of high importance. bundle spacing and bundle arrangement. proposes a novel method which utilizes both analytical and After the review. are: This article first summarizes the main methods employed by Conductor sag previous researchers to evaluate transmission line conductor Proximity of towers surface voltage gradients. Analytical methods are listed as (in order of increased I. CO 80305 USA (corresponding author to provide phone: 303-555- 5555. and audible noise selected as an example to compare the results for the different (AN). Author. and raindrops) [3] Department of Commerce under Grant BS123456 Paper titles should be By ignoring all the factors listed above. Author. (Write the date on which you Conductor stranding and protrusions (scratches. A sensitivity study on the factors could affect surface evaluation of electric field for different stranding shapes. With this surface field calculation is introduced. it enables taken into consideration when calculating surface potential gradients. INTRODUCTION complexity): T he most important factor influencing generation of corona is electric field distribution in the vicinity of the conductor surface [1]. as shown in Error! Reference source not smooth. not all uppercase. twin bundle. Charge Simulation Method. and has distinct type of tower. Author is with the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Successive Images Method The calculation of surface gradients on overhead conductor Charge Simulation Method (CSM) dates back to the 1950s when Maxwell's Potential Matrix was Boundary Element Method first employed as an analytical tool [2].S. finite element method. protrusions. e-mail: author@boulder. written using Abstract—the surface potential gradient is a critical design MATLAB.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 1 On Calculating Surface Potential Gradient of Overhead Line Conductors First A. two-dimensional model. stranding shape. This method combines effective model. bundle spacing and bundle arrangement can be advantages over the other techniques. a new composite method of conductor numerical procedures to predict the surface gradient. insects submitted your paper for review. a simplified written in uppercase and lowercase letters. field. an analytical method with a numerical method. proximity of tower. radio interference (RI). flat ground. triple be classified as being either analytical or numerical by their bundle derivation principles. Author. but are not required. parallel to field. Over the past 60 years. found. radio interference. Different methods for calculating electric field strength can bundle spacing.. Simplified Model for Surface Gradient Calculation numerical methods have been applied to this subject. Successive Images Method. A.nist. and Third C. audible noise. Second B. each other and placed above a smooth ground plane. IEEE detail and programmes using these methods. Put a space between authors‘ initials. type of tower. Five major methods are reviewed in Uneven ground surface Finite ground conductivity Manuscript received October 9. short formulas that identify the elements are fine in the title.) This work was supported in part by the U. are briefly described. For example. high voltage conductor. 2001. stranding shape. protrusions. Finite Element Method (FEM) due to the increasing power of computers a number of A. The majority of existing models for surface gradient calculation are based on analytical methods which restrict their methods. . Member. protrusion. Avoid writing transmission line model can be produced which comprises a long formulas with subscripts in the title. as it determines the level transmission line configurations—L2 RUBUS—has been of corona loss (CL). REVIEW OF THE EXISTING METHODS Maxwell Potential Coefficient Method. One of National Grid‘s parameter for planning overhead lines. This article deployed widely in the UK. this being a typical configuration which also being application in simulating complex surface geometry. Markt and Mengele's Method.

