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DEBRE

BERHAN UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
COLLEAGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND
MANAGEMENT
COURSE TITLE WATER WORK CONSTRUCTION

COURSE CODE . HENG4142

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT

Name Zeleke temachew


ID NO 07000077
Section C

Submitted to Instructor: - HABETOM

Submission Date:-01/03/2010 E.C


1, Explain all types of dam foundation treatment of each with
example and net sketch?

Dam Foundation treatment.


Grouting:
Holes are drilled at shallow as well as deep and cement grouting is filled to establish
an effective barrier to seepage under the dam and to consolidate the foundation.
A, Consolidation grouting
Low-pressure grouting to fill voids, fracture zones, and cracks at and below the surface
of the excavated foundation is accomplished by drilling and grouting relatively
shallow holes.
B , Curtain grouting
Curtain Grouting Construction of a deep grout curtain near the heel of the dam to
control seepage is accomplished by drilling deep holes and grouting them using
higher pressure
foundationof a concret gravity dam. It is frequently used at all the other types of
dam too and is usually carried out before the dam is built over it.

C , BLANKET GROUTING
This type of grouting
strengthens an area rather
than forming a curtain as
shown above.The illustration
shows its use at the
Proper Protection against
piping should be made for dam stability

D, Dental treatment:
The procedure of reinforcing and stabilizing weak zones during drilling action and
final excavation is called dental treatment.

E, Cut-off
Is imprevious borrier constructed at shallow depth to ensure the H2O tightness of the dam foundation .
The bearing structure is ridged reinforced concrete

F, Plastic diaphragm
It is impervious borreir carried out by the plastic structure.
3.What factors you will keep in mind while selecting a suitable site for a dam reservoir?

SELECTION OF SITE FOR A DAM

It is almost impossible to select a perfect ideal reservoir site, but its selection is gide by the following
factors

1, a suitable dam site is available the cost of the dam is generally a controlling factor in the selection of a
reservoir site.

2, the geological formation for the reservoir bank walls etc. should be such as to entail minimum lakege .

3, the geology of the catchment area should be such as to entail minimum water losses through absorption
and percolation .

4, the site should be such that a deep reservoir if formed. a deep reservoir is prefered to a shallow one
because of lower land cost per unit of capacity less evaporation loss and less possibility of weed growth .

5, the reservoir site have adequate capacity.

6, Too mach silt laiden tributories should be avoided as for as possible.

7, the reservoir basin should have a deep narrow opening in the valley, so that the length of the dam is
minimum.

6. What is mean by Dam? What are the difference materials that are commonly used for dam construction
and what are their comparative advantages and disadvantages?

What is a dam?

A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built


across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for
impounding water for various purposes.

These purposes may be irrigation, hydropower, water-supply, flood control, navigation, fishing and
recreation.

A dam and a reservoir are complements of each other.


Dams are generally constructed in the mountainous reach of the river where the valley is narrow and the
foundation is good.

Generally, a hydropower station is also constructed at or near the dam site to develop hydropower.
Classification of Dams

ACCORDING TO MATERIAL

A Rigid and

B Non rigid

1. RIGID DAMS
a. GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted weight of dam
Constructed either of masonry or concrete

Masonry Gravity dams small height

Major dams concrete

May be straight or curved in plan

ADVANTAGES
Strong and stable than earth dams

Can be used as overflow spillway

Can be constructed to any height

Least maintenance
Failure not sudden
Deep set sluices can be used
Cheaper in long run to areas of heavy rainfall Disadvantages
Can be constructed only on
strong rocks
Initial cost is high
Construction time is longer
Require skilled labour
Height cant be increased
unless provisions are made
b. ARCH DAMS
Curved in plan
Carries its part load to the abutments by arch action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation

Advantages
Adopted in gorges of length < height
Requires less material
Problems of uplift pressure is less

Disadvantages
Requires skilled labour
Speed of construction is slow
All sites are not possible for this dam
A number of piers divide space number of spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched.

Advantages
Less massive than gravity dam
Extension of height is possible
Concrete volume used is less.

Disadvantages
Skilled labour is needed
More susceptible to damage
d. STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to underpinning
Two types of steel dams 1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
Advantages
Speedy construction possible
Cheaper then rigid dams
Greater resistance to settlement
Not affected by frost action
Repairing can be done easily
Disadvantages
Lighter can absorb shoocks
Life shorter than concreted dams
Requires constant maintenance
e.TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to 40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib
iii) Beaver type
Advantages
Low initial cost
Suitable for any foundation
Speedy construction
Disadvantages
High maintenance cost
Short life
Small height is only possible
Seepage loss is more
11. How do you classify dams according to:
a. their use
b. hydraulic design
c. material of construction
Classification of Dams
Based on Function Served
1. STORAGE DAM
Stores water excess supply
Behind dam reservoir
Water irrigation, power etc
Stone type, concrete,earth fill, rock fill types
2. DETENTION DAM
Store water floods releases after flood
Two types one type stored water released outlet
Second no outlet water
seeps lift irrigation is
possible This type also
Also used to trap and release
sediments called debris dam
3. DIVERSION DAMS

Rises the water level

Water to canals, ditches


Small height No reservoir Eg : Weir, Barrages
Flood water diverted to Diversion structures
Normal flow diverted to canal

Debris dams
Coffer dams - a temporary dam constructed for facilitating construction.It is an enclosure constructed
around a site to exclude water so that the construction can be done in dry.

Based on Hydraulic Design


1. OVER FLOW DAMS
Surplus discharge carried
crest
Crest level lower non over
flow dams
Water glides down- strong
Material usage
Generally concrete or masonry
Overflow dam called spillway
At times non overflow and overflow types are combined.
NON OVER FLOW DAMS
Top of dam higher level
than high flood level
Water not permitted to
overtop the dam
Materials rock fill, earth
fill, masonry, concrete

Based on Materials of Construction


Riged and non-Rigid dam
RIGID DAMS
Solid masonry or concrete gravity dam
Arched masonry or concrete dam
Concrete buttress dam
Steel dam
Timber dam
GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted by the weight of the dam itself.
it may be Constructed either of masonry or concrete
Masonry Gravity dams are now a days constructed of only small height
a gravity dam may be either straight and curved in plan .
ARCH DAMS
Curved in plan
Carries its part load to the abutments by arch action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation
BUTTRESS DAM
A number of piers divide space number of spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched

TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to 40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib
iii) Beaver type
STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to underpinning
Two types of steel dams 1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
NON RIGID DAMS
EARTH DAMS
locally available materials
Moderate height
Materials used in natural state
With modern machinery height greater
ROCK FILL DAM
Rocks of various sizes
Rock fill dam has rock fill at the downstream, impervious
membrane, upstream cut off to check seepage
12. Discuss the various factors which govern the selection of a particular type of
dam for a particular project ?

Following are the factors affecting selection of dam site by dam type.
Topography

Geology and Foundation Conditions

Availability of materials

Spillway size and location

Earth queke zone

Hight of the Dam

Road way

Life of the dam

Other factors such as cost of construction and maintenance, life of dam, aesthetics etc.

