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Forensic Engineering Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers

Forensic Engineering 164 February 2011 Issue FE1


Volume 164 Issue FE1 Pages 1523 doi: 10.1680/feng.2011.164.1.15
Cracks in steel structures Paper 1000003
Received 22/06/2010 Accepted 20/10/2010
Mann Keywords: Failures/fatigue/steel structures

ice | proceedings ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

Cracks in steel structures

Allan Mann CEng, FREng, FIStructE, MICE


Senior Consultant, Jacobs, Manchester, UK

Under overload, the mode of failure in any steel structure should ideally be ductile not brittle; the possibility of
cracking in steelwork should thus be actively guarded against. Historically, steel cracking has caused some spectacular
failures. Steel can fracture rapidly at low temperature and can crack during welding, in fatigue or as a result of stress
corrosion. Certain fabrication processes such as welding, flame cutting and punching exacerbate the risks, especially if
the steel is thick. Galvanising can also be a risk factor. Design engineers should understand potential cracking
mechanisms and risk factors to minimise the likelihood of in-service failure. This paper discusses the historical
background of cracking, explains causes and suggests avoidance measures.

1. History made by riveting fairly thin plates of steel together. This had
The Tsar bell, situated at the Kremlin in Moscow illustrates that two benefits the steel was thin so the materials tensile
cracking in metals has long been a problem. During a fire in reliability was better than that of thicker steel and failure of
1737, a massive portion (weighing some 11 t) of the bell cracked one part in a multiple riveted assembly did not necessarily spell
while it was in the casting pit (Figure 1). It might be argued that disaster for the whole unit.
the modern steel industry owes much to a fear of cracking: in the
nineteenth century, when cast iron was the most widely available The 1920s1930s, however, heralded the start of a new era when
structural metal, tensile performance was an unpredictable the Journal of the Institution of Structural Engineers published a
quality and safety was sought by deploying large safety margins. series of papers on welding. In 1932 the journal published a
However, the cracking risk was not controllable and several report by the Steel Structures Research Committee that high-
examples of bad structural failure occurred. All failures are lighted some welding tests with the comment A discussion and
intolerable, but failure by fracture is especially intolerable since description of tests on the welding of steel structure, a subject
it violates the key safety attribute of ensuring a visible collapse which is of the greatest interest as offering perhaps one method
warning by means of prior distortion. whereby the intolerable noise associated with riveting may be
avoided. The demand for rapid production throughout the
The danger of cracking/brittle fracture of cast iron has long been Second World War gave welding technology a strong impetus.
recognised, at least empirically, as most early bridges such as that However, the new technology brought new problems, the most
at Ironbridge (1779) had arches as their structural form (although spectacular of which were full fractures of the all-welded
the bridge still has cracks within it). Longer bridges supported by American Liberty ships (Boyd, 1970) (Figure 2). At the time,
chains (e.g. the Menai suspension bridge (1826)) used wrought this was a mystery: the failures were extensive and could occur
iron (at least for the chains) for better reliability. Nevertheless, apparently spontaneously while the ships were in calm waters. A
cast iron continued to be used for beams for a time. In 1847, new phenomenon clearly existed and required urgent investiga-
Robert Stephensons cast iron girder bridge over the River Dee tion. To some extent, cracking and crack propagation had
near Chester collapsed as a train crossed over; the collapse may always been a design issue even with the steels used in riveted
have been precipitated by fracture of the girders bottom flange. boats, but at least in those structures the various overlapping
In 1891, a cast iron bridge at Norwood Junction collapsed due to plates and riveted-on stiffeners offered some crack arrest
fracture emanating from a large blowhole in the flange. This was features. Gordon (1978) describes some significant crack
a key event in the decline of cast iron. After an inquiry into the incidences in transatlantic liners.
Norwood crash, the Board of Trade recommended that all cast
iron bridges be replaced. Steel became the preferred material, as After the war, the Liberty ship fractures generated intense
used for construction of the Forth railway bridge in 1890. research into the cause of failure. It had, of course, been known
for a long time that steel possessed properties of both strength
This use of steel continued more or less until the Second World and toughness, with the two being separate qualities.
War. Up to then, most structures and their connections were Toughness had been formally investigated in 1905 by

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Cleavage fracture Fibrous fracture

