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18/08/2017

GRADING SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

PREPARED BY: ENGR. VILLAMOR D. ABAD JR.

LECTURE (70%) LABORATORY (30%)


Midterm Grade Final Grade Midterm Grade Final Grade
4 Long Quizzes 50% 4 Long Quizzes 50% 10 to 12 Plates 60% 10 to 12 Plates 60%
Seatwork 10% Seatwork 10% Midterm Exam 40% Midterm Exam 15%
Midterm Exam 40% Midterm Exam 15% Final Exam 25%
Final Exam 25%
FINAL GRADE = 70% (Lec) + 30% (Lab)

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INTRODUCTION

ANALYSIS AND
Structural engineering is the science and
art of planning, designing and

DESIGN PROCESS
constructing safe and economical
structures that will serve their intended
purposes. (Kassimali, A., Structural Analysis, 5th
Ed., 2014)

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


PROCESS PROCESS
Structural analysis follows an iterative 1. Planning Phase
process, given by the following:
1. Planning Phase Establishing functional requirements
2. Preliminary Structural Design General layout and dimensions of the structures
3. Estimation of Loads Determination of the type of structure to be used
4. Structural Analysis External factors like aesthetics and
5. Safety and Serviceability Checks environmental factors are considered
Most crucial part of the project
6. Revised Structural Design

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ANALYSIS AND DESIGN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


PROCESS PROCESS
2. Preliminary Structural Design 3. Estimation of Loads

Sizes of members are estimated Determination of all possible loads and


The preliminary sizes are approximated combination of loads that the structural
based on the code requirements and past system will carry
experiences Quantifying the intensity of these loads

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


PROCESS PROCESS
4. Structural Analysis 5. Safety and Serviceability Checks

The values of the loads and the sizes of the The results of the analysis is then compared
members are used in this phase to determine to the safety and serviceability requirements
the stresses and deflections at various points specified in the design codes
Design drawings and specifications are
prepared when structural members meet the
requirements specified in this phase

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ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


PROCESS
6. Revised Structural Design

If the design does not satisfy the TYPES OF


STRUCTURAL FORMS
requirements of structural code as
investigated in the previous phase, phases 3
to 5 are repeated until all safety and
serviceability requirements are satisfied

TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


1. Tension Structures 1. Tension Structures

Members subjected to pure tension


Tensile members are often composed of
flexible steel cables
Commonly used to support bridges and long-
span roofs

San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge stands as a classic example of a suspension bridge
(source: science.howstuffworks.com)

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TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


1. Tension Structures 1. Tension Structures

In addition to the cables, almost all suspension bridges feature a supporting truss system beneath the bridge deck
called a deck truss ((source: science.howstuffworks.com)

Concepts Tent. Tension structures (source: science.howstuffworks.com)

TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


1. Tension Structures 1. Tension Structures

Tensile Structure, form finding, membrane structure (source:


tensilestructureseducation.wordpress.com)

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TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


2. Compression Structures 2. Compression Structures

This type mainly resist compression


Common example of this structure is arch
and column
Members are highly susceptible to buckling
or instability, this factors are considered in
design
Reinforced Concrete Column Buckling Failure (source: www.quakewrap.com)

TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


2. Compression Structures 2. Compression Structures

Sample of Arch Structure with Defined Compression Lines (source: www.warwickallen.com)

Reinforced Concrete Column Failure due to Crushing (source: degenkolb.com)

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TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


2. Compression Structures 3. Trusses

Composed of straight members connected at


the ends by gusset plate
Members are ideally in compression or in
tension
Among the most commonly used type of
structures, due to its light weight and high
strength characteristics
Sample of Arch Diagram with Forces and defined parts
(source: www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk)

TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


3. Truss 3. Truss

The Famous Forth Rail Bridge at Queensferry (source: dbeintennessee.com)


The Most Famous Steel Truss Structure in the World (source: my.whirlwindsteel.com)

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TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


3. Truss 4. Shear Structures

Type of structure that reduce the lateral


movement caused by wind loads and
earthquake
shear structure develop relatively small
bending stress as compared to in-plane
shear due to external loads
Common example is a shear wall structure
Plane Truss Bridge structures (source: blog.wolfram.com)

TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


4. Shear Structures 4. Shear Structures

Building with Concrete Shear Wall (source: www.nexus.globalquakemodel.org)


Floor Plan with Indicated Location of Shear Wall (source: debug.pi.gr)

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TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


4. Shear Structures 5. Bending Structures

Type of structure which develop mainly


bending stresses
Common bending structures are; beams,
girders, rigid frames, slabs and plates

Sample Shear Wall Reinforcement Design (source: www.linkedin.com)

TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FORMS


5. Bending Structures 5. Bending Structures

Beam and Effective Flange Bending (source: limitstatelessons.blogspot.com)


Concrete Slab on Top of Steel I-section Girders in Bending
(source: www.steel-bridges.com)

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LOADS IN STRUCTURE
One of the most essential part of the
analysis and design process is the load
estimation
LOADS IN STRUCTURE Estimated loads are based on the
intended purpose that the building shall
serve and other environmental loads
dictated by the geographical location of
the structure

LOADS IN STRUCTURE LOADS IN STRUCTURE


The preliminary loadings will be the basis Transmission of Loads
in deciding the sizes of structural members In structural system, loads are passed on
and materials used for the structures from the roof down to the ground that it
Load on the structure are classified as rests on
either (1) dead loads, (2) live loads or (3) Structural system is consists of beams,
environmental loads slabs, columns and trusses, that are
assembled together to transmit and carry
loads

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LOADS IN STRUCTURE LOADS IN STRUCTURE


Tributary Area Tributary Area
One-way Slab One-way Slab

One-way Slab Load Distribution (source: http://trantor.sheridanc.on.ca) One-way Slab Load Distribution on Beams (source: http://trantor.sheridanc.on.ca)

LOADS IN STRUCTURE LOADS IN STRUCTURE


Tributary Area Tributary Area
One-way Slab Two-way Slab

Super-imposed Loads on Girders from Beams(source: http://trantor.sheridanc.on.ca)

Overview of Two-way Slab Load Distribution (source: http://trantor.sheridanc.on.ca)

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LOADS IN STRUCTURE LOADS IN STRUCTURE


Tributary Area Tributary Area
Two-way Slab Load path

Two-way Slab Load Distribution (source: http://trantor.sheridanc.on.ca)


Load Path Illustration (source: http://trantor.sheridanc.on.ca)

LOADS IN STRUCTURE LOADS IN STRUCTURE


Tributary Area Tributary Area
Column Column

Load Distribution for Column (source: http://trantor.sheridanc.on.ca) Load Distribution for Column (source: http://trantor.sheridanc.on.ca)

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LOADS IN STRUCTURE LOADS IN STRUCTURE


Classification of Loads Classification of Loads
1. Dead Loads 2. Live Loads
Gravity loads having constant magnitude and Loads that varies in magnitude and position,
position depending on the use of the structure
Includes self weight and weight of other Several load positions are considered in the
materials that is permanently in the structure design and the position of loads that will give
Common dead loads are; self weight, the greatest stress on the structural members
electromechanical, ceiling, roofing materials will be considered in design
and etc.

LOADS IN STRUCTURE LOADS IN STRUCTURE


Classification of Loads Classification of Loads
2. Live Loads 3. Environmental Loads
Are external loads that vary based on
Live loads for buildings are specified in NSCP
geographical location, height and
and are often considered distributed in a
configuration of the building
given area
Environmental loads includes
Live loads for bridges, termed as moving
Wind loads
loads or wheel loads, are specified in
AASHTO handbook. Impact factor is Earthquake loads
implemented as specified by the codes Snow loads
Hydrostatic and Soil Pressures

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LOADS IN STRUCTURE REFERENCE


Classification of Loads Kassimali, A. (1999). Structural
3. Environmental Loads analysis (5th ed.). Pacific Grove: PWS
Equations necessary for estimating the Pub.
intensity of these loads are indicated in NSCP
For tropical countries like the Philippines
snow loads are not considered http://science.howstuffworks.com/engineer
Different countries use different codes due to ing/civil/bridge6.htm
variation of several factors necessary for the
estimation of environmental loads

QUESTIONS?

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