1.Topography
Low rolling plains land Earth dam with separate spillway

A low narrow V shaped valley Arch dam

A narrow stream between high rocky walls Concrete overflow dam

2. Geology and Foundation Conditions


Foundation of Sound Rock Any dam type

Granite, Gneiss, Schist good for gravity dam

Poor rock Earth dam, rock fill , low concrete gravity dam

Silt, fine sand foundations problems of settlement used as foundations for earth dams, low gravity
dams but not rock fill dams
Clay soils problems of settlement earth dams No gravity or rock fill dams

3. Materials of construction
Cost availability of materials nearby transportation charges reduced

Sand, Gravel, Crushed stone Concrete Gravity dam is suitable

Coarse , fine grained soils Earth dam

4. Spillway size and location

If large spillway area needed Overflow concrete gravity dam

Small spillway capacity earth dam

Large discharges during construction Concrete gravity dam

No site for spillway Concrete gravity dam having overflow section

5. Roadway
If roadway needed Earth dam or Gravity dam

6. Length and Height of Dam

Length long, height low earth dam

Small length, height more gravity dam

7. Life of the dam


Concrete and masonry dams very long life

Earth, Rock fill dams Intermediate life

Timber Dams Temporary life

17. Determine :
a. The normal stress;
b. The principal stress;
c. The shear friction factor at base of figure below.

Find the bead of the dam at the bese?

Free body diagram of the object



=
.

X=. =40

designatio dimension Force vertical (kn) Force Lever arm +ve -ve
Types n horizontal
moment moment
(kn)
of
force
*40*80*24 2/3*40=26.7 1024128
self W1 38400

weight W2 5*80*24 9600 40+5/2=42.5


408000

40+5+7.5/2=48.75

W3 7200 351000
7.5*40*24

*39*7.5*24 40+5+1/3*7.5=47 166725


W4 3510 5
= =
1/282.5*39*10 1462.5 40+5+2/3+4.5=50 73125
Water Pv1
pressure
40+5+7.5/2=48.75
Pv2 7.5*1*10 75
3656.25
1/3*80=26 .67
+20266.25
ph * *10
32000
= . 853440
=1173194
-2000 45+7.5/2=48.75 97500
Uplift V1 80/3*7.5*10
orce
45+2/3*7.5=50 10000

-2000 2/3*45=30
V2 *80/3*10*7.5*2
180000

32000 2026634.25
-6000 = .
-1230940

V3 *80/3*10*45 =
stability analysis
case 1 when the reservoir is empty condition
position of resultant from the toe:

x= 1/ =1949853/58710=33.2m
distance from center (eccentricity b/6=52.5/6=8.75 no tension
developed

E = - =52.5-33.2 = -6.96< fails to the left of center

Normal compressive stress at the toe


.
Pn= (1 ) = ( ( . ))=228.77 Kg/
.
(.
At the heel pn = (1- )= (1- ))=2007.8
. .

Principal stress at the toe


= ph =228.77*(1+ 63.4)=1141.1
Shear stress at the toe
=pn =228.77*tan63.4 =456.84 no shear stress
Case2 when the reservoir full with uplift:

=
= 795694.25/502475=15.84

E = - =52.5/2-15.84 =10.4

Normal compressive stress


at the toe
. (.
pn = (1+ )= (1+ ))=2094.67 Kg/
. .

At the heel
. (.
pn = (1- )= (1- ))=-180.48 Kg/
. .

principal stress at the toe


=pn =2094.67*(1+ 63.4) =16442.8 Kg/
Shear stress at the toe:

=pn =209467* 63.4 =8353 Kn/


Shear friction factor (sff)
+ . . + .
Sff =
=*
*
18. Figure shows the section of a concrete gravity dam. Check the
stability of this dam section at the base. Assume any data not
given and needed.

Free body diagram is shown in figer bel


=. = 1/0.5
= 2 /20 =5.71
Types of designatio dimension Force vertical (kn) Force Lever arm +ve -ve
orce n horizontal
moment moment
(kn)
Self weight *10*20*24 2/3*10=6.7 16008
W1 2400
30000
10+5/2=12.5
W2 5*20*24 240
15+1/3*2=15.67 7521.6
W3 480
1/2*2*20*24

=
= .

*2*18*10 180 15+2/3*2=16.3 2939.4


Water Pv
pressure

ph *18*18*10 1620 1/3*18=6 9720


+56469
-9720

=
= . 1620
-240 13+74/2=15 3600
Uplift V1 18/3*4*10
orce
10000
45+2/3*7.5=50

-240 13 +2/3 *4=15.67 3760.8


V2 *18/3*10*4*2

2/3*13=8.67 3381.3
V3 *18/3*10*1 -390
56469
= 1620 = . -20462.1
The value of the forces, total vertical and total
horizontal forces, and moments:
Stability analysis of the dam:
When Reservoir is empty condition
The position of resultant force

=
=53529.6/5280 =10.14m

Distance from the center


E=b/2 - =17/2-10.14 =-1.64 the resultant force at left of the
center.
Normal compressive stress at the toe
.
pn = (1+ ) =5280/17(1+6( ))

=130.8kg/m2
At the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =5280/17(1- 6( )) =490.36 kg/m2

Principal stress at the toe


= pn =130.8*(1+ 63.4)=652.4 kg/m2
Principal stress At the heel
= pn =490.36*(1+ . ) = /
Shear stress at the toe :
=pn =130.8* 63.4) =261.2 Kg/
Shear stress at the heel:
=pn =49036*(tan 5.71) =4912.77 Kg/
Case-2
When the reservoir is full condition with uplift

=
=3600.9/4590 =7.8m

E=b/2 - =17/2 7.8 =0.66


Normal compressive stress At the toe:
.
pn = (1+ ) =4590/17(1+6( )) =332.89 kg/m2

at the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =4590/17(1- 6( )) =207.1 kg/m2

Principal stress at ther toe:


= pn = 332.89*(1+ 63.4)= 1660.4 kg/m2
At the heel:
= pn -p p= 18*10 =180
Shear stress at the toe:
=pn =332.89* 63.4) =1327.5 Kg/
At the heel:
= (pn p) =(207.1-180 )tan =27.1 Kg/
Stability check for the hole dam :
Factor of safety against overturrning (fso)
+
Fso= =56469/20462.1 =2.75> 1.5 ..ok

Factor of safety against sliding (fss) =0.7


.
fss = = * =1.98 >1 ok

shear friction factor:


+ .+
sff =
= =16.67 > 4 safe .

iS.e stable.

1 The difference betewn Full reservoir level and maximum water level and minimum pool level ?

Answer
Full reservoir level (FRL):
The full reservoir level (FRL) is the highest water level to which the water surface will rise
during normal operating conditions.

Maximum water level (MWL


The maximum water level is the maximum level to which the water surface will rise when the
design flood passes over the spillway.