‗An charge. King further improved this method by replacing a sub-conductor by two line charges symmetrically displaced from the centre of the conductor [8]. optimized charge simulation method‘ was discussed by Yializis. Hammond [10] presented a cylindrical conductor example which connected the ‗image method‘ to transmission line field calculations. Under this assumption. The boundary conditions are satisfied by selecting N introduced by King who suggested that the line charge used to testing points on the surface (red points) and assuming their replace each sub-conductor is not located at its central point potential to be the conductor‘s voltage. it is also a numerical method bundle is equally split into sub-conductors to calculate the based on fictitious charges. This small testing points can be calculated by superposition of fictitious . Markt and Mengele [5. However. insulation components. Conductor bundle is UHVDC transmission line in China [15]. More recent work gradient for bundled conductors. initially replaced by a single conductor with electrically The principle of the ‗Charge Simulation Method‘ can be equivalent radius. and the MPCM is then utilized to compute non-uniformly distributed surface charge‘ [27]. By using this basic idea of the image method. When conductor bundles applicability of CSM from two dimensions to three are considered. They extended the conductor transmission line system. calculated so that their integrated effect satisfies the boundary conductors is relatively small compared to distance between conditions. N line charges have been introduced within bundles. An determining the charge density for each conductor. Steinbigler and Weiss published a comprehensive The MPCM produces acceptable accuracy only for single paper [13] on the details of CSM. The distance between sub. The obtained charge density for each ‗Successive Images Method‘. As long as the fictitious transmission lines. Figure 1 Diagrammatic drawing of a transmission line span The method of successive images initially allows ‗central line charge‘ simplification (as introduced in ‗Maxwell‘s B. Successive Images Method The ‗Image Method‘ comes from Lord Kelvin‘s publication [9] in 1848 when he discovered that the electric field of a charge in front of a conducting plane can be calculated by the charge and its mirror image. the uniform charge assumption becomes dimensions. 6] employing CSM refers to surface field calculation of ±800 kV modified the procedure of the MPCM. Based on this. Similar to the the charge density. the difference is that the surface gradient. charge system. Sarma and Janischewskyj published a similar paper [11] in 1969 on electrostatic field calculation of parallel cylindrical conductors using the ‗Successive Images Method‘. Charge Simulation Method The MPCM assumes that surface charges are distributed The ‗Charge Simulation Method‘ (CSM) has been widely uniformly around each conductor. Maxwell Potential Coefficient Method Potential Method‘) to calculate the charge density of each Temoshok [2] introduced 'Maxwell's Potential Coefficient' conductor. An improvement was bundle. E. explained as ‗using discrete fictitious charges to replace the conductor system. Subsequently. the charge densities can be utilized in higher voltage level. while the fictitious charges introduced in CSM are accurate analytical method for field calculation in high voltage flexible in both location and shape. This is explained through a simplified example as different phases. This simplifies bundle system into a single. As a result line-charge simplification follows: introduces large errors in calculating electric field distributions As shown in Figure 2. As the potentials of the but a small distance away from its central point [7]. The method dates back to 1969 when Abou Seada and Nasser employed CSM to evaluate the field which simplifies the multi-conductor system into a multi-line strength in a twin cylindrical conductor [12]. and then consider the non uniform distribution of to compute surface gradient for transmission line system by those charges around the surface of each conductor. Singer. Further improvement of calculation accuracy to simulate the surface charge distribution of a twin cylindrical is thus required for bundle conductors. Markt and Mengele's Method for optimizing calculation speed by flexibly selecting In order to address the problem of computing surface simulation charge shapes were presented. bundled conductors are widely charges have been set up. However. D. explained the processes for this method through his calculating example on single conductor transmission line. each utilized to analyze electric field distribution in high voltage conductor can be electrically presented as a single line charge. Adams [4] iterative procedure is employed to achieve the required results. images introduced in the ‗Successive Images Method‘ are fixed at a certain position with a certain shape and charge The 'Markt and Mengele's Method' is well known as an density. Kuffel and Alexander in 1978 [14]. and techniques C.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 2 distance is a function of the bundle‘s geometry. and gave an example of the calculation of electric inadequate due to the non-uniformly distributed surface field strength near a transmission line tower. using CSM.