Fracture transition
Energy absorption
Brittle failure Shear
failure

Easy crack
Figure 1. Tsar bell initiation and Crack propagates but Crack arrest
propagation initiation difficult zone
zone
Charpy, a French scientist who gave his name to the standard
test that defines toughness by a measure of the energy a Temperature
particular steel specimen can absorb while fracturing: the test is
still used today. The test can be used to demonstrate change in Figure 3. Ductile/brittle transition curve
steel toughness with temperature, the toughness magnitude
dropping off dramatically below a value known as the
transition temperature (Figure 3). Although the Charpy test Underlying all this, a puzzling problem in the strength of
demonstrated toughness variation, it did not in itself explain materials had been identified in about 1914 when Inglis looked
the fast fractures observed in ships. This was investigated by at stress concentrations and showed that, theoretically, the
navy engineers and eventually led to greater understanding of localised stress that must exist linked to flaws/notches could be
cracking and fracture mechanics (Boyd, 1970). many times the known tensile capacity of steel (Gordon, 1978).
Yet patently, despite these localised stress concentrations, most
steel structures were able to cope with such stresses in service
and not only from flaws introduced by design (such as sharp
re-entrant corners) but also from flaws that were intrinsic to
the basic manufactured material. The plausible explanation
relied on the ability of steels ductility to yield locally without
the high stress causing fracture.

A milestone in the understanding of cracking came about in


the 1920s when Griffiths (Gordon, 1978) pondered the
phenomenon, speculated on cause and deduced that there
was such a thing as a tolerable crack length that could exist in a
tensile stress field. This led to the definition of a critical crack
length marking the transition point between stability on the
one hand and rapid instability via crack growth on the other.
Griffiths thought in terms of energy rather than stress. This
was the birth of modern fracture mechanics, which is a
complex subject seeking to address questions of stability for
cracks of a given length in a given material in a given stress
field.

Figure 2. Dramatic brittle fracture of a Liberty ship Another cracking phenomenon was first investigated by
Wohler around the 1850s. Wohler was a German railway