Minimum pool level:


The minimum pool level is the lowest level up to which the water is withdrawn from the
reservoir under ordinary conditions.
DEBRE
BERHAN
UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
COLLEAGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND
MANAGEMENT
COURSE TITLE WATER WORK CONSTRUCTION

COURSE CODE . HENG4142

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT

Name Zeleke temachew


ID NO 07000077
Section C

Submitted to Instructor: - HABETOM

Submission Date:-01/03/2010 E.C


1, Explain all types of dam foundation treatment of each with
example and net sketch?

Dam Foundation treatment.


Grouting:
Holes are drilled at shallow as well as deep and cement grouting is filled to establish
an effective barrier to seepage under the dam and to consolidate the foundation.
A, Consolidation grouting
Low-pressure grouting to fill voids, fracture zones, and cracks at and below the surface
of the excavated foundation is accomplished by drilling and grouting relatively
shallow holes.
B , Curtain grouting
Curtain Grouting Construction of a deep grout curtain near the heel of the dam to
control seepage is accomplished by drilling deep holes and grouting them using
higher pressure
foundationof a concret gravity dam. It is frequently used at all the other types of
dam too and is usually carried out before the dam is built over it.

C , BLANKET GROUTING
This type of grouting
strengthens an area rather
than forming a curtain as
shown above.The illustration
shows its use at the
Proper Protection against
piping should be made for dam stability

D, Dental treatment:
The procedure of reinforcing and stabilizing weak zones during drilling action and
final excavation is called dental treatment.

E, Cut-off
Is imprevious borrier constructed at shallow depth to ensure the H2O tightness of the dam foundation .
The bearing structure is ridged reinforced concrete

F, Plastic diaphragm
It is impervious borreir carried out by the plastic structure.
3.What factors you will keep in mind while selecting a suitable site for a dam reservoir?

SELECTION OF SITE FOR A DAM

It is almost impossible to select a perfect ideal reservoir site, but its selection is gide by the following
factors

1, a suitable dam site is available the cost of the dam is generally a controlling factor in the selection of a
reservoir site.

2, the geological formation for the reservoir bank walls etc. should be such as to entail minimum lakege .

3, the geology of the catchment area should be such as to entail minimum water losses through absorption
and percolation .

4, the site should be such that a deep reservoir if formed. a deep reservoir is prefered to a shallow one
because of lower land cost per unit of capacity less evaporation loss and less possibility of weed growth .

5, the reservoir site have adequate capacity.

6, Too mach silt laiden tributories should be avoided as for as possible.

7, the reservoir basin should have a deep narrow opening in the valley, so that the length of the dam is
minimum.

6. What is mean by Dam? What are the difference materials that are commonly used for dam construction
and what are their comparative advantages and disadvantages?

What is a dam?

A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built


across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for
impounding water for various purposes.

These purposes may be irrigation, hydropower, water-supply, flood control, navigation, fishing and
recreation.

A dam and a reservoir are complements of each other.


Dams are generally constructed in the mountainous reach of the river where the valley is narrow and the
foundation is good.

Generally, a hydropower station is also constructed at or near the dam site to develop hydropower.
Classification of Dams

ACCORDING TO MATERIAL

A Rigid and

B Non rigid

1. RIGID DAMS
a. GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted weight of dam
Constructed either of masonry or concrete

Masonry Gravity dams small height

Major dams concrete

May be straight or curved in plan

ADVANTAGES
Strong and stable than earth dams

Can be used as overflow spillway

Can be constructed to any height

Least maintenance
Failure not sudden
Deep set sluices can be used
Cheaper in long run to areas of heavy rainfall Disadvantages
Can be constructed only on
strong rocks
Initial cost is high
Construction time is longer
Require skilled labour
Height cant be increased
unless provisions are made
b. ARCH DAMS
Curved in plan
Carries its part load to the abutments by arch action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation

Advantages
Adopted in gorges of length < height
Requires less material
Problems of uplift pressure is less

Disadvantages
Requires skilled labour
Speed of construction is slow
All sites are not possible for this dam
A number of piers divide space number of spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched.

Advantages
Less massive than gravity dam
Extension of height is possible
Concrete volume used is less.

Disadvantages
Skilled labour is needed
More susceptible to damage
d. STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to underpinning
Two types of steel dams 1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
Advantages
Speedy construction possible
Cheaper then rigid dams
Greater resistance to settlement
Not affected by frost action
Repairing can be done easily
Disadvantages
Lighter can absorb shoocks
Life shorter than concreted dams
Requires constant maintenance
e.TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to 40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib
iii) Beaver type
Advantages
Low initial cost
Suitable for any foundation
Speedy construction
Disadvantages
High maintenance cost
Short life
Small height is only possible
Seepage loss is more
11. How do you classify dams according to:
a. their use
b. hydraulic design
c. material of construction
Classification of Dams
Based on Function Served
1. STORAGE DAM
Stores water excess supply
Behind dam reservoir
Water irrigation, power etc
Stone type, concrete,earth fill, rock fill types
2. DETENTION DAM
Store water floods releases after flood
Two types one type stored water released outlet
Second no outlet water
seeps lift irrigation is
possible This type also
Also used to trap and release
sediments called debris dam
3. DIVERSION DAMS

Rises the water level

Water to canals, ditches


Small height No reservoir Eg : Weir, Barrages
Flood water diverted to Diversion structures
Normal flow diverted to canal

Debris dams
Coffer dams - a temporary dam constructed for facilitating construction.It is an enclosure constructed
around a site to exclude water so that the construction can be done in dry.

Based on Hydraulic Design


1. OVER FLOW DAMS
Surplus discharge carried
crest
Crest level lower non over
flow dams
Water glides down- strong
Material usage
Generally concrete or masonry
Overflow dam called spillway
At times non overflow and overflow types are combined.
NON OVER FLOW DAMS
Top of dam higher level
than high flood level
Water not permitted to
overtop the dam
Materials rock fill, earth
fill, masonry, concrete

Based on Materials of Construction


Riged and non-Rigid dam
RIGID DAMS
Solid masonry or concrete gravity dam
Arched masonry or concrete dam
Concrete buttress dam
Steel dam
Timber dam
GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted by the weight of the dam itself.
it may be Constructed either of masonry or concrete
Masonry Gravity dams are now a days constructed of only small height
a gravity dam may be either straight and curved in plan .
ARCH DAMS
Curved in plan
Carries its part load to the abutments by arch action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation
BUTTRESS DAM
A number of piers divide space number of spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched

TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to 40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib
iii) Beaver type
STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to underpinning
Two types of steel dams 1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
NON RIGID DAMS
EARTH DAMS
locally available materials
Moderate height
Materials used in natural state
With modern machinery height greater
ROCK FILL DAM
Rocks of various sizes
Rock fill dam has rock fill at the downstream, impervious
membrane, upstream cut off to check seepage
12. Discuss the various factors which govern the selection of a particular type of
dam for a particular project ?

Following are the factors affecting selection of dam site by dam type.
Topography

Geology and Foundation Conditions

Availability of materials

Spillway size and location

Earth queke zone

Hight of the Dam

Road way

Life of the dam

Other factors such as cost of construction and maintenance, life of dam, aesthetics etc.

