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Fluid Mechanics

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ENME711

Week 1

Basic concepts

State of matter

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Plasma

Basic concepts

What is a fluid?

A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously under the action of

shearing forces, however small they may be.

Liquid

Conforms to container

Often considered incompressible

Gas

Expands to fill the container

Generally considered compressible

Basic concepts

Fluid Properties:

Density [kg/m3] is the mass of a material per unit volume.

[]

=

[3 ]

Specific weight [N/m3] is the weight per unit volume.

[][ 2 ] 2 ]

= = [ ]

[3 ] 3

Relative density (Specific gravity) is the ratio of the density of the material to that of

a reference material.

= [-]

2 @ 4

Specific Volume [m3/kg] is the volume that one kilogram of a material occupies.

[3 ]

=

[]

Basic concepts

Viscosity

A measure of how much a fluid can resist shearing deformation

Low viscosity = runny low shear force

High viscosity = thick high shear force

Basic concepts

Coefficient of dynamic viscosity [Ns/m2] is the shear force per unit area

required to drag one layer of fluid with unit velocity pas another layer a unit

distance.

= = (Newtons low of viscosity)

Kinematic viscosity [m2/s] is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity to mass density.

=

Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids

Fluids that obey the Newtons low of viscosity are Newtonian fluids

Surface Tension

The tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of

the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid, which tends

to minimize surface area.

Surface Tension

Units and Meaning:

Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length, or of

energy per unit area.

= [] = [ 2 ]

W is the potential energy of the surface, and A is the area of the surface.

As a system will try to equilibrate to the lowest energy state, the shape of a

droplet only subject to surface tension forces will tend towards a sphere (i.e.

minimum surface area for a given volume)

Surface Tension and Temperature

Surface tension generally decreases with increasing temperature

Pressure

Force per unit area [Pa]

[]

=

[2 ]

Pressure in Fluids

Acts uniformly in

all directions (scalar)

Acts perpendicular

to a solid boundary (vector)

Pascals Law

In x direction:

= = ;

= = =

= 0, therefore:

+ = 0 , =

In y direction:

= = and = = =

= =

2

+ + =0 , = =

2

Pressure Measurement

Pressure measurements in a fluid are relative to some reference

pressure:

Atmospheric pressure as reference: Gauge Pressure

Perfect vacuum as reference: Absolute Pressure

Specified pressure as reference: Differential Pressure

= +

= 2 1

Pressure Measurement

Comparison between Absolute and Gauge pressures

Pressure Measurement

Units

Pascal: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

Atmosphere: 1 atm = 101.325103 Pa

Bar: 1 bar = 105 Pa

Torr: 1 Torr=133.3224 Pa

Millimetres of Mercury: 1 mmHg = 133.3224 Pa

Millimetres of Water: 1 mmH2O = 9.807 Pa

Pressure Measurement

Prefixes in SI units

Variation of Pressure with Elevation

Elevation is the vertical distance, h, from some reference point

Variation of Pressure with Elevation

Variation of pressure vertically in a fluid under gravity

Force due to P1 on Area = P1A

Force due to P2 on Area = P2A=(P1+dp)A

Force due to the weight = mg

mg = =

Since the fluid is at rest

1 (1 +) + = 0

d = , now integration gives:

2

= = (2 1 )

1

This is some times known as hydrostatic pressure

Pascals Paradox

The pressure in a liquid system is not dependent on the volume of fluid, but only

the elevation.

Hydrostatic paradox

Pascals Paradox

The pressure at each elevation of all volume is the same, but the

forces are not the same.

Manometer

Hydrostatic manometers use the relationship between change in

pressure and change in elevation.

=

= + 1

= + 2

= 0

+ 1 = 2

= 2 1

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