as shown in Figure 4. N equations can thus be constructed with N negligible. This number can be increased maximum size is the tower structure which is about 40 meters by using a finer mesh size in the vicinity of conductor surface. Meshing CSM has the advantage that it can be extended to simulate the details for this simulation are listed in TABLE I. the ‗Successive Images Method‘ can only simulate addressed by combining structured and unstructured mesh and regular cylindrical conductors with smooth surface profile. but controlling the growing rate of the mesh layer around the it can do so for a relatively large scale for two dimensions. This issue is hand.2 centimeters while the length on the conductor surface. The largest lmin number of mesh elements an 8 gigabyte PC can sustain is --where lmax and lmin refer to the maximum and minimum approximately one million. The overhead line conductors. The flow chart in Figure 3 combines the three methods in Tetrahedral Elements 1745046 No. P U 1 Simplified transmission line model calculation by ‘Successive Sag effect analysis by ‘Charge Simulation Method’ Images Method’ The electric field can thus be calculated from (1). However it is lmax = limited by the scale of geometries it can simulate. Electric potential distribution around the bundle Iterative process Stranding shape analysis for each sub-conductor by ‘Finite Element Method’ Figure 3 Comprehensive Method for Surface Stress Calculation Figure 2 Isolated Two-conductor Bundle B. The ‗Successive Pyramid Elements 233000 Mesh Volume 80000 m3 Prism Elements 2722800 Growth Rate (Max) 10. If the The Finite Element Method can analyze geometries with scale factor (µ) is defined as: irregular shapes coupled with different fields. insulators and the conductors. a holistic FEA model is built in commercial software to III. However this demonstrates the limitation of FEM in modeling High degree of scale factor requires large computing the large scale transmission line environment. 500 Edge Elements 43194 Vertex Elements 234 fictitious line charges were introduced for each conductor. TABLE I These characteristics make it possible to combine the three MESH STATISTICS methods together to analyze the surface stranding effect within Element Type Number Mesh Parameter Statistics the whole scale of the transmission line environment. On the other memories in order to obtain an accurate result.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 3 line charges. surface profiles and protrusions are . This results a scale factor of more than 1000. Meshing Technique for FEM Additional to these. The accuracy is further improved by adding an iterative process which gradually approaches the best-fit The line charge densities can be found by matrix inversion: boundary for FEA. overhead line conductors passing through the supporting tower. METHODOLOGY simulate the tower. The challenge of performing holistic simulation using FEM A. As long as the large scale results are obtained.584 employed to calculate the electric potential distribution in a Quadrilateral Elements 130000 relatively large scale (a whole span of a transmission line). a micro-scale domain (an P U equipotential surface) is extracted as boundary conditions for the FEA process. simulation for the whole span The minimum size within the geometry is overhead line of overhead line will result less than two elements over a 1 cm conductors which have a diameter of 3. of Elements 4700846 analyzing the surface field distribution.68 Images Method‘ and ‗Charge Simulation Method‘ are Triangular Elements 267350 Growth Rate (Ave) 1. tall. Taking the proposed transmission length of the geometry within the whole simulation line parameters as an example. so the calculation results obtained are within unknown variables (fictitious line charge densities): tolerable distortion (less than one percent). effect of sag in three dimensions. Boundary Element Method (BEM) is an effective method in open field problem however has the In order to evaluate the surface gradient enhancement when limitation that cannot couple with different fields. Within this large scale. Novel Method Combining FEM and CSM is how to decide a proper strategy for mesh generation.

In order to obtain more information on surface gradients for different shapes of strand.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 4 cylinder was employed to represent all types of overhead line conductors. a novel method developed here is applied to a typical tower configuration. the surface gradient varies along the strand surface and there is no continuous area with same voltage gradient a) Structured Mesh Unstructured Mesh b) Figure 4 Mesh for the L2 tower: a). the arc length along the edge of conductor strands is chosen to represent the surface distribution of electric field. As explained in Figure 14. and are more efficient in current transmission compared to traditional round strands. the left sub-conductor (conductor number 1) in the bottom twin bundle is analyzed: From the electric field plot along the surface of the conductor. the following conclusions can be obtained: The round stranded conductor has a higher maximum surface gradient compared to a trapezoidal stranded conductor The maximum electric field for a trapezoidal shaped strand is located at the corners while the maximum electric field for a round shape strand is located at the tip of the circle furthest from the conductor centre On the circumference of a conductor fabricated with trapezoidal strands. L2 (Figure 14). the trapezoidal stranded gradient calculations ignored the shape of the strands. IV. b) zoom in view at the dashed box in a). The increasing use of trapezoidal shaped conductors pushes the need to study the surface gradient because all previous models have used heuristics based on circular strand cross-sections. trapezoidal shaped strands achieve a higher fill factor (as shown in Figure 5). If 16 kV/cm is selected (dashed line in Figure 7) as a typical As introduced previously. SURFACE GRADIENT FOR DIFFERENT STRANDING SHAPES With the advance of manufacturing techniques. A conductor has approximately 88 mm circumference above this . For example. The horizontal axis refers to the electric field strength and the vertical axis represents the integrated arc Figure 5 Trapezoidal Strands (left) and Round Strands (right) length which has a surface gradient value above a certain level. existing methods for surface level to examine the field distribution. overall view of mesh. Figure 6 Trapezoidal strands (GAP) and round strands (AAAC) comparison In Figure 7. there are large continuous lengths with approximately same surface voltage gradient On the surface of the round strands. various types of conductor have been created to fulfil the needs of modern power systems.