1.Topography
Low rolling plains land Earth dam with separate spillway

A low narrow V shaped valley Arch dam

A narrow stream between high rocky walls Concrete overflow dam

2. Geology and Foundation Conditions


Foundation of Sound Rock Any dam type

Granite, Gneiss, Schist good for gravity dam

Poor rock Earth dam, rock fill , low concrete gravity dam

Silt, fine sand foundations problems of settlement used as foundations for earth dams, low gravity
dams but not rock fill dams
Clay soils problems of settlement earth dams No gravity or rock fill dams

3. Materials of construction
Cost availability of materials nearby transportation charges reduced

Sand, Gravel, Crushed stone Concrete Gravity dam is suitable

Coarse , fine grained soils Earth dam

4. Spillway size and location

If large spillway area needed Overflow concrete gravity dam

Small spillway capacity earth dam

Large discharges during construction Concrete gravity dam

No site for spillway Concrete gravity dam having overflow section

5. Roadway
If roadway needed Earth dam or Gravity dam

6. Length and Height of Dam

Length long, height low earth dam

Small length, height more gravity dam

7. Life of the dam


Concrete and masonry dams very long life

Earth, Rock fill dams Intermediate life

Timber Dams Temporary life

17. Determine :
a. The normal stress;
b. The principal stress;
c. The shear friction factor at base of figure below.

Find the bead of the dam at the bese?

Free body diagram of the object



=
.

X=. =40

designatio dimension Force vertical (kn) Force Lever arm +ve -ve
Types n horizontal
moment moment
(kn)
of
force
*40*80*24 2/3*40=26.7 1024128
self W1 38400

weight W2 5*80*24 9600 40+5/2=42.5


408000

40+5+7.5/2=48.75

W3 7200 351000
7.5*40*24

*39*7.5*24 40+5+1/3*7.5=47 166725


W4 3510 5
= =
1/282.5*39*10 1462.5 40+5+2/3+4.5=50 73125
Water Pv1
pressure
40+5+7.5/2=48.75
Pv2 7.5*1*10 75
3656.25
1/3*80=26 .67
+20266.25
ph * *10
32000
= . 853440
=1173194
-2000 45+7.5/2=48.75 97500
Uplift V1 80/3*7.5*10
orce
45+2/3*7.5=50 10000

-2000 2/3*45=30
V2 *80/3*10*7.5*2
180000

32000 2026634.25
-6000 = .
-1230940

V3 *80/3*10*45 =
stability analysis
case 1 when the reservoir is empty condition
position of resultant from the toe:

x= 1/ =1949853/58710=33.2m
distance from center (eccentricity b/6=52.5/6=8.75 no tension
developed

E = - =52.5-33.2 = -6.96< fails to the left of center

Normal compressive stress at the toe


.
Pn= (1 ) = ( ( . ))=228.77 Kg/
.
(.
At the heel pn = (1- )= (1- ))=2007.8
. .

Principal stress at the toe


= ph =228.77*(1+ 63.4)=1141.1
Shear stress at the toe
=pn =228.77*tan63.4 =456.84 no shear stress
Case2 when the reservoir full with uplift:

=
= 795694.25/502475=15.84

E = - =52.5/2-15.84 =10.4

Normal compressive stress


at the toe
. (.
pn = (1+ )= (1+ ))=2094.67 Kg/
. .

At the heel
. (.
pn = (1- )= (1- ))=-180.48 Kg/
. .

principal stress at the toe


=pn =2094.67*(1+ 63.4) =16442.8 Kg/
Shear stress at the toe:

=pn =209467* 63.4 =8353 Kn/


Shear friction factor (sff)
+ . . + .
Sff =
=*
*
18. Figure shows the section of a concrete gravity dam. Check the
stability of this dam section at the base. Assume any data not
given and needed.

Free body diagram is shown in figer bel


=. = 1/0.5
= 2 /20 =5.71
Types of designatio dimension Force vertical (kn) Force Lever arm +ve -ve
orce n horizontal
moment moment
(kn)
Self weight *10*20*24 2/3*10=6.7 16008
W1 2400
30000
10+5/2=12.5
W2 5*20*24 240
15+1/3*2=15.67 7521.6
W3 480
1/2*2*20*24

=
= .

*2*18*10 180 15+2/3*2=16.3 2939.4


Water Pv
pressure

ph *18*18*10 1620 1/3*18=6 9720


+56469
-9720

=
= . 1620
-240 13+74/2=15 3600
Uplift V1 18/3*4*10
orce
10000
45+2/3*7.5=50

-240 13 +2/3 *4=15.67 3760.8


V2 *18/3*10*4*2

2/3*13=8.67 3381.3
V3 *18/3*10*1 -390
56469
= 1620 = . -20462.1
The value of the forces, total vertical and total
horizontal forces, and moments:
Stability analysis of the dam:
When Reservoir is empty condition
The position of resultant force

=
=53529.6/5280 =10.14m

Distance from the center


E=b/2 - =17/2-10.14 =-1.64 the resultant force at left of the
center.
Normal compressive stress at the toe
.
pn = (1+ ) =5280/17(1+6( ))

=130.8kg/m2
At the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =5280/17(1- 6( )) =490.36 kg/m2

Principal stress at the toe


= pn =130.8*(1+ 63.4)=652.4 kg/m2
Principal stress At the heel
= pn =490.36*(1+ . ) = /
Shear stress at the toe :
=pn =130.8* 63.4) =261.2 Kg/
Shear stress at the heel:
=pn =49036*(tan 5.71) =4912.77 Kg/
Case-2
When the reservoir is full condition with uplift

=
=3600.9/4590 =7.8m

E=b/2 - =17/2 7.8 =0.66


Normal compressive stress At the toe:
.
pn = (1+ ) =4590/17(1+6( )) =332.89 kg/m2

at the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =4590/17(1- 6( )) =207.1 kg/m2

Principal stress at ther toe:


= pn = 332.89*(1+ 63.4)= 1660.4 kg/m2
At the heel:
= pn -p p= 18*10 =180
Shear stress at the toe:
=pn =332.89* 63.4) =1327.5 Kg/
At the heel:
= (pn p) =(207.1-180 )tan =27.1 Kg/
Stability check for the hole dam :
Factor of safety against overturrning (fso)
+
Fso= =56469/20462.1 =2.75> 1.5 ..ok

Factor of safety against sliding (fss) =0.7


.
fss = = * =1.98 >1 ok

shear friction factor:


+ .+
sff =
= =16.67 > 4 safe .

iS.e stable.

1 The difference betewn Full reservoir level and maximum water level and minimum pool level ?

Answer
Full reservoir level (FRL):
The full reservoir level (FRL) is the highest water level to which the water surface will rise
during normal operating conditions.

Maximum water level (MWL


The maximum water level is the maximum level to which the water surface will rise when the
design flood passes over the spillway.

