Hydraulic jump

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Hydraulic jump

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Nicolette Lind - Jessica McCallum - Maiwand M-Yaqoob

What is a hydraulic jump?

A hydraulic jump is defined as a rise in the level of water in an open channel

Can be calculated, designed and controlled by engineers

Often designed to occur over dam spillways

When/why do they occur?

A hydraulic jump occurs when a liquid at a high velocity discharges into a zone

that has a lower velocity

The slowing of the liquid leads to an increase in height that changes the kinetic

energy of the liquid into potential energy

Some of the energy is dissipated in the form of heat due to turbulence

Theory

Raleigh (1914) calculated the change in fluid depth associated with the shock

wave from a hydraulic jump and introduced the principles of continuity and

conservation of momentum

The continuity states that the flow rate (Q) must be equal before and after the

hydraulic jump

The conservation of momentum helps determine the energy dissipated within the

hydraulic jump

Diagrams

Example diagrams of hydraulic jumps are shown below.

Applicable Equations

Froude Number: Fr = V/(gL) Upstream Energy Level: E = y + (V/2g)

V = Velocity V = Velocity upstream

g = gravity y = upstream measured depth

L = depth of flow g = gravity

Where: yc = critical flow depth Where: hL = head loss in the hydraulic jump

y = upstream measured depth y = upstream measured depth

Fr = Froude number y = downstream measured depth

Importance of Froude Number

Defines subcritical flow or supercritical flow

A froude number greater than 1 is a supercritical flow whereas a froude number

less than 1 is a subcritical flow

In order to have a hydraulic jump the froude number needs to be greater than or

equal to 1

A hydraulic jump occurs when the flow goes from supercritical flow (Fr > 1) to

subcritical flow (Fr < 1) or from an unstable flow to a stable flow

A hydraulic jump will not occur when a flow goes from subcritical flow (Fr < 1) to

a supercritical flow (Fr > 1)

Types of Jumps

Weak (Undular) Jump

Low energy dissipation rate

Smooth downstream water surface

Oscillating Jump

Irregular fluctuations of flow

Causes turbulence downstream

Steady Jump

Jump forms steadily at same location and is well balanced

Turbulence is confined within the jump

Strong Jump

Large change in depth of the water surface

High energy dissipation rate

Hydraulic Jump Classification

Advantages

Dissipates the energy of water over a spillway

Prevents scouring on the downstream side of the dam structure

Traps air in the water

Useful for removing wastes and pollution in the water

Reverses the flow of water

Can be used to mix chemicals for water purification

Maintains a high water level on the downstream side

Useful for irrigation purposes

Disadvantages

Downstream turbulence can cause damage and degradation of

channel banks

May cause erosion on hydraulic surfaces

Undesirable condition for fish passage

Energy Dissipation

Hydraulic jumps are one of the most effective options in dissipating energy over

water structures

Energy is dissipated in the form of heat

Turbulent flow and secondary waves cause most of the energy dissipation

Applying the conservation of momentum equation, the energy loss can be

calculated by:

E = (y - y) / (4yy)

Where:

y = Flow depth at supercritical flow

y = Flow depth at subcritical flow

Energy Loss Diagram

The diagram above illustrates a hydraulic jump and the energy loss from E1 to E2. The supercritical depth (y1) jumps to

a larger depth, subcritical depth (y2), as the velocity decreases from V1 to V2.

Applications

Industrial

Hydraulic jumps are commonly designed by engineers to dissipate energy below dam spillways,

weirs and outlets.

Recreational

Hydraulic jumps in rivers are often used for fun/sport by kayakers, canoers, and rafters.

Well-Known Hydraulic Jumps

Hoover Dam

Crystal Rapid in Grand Canyon

Cache la Poudre River Spillways

Your sink!

Crystal Rapid

Crystal Rapid is one of the most feared rapids in the Colorado River. It has several

large holes with a garden of rocks beneath. The rapids were formed in 1966 when a

flash flood washed debris into the river. The large holes are great examples of

hydraulic jumps and make Crystal Rapid one of the most complex environments for

water sports enthusiasts.

Important People

Leonardo Da Vinci first described hydraulic jumps in the 16th Century

Giorgio Bidone published the first experimental investigations

Henry Darcy calculated flow measurements in open channels

Henry Bazin, a colleague of Henry Darcy, continued Darcys work of flow

measurements and flow over weirs

Adhemar Barre de Saint Venant developed shallow water equations which still

hold even during hydraulic jumps

Interesting Facts

BYU conducted research relating the number of fatalities due to submerged

hydraulic jumps in the United States

The number of deaths recorded was 458 and the number of fatal sites was 244

The majority of these deaths occurred in dams

Conclusion

A hydraulic jump is defined as a rise in the level of water

Hydraulic jumps occur when a supercritical flow (Fr > 1) encounters a submerged

object such as a dam or weir throwing the water upward and changing the flow

from a supercritical flow to a subcritical flow (Fr < 1), which causes a jump

An advantage of hydraulic jumps is the ability to dissipate energy in dams,

channels, and similar structures

A disadvantage of hydraulic jumps is the downstream turbulence which can cause

erosion and degradation of channels

Questions?

References

http://udel.edu/~inamdar/EGTE215/Jump_weirs.pdf

http://89.31.100.18/~iahrpapers/82799.pdf

https://www.rdb.ethz.ch/projects/project.php?proj_id=9798&z_detailed=1&z_popular=1&z_keywords=1

http://www.aboutcivil.org/hydraulic-jump-calculations-effects-applications.html

http://optimist4u.blogspot.com/2011/04/hydraulic-jump-and-its-practical.html (photo)

http://www.engineeringexceltemplates.com/blog.aspx?categoryid=5 (photo)

http://onlinecalc.sdsu.edu/onlinechannel12.php

http://www.fsl.orst.edu/geowater/FX3/help/4_Calculations/_Hydraulic_Jumps.htm

http://krcproject.groups.et.byu.net/

http://www.aboutcivil.org/hydraulic-jump-calculations-effects-applications.html

https://barr.com/projects/2331107900 (photo)

http://krcproject.groups.et.byu.net/ (photo)

http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2007/ph210/bechtol1/

http://www.usbr.gov/lc/hooverdam/history/articlesmain.html

http://grandcanyonhistory.clas.asu.edu/sites_coloradorivercorridor_crystalrapids.html

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