A hemispherical protrusion is introduced to the existing model to compute the enhancement of electric field. Figure 10 Surface Gradient Enhancement by protrusion for Trapezoidal Stranded Conductor Figure 11 Surface Gradient Enhancement by protrusion for Round Stranded Conductor Figure 8 Protrusions on Trapezoidal Shape Strand Assume that the corona is initiated when the local stress exceeds 30 kV/cm. Finite element method is employed (14. Referring to Figure 7. This field enhancement is not only determined by the shape and size of the protrusion but also depends on the location of the protrusion. scenario is taking into consideration. As presented in Figure 8 and Figure 9. the correlated surface arc where the protrusion sits.3 kV/cm for round to evaluate the electric field enhancement.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 5 level while the round stranded conductor has about 59 mm gradient with protrusion and without protrusion is established circumference above 16 kV/cm. the local electric field is increased due to the relatively large curvature created by the protrusion. If a higher level of electric in Figure 10 and Figure 11. 100um and 200um) is applied on both trapezoidal surface gradient without protrusion is marked in dashed line strands and round strands. the round stranded conductor has a larger area above this value than the trapezoidal stranded one. The next step is to decide the threshold value to be considered important. if the worst Hemisphere protrusion with a range of size (radius: 10um. Figure 9 Protrusions on Round Shape Strand Figure 7 Arc Length with Surface Gradient above a Certain Level V. By vary the location strands). field is selected as the threshold. EFFECT OF PROTRUSIONS Figure 7 described the circumferential length above a threshold value of voltage gradient. take 20 kV/cm as an example.7 kV/cm for trapezoidal strands and 15. the threshold value for 50um. when a protrusion is applied to the surface of the conductor. the relationship between surface length for trapezoidal shape strands is approximately 88 mm . From Figure 10 and Figure 11.

the higher the electric field on surface of the the metallic tower structure is a solid body rather than a conductor will be. the surface the small degree of sag within the first 20 meters span is gradient increases to a peak of 26 kV/cm (peak). due to enhanced due to the short distance to ground potential (tower). both sides electrostatic analysis is performed and the time is selected at 0 s for evaluation B. VII. the shorter the large scale simulation: the clearance is. triple and quad bundles) . and the recently designed T-Pylon) different spacing arrangements (such as 300 mm. SURFACE GRADIENT FOR TOWER EFFECT axial direction of the conductors.4 kV/cm (6%) maximum. as a worst scenario. when a simplified model was considered.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 6 while the correlated surface arc length for round shape strands C. The phase arrangement is a typical untransposed phase in National Grid.7 the ground is assumed to be a perfect conductive plane kV/cm (peak). This plot ignored applies along a horizontal line on the surface of conductor (red the whole simulation extends 20 meters from the tower to dot in the figure). When the L2 tower is included. Assumptions surface is approximately 282 kV. when the potential drop remains constant. twin. As a result. According to electrostatic The following simplifications are made in order to perform theory. taking into consideration tower shape. Voltage Gradient Distribution at 'Time 0' The results are displayed at instantaneous time 0 as shown in Figure 12. a novel finite element model conductors. TABLE II PHASE ANGLE AND PHASE VOLTAGE AT TIME 0 A B C D E F Phase Angle -120o 120o 0o 0o 120o -120o Voltage (kV) -163 -163 327 327 -163 -163 Figure 13 Electric Field Enhancement by Tower (x axis gives distance from the tower) As a conclusion. the potential distribution does not vary along the VI. Any equipotential surface in When overhead line conductors pass a metallic structured three-dimension is thus an extrusion of the equivalent two- tower. the electric field on the surface of conductors is dimensional equipotential line. insulator the electric field on the conductor surface is enhanced. instance. has been built. As shown in Figure 12. If we assume that the electric field varies as sinusoidal wave within one cycle. EFFECT OF THE CONDUCTOR ORIENTATION The conductor orientation varies due to the following factors: different types of tower (such as L2. L6. The surface gradient conductors are simplified as cylinders without tower (shown as a dashed line) is approximately 24. and conductor bundles. Electric Field Enhancement is approximately 62 mm. the increased surface gradient in RMS term is thus calculated from peak value as 1 kV/cm. the potential drop from the top left phase to the equipotential A. For strings. lattice structure The electric field along the surface of a single conductor the insulator strings are simplified to a cylindrical shape ('conductor 1' in left hand tower in Figure 14) at time 0 is of radius 100 mm and relative dielectric permittivity of 4 plotted in Figure 13. The voltage applied on each phase is listed in TABLE II. on the plot 'equipotential surface V=45 kV'. the equipotential surface is distorted. the field enhancement on "conductor F" due to the proximity of tower is around 1. 400 mm and 500 mm) Figure 12 Equipotential Surfaces Surrounding a 400kV L2 Tower different bundle arrangements (single. As described previously. the effect of the metallic tower adjacent to the overhead In order to evaluate this effect.