Minimum pool level:


The minimum pool level is the lowest level up to which the water is withdrawn from the
reservoir under ordinary conditions.
DEBRE
BERHAN
UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
COLLEAGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND
MANAGEMENT
COURSE TITLE WATER WORK CONSTRUCTION

COURSE CODE . HENG4142

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT

Name Zeleke temachew


ID NO 07000077
Section C

Submitted to Instructor: - HABETOM

Submission Date:-01/03/2010 E.C


1, Explain all types of dam foundation treatment of each with
example and net sketch?

Dam Foundation treatment.


Grouting:
Holes are drilled at shallow as well as deep and cement grouting is filled to establish
an effective barrier to seepage under the dam and to consolidate the foundation.
A, Consolidation grouting
Low-pressure grouting to fill voids, fracture zones, and cracks at and below the surface
of the excavated foundation is accomplished by drilling and grouting relatively
shallow holes.
B , Curtain grouting
Curtain Grouting Construction of a deep grout curtain near the heel of the dam to
control seepage is accomplished by drilling deep holes and grouting them using
higher pressure
foundationof a concret gravity dam. It is frequently used at all the other types of
dam too and is usually carried out before the dam is built over it.

C , BLANKET GROUTING
This type of grouting
strengthens an area rather
than forming a curtain as
shown above.The illustration
shows its use at the
Proper Protection against
piping should be made for dam stability

D, Dental treatment:
The procedure of reinforcing and stabilizing weak zones during drilling action and
final excavation is called dental treatment.

E, Cut-off
Is imprevious borrier constructed at shallow depth to ensure the H2O tightness of the dam foundation .
The bearing structure is ridged reinforced concrete

F, Plastic diaphragm
It is impervious borreir carried out by the plastic structure.
3.What factors you will keep in mind while selecting a suitable site for a dam reservoir?

SELECTION OF SITE FOR A DAM

It is almost impossible to select a perfect ideal reservoir site, but its selection is gide by the following
factors

1, a suitable dam site is available the cost of the dam is generally a controlling factor in the selection of a
reservoir site.

2, the geological formation for the reservoir bank walls etc. should be such as to entail minimum lakege .

3, the geology of the catchment area should be such as to entail minimum water losses through absorption
and percolation .

4, the site should be such that a deep reservoir if formed. a deep reservoir is prefered to a shallow one
because of lower land cost per unit of capacity less evaporation loss and less possibility of weed growth .

5, the reservoir site have adequate capacity.

6, Too mach silt laiden tributories should be avoided as for as possible.

7, the reservoir basin should have a deep narrow opening in the valley, so that the length of the dam is
minimum.

6. What is mean by Dam? What are the difference materials that are commonly used for dam construction
and what are their comparative advantages and disadvantages?

What is a dam?

A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built


across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for
impounding water for various purposes.

These purposes may be irrigation, hydropower, water-supply, flood control, navigation, fishing and
recreation.

A dam and a reservoir are complements of each other.


Dams are generally constructed in the mountainous reach of the river where the valley is narrow and the
foundation is good.

Generally, a hydropower station is also constructed at or near the dam site to develop hydropower.
Classification of Dams

ACCORDING TO MATERIAL

A Rigid and

B Non rigid

1. RIGID DAMS
a. GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted weight of dam
Constructed either of masonry or concrete

Masonry Gravity dams small height

Major dams concrete

May be straight or curved in plan

ADVANTAGES
Strong and stable than earth dams

Can be used as overflow spillway

Can be constructed to any height

Least maintenance
Failure not sudden
Deep set sluices can be used
Cheaper in long run to areas of heavy rainfall Disadvantages
Can be constructed only on
strong rocks
Initial cost is high
Construction time is longer
Require skilled labour
Height cant be increased
unless provisions are made
b. ARCH DAMS
Curved in plan
Carries its part load to the abutments by arch action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation

Advantages
Adopted in gorges of length < height
Requires less material
Problems of uplift pressure is less

Disadvantages
Requires skilled labour
Speed of construction is slow
All sites are not possible for this dam
A number of piers divide space number of spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched.

Advantages
Less massive than gravity dam
Extension of height is possible
Concrete volume used is less.

Disadvantages
Skilled labour is needed
More susceptible to damage
d. STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to underpinning
Two types of steel dams 1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
Advantages
Speedy construction possible
Cheaper then rigid dams
Greater resistance to settlement
Not affected by frost action
Repairing can be done easily
Disadvantages
Lighter can absorb shoocks
Life shorter than concreted dams
Requires constant maintenance
e.TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to 40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib
iii) Beaver type
Advantages
Low initial cost
Suitable for any foundation
Speedy construction
Disadvantages
High maintenance cost
Short life
Small height is only possible
Seepage loss is more
11. How do you classify dams according to:
a. their use
b. hydraulic design
c. material of construction
Classification of Dams
Based on Function Served
1. STORAGE DAM
Stores water excess supply
Behind dam reservoir
Water irrigation, power etc
Stone type, concrete,earth fill, rock fill types
2. DETENTION DAM
Store water floods releases after flood
Two types one type stored water released outlet
Second no outlet water
seeps lift irrigation is
possible This type also
Also used to trap and release
sediments called debris dam
3. DIVERSION DAMS

Rises the water level

Water to canals, ditches


Small height No reservoir Eg : Weir, Barrages
Flood water diverted to Diversion structures
Normal flow diverted to canal

Debris dams
Coffer dams - a temporary dam constructed for facilitating construction.It is an enclosure constructed
around a site to exclude water so that the construction can be done in dry.

Based on Hydraulic Design


1. OVER FLOW DAMS
Surplus discharge carried
crest
Crest level lower non over
flow dams
Water glides down- strong
Material usage
Generally concrete or masonry
Overflow dam called spillway
At times non overflow and overflow types are combined.
NON OVER FLOW DAMS
Top of dam higher level
than high flood level
Water not permitted to
overtop the dam
Materials rock fill, earth
fill, masonry, concrete

Based on Materials of Construction


Riged and non-Rigid dam
RIGID DAMS
Solid masonry or concrete gravity dam
Arched masonry or concrete dam
Concrete buttress dam
Steel dam
Timber dam
GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted by the weight of the dam itself.
it may be Constructed either of masonry or concrete
Masonry Gravity dams are now a days constructed of only small height
a gravity dam may be either straight and curved in plan .
ARCH DAMS
Curved in plan
Carries its part load to the abutments by arch action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation
BUTTRESS DAM
A number of piers divide space number of spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched

TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to 40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib
iii) Beaver type
STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to underpinning
Two types of steel dams 1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
NON RIGID DAMS
EARTH DAMS
locally available materials
Moderate height
Materials used in natural state
With modern machinery height greater
ROCK FILL DAM
Rocks of various sizes
Rock fill dam has rock fill at the downstream, impervious
membrane, upstream cut off to check seepage
12. Discuss the various factors which govern the selection of a particular type of
dam for a particular project ?

Following are the factors affecting selection of dam site by dam type.
Topography

Geology and Foundation Conditions

Availability of materials

Spillway size and location

Earth queke zone

Hight of the Dam

Road way

Life of the dam

Other factors such as cost of construction and maintenance, life of dam, aesthetics etc.

