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OUAIS GROUP ENGINEERING & CONTRACTING S.A.

L OFFSHORE

RADIOGRAPHIC FILM PROCESSING

8/26/10

M.K. Bencharif

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THIS WILL LEAD TO A REDUCTION IN FILM CONTRAST. Bencharif 2 . IT REMOVES ALL OF THE REMAINING SILVER HALIDES FROM THE FILM EMULSION AND STABILISES THE IMAGE FORMED.K. IT ALSO HELPS TO SPEED UP THE WASHING AND DRYING PROCESSES. THE DEVELOPER PREFERENTIALLY ATTACKS SENSITISED SILVER HALIDE GRAINS. IN SOME CASES A RUNNING WATER WASH IS USED INSTEAD OF AN ACID STOP BATH. REDUCING THEM TO METALLIC SILVER. ACID STOP BATH THE STOP BATH CONTAINS ACETIC ACID. 8/26/10 M. THE HARDENER HELPS TO STOP THE FILM EMULSION FROM BECOMING TOO SWOLLEN DUE TO THE EXCESSIVE ABSORPTION OF WATER. THIS RAPIDLY BRINGS TO AN END THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND HELPS TO PRESERVE THE FIXER. FIXER / HARDENER THE FIXER CONSISTS OF A SOLUTION OF SODIUM THIOSULPHATE IN AN ACID BUFFER SOLUTION. IF THE FILM IS DEVELOPED AT TOO HIGH A TEMPERATURE OR FOR TOO LONG A TIME THEN UN-SENSITISED GRAINS WILL ALSO BE REDUCED.FILM PROCESSING DEVELOPER THE DEVELOPER IS A REDUCING AGENT SUCH AS HYDROQUINONE PRESERVED IN AN ALKALINE BUFFER SOLUTION.

Bencharif 3 . DRYING IS USUALLY ASSISTED BY A CIRCULATING WARM AIR HEATER. CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO PREVENT AIRBORNE DUST FROM SETTLING ON THE WET FILM. THE TEMPERATURE OF THIS BATH SHOULD BE IN THE RANGE 5 to 25oC.K. 8/26/10 M. OVERWASHING OR NOT WASHING ENOUGH WILL ADVERSELY AFFECT THE KEEPING PROPERTIES OF THE FILM DRYING AFTER WASHING AND BEFORE DRYING IT IS A GOOD IDEA TO DIP THE FILM INTO A VERY WEAK DETERGENT SOLUTION (WETTING AGENT). THIS WILL HELP THE FILM TO DRY MORE EVENLY AND QUICKLY. IT WILL HELP TO PREVENT THE FORMATION OF WATER MARKS.FILM PROCESSING DEVELOPER STOP BATH FIXER WASHING FOR THE BEST RESULTS FILM SHOULD ALWAYS BE WASHED IN A RUNNING WATER BATH.

Bencharif 4 .5 20-30 2x(clearing time) 30 20 13-25 10 NOTE: WASHING TEMPERATURE > 250C TO > 30 BE AVOIDED 8/26/10 M.TYPICAL OPTIMUM TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR MANUAL FILM PROCESSING PROCESS TEMP.K. 0C DEVELOPING 20 STOP BATH FIXING 20-30 WASHING 5-10 3 26 2 30 TIME/min 5 0.

ALWAYS USE THE MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDED DEVELOPMENT TIME. IDEALLY ALL OF THE BATHS INCLUDING THE WASH SHOULD BE AT THE SAME TEMPERATURE OF ABOUT 200C. DEVELOPER: 1. 8/26/10 M. MAINTAIN A LOG BOOK OF THE AREA OF FILM PROCESSED AND USE REPLENISHER AT THE MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDED RATE. THIS WILL PREVENT STREAKINESS CAUSED BY UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT. 3. Bencharif 5 .GOOD PRACTICE IN AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSING GENERAL: 1. AGITATE THE FILM STRONGLY FOR THE FIRST 30 sec AND FOR 10 sec PER MINUTE THEREAFTER. AVOIDING SUDDEN TEMPERATURE CHANGES WILL PREVENT “RETICULATION.K. 2. REPLACE CHEMICAL BATHS WHICH HAVE BECOME HEAVILY DISCOLOURED DUE TO OXIDATION.” 2.