For comparison.2 kV/cm) for average value and within the whole system.20 8 17.26 17. are adjacent sub-conductors. 3% (0.47 6 17.57 16.37 16. For By observing TABLE III. In order to evaluate the effect surface gradient calculations. surface gradient calculations in this part.20 3 17. T-Pylon has a larger variation (8.46 18.53 17. Bundle-Spacing A. bundle (as shown in Figure 14) is taken as a prototype for bundle spacing (twin 400 mm). The maximum and average values are then taken among all those sub-conductors. voltage level (400 kV) and stress computation.96 10 17.54 16.47 11 17.51 16.64 16.75 15. the 'average-maximum' value means the following drawn: process: L2 tower has lower surface gradients both in maximum The maximum surface gradient is first measured around and average value among all sub-conductors.26 17.6 mm diameter). calculations.75 15.39 16.43 16. The the whole circle of each sub-conductor.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 7 This section examines the sensitivity of the surface gradient If the variation between maximum and minimum values values of overhead line conductors to these geometric factors. T-Pylon.41 18.26 17.15 9 17.52 17.64 18. Different Types of Towers Bundle spacing is the distance between the centres of two A typical L2 tower and the new tower design. the simplified consideration.44 17.53 17.64 16.07 16.19 17. are kept the same for both 550 mm at 10 mm intervals.48 4 17. the following conclusions are example. a L2 RUBUS twin parameters.62 18.15 2 17.07 16. 13 maximum difference between these values on the L2 and T Pylon values are generated as there are 13 sub-conductors are approximately 1% (0. the maximum value is first taken from the Average 17.54 16.41 16.6 kV/cm) for maximum value The mean value is taken among those 13 maximum values to obtain a single value to indicate the surface .97 7 17. of surface gradient among all sub-conductors is taken into As the relatively large scale is the main concern. the bundle shown in Figure 14.7%). B.64 18. such as conductor size (31. These two configurations are used to spacing varies from 300 mm to 550 mm according to voltage study the effect of different types of tower configurations on levels and tower configurations.41 16.57 16.41 16.61 18.69 Maximum 17.67 16.19 17.67 16. 5 6 11 12 3 4 9 10 1 2 7 8 Figure 15 Maximum Surface Gradient with Bundle Separation Figure 14 L2 Tower (Left) and T-Pylon (Right) TABLE III COMPARISON (T-PYLON WITH L2) L2 Tower T-Pylon Conductor Number Emax Eave Emax Eave (kV/cm) (kV/cm) (kV/cm) (kV/cm) 1 17. all other of spacing on surface gradient values.67 16.64 16.43 16.37 16.47 In Figure 15.39 16.88 Figure 16 Average Surface Gradient with Bundle Separation 12 17. The spacing is increased from 50 mm to phase arrangement (untransposed).88 5 17.44 17.20 surface of each sub-conductor.46 18.71 16. Within National Grid UK.3%) model with no sag and no tower effect is utilized to conduct when compared with the L2 tower (1.