1.Topography
Low rolling plains land Earth dam with separate spillway

A low narrow V shaped valley Arch dam

A narrow stream between high rocky walls Concrete overflow dam

2. Geology and Foundation Conditions


Foundation of Sound Rock Any dam type

Granite, Gneiss, Schist good for gravity dam

Poor rock Earth dam, rock fill , low concrete gravity dam

Silt, fine sand foundations problems of settlement used as foundations for earth dams, low gravity
dams but not rock fill dams
Clay soils problems of settlement earth dams No gravity or rock fill dams

3. Materials of construction
Cost availability of materials nearby transportation charges reduced

Sand, Gravel, Crushed stone Concrete Gravity dam is suitable

Coarse , fine grained soils Earth dam

4. Spillway size and location

If large spillway area needed Overflow concrete gravity dam

Small spillway capacity earth dam

Large discharges during construction Concrete gravity dam

No site for spillway Concrete gravity dam having overflow section

5. Roadway
If roadway needed Earth dam or Gravity dam

6. Length and Height of Dam

Length long, height low earth dam

Small length, height more gravity dam

7. Life of the dam


Concrete and masonry dams very long life

Earth, Rock fill dams Intermediate life

Timber Dams Temporary life

17. Determine :
a. The normal stress;
b. The principal stress;
c. The shear friction factor at base of figure below.

Find the bead of the dam at the bese?

Free body diagram of the object



=
.

X=. =40

designatio dimension Force vertical (kn) Force Lever arm +ve -ve
Types n horizontal
moment moment
(kn)
of
force
*40*80*24 2/3*40=26.7 1024128
self W1 38400

weight W2 5*80*24 9600 40+5/2=42.5


408000

40+5+7.5/2=48.75

W3 7200 351000
7.5*40*24

*39*7.5*24 40+5+1/3*7.5=47 166725


W4 3510 5
= =
1/282.5*39*10 1462.5 40+5+2/3+4.5=50 73125
Water Pv1
pressure
40+5+7.5/2=48.75
Pv2 7.5*1*10 75
3656.25
1/3*80=26 .67
+20266.25
ph * *10
32000
= . 853440
=1173194
-2000 45+7.5/2=48.75 97500
Uplift V1 80/3*7.5*10
orce
45+2/3*7.5=50 10000

-2000 2/3*45=30
V2 *80/3*10*7.5*2
180000

32000 2026634.25
-6000 = .
-1230940

V3 *80/3*10*45 =
stability analysis
case 1 when the reservoir is empty condition
position of resultant from the toe:

x= 1/ =1949853/58710=33.2m
distance from center (eccentricity b/6=52.5/6=8.75 no tension
developed

E = - =52.5-33.2 = -6.96< fails to the left of center

Normal compressive stress at the toe


.
Pn= (1 ) = ( ( . ))=228.77 Kg/
.
(.
At the heel pn = (1- )= (1- ))=2007.8
. .

Principal stress at the toe


= ph =228.77*(1+ 63.4)=1141.1
Shear stress at the toe
=pn =228.77*tan63.4 =456.84 no shear stress
Case2 when the reservoir full with uplift:

=
= 795694.25/502475=15.84

E = - =52.5/2-15.84 =10.4

Normal compressive stress


at the toe
. (.
pn = (1+ )= (1+ ))=2094.67 Kg/
. .

At the heel
. (.
pn = (1- )= (1- ))=-180.48 Kg/
. .

principal stress at the toe


=pn =2094.67*(1+ 63.4) =16442.8 Kg/
Shear stress at the toe:

=pn =209467* 63.4 =8353 Kn/


Shear friction factor (sff)
+ . . + .
Sff =
=*
*
18. Figure shows the section of a concrete gravity dam. Check the
stability of this dam section at the base. Assume any data not
given and needed.

Free body diagram is shown in figer bel


=. = 1/0.5
= 2 /20 =5.71
Types of designatio dimension Force vertical (kn) Force Lever arm +ve -ve
orce n horizontal
moment moment
(kn)
Self weight *10*20*24 2/3*10=6.7 16008
W1 2400
30000
10+5/2=12.5
W2 5*20*24 240
15+1/3*2=15.67 7521.6
W3 480
1/2*2*20*24

=
= .

*2*18*10 180 15+2/3*2=16.3 2939.4


Water Pv
pressure

ph *18*18*10 1620 1/3*18=6 9720


+56469
-9720

=
= . 1620
-240 13+74/2=15 3600
Uplift V1 18/3*4*10
orce
10000
45+2/3*7.5=50

-240 13 +2/3 *4=15.67 3760.8


V2 *18/3*10*4*2

2/3*13=8.67 3381.3
V3 *18/3*10*1 -390
56469
= 1620 = . -20462.1
The value of the forces, total vertical and total
horizontal forces, and moments:
Stability analysis of the dam:
When Reservoir is empty condition
The position of resultant force

=
=53529.6/5280 =10.14m

Distance from the center


E=b/2 - =17/2-10.14 =-1.64 the resultant force at left of the
center.
Normal compressive stress at the toe
.
pn = (1+ ) =5280/17(1+6( ))

=130.8kg/m2
At the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =5280/17(1- 6( )) =490.36 kg/m2

Principal stress at the toe


= pn =130.8*(1+ 63.4)=652.4 kg/m2
Principal stress At the heel
= pn =490.36*(1+ . ) = /
Shear stress at the toe :
=pn =130.8* 63.4) =261.2 Kg/
Shear stress at the heel:
=pn =49036*(tan 5.71) =4912.77 Kg/
Case-2
When the reservoir is full condition with uplift

=
=3600.9/4590 =7.8m

E=b/2 - =17/2 7.8 =0.66


Normal compressive stress At the toe:
.
pn = (1+ ) =4590/17(1+6( )) =332.89 kg/m2

at the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =4590/17(1- 6( )) =207.1 kg/m2

Principal stress at ther toe:


= pn = 332.89*(1+ 63.4)= 1660.4 kg/m2
At the heel:
= pn -p p= 18*10 =180
Shear stress at the toe:
=pn =332.89* 63.4) =1327.5 Kg/
At the heel:
= (pn p) =(207.1-180 )tan =27.1 Kg/
Stability check for the hole dam :
Factor of safety against overturrning (fso)
+
Fso= =56469/20462.1 =2.75> 1.5 ..ok

Factor of safety against sliding (fss) =0.7


.
fss = = * =1.98 >1 ok

shear friction factor:


+ .+
sff =
= =16.67 > 4 safe .

iS.e stable.

1 The difference betewn Full reservoir level and maximum water level and minimum pool level ?

Answer
Full reservoir level (FRL):
The full reservoir level (FRL) is the highest water level to which the water surface will rise
during normal operating conditions.

Maximum water level (MWL


The maximum water level is the maximum level to which the water surface will rise when the
design flood passes over the spillway.