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engineer charged with investigating the continuing failures of pass/fail criteria (20 ft lbs) developed when investigating ship
axles on rolling stock. It was Wohler who first produced SN failures. Moreover, the designation of a Charpy value at a
curves and showed that metals had a finite life brought about defined low temperature does not mean that the steel is only
by crack propagation when subjected to repeated loading that suitable for use at that temperature. The phenomenon of low-
generated stress levels very much below known yield values. temperature brittle fracture is more complicated, and other risk
This was the birth of our understanding of fatigue. factors are material thickness (Burdekin, 1999) and whether or
not the steel has been welded (TWI, 1971).
2. Failures
Fatigue failures remain common in certain industries and the A second, and separate, property that can be defined and
failures can be serious. A series of rail cracking problems in the selected by a designer is to use steel with guaranteed through-
1990s led to some dreadful accidents (Mann, 2008). Several thickness properties to avoid lamellar tearing. Such steel is
major oil rig collapses have been put down to fatigue, notably designated as having Z quality ductility and steels are available
the Sea Gem in 1965 and the Alexander Kielland in 1980. In with various amounts of ductility. Codes such as BS EN 1993-
both cases, cracks rapidly propagated through the rig legs, 1-10: 2005(E) (BSI, 2005) give guidance on requisite risk
leading to total leg loss and subsequent capsize. In both cases, factors and grade selection but a key factor is the application of
the initiation sites for crack propagation were linked to welding high stress, or strain, in a direction normal to the steel rolling
and associated defects, possibly exacerbated by lamellar direction. Lamellar tearing is characterised by a plate of steel
tearing in the base material. Generally, faulty fabrication/ splitting along its length. Application of high stress might be
welding processes can increase the risk of cracking and the due to in-service loading but is more commonly associated with
performance of welded joints under high strains imposed high shrinkage strains imposed during welding (i.e. when the
during seismic action has highlighted this. Cracking failures in cooling shrinkage is restrained). Risk factors include the use of
both the Kobe and Northridge earthquakes (Maranian, 1997; thick steel. Other risk factors include the presence of a large
1998) revealed the sensitivity of a whole frames integrity to the number of non-metallic inclusions within the steel; Z quality
quality of the welding deployed at joints. Certain cracking steels are clean steels with very low sulphur content.
problems occur in certain environments. One of these is stress
corrosion cracking that, while not normally presenting a In manufacture, steel toughness is achieved by a number of
problem for structural engineers working in carbon steels, has means, two of which are control of hardness and control of
led to building failures when stainless steel has been used microstructure. A hard steel is one that has low resistance to
(Mann, 1993). crack growth and so hardness needs to be carefully controlled.
In everyday engineering, hardness can be increased by the
Fortunately, failures are comparatively rare. However, rarity application of high heat followed by rapid cooling, such as may
should not lead to complacency because the very nature of occur in uncontrolled welding or flame cutting.
rarity brings its own problems: as failure occurrence will be
outside the experience of most engineers, the chance that risk Overall, a designers first responsibility is the selection of a steel
factors may be overlooked is increased. Given that cracking that is appropriate to the service conditions and the method of
failures can be instant and catastrophic it is incumbent on all fabrication. In normal design this is straightforward, but
design engineers to understand the importance of recognising selection becomes specialised when casting is involved. In those
potentially hazardous operating conditions, to be knowledge- circumstances more care is required. This follows partly
able in the selection of appropriate materials and to be skilled because the steel is thicker and partly because there is a more
in controlling fabrication quality so as to minimise the risk of direct responsibility on the parties involved to assign appro-
cracking developing in service. priate ductility and toughness values. The dangers are real, as
illustrated by press reports on the failure of certain cast cable
3. Basic metallurgy anchorages on the Glasgow Clyde arc bridge in 2008. The
Steels can be purchased in a variety of strength grades and a Standing Committee on Structural Safety has issued a topic
variety of sub-grades that offer enhanced toughness values paper on castings (Scoss, 2010).
such that steel can be used in low temperatures. The first
protection against low-temperature fracture (very rapid crack 4. The role of thickness
propagation) is to specify a steel with the appropriate The risk of cracking in thick steel is higher than in thin steel
toughness properties. Design codes and other advice offer for a variety of reasons (Burdekin, 1999). In the late 1980s
guidance as to the grade required (Swann, 2005). The standard there were some spectacular fracture problems in the USA
definition of toughness is a designated Charpy value (usually (ENR, 1986; 1987a; 1987b) when welded jumbo sections were
27 J) achieved at a designated temperature. It should be noted used in tension (flanges 125 mm, webs 75 mm). In one truss,
that 27 J is just an arbitrary value (it derives historically from a the tension boom spontaneously cracked right through while in