The horizontal ordinate is the index increment as defined .52 13. cylindrical assumption. there is approximately a 3.99 12. .88 12.46 13. protrusion is applied on a specific location (area) of the If the bundle spacing is reduced from 550 mm to 50 mm. this area is then gradient value.57 14 . 13.41 4 17.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 8 gradient level within this calculation. So the surface factors such as: gradient in this case is minimized at about 230 mm stranding shape spacing.41 14.99 12.87 10 17. If this calculated there is approximately 27% drop in average surface maximum electric field exceeded 30 kV/cm. . a strategy is developed. and the area 'above threshold The highest voltage level in the transmission system in the electric field' is added up to reflect the potential area can UK is 400 kV. the surface gradient Protrusion Size 0~1 r=10 um r=200 um reduces by approximately 20% (3.41 16. Twin and triple bundles are most widely used For comparison purpose.64 7 17. A reference length of C. 13. 14. triple and quad. The bundle spacing is fixed at 500 mm. The distribution of surface values reduce rapidly from 50 mm to 230 mm (Figure 2 potential gradient can be affected by both micro and macro 40). A STRATAGEM FOR EVALUATING SURFACE GRADIENT Similarly. count as 'above threshold electric field'. 1 twin triple Twin Triple Conductor Number Emax Eave Emax Eave (kV/cm) (kV/cm) (kV/cm) (kV/cm) 1 17. An increased bundle spacing or reduced bundle protrusion size spacing from 230 mm will cause the maximum value of proximity of tower surface gradient to rise. .63 The surface area above threshold electric field is computed Maximum 17.29 12.70 15 . surface stress Factors Range Min Max Increment calculations for both twin and triple bundles are calculated.1 L2 T 1 TABLE IV Bundle Spacing 0~1 50 550 COMPARISON FOR SURFACE GRADIENT (RMS BETWEEN TWIN AND TRIPLE) Bundle Arrange 0.5% drop on the maximum bundle arrangement surface gradient value. The results are compared in TABLE IV.95 12.64 16.23 12.62 14.64 14. The bundle arrangements include single.67 16. but increase from 230 mm to 550 mm.5 kV/cm).06 12.43 16.97 12.41 16.37 16. As proved in IV and V. Proximity of Tower 0~1 D=0 m D=10 m Type of Towers 0. L2 TABLE V FACTORS AND THEIR DEFINITION RUBUS (shown in Figure 14) is chosen as a benchmark model. it is not the It is observed that: maximum value but the distribution of surface gradient which Both 'maximum-maximum' and 'average-maximum' determines the corona generation.46 13.99 12. surface gradient values from twin bundle to triple bundle.06 12.66 12.37 16.29 12.67 16. Different Bundle Arrangements conductor (1 m) is examined.82 3 17.64 16.82 11 17. To evaluate the reduction of defined in a 0 to 1 base.87 and divided to a reference value to obtain the results in Figure 17.70 5 17.54 16.64 13. the 'maximum-average' and surface potential gradient distribution.39 8 17. initiate corona discharges.44 13. 'average-average' values increase when the bundle The electric field strength is first calculated assuming a separation increases (Figure 16). .57 6 17. indexes for different factors are in overhead line conductors.64 2 17.51 16. twin. surface of overhead line conductor.54 16. in Figure 16. 13.39 18 .87 Figure 17 Sensitivities of Factors for Surface Gradient Calculation Average 17. 13. In order to exam the sensitivity of different factors to In contract to Figure 15.53 14. .43 16. types of towers If the bundle spacing is reduced from 550 mm to 230 bundle spacing mm.29 12.67 16. .66 12.61 9 17. as shown in TABLE V.64 16 .44 13.88 12. By introducing one Stranding Shape 0.41 13 . the average value is first taken Existing methods for surface gradient calculation on around each sub-conductor.61 17 .23 12.64 12 17.68 12. 14.53 13. The maximum and average values overhead line conductor only consider a maximum value with are then generated.41 14.61 13. VIII.68 12.64 13.95 12. 1 round trapezoidal 1 more sub-conductor (from twin to triple).99 12.