ALWAYS USE A STOP BATH. 3.K. Bencharif 6 . 2. THE AMOUNT YOU NEED TO USE WILL PROBABLY BE INCREASED AT HIGH FIXER TEMPERATURES. AVOID FIXING FOR LONGER PERIODS THAN THIS. 4. FIXER: 1. REPLENISH THE FIXER UP TO THE MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDED AMOUNT WHEN THE CLEARING TIME EXCEEDS SAY 2 MINUTES. USE HARDENER IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS. REGULARLY CHECK THE CLEARING TIME USING SMALL SECTIONS OF SCRAP FILM. THIS WILL HELP TO EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE FIXER AND AVOID THE POSSIBILITY OF “DICHROIC FOGGING. 8/26/10 M.GOOD PRACTICE IN AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSING STOP BATH: 1.” THE ADDITION OF AN ACIDITY INDICATOR TO THE STOP BATH HELPS TO MAKE SURE THAT THE BATH IS EFFECTIVE. FIX ALL FILMS FOR A TIME EQUAL TO TWICE THE CLEARING TIME.

AVOID DRYING AT TEMPERATURES GREATER THAN 400C. AVOID WASHING AT TEMPERATURES EXCEEDING 250C. Bencharif 7 . USE A WETTING AGENT TO ENCOURAGE EVEN DRYING. 2. ALWAYS HANG FILMS VERTICALLY. 4. FOR INSTANCE. WHENEVER POSSIBLE USE A RUNNING WATER WASH. OVERWASHING WILL MAKE THE FILM EMULSION VERY SOFT AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO DAMAGE. WASH FILMS FOR THE OPTIMUM TIME. 4. FILTER THE WASH WATER TO REMOVE ANY SOLID CONTAMINANTS. 2.GOOD PRACTICE IN AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSING WASHING: 1. 3. DON’T. 3.K. LEAVE THEM WASHING OVERNIGHT. DRY FILM IN A DUST FREE ATMOSPHERE 8/26/10 M. DRYING: 1.

GOOD PRACTICE IN AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSING MAINTENANCE: 1. 2. TAKE CARE TO AVOID THE OVERLAPPING OF FILMS WHEN FEEDING THEM INTO THE ROLLERS. CAREFULLY MAINTAIN THE SUPPLY OF CHEMICALS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURER’ RECOMMENDATIONS. 5. 4. 8/26/10 M. ALWAYS MAINTAIN THE PROCESSOR IN A THOROUGHLY CLEAN CONDITION. REPLACE / CLEAN THE WATER FILTER AT REGULAR INTERVALS. 3. Bencharif 8 . HAVE THE PROCESSOR SERVICED BY AN EXPERT AT REGULAR INTERVALS.K.

AVOID CHEMICAL FUMES ESPECIALLY THOSE FROM VOLATILE SOLVENTS. KEEP THE WET AND DRY AREAS OF THE DARKROOM WELL SEGREGATED. 8/26/10 M. Bencharif 9 . REPLACE DAMAGED FILTERS. CHECK THE DARKROOM FOR LIGHT LEAKS ON A REGULAR BASIS.STORAGE OF UNEXPOSED FILM & GOOD DARKROOM PRACTICE 1. MAINTAIN RECORDS OF THE VOLUME OF FILM PROCESSED AND REPLACE CHEMICALS AT PRE-DETERMINED INTERVALS. 9. CARRY OUT REGULAR TESTS FOR THE BACKGROUND FOG LEVEL OF UNEXPOSED FILM. 4. ALWAYS COVER THE CHEMICALS WHEN NOT IN USE TO PREVENT UNDUE OXIDATION. MAINTAIN THE DARKROOM IN A CLEAN AND TIDY CONDITION. 5. 3. 8. CHECK DARKROOM SAFELIGHT FILTERS ON A REGULAR BASIS. OPEN FILM BOXES ONE AT A TIME AND USE THE OLDEST FILM FIRST. CHECK THE TEMPERATURE AND CONDITION OF THE PROCESSING CHEMICALS REGULARLY.K. 6. STORE UNEXPOSED FILM AWAY FROM (OR SHIELDED FROM) SOURCES OF IONISING RADIATION AT A TEMPERATURE OF 10-150C AND 40-60% RELATIVE HUMIDITY. 2. 7.

ADEQUATE FIXING.STORAGE OF RADIOGRAPHS THE MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING THE LENGTH OF TIME WHICH A RADIOGRAPH CAN BE STORED WITHOUT SERIOUS DETERIORATION ARE: 1. Bencharif 10 . 2.K. ADEQUATE WASHING. 40-60% RELATIVE HUMIDITY) . RADIOGRAPHS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPERLY FIXED AND SUBJECTED TO AN OPTIMUM AMOUNT OF WASHING WILL REMAIN IN GOOD CONDITION FOR MANY YEARS PROVIDED THAT THEY ARE STORED IN MODERATE ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS (TYPICALLY 10-250C. 8/26/10 M.