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service. Forensic examination proved the material to have low non-destructive examination (NDE) to a degree proportionate
toughness and the investigation concluded there were inherent with the welds service function.
problems with the way the jumbo sections were produced
leading to excessive grain size and particular weakness in the It is these same factors that explain the failure of the Liberty
centre of the thick sections (where the cooling was too slow) ships: the basic material had poor toughness; the welds
and at the flange/web junction (where grain refinement by probably had defects; the driving energy for the crack (in
rolling was weakest). The initiation point (certainly for one apparently low external stress conditions) was the internal
fracture) was the hardened edge of a flame-cut mousehole residual stress left over from welding. The continuity provided
utilised for completing the butt weld across the flange. These by the all-welded structure allowed the crack to propagate a
failures led to recommendations to not weld jumbo sections considerable distance without arrest. These risk factors can
and for controlling the cooling rate when flame cutting. now be controlled by appropriate steel selection, application of
proven weld procedures and post-weld NDE. In unusual
circumstances, post-weld heat treatment can additionally be
5. Effects of fabrication
used to enhance fracture toughness (Berenbak et al., 2001).
The failure example of the jumbo sections shows how faulty
fabrication can exacerbate the risk of in-service cracking.
In the aftermath of the Northridge earthquake of 1994, it was
Given that stress concentrations and brittleness are risk
observed that a great many welded joints of the steel rigid
factors, anything that promotes either feature is best avoided.
frames used in the region had cracked (Maranian, 1997; 1998).
However, in practical structures, eliminating these features is
This was put down partly to poor material and partly to faulty
not possible. It is certainly not possible to eliminate all stress
welding procedures whereby large welds had been laid down
concentrations since they exist at every re-entrant corner and but allowed to cool too quickly, thus creating a local hardened
around every bolt hole. microstructure. While the welds might have possessed ade-
quate strength, they lacked ductility. Thus, in the distortion
In many cases, observed failures under service conditions have imposed under seismic conditions, the welds cracked (and the
been associated with welding, which is clearly one of the most cracks propagated into parent material).
common joining technologies. While most welds perform
perfectly well, it still remains important to comprehend what 6. Punching
problems welding may introduce. Welding can be a root cause Punching is commonly employed as a cheap means of making
of failure for several reasons. holes. However, cold working increases both the strength and
hardness of steel and if the working is too great (e.g. in trying
(a) Many welds contain a defect of some sort (albeit they to punch through thick steels) micro-cracks can be generated
might be at microscopic level and have no effect on static around the hole edge. Such cracks have been known to
strength) and those defects might be sharp: given the right propagate explosively in zones of plastic stress and hence
orientation in the stress field they may thus generate seismic codes forbid punching in regions of anticipated
extremely high stresses at their tips. In effect, such defects ductility demand. Likewise, trying to bend steel through too
might be the seed for future crack development. tight a radius can create cracking; crack avoidance thus
(b) Welding requires the application of great heat and requires the specification of minimum radii and/or application
subsequent cooling. A hard and therefore brittle micro- of heat.
structure results if cooling is too rapid. Conversely, if
cooling is too slow, the grain size might be too large and 7. Fabrication control: welding
this lowers the inherent toughness. Thus, even with sound Properly controlled welding procedures should prevent the
parent metal, an inappropriate welding procedure may Northridge effect. Given a particular steel chemistry, its carbon
degrade the basic material properties and this may equivalent value (CEV) a measure of the steels ability to
coincide with a crack-like feature. harden under a heating/cooling cycle can be evaluated. For
(c) Differential cooling post-welding leaves a residual stress steel with CEV . 0?41, weldability is decreased, meaning that
field, which will be of yield value, in the material. the risk of cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases.
HAZ cracking can occur if the hardness exceeds about 350 HV
In short, welding can simultaneously add the three risk factors and if sufficient hydrogen is present. Welding procedures (for
most feared: a crack, a susceptible microstructure and a built- example BS EN 1011-1 (BSI, 2009)) take account of the CEV
in high tensile stress (it is those same residual stresses that and the amount of heat applied during the welding process.
explain welding distortion or the lower buckling capacity of They also account for the thickness of the steel (which governs
welded columns). It is thus vitally important to make all welds heat flow away from the weld) collectively to assure that the
to a proper qualified procedure and to carry out post-weld weld and its local HAZ have appropriate engineering properties.

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Depending on the various factors, it may be a requirement to


apply pre-heat or post-weld heating to control the rate of weld
cooling and so assure adequate weld/HAZ ductility.

