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Developmentofatruncatedconesurface
Atruncatedconeiscutbyaninclinedplaneat45o tothebaseplaneandthecutplanemeetsthe
axisoftheconeat35mmfromtheapex,midwayofthefullcone.Thebaseoftheconeis60
mmindiameter.Drawthedevelopmentofthesurfaceofthistruncatedcone.

Fig1524Bhatt

TriangulationMethodfortransitionpieces
75mmlongtransitionpiecethatconnectsasquaresectionofside25mmwithasquareofside60mm.
ThetransitionpiecerestsontheH.P.on60mmsidesquarebasesuchthat60mmsquaresectionhasan
edgeparalleltotheV.P.while25mmsquarehasanedgeinclinedat45o totheV.P.

Prob 13.28,p.13.27Agrawal

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1.Zonemethod DevelopmentofSpheres(Approximatemethods)

1.Thefrontviewofthesphereisdividedintozones,A,B,
Cetc.suchthateachzonerepresentsaconefrusta.
2.Thelengthofthedivisionscanbeobtainedfromthe
topview.
3.Thesurfaceoftheconefrustaisdevelopedbyusing
c1,theapexofthefrustaasthecentre andc1Randc1Q
astheradiiandthendrawingthearcs.Thedivisions
arecutandthefulllengthofthesectionisfound.

2.Lunemethod/GoreMethod

WorldAtlasmap

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Agoremapoftheglobe

2.Lunemethod/GoreMethod
1.Asphereisdividedinto12lunes.
2.Thetopviewofthecenterlineofonelune is
shownasthesemicircleqr.Lengthofthislune
isequaltothelengthofsemicircleqr and
maximumwidthisgh.

3.Dividethesemicircleintoequalparts,say8
partsasshown.Labelthedivisionpointsas1,2,
3etc.andprojectthemontothetopviewlune
(onthecenterline).

4.Takingqasthecentre inthefrontview,
drawarcsab at1,cd at2andsoon.These
arcsarethetruewidthsofthelune

5.Now,onlineq4 extended,drawalineQR
equalinlengthtoarcqr usingthelengthsofthe
cordsq1, 12,23 etc.whichareallequalin
lengthandhence8timesq1 willdo.

6.Projectab toAB andMN crossingtheaxisat1


and7 andsoon.

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Intersectionofsurfaces

Oneofthestrongestareainthe
airplane

LineofIntersections
Lineofintersectionoftwosurfacesisalinecommontoboth.Itiscomposedofpoints
onthelinewhicharecommontobothsurfaces.Thelineofintersectioncanbea
straightlineorcurvedline.

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Variousductswithchanginggeometry

Forsolidsboundedbyplanesurfaces,pointsofintersectionoftheedges
needtobefound,followedbyjoiningthesepointsthroughstraightlines.

Forsolidsboundedbycurvedsurfaces,severalpointsalongthecurveneedto
befound,followedbytracingasmoothcurvethroughthesepoints.

Hyperbol
a

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Averticalsquareprism,base50mmside,iscompletelypenetratedbyahorizontalsquareprism,base35
mmside,sothattheiraxesintersect.TheaxisofthehorizontalprismisparalleltotheV.P.,whilethefaces
ofthetwoprismsareequallyinclinedtotheV.P.Drawtheprojectionsofthesolids,showinglinesof
intersection. Largersides Theseedgesdonotexist
andhenceshouldbe
Smaller rubbedoffordrawnas
sides veryfaintlines.

Firstdrawthe
topview

Prob.161Bhatt,p.383

Averticalsquareprism,base50mmsideandheight90mmhasafaceinclinedat30o totheV.P.
Itiscompletelypenetratedbyanothersquareprism,base38mmsideandaxis100mmlong,
faceofwhichareequallyinclinedtotheV.P.TheaxesofthetwoprismsareparalleltotheV.P.
andbisecteachotheratrightangle.Drawtheprojectionsshowinglinesofintersection.

Fig.163
Bh tt

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Intersectionoftwocylinders

Fig168(i)Bhatt Fig168(ii)Bhatt