• Check the condition of replenisher (age.K. Check the replenishment tank. b. b. • Increase the rate of developer replenishment.GUIDE TO CORRECTING PROCESSING ARTIFACTS AUTOMATED PROCESSING Artefact Cause Corrective Action a. Adjust the rate of replenishment or mix new chemicals as necessary. Bencharif . • Check for kinked replenishment lines. • Increase the rate of fixer replenishment. c.). or a hard spot or dirt on the roller Artifacts parallel to the direction of film travel a. etc. 11 8/26/10 M. Check the drive and the tension on the drive chains. Artifacts perpendicular to the direction of film travel Film hesitation marks a. Increase the fixer replenishment rate. • Check for correct mixing volumes (do not dilute). Roller hesitation c. Under-replenished fixer Surface drying streaks b. washed out • randomly spaced • seen by reflected light Chemical build-up on the Delay streaks developer re-wet roller • narrow bands (widths vary) • randomly sized • plus density • from the leading edge through only part of the film Artifacts occurring randomly on the film surface: Wet pressure Exhausted or contaminated • plus density developer • faded blotches Inadequate hardening in the • overall graininess fixer step • decreased contrast Soft emulsion • scratches on the emulsion • "pick-off" or "orange-peel" a. replace with fresh fixer if necessary. Set the dryer at the recommended temperature or at the temperature required to just dry the films. Out-of-round roller. Clean the re-wet roller. • Drain the developer tank and fill it with fresh chemicals. Dryer is too hot • narrow wavering bands • mottled. Check the rollers in the developer rack. • Check that the fixer is not exhausted. oxidation. Chemical exhaustion or • plus-density lines or bands contamination • regularly or irregularly spaced b. Check for kinked replenishment lines. Raise the solution level in the developer tank.

• Keep the loading bench dry. green in reflected light Small light spots having dark edges "punched out" Faults occurring during drying of the film: Small circular light spots scattered on the surface of the film Drying marks. • Do not splash. • Do not splash. reddish brown in transmitted light. Dark spots on one side of the film Light spots on one side of the film Light spots. Give 10 sec agitation on immersion and 5 -10 sec at the beginning of each subsequent minute of development. Large temperature difference between the various Maintain all solutions at the recommended temperatures.GUIDE TO CORRECTING PROCESSING ARTIFACTS MANUAL PROCESSING Artefact Faults occurring before processing: Light streaks across one axis of the film Cause Corrective Action Wash and dry all hangers thoroughly before re-use. but usually darker than fixer splashes Faults occurring during processing: Bromide drags. c. May be present on both sides of the film. Contamination of developer with fixer b. Film buckled or areas of emulsion missing 8/26/10 Failure to maintain solutions at the proper level in the Maintain the solutions at the proper levels. when the film is fixed. Do not dry films in channel-type hangers. flow marks. Discard the contaminated solution. • Keep the loading bench dry. processing solutions. a portion of the imaae is removed. Rinse in running water. May be due to badly designed drying cabinet. Hypo is smeared across the film and causes partial fixing. or unwashed area at the top of the film Reticulation. Use fresh acid fixing bath. followed by forcible separation. undeveloped. a. but do not coincide. Agitate the film well. Avoid prolonged washing and use a good drying cupboard. Use a good drying cabinet and allow adequate space between the films. Developer splashes (bad darkroom layout or processing techniques) Fixer splashes (bad darkroom layout or processing techniques) Water splashes (if film is developed all at once. tanks. Bencharif . fine network of lines on the surface of the film Dichroic fog. probably no fault will be visible) Lack of agitation or too much aaitation • Keep the loading bench dry.K. not allowing development to occur. Use a good drying cabinet and dry clips for hanging films. 12 Films sticking together during drying. a. especially drops of water running down partially dry film. Exhausted or non-acid fixing bath Bacterial infection of film usually. usually streaks. rap sharply to dislodge air on the film surfaces. Air trapped on the surface of the film. Use a wetting agent such as KODAK PHOTO-FLO Solution. due to prolonged washing in warm water or slow drying in a humid atmosphere. Insertion of film in a channel-type hanger that is contaminated with hypo. • Do not splash. Dark areas below light regions or vice versa Unfixed. b. Inadequate rinse c. surrounded by dark edges. Uneven drying of the gelatin. Light areas. M.