A further measure of protection is to specify post-welding


NDE and the amount required is typically covered by
specifications such as the National Structural Steelwork
Specification for Building Construction (NSSS) (BCSA/SCI,
2010). All welds should be examined visually and to an extent
determined by the designer but it is normally not commercially
viable to examine every weld by NDE and it is not possible to
examine fillet welds internally at all. Hence, control of the
welding processes is the first line of defence. In assessing NDE
scope and allied acceptance criteria, the design engineer has to
have regard to the service conditions of the weld, especially if
these in any way involve fatigue loading. The NSSS standards
for weld inspection are inadequate for cases where fatigue Figure 4. Example of fracture at a re-entrant corner
loading operates since much higher standards are required to
guard against the existence of a flaw that can grow in length
under alternating stresses (fatigue). In all circumstances, the stress concentrations, and the internal edge can be hard and
objective is to ensure that no weld goes into service having a notched giving the classic conditions for fracture.
built-in crack-like defect.
It is for these reasons that the NSSS requires control of cutting
There are certain types of cracking that can occur during the procedures. Codes such as BS EN 1090 2: 2008 defined edge
welding process itself; again, these ought to be eliminated by an hardness standards to be achieved (BSI, 2008). Modifications to
appropriate procedure. A root cause of weld cracking during edge hardness are possible by altering the cutting speed (slower
welding is hydrogen entrapment. To avoid this, certain steels speeds are beneficial) and possibly by pre-heating (to slow the
require the use of low-hydrogen electrodes and the elimination cooling rate or cut down thermal gradients (mandatory in rail
of all moisture (by baking the electrodes) that might be a cutting)) or the application of post-weld heat.
source of hydrogen. Because hydrogen cracking can be
delayed, specifications such as the NSSS (BCSA/SCI, 2010), 9. Cracking in fatigue
define cooling times in hours before any NDE can be carried Perhaps the most likely form of cracking to be encountered by
out. engineers is that from fatigue. For a crack to progress there has
to be an initiation site and it can be assumed one will always
Overall, although potential risk factors promote cracking, this exist, certainly where there has been welding or thermal cutting.
is not a real issue in the vast majority of structural applications There also has to be an alternating tensile stress, preferably with
provided that the basic steel is of adequate quality and proper some kind of stress concentration, to provide the frequent input
weld procedures are applied and appropriate NDE is specified of energy required for crack progression. Figure 5, which is not
as a quality control measure. Nevertheless, more caution is unlike Figure 4, shows a fatigue crack growing from a very
required for thicker steels, especially if there is any form of badly cut edge. The fracture surface is also shown in Figure 6.
fatigue loading. Note the part of the crack starting from the steel edge has the
characteristic beach marks of a fatigue progression then, after a
8. Fabrication control cutting certain length, the crack has propagated rapidly; this is shown
Another process that requires heat is thermal (flame) cutting. If by the change to cleavage in the fracture surface appearance.
the cutting is uncontrolled then, just as in welding, the local
microstructure next to the cut can be hardened and so It is not difficult to show the effect of crack length on rates of
embrittled (as in the failure of the jumbo sections noted in progression: adding a nick into the side of a sheet of paper will
Section 4). Worst still, the cuts will not be uniform and can provide ample demonstration. In the example shown in
leave notches. Figure 4 shows a crack propagating from a Figures 5 and 6, the alternating stress was linked to a
standard connection re-entrant corner of a beam end. The supported structure enduring wind oscillation.
loading conditions and asymmetrical shape of the T section at
the end of the long stalk provide a high tensile stress at the re- A problem with fatigue is that the worst failures often occur
entrant corner. This would be further enhanced locally by when the designer has not spotted that a fatigue condition

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of an issue in recent years simply because floor spans are


getting longer and these lengthened spans have moved floors
into the realms where there can be dynamic response to
imposed human loading. Cases to be concerned about are
crowd loading from dancing or aerobics, or perhaps stadia
response. Cases are known of where cracking has developed
under these conditions from beam re-entrant corners.

Technical issues that increase the risks from fatigue loading


(and thence cracking) are as follows.

(a) There is a low stress limit below which fatigue cracking


will not occur; however, at higher stresses, fatigue life is
finite. Life is determined not so much by the maximum
stress but by the stress range acting on a component.
Moreover, life is inversely proportional to the cube of the
applied stress range. Thus, any enlargement in stress
range has a dramatic effect on life, shortening it
considerably. In fatigue-designed structures, the stress
range has to be kept low. It should be obvious that if
secondary stresses or stress concentrations are neglected,
Figure 5. Fracture at a re-entrant corner a structure can easily be subjected to a high stress range
when under fatigue loading. The consequences then are
that structural lives might be measured in hundreds of
exists. In the case of the oil rig failures mentioned earlier, the cycles rather than thousands or millions.
varying loads were linked to varying sea states. Oscillation
(b) It is unfortunate that secondary stresses, which can be
from wind-induced vibration might be quite hard to anticipate
mostly ignored in statically loaded structures, really
but a number of failures have occurred in this way. It is not the count in fatigue-loaded structures; such stresses are
frequent application of wind that counts so much as the almost impossible to compute with accuracy yet fatigue
possibility of a large number of cycles from harmonic cracks respond to the true stress state. Cracks can thus
oscillations such as may be generated by vortex shedding or develop in all sorts of surprising circumstances.
other wind dynamic response phenomena. (c) There has to be a tensile stress state. But if there is a
residual tensile stress in the structure yet that part is in the
Historically, repeated loading from human footfall has rarely compressive range of external loading, then an applied
presented a structural problem. However, it has become more compressive stress will merely cycle the tensile stress from
high to low rather than the other way around. Thus fatigue
failures can occur in apparently compressive zones.
(d) An added complication occurs when corrosion and
fatigue combine. Where there is corrosion (or fatigue in a
corrosive environment) lives can be shortened even more
and there may be no endurance limit even at low stress.