pp. Information A novel model is built for surface gradient calculation on concerning previous publications may be included. The second paragraph uses the pronoun of the person (he or she) and not the author‘s last name. Institute. ―Voltage Gradients on High-Voltage Transmission Lines. city. Jones.‖ Power . If a photograph is provided. [12] M. List any memberships in shape and the bundle arrangement (twin or triple).‖ in Siemens-Schuckert-Werke AG. It lists military and work experience. ―Electrical fundamentals of bundle conductors. Qin. 10. pp. then date). ―Relative Surface voltage Gradients of Grouped Conductors. Job titles are capitalized. [11] M. 1872. PAS-88. no. Germany. 1978. 1969. Dr. It is found that The third paragraph begins with the author‘s title and last name (e. state. 107. 6. Sarma. no. vol. 5. J. with excessive corona discharge the maximum enhancement due to the proximity of tower is about 12% for surface area with corona. Third Edition: Electric Power Research Institute. Kajor.‖ Power Apparatus and Systems. the surface gradient distribution is sensitive to both stranding Smith. pp. King. Xingliang. Lings. no. and a Fellow (F) in 1987. a Senior Member (SM) in 1981. [9] W. the biography will be indented around it. Apparatus and Systems. Other professional societies other than the IEEE. 3-11. year) similar to a reference. 1969. ―An Optimized Charge the second sensitive factor is the bundle arrangement. 106. PAS-97. previous positions may be listed without one. vol. Berlin. vol. 12. Part III.Part C: Monographs. Systems. the area of corona discharge reduced for approximately [15] H. 3. but this value First A. ―A Charge Simulation Method the most sensitive factor is the stranding shape as when for the Calculation of High Voltage Fields. and S. ―An improved solution for the field near bundle conductors. state: publisher name. 67. vol. pp. 1583-1591. type of within the biography is: title of book (city. vol. [10] P. the area of corona discharge increased for about 50% [14] A. PAS-98. Prof. Temoshok. IEEE Transactions on. [8] S.‖ Electrical Engineers. Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Thomson. Alexander. Proceedings of the Institution of. Adams. Hammond. v. 1960. Y. pp. 6. Janischewskyj.‖ American Institute of Electrical Engineers.. King. 12. REFERENCES [1] P. [2] M.‖ Power Apparatus and Systems. 1996-2014. 1963. for IEEE committees and publications. 5-11. Current and previous research interests end the paragraph. 200-206. Abou-Seada. and P. 362-365.‖ Proceedings of the IEE - Part C: Monographs. pp. CONCLUSION summer and fellowship jobs. no. Steinbigler. ―Electric and magnetic images. vol. vol. Ms." pp. 1942. no. Simulation Method for the Calculation of High Voltage Fields. S. 1069-1079. vol. The following conclusion is obtained: [13] H. Apparatus and Systems. ―Electrostatic Field of a System of Parallel Cylindrical Conductors. EPRI AC Transmission Line Reference Book: 200 KV and Above. IEEE Transactions on. [5] W.g. [7] S. 1948. The photograph is placed at the top left of the biography. Y. pp. 2. 2005. Lichun. Reprint of papers on electrostatics and magnetism: Macmillan & Company. It enables the consideration of three books or published articles.‖ Power Apparatus and Systems. pp. Qianfei. and W. Singer. 7. 110. Mangoldt. Next. Mr. pp. no. vol. 2000. ―The electric field near bundle conductors. no. Nasser. Rong. S. S. Y. The first larger protrusion leads to smaller area with corona paragraph may contain a place and/or date of birth (list place. 1044-1050. This author became a Member (M) of IEEE in meters away from the tower 1976. X. Hunter). proximity of tower. no. and T-Pylon gives approximately 6% increase of surface area country. bundle spacing and bundle arrangement. 1974. PAS-93. Yializis. P. and year degree was earned. Corona performance of high-voltage transmission lines: Research Studies Press. The degrees should be discharge (9% reduction from 10 um to 200 um) listed with type of degree in what field. IEEE Transactions on. and E. [6] IEEE. Author (M‘76–SM‘81–F‘87) and the other authors may include biographies at the end of regular papers.‖ Power Apparatus and the shape of strands changed from round to trapezoidal. 74. protrusions. [3] R. 1979. [4] G. there is around 20% reduction of the surface area Method. Personal hobbies will be deleted from the biography. IEEE Transactions on. 2434-2440. P. R. Try not to list more than overhead line conductors. Zhang. the author‘s educational background is listed. and E.‖ Proceedings of the IEE .> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 9 in TABLE V. J. Finally. E. which institution. Maruvada. E. H. no. PAS-88. 1959. ―A Survey of Methods for Calculating Transmission Line Conductor Surface Voltage Gradients. pp. H. pp. ―Digital Computer Calculation of the Potential and Its Gradient of a Twin Cylindrical Conductor. Kuffel. The current job must have a location. no. Transactions of the. tower. list any awards and work factors have relatively small influence on the field distribution.‖ Power while the conductor bundle changed from twin to triple. Weiss. 1660-1668. vol. and P. 1802-1814. 30% "Calculation of Conductors' Surface Electric Field of Â±800kV when the bundle spacing reduced from 550 mm to 50 UHVDC Transmission Lines with Optimized Charge Simulation mm. IEEE Transactions on. including IX. 306-313. 1955. The format for listing publishers of a book stranding shape. Biographies are often not included in reduced to negligible level when exam the location at 10 conference-related papers. The author‘s major field of study should with corona discharge be lower-cased. 6.

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