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# Hydraulic Jumps

## CIVE 401 Project

Nicolette Lind - Jessica McCallum - Maiwand M-Yaqoob
What is a hydraulic jump?
A hydraulic jump is defined as a rise in the level of water in an open channel
Can be calculated, designed and controlled by engineers
Often designed to occur over dam spillways
When/why do they occur?
A hydraulic jump occurs when a liquid at a high velocity discharges into a zone
that has a lower velocity
The slowing of the liquid leads to an increase in height that changes the kinetic
energy of the liquid into potential energy
Some of the energy is dissipated in the form of heat due to turbulence
Theory
Raleigh (1914) calculated the change in fluid depth associated with the shock
wave from a hydraulic jump and introduced the principles of continuity and
conservation of momentum
The continuity states that the flow rate (Q) must be equal before and after the
hydraulic jump
The conservation of momentum helps determine the energy dissipated within the
hydraulic jump
Diagrams
Example diagrams of hydraulic jumps are shown below.
Applicable Equations
Froude Number: Fr = V/(gL) Upstream Energy Level: E = y + (V/2g)

## Where: Fr = Froude number Where: E = upstream energy level

V = Velocity V = Velocity upstream
g = gravity y = upstream measured depth
L = depth of flow g = gravity

## Critical Flow Depth: yc = (y/2)((1+8Fr)-1) Head Loss: hL = (y-y)/(4yy)

Where: yc = critical flow depth Where: hL = head loss in the hydraulic jump
y = upstream measured depth y = upstream measured depth
Fr = Froude number y = downstream measured depth
Importance of Froude Number
Defines subcritical flow or supercritical flow
A froude number greater than 1 is a supercritical flow whereas a froude number
less than 1 is a subcritical flow
In order to have a hydraulic jump the froude number needs to be greater than or
equal to 1
A hydraulic jump occurs when the flow goes from supercritical flow (Fr > 1) to
subcritical flow (Fr < 1) or from an unstable flow to a stable flow
A hydraulic jump will not occur when a flow goes from subcritical flow (Fr < 1) to
a supercritical flow (Fr > 1)
Types of Jumps
Weak (Undular) Jump
Low energy dissipation rate
Smooth downstream water surface
Oscillating Jump
Irregular fluctuations of flow
Causes turbulence downstream
Jump forms steadily at same location and is well balanced
Turbulence is confined within the jump
Strong Jump
Large change in depth of the water surface
High energy dissipation rate
Hydraulic Jump Classification
Dissipates the energy of water over a spillway
Prevents scouring on the downstream side of the dam structure
Traps air in the water
Useful for removing wastes and pollution in the water
Reverses the flow of water
Can be used to mix chemicals for water purification
Maintains a high water level on the downstream side
Useful for irrigation purposes
Downstream turbulence can cause damage and degradation of
channel banks
May cause erosion on hydraulic surfaces
Undesirable condition for fish passage
Energy Dissipation
Hydraulic jumps are one of the most effective options in dissipating energy over
water structures
Energy is dissipated in the form of heat
Turbulent flow and secondary waves cause most of the energy dissipation
Applying the conservation of momentum equation, the energy loss can be
calculated by:

E = (y - y) / (4yy)

Where:
y = Flow depth at supercritical flow
y = Flow depth at subcritical flow
Energy Loss Diagram

The diagram above illustrates a hydraulic jump and the energy loss from E1 to E2. The supercritical depth (y1) jumps to
a larger depth, subcritical depth (y2), as the velocity decreases from V1 to V2.
Applications
Industrial
Hydraulic jumps are commonly designed by engineers to dissipate energy below dam spillways,
weirs and outlets.
Recreational
Hydraulic jumps in rivers are often used for fun/sport by kayakers, canoers, and rafters.
Well-Known Hydraulic Jumps
Hoover Dam
Crystal Rapid in Grand Canyon
Cache la Poudre River Spillways
Crystal Rapid
Crystal Rapid is one of the most feared rapids in the Colorado River. It has several
large holes with a garden of rocks beneath. The rapids were formed in 1966 when a
flash flood washed debris into the river. The large holes are great examples of
hydraulic jumps and make Crystal Rapid one of the most complex environments for
water sports enthusiasts.
Important People
Leonardo Da Vinci first described hydraulic jumps in the 16th Century
Giorgio Bidone published the first experimental investigations
Henry Darcy calculated flow measurements in open channels
Henry Bazin, a colleague of Henry Darcy, continued Darcys work of flow
measurements and flow over weirs
Adhemar Barre de Saint Venant developed shallow water equations which still
hold even during hydraulic jumps
Interesting Facts
BYU conducted research relating the number of fatalities due to submerged
hydraulic jumps in the United States
The number of deaths recorded was 458 and the number of fatal sites was 244
The majority of these deaths occurred in dams
Conclusion
A hydraulic jump is defined as a rise in the level of water
Hydraulic jumps occur when a supercritical flow (Fr > 1) encounters a submerged
object such as a dam or weir throwing the water upward and changing the flow
from a supercritical flow to a subcritical flow (Fr < 1), which causes a jump
An advantage of hydraulic jumps is the ability to dissipate energy in dams,
channels, and similar structures
A disadvantage of hydraulic jumps is the downstream turbulence which can cause
Questions?
References
http://udel.edu/~inamdar/EGTE215/Jump_weirs.pdf
http://89.31.100.18/~iahrpapers/82799.pdf
https://www.rdb.ethz.ch/projects/project.php?proj_id=9798&z_detailed=1&z_popular=1&z_keywords=1