Minimum pool level:


The minimum pool level is the lowest level up to which the water is withdrawn from the
reservoir under ordinary conditions.
DEBRE
BERHAN
UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
COLLEAGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND
MANAGEMENT
COURSE TITLE WATER WORK CONSTRUCTION

COURSE CODE . HENG4142

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT

Name Zeleke temachew


ID NO 07000077
Section C

Submitted to Instructor: - HABETOM

Submission Date:-01/03/2010 E.C


1, Explain all types of dam foundation treatment of each with
example and net sketch?

Dam Foundation treatment.


Grouting:
Holes are drilled at shallow as well as deep and cement grouting is filled to establish
an effective barrier to seepage under the dam and to consolidate the foundation.
A, Consolidation grouting
Low-pressure grouting to fill voids, fracture zones, and cracks at and below the surface
of the excavated foundation is accomplished by drilling and grouting relatively
shallow holes.
B , Curtain grouting
Curtain Grouting Construction of a deep grout curtain near the heel of the dam to
control seepage is accomplished by drilling deep holes and grouting them using
higher pressure
foundationof a concret gravity dam. It is frequently used at all the other types of
dam too and is usually carried out before the dam is built over it.

C , BLANKET GROUTING
This type of grouting
strengthens an area rather
than forming a curtain as
shown above.The illustration
shows its use at the
Proper Protection against
piping should be made for dam stability

D, Dental treatment:
The procedure of reinforcing and stabilizing weak zones during drilling action and
final excavation is called dental treatment.

E, Cut-off
Is imprevious borrier constructed at shallow depth to ensure the H2O tightness of the dam foundation .
The bearing structure is ridged reinforced concrete

F, Plastic diaphragm
It is impervious borreir carried out by the plastic structure.
3.What factors you will keep in mind while selecting a suitable site for a dam reservoir?

SELECTION OF SITE FOR A DAM

It is almost impossible to select a perfect ideal reservoir site, but its selection is gide by the following
factors

1, a suitable dam site is available the cost of the dam is generally a controlling factor in the selection of a
reservoir site.

2, the geological formation for the reservoir bank walls etc. should be such as to entail minimum lakege .

3, the geology of the catchment area should be such as to entail minimum water losses through absorption
and percolation .

4, the site should be such that a deep reservoir if formed. a deep reservoir is prefered to a shallow one
because of lower land cost per unit of capacity less evaporation loss and less possibility of weed growth .

5, the reservoir site have adequate capacity.

6, Too mach silt laiden tributories should be avoided as for as possible.

7, the reservoir basin should have a deep narrow opening in the valley, so that the length of the dam is
minimum.

6. What is mean by Dam? What are the difference materials that are commonly used for dam construction
and what are their comparative advantages and disadvantages?

What is a dam?

A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built


across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for
impounding water for various purposes.

These purposes may be irrigation, hydropower, water-supply, flood control, navigation, fishing and
recreation.

A dam and a reservoir are complements of each other.


Dams are generally constructed in the mountainous reach of the river where the valley is narrow and the
foundation is good.

Generally, a hydropower station is also constructed at or near the dam site to develop hydropower.
Classification of Dams

ACCORDING TO MATERIAL

A Rigid and

B Non rigid

1. RIGID DAMS
a. GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted weight of dam
Constructed either of masonry or concrete

Masonry Gravity dams small height

Major dams concrete

May be straight or curved in plan

ADVANTAGES
Strong and stable than earth dams

Can be used as overflow spillway

Can be constructed to any height

Least maintenance
Failure not sudden
Deep set sluices can be used
Cheaper in long run to areas of heavy rainfall Disadvantages
Can be constructed only on
strong rocks
Initial cost is high
Construction time is longer
Require skilled labour
Height cant be increased
unless provisions are made
b. ARCH DAMS
Curved in plan
Carries its part load to the abutments by arch action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation

Advantages
Adopted in gorges of length < height
Requires less material
Problems of uplift pressure is less

Disadvantages
Requires skilled labour
Speed of construction is slow
All sites are not possible for this dam
A number of piers divide space number of spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched.

Advantages
Less massive than gravity dam
Extension of height is possible
Concrete volume used is less.

Disadvantages
Skilled labour is needed
More susceptible to damage
d. STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to underpinning
Two types of steel dams 1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
Advantages
Speedy construction possible
Cheaper then rigid dams
Greater resistance to settlement
Not affected by frost action
Repairing can be done easily
Disadvantages
Lighter can absorb shoocks
Life shorter than concreted dams
Requires constant maintenance
e.TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to 40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib
iii) Beaver type
Advantages
Low initial cost
Suitable for any foundation
Speedy construction
Disadvantages
High maintenance cost
Short life
Small height is only possible
Seepage loss is more
11. How do you classify dams according to:
a. their use
b. hydraulic design
c. material of construction
Classification of Dams
Based on Function Served
1. STORAGE DAM
Stores water excess supply
Behind dam reservoir
Water irrigation, power etc
Stone type, concrete,earth fill, rock fill types
2. DETENTION DAM
Store water floods releases after flood
Two types one type stored water released outlet
Second no outlet water
seeps lift irrigation is
possible This type also
Also used to trap and release
sediments called debris dam
3. DIVERSION DAMS

Rises the water level

Water to canals, ditches


Small height No reservoir Eg : Weir, Barrages
Flood water diverted to Diversion structures
Normal flow diverted to canal

Debris dams
Coffer dams - a temporary dam constructed for facilitating construction.It is an enclosure constructed
around a site to exclude water so that the construction can be done in dry.

Based on Hydraulic Design


1. OVER FLOW DAMS
Surplus discharge carried
crest
Crest level lower non over
flow dams
Water glides down- strong
Material usage
Generally concrete or masonry
Overflow dam called spillway
At times non overflow and overflow types are combined.
NON OVER FLOW DAMS
Top of dam higher level
than high flood level
Water not permitted to
overtop the dam
Materials rock fill, earth
fill, masonry, concrete

Based on Materials of Construction


Riged and non-Rigid dam
RIGID DAMS
Solid masonry or concrete gravity dam
Arched masonry or concrete dam
Concrete buttress dam
Steel dam
Timber dam
GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted by the weight of the dam itself.
it may be Constructed either of masonry or concrete
Masonry Gravity dams are now a days constructed of only small height
a gravity dam may be either straight and curved in plan .
ARCH DAMS
Curved in plan
Carries its part load to the abutments by arch action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation
BUTTRESS DAM
A number of piers divide space number of spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched

TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to 40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib
iii) Beaver type
STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to underpinning
Two types of steel dams 1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
NON RIGID DAMS
EARTH DAMS
locally available materials
Moderate height
Materials used in natural state
With modern machinery height greater
ROCK FILL DAM
Rocks of various sizes
Rock fill dam has rock fill at the downstream, impervious
membrane, upstream cut off to check seepage
12. Discuss the various factors which govern the selection of a particular type of
dam for a particular project ?

Following are the factors affecting selection of dam site by dam type.
Topography

Geology and Foundation Conditions

Availability of materials

Spillway size and location

Earth queke zone

Hight of the Dam

Road way

Life of the dam

Other factors such as cost of construction and maintenance, life of dam, aesthetics etc.