The uncertainty of stress conditions leading to cracking was


illustrated by Senior (1963; 1964), who reported on fatigue
cracks developing in crane girders due to imperfect fit between
flanges and webs or between rails and their supports. Likewise,
fatigue cracks have developed on the underside of bridge decks
when stiffeners have not been forced into full contact prior to
welding (Mann and Morris, 1981). Fretting fatigue is a
phenomenon of fatigue crack growth generated simply by two
parts rubbing together. Mann (2008) described a complex
Figure 6. Fracture surfaces mechanism that caused fatigue crack generation and cracking
(with subsequent train derailment) in a railway track.

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Checking for fatigue is an obvious condition on structures Stainless steels used for structural purposes (generally auste-
carrying traffic. This is very pronounced in tracks carrying nitic grades) have strengths comparable to normal structural
rollercoasters where down forces can be linked to accelerations steels. Beneficially, they are ductile and extremely tough even
up to 4g and where there are multiple cycles of load applied at low temperatures. In fact, the toughness can be so high that
through the many train wheels and with trains passing every certain grades can be used for cryogenic applications.
few minutes all day long. The condition is so onerous that Nonetheless, stainless steel is not immune to problems if the
track design is dominated by the need to consider fatigue wrong grade is used. One reported problem is stress corrosion
loading and such tracks have a defined life as a consequence this occurs if an inappropriate grade is used in the presence of
(Figure 7). warmth and chlorides. High stress is required, but this can be
just from residual stress or from stress concentrations. Failures
10. Avoidance of fatigue damage have been reported from structures above swimming pools.
Experience suggests that prediction of fatigue damage is far Problems have been known in the UK (in wire hangers). Page
from certain: the stress loading conditions are just not and Anchor (1988) report on a failure (with fatalities) in
predictable with sufficient accuracy because secondary stresses Switzerland in 1985 when, after 13 years of service, a heavy
and stress concentrations play such a significant role. Any concrete ceiling fell over a swimming pool. The collapse
defined life in terms of cycles that may be endured should resulted from the failure of austenitic stainless steel ceiling
therefore be treated as an estimate. The first defence is to be supports. In 2005, Scoss issued a fresh alert about this type of
aware that a fatigue loading regime exists and to define joints failure (Scoss, 2005). Avoidance involves the identification of
to suitable codes. There must also be appropriate NDE before risk environments and the use of an appropriate stainless steel
joints are put into service. Finally, an inspection monitoring grade.
regime with the objective of detecting cracks before they
progress far enough to become dangerous must be carried out Problems associated with galvanising have also been reported.
throughout the service life. In advanced structures such as The spontaneous fracture of four galvanised Macalloy bars in
aircraft components, certain parts are time limited in use a post-tensioned bridge in 1968 caused a major alert (NCE,
because of the dangers of fatigue crack propagation. 1990), with the problem being put down to hydrogen
embrittlement. More recently, a worldwide investigation has
11. Materials been carried out on Liquid Metal Assisted Cracking (Figure 8).
The risk of low-temperature brittle fracture is controlled by This is an apparently rare phenomenon (Moore, 2005), or at
specification of a steel with adequate toughness. The risk of least one not yet widely recognised, where for some reason
weld-promoted cracking is partly controlled by reference to the steelwork cracking occurs while a part is in a galvanising bath.
steels chemistry. The risk of fatigue cracking is not related to A significant worry is that the cracks may become filled with
the material per se; indeed, the risk is the same for all steels zinc and thus not be apparent until load is applied in service
since the rate of crack propagation is not much influenced by
steel type.

Figure 7. Fatigue failure on a rollercoaster Figure 8. Liquid metal assisted cracking

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Forensic Engineering Cracks in steel structures
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and the cracks open up. Scoss has issued two advisory notes Steelwork: An Approach to the Management of Liquid
about this danger (Scoss, 2004; 2006) and the British Metal Assisted Cracking. BCSA, London, Publication 40/
Constructional Steelwork Association, in conjunction with 05.
the Galvanisers Association, has issued guidelines for inspec- BCSA/SCI (British Constructional Steelwork Association and Steel
tion and identification of risk factors (BCSA/GA, 2005). Construction Institute) (2010) National Structural Steelwork
Further guidance is available from the Steel Construction Specification for Building Construction, 5th edn. BCSA,
Institute (SCI, 2006). London, Publication 52/10.
Berenbak J, Lanser A and Mann AP (2001) The British Airways
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