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Iftekhar Ahmad Wireless Communication

General Information

Lecturer: Dr Iftekhar Ahmad


Office: Room 5.218, Joondalup Campus
Phone: +61 8 6304 5458
Email: i.ahmad@ecu.edu.au

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Lecture
L t 5:
5
Spread spectrum, wireless receiver

Iftekhar Ahmad Wireless Communication

Overview

S
Spread
d spectrum
FHSS, DSSS
Distortions
Channel estimation, equalizer

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Outcomes

At the completion of this topic, You will become familiar


with:
spread spectrum
channel equalization

Iftekhar Ahmad Wireless Communication

Learning Resources
Rappaport. T. (2001). Wireless communications:
principles and practice. (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice
Hall
Hall.
Chapter 6
Stallings, W. (2005). Wireless communications and
networks. (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Chapter 7

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Wireless
A rough communication:
breakdown into areas Challenges

Iftekhar Ahmad Wireless Communication

Spread Spectrum Modulation


Spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal
generated in a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the
frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth.

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Spread Spectrum cont
What can be gained from apparent waste of spectrum?
Immunity from various kinds of noise and multipath
distortion
Can be used for hiding and encrypting signals
Several users can independently use the same higher
bandwidth with very little interference

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Spread Spectrum cont


Input is fed into a channel encoder
Produces analog signal with narrow bandwidth

Signal is further modulated using sequence of digits


Spreading
S di code d or spreading
di sequence
Generated by pseudonoise, or pseudo-random number
generator

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Spread Spectrum cont
On receiving end, digit sequence is used to demodulate the spread
spectrum signal
Signal
g is fed into a channel decoder to recover data

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Frequency Hoping Spread Spectrum


(FHSS)
Signal is broadcast over seemingly random series
of radio frequencies
A number of channels allocated for the FH

signal
Width of each channel corresponds to

bandwidth of input signal


Signal hops from frequency to frequency at fixed
intervals
Transmitter
T itt operates
t ini one channel
h l att a time
ti
Bits are transmitted using some encoding

scheme
At each successive interval, a new carrier

frequency is selected
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Frequency Hoping Spread Spectrum
Channel sequence dictated by spreading code
Receiver, hopping between frequencies in
synchronization with transmitter, picks up message
Advantages
Eavesdroppers hear only unintelligible blips

Attempts to jam signal on one frequency succeed

only at knocking out a few bits


IEEE 802.11 uses FHSS and DSSS

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Frequency Hoping Spread Spectrum cont

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FHSS Using MFSK
MFSK (multiple FSK) signal is translated to a new frequency
every Tc seconds by modulating the MFSK signal with the FHSS
carrier signal
For data rate of R:
duration of a bit: T = 1/R seconds

duration of signal element: Ts = LT seconds

Tc Ts - slow-frequency-hop spread spectrum


Tc < Ts - fast-frequency-hop spread spectrum

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FHSS Performance Considerations


Large number of frequencies used
Results in a system that is quite resistant to jamming
Jammer
J mustt jam
j all
ll frequencies
f i
With fixed power, this reduces the jamming power in

any one frequency band

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Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
(DSSS)

Each bit in original signal is represented by multiple bits in the


transmitted signal
Spreading code spreads signal across a wider frequency band
Spread is in direct proportion to number of bits used

One technique combines digital information stream with the


spreading code bit stream using exclusive-OR

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Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum


(DSSS)

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DSSS Using BPSK

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Wireless Receiver

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Physical Channel Distortions

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Physical Channel Distortions


Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) causes bit error
at the receiver end, but thats not the only source of
error.
Other potential source of error is non-ideal channel
characteristics like multipath.
In analog communications, the effect caused by
multipath can often be tolerated.
However,
However the effect is more serious in digital
communication (We will see that soon).

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Distortions of multipath channels

Reflective Objects

Transmitter Receiver

Fast fading in wireless communication.

Reflections from different objects causes multipath.

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Distortions of multipath channels

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Distortions of Multipath
Channels
Multipath and ISI is a big concern because it works as a
bottleneck in high
g speed/mobile
p wireless communication

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Optimal receiver and


received signal

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Optimal receiver A first intuitive approach

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Optimal receiver - Lets make it more


measurable

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Optimal receiver- The AWGN channel

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Optimal receiver: The AWGN channel,


cont

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Optimal receiver
Interpretation in signal space

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Combating ISI

ISI effects must be compensated


p at the transmitters
and/or at receivers.
In most cases, receivers take measures to combat ISI.
Two major ways to combat ISI due to multipath:
i. Equalisation
ii. OFDM (orthogonal frequency division modulation)

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Equalization
The term equalization can be used to describe any signal
processing operation that minimizes ISI.

The eye diagram of the same system


with multipath effects added

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Equalization Techniques
Equalizer is usually implemented at baseband or at IF
in a receiver

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Equalization Techniques
s(n) is the signal that you transmit through the communication channel, and x(n)
is the distorted output signal. To compensate for the signal distortion, the
adaptive channel equalization system completes the following mode.

Training modeThis mode helps you determine the appropriate coefficients of


the adaptive filter. When you transmit the signal s(n) to the communication
channel, you also apply a delayed version of the same signal to the adaptive
filter. z is a delay function and d(n) is the delayed signal. y(n) is the output
signal from the adaptive filter and e(n) is the error signal between d(n) and y(n).
The adaptive filter iteratively adjusts the coefficients to minimize e(n). After the
power of e(n)
p ( ) converges,
g y(n)
y( ) is almost identical to d(n),
( ) which means that yyou
can use the resulting adaptive filter coefficients to compensate for the signal
distortion.

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Combating ISI : Equaliser Filter Design
MLSE is for optimum receiver design and is
computationally expensive, but used in many GSM
cellular receiver.

Equaliser filter is an alternative of optimum receiver


design and a low-cost way to combat ISI.

Two popular types of filter design:


Zero forcing (ZF) design.

Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) design.

Iftekhar Ahmad Wireless Communication

ZF Equaliser filter
In linear TSE, equaliser filter input can be given as:

d[n] c u s n u
i 0,i u
cis n i f (i) w[n i]
i 0

The first term is the desired signal component with


the right delay, the second term is the ISI and the
third term is the noise.
In
I ZF equalisation,
li ti Ci = 1 forf i = u, andd Ci = 0 for
f
all i Not equal to u.

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ZF Equaliser filter Cont..
Output of ZF filter can be given as:

d[n] c u s n u f (i) w[n i]
i 0

Note that noise term is still there for ZF equaliser.


Another alternative is Minimum Mean Square Error
(MMSE) design.

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MMSE Equaliser
In MMSE design, mean square error (MSE) between
d[n] and sn-u is minimised.

In other words, MMSE design should minimise:

| d[n] s n u |2

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OFDM Equaliser
Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation
(OFDM) uses multiple carriers modulation (MCM)
each subcarrier uses a low symbol rate
reduce symbol rate and reduce ISI
for N parallel subcarriers, the symbol time can be N
times longer

spread symbols across multiple subcarriers


also gains frequency diversity

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OFDM Equaliser Cont


N parallel channels do not have any ISI. However,
sub channel gains need to be adjusted.

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Thank You

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