1.Topography
Low rolling plains land Earth dam with separate spillway

A low narrow V shaped valley Arch dam

A narrow stream between high rocky walls Concrete overflow dam

2. Geology and Foundation Conditions


Foundation of Sound Rock Any dam type

Granite, Gneiss, Schist good for gravity dam

Poor rock Earth dam, rock fill , low concrete gravity dam

Silt, fine sand foundations problems of settlement used as foundations for earth dams, low gravity
dams but not rock fill dams
Clay soils problems of settlement earth dams No gravity or rock fill dams

3. Materials of construction
Cost availability of materials nearby transportation charges reduced

Sand, Gravel, Crushed stone Concrete Gravity dam is suitable

Coarse , fine grained soils Earth dam

4. Spillway size and location

If large spillway area needed Overflow concrete gravity dam

Small spillway capacity earth dam

Large discharges during construction Concrete gravity dam

No site for spillway Concrete gravity dam having overflow section

5. Roadway
If roadway needed Earth dam or Gravity dam

6. Length and Height of Dam

Length long, height low earth dam

Small length, height more gravity dam

7. Life of the dam


Concrete and masonry dams very long life

Earth, Rock fill dams Intermediate life

Timber Dams Temporary life

17. Determine :
a. The normal stress;
b. The principal stress;
c. The shear friction factor at base of figure below.

Find the bead of the dam at the bese?

Free body diagram of the object



=
.

X=. =40

designatio dimension Force vertical (kn) Force Lever arm +ve -ve
Types n horizontal
moment moment
(kn)
of
force
*40*80*24 2/3*40=26.7 1024128
self W1 38400

weight W2 5*80*24 9600 40+5/2=42.5


408000

40+5+7.5/2=48.75

W3 7200 351000
7.5*40*24

*39*7.5*24 40+5+1/3*7.5=47 166725


W4 3510 5
= =
1/282.5*39*10 1462.5 40+5+2/3+4.5=50 73125
Water Pv1
pressure
40+5+7.5/2=48.75
Pv2 7.5*1*10 75
3656.25
1/3*80=26 .67
+20266.25
ph * *10
32000
= . 853440
=1173194
-2000 45+7.5/2=48.75 97500
Uplift V1 80/3*7.5*10
orce
45+2/3*7.5=50 10000

-2000 2/3*45=30
V2 *80/3*10*7.5*2
180000

32000 2026634.25
-6000 = .
-1230940

V3 *80/3*10*45 =
stability analysis
case 1 when the reservoir is empty condition
position of resultant from the toe:

x= 1/ =1949853/58710=33.2m
distance from center (eccentricity b/6=52.5/6=8.75 no tension
developed

E = - =52.5-33.2 = -6.96< fails to the left of center

Normal compressive stress at the toe


.
Pn= (1 ) = ( ( . ))=228.77 Kg/
.
(.
At the heel pn = (1- )= (1- ))=2007.8
. .

Principal stress at the toe


= ph =228.77*(1+ 63.4)=1141.1
Shear stress at the toe
=pn =228.77*tan63.4 =456.84 no shear stress
Case2 when the reservoir full with uplift:

=
= 795694.25/502475=15.84

E = - =52.5/2-15.84 =10.4

Normal compressive stress


at the toe
. (.
pn = (1+ )= (1+ ))=2094.67 Kg/
. .

At the heel
. (.
pn = (1- )= (1- ))=-180.48 Kg/
. .

principal stress at the toe


=pn =2094.67*(1+ 63.4) =16442.8 Kg/
Shear stress at the toe:

=pn =209467* 63.4 =8353 Kn/


Shear friction factor (sff)
+ . . + .
Sff =
=*
*
18. Figure shows the section of a concrete gravity dam. Check the
stability of this dam section at the base. Assume any data not
given and needed.

Free body diagram is shown in figer bel


=. = 1/0.5
= 2 /20 =5.71
Types of designatio dimension Force vertical (kn) Force Lever arm +ve -ve
orce n horizontal
moment moment
(kn)
Self weight *10*20*24 2/3*10=6.7 16008
W1 2400
30000
10+5/2=12.5
W2 5*20*24 240
15+1/3*2=15.67 7521.6
W3 480
1/2*2*20*24

=
= .

*2*18*10 180 15+2/3*2=16.3 2939.4


Water Pv
pressure

ph *18*18*10 1620 1/3*18=6 9720


+56469
-9720

=
= . 1620
-240 13+74/2=15 3600
Uplift V1 18/3*4*10
orce
10000
45+2/3*7.5=50

-240 13 +2/3 *4=15.67 3760.8


V2 *18/3*10*4*2

2/3*13=8.67 3381.3
V3 *18/3*10*1 -390
56469
= 1620 = . -20462.1
The value of the forces, total vertical and total
horizontal forces, and moments:
Stability analysis of the dam:
When Reservoir is empty condition
The position of resultant force

=
=53529.6/5280 =10.14m

Distance from the center


E=b/2 - =17/2-10.14 =-1.64 the resultant force at left of the
center.
Normal compressive stress at the toe
.
pn = (1+ ) =5280/17(1+6( ))

=130.8kg/m2
At the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =5280/17(1- 6( )) =490.36 kg/m2

Principal stress at the toe


= pn =130.8*(1+ 63.4)=652.4 kg/m2
Principal stress At the heel
= pn =490.36*(1+ . ) = /
Shear stress at the toe :
=pn =130.8* 63.4) =261.2 Kg/
Shear stress at the heel:
=pn =49036*(tan 5.71) =4912.77 Kg/
Case-2
When the reservoir is full condition with uplift

=
=3600.9/4590 =7.8m

E=b/2 - =17/2 7.8 =0.66


Normal compressive stress At the toe:
.
pn = (1+ ) =4590/17(1+6( )) =332.89 kg/m2

at the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =4590/17(1- 6( )) =207.1 kg/m2

Principal stress at ther toe:


= pn = 332.89*(1+ 63.4)= 1660.4 kg/m2
At the heel:
= pn -p p= 18*10 =180
Shear stress at the toe:
=pn =332.89* 63.4) =1327.5 Kg/
At the heel:
= (pn p) =(207.1-180 )tan =27.1 Kg/
Stability check for the hole dam :
Factor of safety against overturrning (fso)
+
Fso= =56469/20462.1 =2.75> 1.5 ..ok

Factor of safety against sliding (fss) =0.7


.
fss = = * =1.98 >1 ok

shear friction factor:


+ .+
sff =
= =16.67 > 4 safe .

iS.e stable.

1 The difference betewn Full reservoir level and maximum water level and minimum pool level ?

Answer
Full reservoir level (FRL):
The full reservoir level (FRL) is the highest water level to which the water surface will rise
during normal operating conditions.

Maximum water level (MWL


The maximum water level is the maximum level to which the water surface will rise when the
design flood passes over the spillway.

Minimum pool level:


The minimum pool level is the lowest level up to which the water is withdrawn from the
reservoir under ordinary conditions.